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WORK, ENERGY

AND POWER

Chapter 4:

2

Chapter outline :

4.1 WORK

4.2 APPLICATIONS OF WORK

EQUATION FOR CONSTANT

FORCE

4.3 ENERGY

4.4 PRINCIPLE OF

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

4.5 POWER

4.6 MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY

3

Define work done by a force, dW=Fds

and use the force – displacement

graph (straight line case).

Define energy, kinetic energy and

potential energy and use the formula for

kinetic energy ½mv

2

, gravitational

potential energy mgh and elastic

potential energy for spring ½kx

2

Understand the work-energy theorem and

use the related equation.

State and use the principle of

Conservation of Energy, and solve

problems regarding conversion between

kinetic and potential energy.

To define power, P=W/t , derive and use

the formula P=F.v

To understand the concept of mechanical

efficiency and the concequences of

dissipated heat, e

k

=W

output

/W

input

.

Objectives :

Objectives :

4

Definition of work done by a constant force :

product of the magnitude of the force and the

product of the magnitude of the force and the

displacement of the body in the direction of the

displacement of the body in the direction of the

force.

force.

or

scalar (dot) product between force and

scalar (dot) product between force and

displacement of the body.

displacement of the body.

4.1 Work

4.1 Work

s F W

• =

s F θ

and between angle the :

where ,

body the of nt displaceme : s

force of magnitude : F

Equation of work :

cos W Fs u ·

•

Scalar quantity

•

Dimension : [W] = ML

2

T

-2

•

SI unit : kg m

2

s

-2

or joule (J) or N m

One joule is the work done by a force of 1 N which

One joule is the work done by a force of 1 N which

results in a displacement of 1 m in the direction of the

results in a displacement of 1 m in the direction of the

force.

force.

1 kg m

2

s

-2

= 1 N m = 1 J

F

)θ

F cos θ

s

5

Work done by a varying force :

2

1

d

s

s

W F s ·

l

area under the force-displacement graph W ·

F / N

s / m

0 s

i

s

f

6

4.2

4.2

Applications of work equation for

Applications of work equation for

constant force.

constant force.

Case 1 :

Work done by a horizontal force, F on an

object:

o

cos ; where =0 W Fsθ u ·

F

s

W Fs = ·

Case 2 :

Work done by a horizontal forces, F

1

and

F

2

on an object:

s

2

F

1

F

cos

0 s F W

1 1

= cos

0 s F W

2 2

=

( ) s F s F W W W

2 1 2 1

+ = + =

∑

( )s F F W

2 1

+ =

∑

( )

net

W F s = ·

¿

and

7

θ Fs W cos =

0 W J = ·

F

s

90 θ =

Case 3 :

Work done by a vertical force, F on an

object:

Case 4 :

Work done by a force, F and the friction

force, f on an object:

f

s

F

)θ

( ) s F W

net

=

( ) s f F W − = θ cos

W mas = ·

8

•

Notes :

Work done on an object is zero if :

(ii) s = 0

(iii) θ = 90

o

(i) F = 0

9

θ cos Fs W =

4.2 Applications of work equation for

4.2 Applications of work equation for

constant force.

constant force.

Sign convention :

0°<θ <90° (acute angle)

W > 0 (positive)

work is being done on

the system ( by the

external force)

90°<θ <180° (obtuse angle)

W < 0 (negative)

work is being

done by the

system

energy is

transferred to the

system.

energy is transferred

from the system.

10

Conclusion :

Conclusion :

Work done by constant force:

θ Fs W cos =

Work done by a varying force:

2

1

d

s

s

W F s ·

l

Force-displacement graph :

4.1 & 4.2

4.1 & 4.2

W = area under the graph

11

12

4.3 Energy

4.3 Energy

•

Definition : system’s ability to do work.

•

dimension : [energy] = [work] = ML

2

T

-2

•

SI unit : kg m

2

s

-2

or joule (J)

•

Scalar quantity.

Energy associated with the motion of

a body.

Energy associated with the position of

a body in a gravitational field.

Energy stored in a compressed or

stretched spring.

Mechanical

a. Kinetic

b. Gravitational

potential

c. Elastic

potential

Energy transmitted through the

propagation of a series of

compression and refaction in solid,

liquid or gas.

Sound

Energy that is associated with the

flow of electrical charge.

Electrical

Energy released when chemical bonds

between atoms and molecules are

broken.

Chemical

Description

Forms of

Energy

13

Energy that flows from one place to

another as a result of a temperature

difference.

Heat

Sum of kinetic and potential energy of

atoms or molecules within a body.

Internal

Energy associated with infra-red

radiation.

Radiant

Heat

Energy released when there is a loss of

small amount of mass in a nuclear

process. The amount of energy can be

calculated from Einstein’s mass-energy

equation, E = mc

2

Mass

Energy released by the splitting of heavy

nuclei.

Nuclear

Description

Forms of

Energy

14

•

Definition:

energy of a body due to its motion.

energy of a body due to its motion.

•

Equation :

2

mv

2

1

K =

K W ∆ =

4.3.1 Kinetic Energy

4.3.1 Kinetic Energy

Work-kinetic energy theorem :

“The work done by the net force on a

body equals the change in the kinetic

energy of the body’

where;

K = kinetic energy

m = mass of a body

v = speed of a body

s

F

m

Prove :

F F m a · ·

¿

( )

2 2

0

2

m

v v

s

·

2

0

2

mv

2

1

mv

2

1

Fs − =

f i

K - K ·

W K = · A

2 2

o

; where

2

v v

a

s

·

15

Definition :

–

energy stored in a body or system because

of its position.

