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acceleration

1

2.2: Motion with uniform acceleration

Objectives:

• Derive and apply equations of motion with uniform

acceleration:

s = 12 (v +v0 )t

s = v0t + 2 at

1 2

v = v0 +at

v v 2as

2 2

0

2

2.2: Motion with uniform acceleration

By referring to the graph ;

velocity

v

v = final velocity,

vo = initial velocity , vo

a = acceleration,

t = time

s = area under the graph = displacement

From, dv v − v0 0 t time

a= =

dt t

Rearranging the equation: v = v0 + at ..........(i)

From equation (i) and (ii) :

s 12 [(v0 at ) v0 ]t

s = v 0 t + 12 at 2 ......... (iii) 3

From (i) v = v0 + at

v v0

⇒ t

a

v v0

into s = v 0 t + 2 at ;

1 2

Substitute t

a

Hence, 2

v v0 1 v v0

s v0 2 a

a a

velocity

2as 2v0 v 2v02 (v 2 2vv0 v02 )

v

v = v + 2as ...........(iv)

2 2

o

vo

0 t time

4

Equations of motion

s = (v + v0 )t

1

2

s = v0t + at 1

2

2

v = v0 +at

v v 2as

2 2

0

5

Equations of motion – sign convention

Displacement, s -ve +ve

Velocity, v -ve +ve

Note:

• Acceleration : +ve, deceleration: -ve

• Special case : uniform velocity : vo= v ⇒ a = 0 , s = v0t

6

Example 1 - Motion with uniform acceleration

An object is moving along the x-axis. Its velocity at the starting point, O is 5ms-

1

. If it has uniform acceleration 6 m s-2, calculate

a) its position after 2 s a = 6 m s-2

b) its velocity after 3 s

v = 5 m s-1

1

a) s = v0 t + at = (5)(2) + (6)(2) 2 = 22 m (to the right)

1

2

2

2

b) v v0 at 5 (6)(3) 23 m s-1 (to the right)

7

Example 2 - Motion with uniform acceleration

a) When will the object stop ?

b) What is its position and velocity after 3 s ?

Solution :

Given ; vo = 20 m s-1 , a = 4 m s-2

v = vo + at

0 = 20 + (-4) t

t=5s

1 2 1

b) When t = 3 s ; s = vo t + at = (20)(3) + (−4)(3) 2

2 2

= 42 m

v = vo + at = 20 + (-4)(3) = 8 m s-1

8

Conclusion

s = 12 (v + v0 )t

s = v0t + 2 at

1 2

v = v0 +at

v = v0 + 2as

2

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