Equation :

mgh U =

W U · A

4.3.2 Gravitational Potential Energy,

4.3.2 Gravitational Potential Energy,

U

U

Work-gravitational potential energy theorem :

“The work done by the net force on a body

equals the change in the gravitational

potential energy of the body”

where;

U = gravitational potential energy

m = mass of a body

g = acceleration due to gravity

h = height of a body from the initial

position

16

( )

1 2 g

W mgh mg h h · ·

1 2

mgh mgh ·

f i

U U ·

•

Derivation of W = ∆U :

h

1

h

2

h= h

1

– h

2

W U · · A

Consider a body of mass m being lifted

from a height h

2

to a height h

1

:

Work done by the gravitational force,

17

Definition :

energy stored in an elastic materials

energy stored in an elastic materials

as the result of their stretching or

as the result of their stretching or

compressing.

compressing.

Equation :

4.3.3 Elastic Potential Energy,

4.3.3 Elastic Potential Energy,

U

U

s s

x F

2

1

kx

2

1

U

s

2

s

= =

where;

U

s

= elastic potential energy

k = spring constant

x = extension or compression of the

spring

F

s

= restoring force of spring

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

2

s

MT

x

F

k

−

= =

SI unit : kg s

SI unit : kg s

-2 -2

or N m

or N m

-1 -1

•

Dimension of the spring constant, k :

18

x F

s

− ∝

s

F kx = ·

-ve sign : direction of F

s

is always opposite

to the direction of the amount of

extension or compression, x.

where ;

F

x

= the restoring force of spring

x = extension or compression (x

f

- x

i

)

k = spring constant or force constant

Hooke’s Law :

“The restoring force, F

s

of spring is directly

proportional to the amount of extension

or compression, x if the limit of

proportionality is not exceeded”

Consider a spring is stretched by a force F :

19

A graph of F against x :

F (x)

x

x

The work done by the

force F is equal to

the area under the

straight-line graph ;

1

2

W Fx ·

1

( )

2

kx x ·

2

1

2

W kx · ·

Work-elastic potential energy theorem :

“The work done to overcome the elasticity of

the spring equals the change in elastic

potential”

s

W U · A

sf si

U U ·

2 2

1 1

2 2

f i

kx kx ·

20

Case 1 :

The spring is hung vertically and it is

stretched by a suspended object of mass m :

x

Initial position

Final position

s

F W mg kx · · ·

s

F

g m W

=

The spring is in equilibrium ;

mg

k

x

= ·

•

Determining the spring constant, k :

21

F

F

s

F

s

F

(Equilibrium position)

Case 2 :

The spring is attached to an object and it is

stretched and compressed by a force F:

s

F F kx · ·

The spring is in equilibrium ;

F

k

x

= ·

F

s

is positive,

x is negative

x = 0

x = 0

x = 0

x

x

F

s

is negative,

x is positive

F

s

= 0

x = 0

22

Conclusion :

Conclusion :

2

mv

2

1

K =

mgh U =

x F

2

1

kx

2

1

U

s

2

s

= =

K W ∆ = W U · A

Formula for energy :

Work-energy theorem:

Gravitational potential energy

Kinetic energy

and

Elastic potential energy

23

∑ ∑

=

f i

E E

4.4

4.4

Principle of Conservation of

Principle of Conservation of

Energy

Energy

State ;

“ The total energy in an isolated (closed)

system is conserved (constant)”

Total of initial

energy

Total of final

energy

=

Conservation of mechanical energy (without

friction) :

constant E K U L · + ·

f f i i

U K U K + = +

or

Conservation of mechanical energy (with

friction) :

f f other i i

U K W U K + = + +

work done by the frictional

force or losses of energy.

24

ave

W E

P

t t

A A

· ·

A A

dt

dW

t

W

P = =

→

∆

∆

∆ 0 t

limit

4.5 Power

4.5 Power

Definition :

rate of doing work or rate at which

rate of doing work or rate at which

energy is transferred

energy is transferred

• Average power , P

ave

;

•

Instantaneous power, P ;

Scalar quantity.

Dimension :

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

3 2

2 2

T ML

T

T ML

t

W

P

−

−

= = =

∆

∆

•

SI unit : kg m

2

s

-3

or J s

-1

or watt (W)

Other unit : horsepower (hp)

1 hp = 550 ft.lb s

-1

= 746 watts

25

Relation of P, F and v ;

( )

d

d

cos d

d

W

P

t

F s

t

u

·

·

cos Fv u ·

P F v = · -

Consider the net force F applied to an

object and its velocity v :

26

out

k

in

100%

W

e

E

· ×

or

out

k

in

100%

P

e

P

· ×

4.6 Mechanical efficiency (

4.6 Mechanical efficiency (

e

e

k k

or

or

)

)

Definition :

–

ratio of the useful work done,

ratio of the useful work done,

W

W

out out

to the

to the

energy input,

energy input,

E

E

in in

–

ratio of the useful power output,

ratio of the useful power output,

P

P

out out

to

to

the power input, P

the power input, P

in in

27

Conclusion :

Conclusion :

Conservation of energy :

In an isolated (closed) system, the total

In an isolated (closed) system, the total

energy of that system is constant.

energy of that system is constant.

i f

E E ·

¿ ¿

in solving problems

regarding conservation

of energy

Power :

av

W E

P

t t

A A

· ·

A A

cos P Fv u ·

Mechanical efficiency :

out

k

in

100%

W

e

E

· ×

4.4, 4.5 & 4.6

4.4, 4.5 & 4.6

Use ,

and

28

THE END…

Next Chapter…

CHAPTER 5 :

Static

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