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Note Chapter3 SF017|Views: 2,678|Likes: 19

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www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physics

CHAPTER 3

CHAPTER 3: Force, Momentum and Impulse (5 Hours)

1

PHYSICS 3.0 Force

CHAPTER 3

is defined as something capable of changing state of motion or size or dimension of a body . There are four types of fundamental forces in nature: Gravitational forces (refer to figures 3.1 and 3.2)

The forces involve attraction between massive body. is a long-range forces. the weakest forces in nature.

Figure 3.1

Figure 3.2

2

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

Electromagnetic forces (refer to figures 3.3) The attractive and repulsive forces between electric charges. is a long-range forces. Strong nuclear forces (refer to figures 3.4) The attractive forces bonding neutron and proton in atomic nucleus. is a short-range forces and the strongest forces in nature.

Figure 3.3

Figure 3.4

3

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

Weak nuclear forces (refer to figures 3.5) cause the unstable condition for atomic nucleus and is responsible for the radioactive decay. is a short-range forces and 12 times weak compare with electromagnetic forces.

Figure 3.5

is a vector quantity. The dimension of the force is given by

[ F ] = [ m][ a]

[ F ] = MLT −2

4

The S.I. unit of force, F is kg m s-2 or newton (N)

**PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 Learning Outcome:
**

www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physics 3.1 Newton’s laws of motion (2 hours)

At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: Explain Newton’s First Law and the concept of mass and inertia. Definition of inertia and mass. Explain and use Newton’s Second Law

d dv dm F = ( mv ) = v +m dt dt dt

Explain Newton’s Third Law.

5

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

**3.1 Newton’s laws of motion
**

3.1.1 Newton’s first law of motion

states “an object at rest will remain at rest, or continues to move with uniform velocity in a straight line unless it is acted upon by a external forces” forces OR

Fnett =

∑

F =0

The first law gives the idea of inertia. Inertia is defined as the tendency of an object to resist any change in its state of rest or motion. motion is a scalar quantity.

6

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

Figures 3.6a and 3.6b show the examples of real experience of inertia.

Figure 3.6a

Figure 3.6b

7

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

Mass, m is defined as a measure of a body’s inertia. is a scalar quantity. quantity The S.I. unit of mass is kilogram (kg). (kg) The value of mass is independent of location. location If the mass of a body increases then its inertia will increase.

mass ∝ inertia

Weight, W

is defined as the force exerted on a body under gravitational field. It is a vector quantity. quantity It is dependant on where it is measured, because the value measured of g varies at different localities on the earth’s surface. surface

8

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

It always directed toward the centre of the earth or in the same direction of acceleration due to gravity, g. The S.I. unit is kg m s-2 or newton (N). (N) Equation:

W = mg

3.1.2

Newton’s second law of motion

states “the rate of change of linear momentum of a moving body is proportional to the resultant force and is in the same direction as the force acting on it” it OR

its can be represented by

dp ∑ F ∝ dt

where

∑ F : resultant force

dt : time interval

**dp : change in linear momentum
**

9

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

dp and p = mv F= dt dm d ( mv ) dv ∑ F = v dt + m dt ∑ F = dt

From the Newton’s 2nd law of motion, it also can be written as

∑

Case 1: Object at rest or in motion with constant velocity but with changing mass. For example : Rocket mass

∑

dm dv F =v +m dt dt dm ∑ F = v dt

and

dv =0 dt

10

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

Case 2: Object at rest or in motion with constant velocity and constant mass. mass

dm dv dv dm F =v +m =0 = 0 and where dt dt dt dt Newton’s 1st law of motion F =0 ∑ dp =0 Thus ∑ F = dt

∑

p = constant

11

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

dm dv dm F =v +m =0 and dt dt dt dv dv F =m and a = dt dt ∑ F = ma where ∑ F : resultant force

Case 3: Object with constant mass but changing velocity. velocity

∑

∑

m : mass of an object a : acceleration

**The direction of the resultant force always in the same direction of the motion or acceleration. acceleration
**

12

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

Newton’s 2nd law of motion restates that “The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the nett force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass”. mass OR F

a∝

∑

m

One newton(1 N) is defined as the amount of net force that gives an acceleration of one metre per second squared to a body with a mass of one kilogramme. kilogramme OR 1 N = 1 kg m s-2 Notes: F is a nett force or effective force or resultant force. The force which causes the motion of an object. If the forces act on an object and the object moving at uniform acceleration (not at rest or not in the equilibrium) hence

∑

Fnett =

∑ F = ma

13

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

**3.1.3 Newton’s third law of motion
**

states “every action force has a reaction force that is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction”. direction For example : When the student push on the wall it will push back with the same force. (refer to figure 3.7) B (wall)

FBA

Figure 3.7

A (hand)

FAB

FAB = − FBA

Where

FAB is a force by the hand on the wall (action) FBA is a force by the wall on the hand (reaction)

14

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

When a book is placed on the table. (refer to figure 3.8) Force by the table on the book (reaction)

Figure 3.8

**Force by the book on the table (action)
**

If a car is accelerating forward, it is because its tyres are pushing backward on the road and the road is pushing forward on the tyres. A rocket moves forward as a result of the push exerted on it by the exhaust gases which the rocket has pushed out.

In all cases when two bodies interact, the action and reaction forces act on different bodies. bodies

15

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

**3.1.4 Applications of Newton’s 2nd law of motion
**

From the Newton’s second law of motion, we arrived at equation

**=F ma ∑ F applying=the equation above to solve There are five steps in
**

nett

problems in mechanics: Identify the object whose motion is considered. Determine the forces exerted on the object. Draw a free body diagram for each object. is defined as a diagram showing the chosen body by itself, with vectors drawn to show the magnitude and directions of all the forces applied to the body by the other bodies that interact with it. it Choose a system of coordinates so that calculations may be simplified. Apply the equation above, Along x-axis: Fx = ma x

∑ Along y-axis: ∑ F

y

= ma y

16

PHYSICS

Example 1 :

CHAPTER 3

Three wooden blocks connected by a rope of negligible mass are being dragged by a horizontal force, F in figure 3.9.

F

m1

T1

m2

T2

m3

Suppose that F = 1000 N, m1 = 3 kg, m2 = 15 kg and m3 = 30 kg. Determine a. the acceleration of blocks system. b. the tension of the rope, T1 and T2. Neglect the friction between the floor and the wooden blocks.

Figure 3.9

17

PHYSICS

Solution : a. For the block, m1 = 3 kg

CHAPTER 3

a

F

m1

∑F T ∑F

For the block, m2 = 15 kg

**= F − T1 = m1a 1 x = 1000 − T1 = 3a T1 + 3a = 1000
**

x

(1)

T1

a

m2

T2

**T For the block, m3 = 30 kg 1
**

T2

a

m3

∑F ∑F

x

= T1 − T2 = m2 a = T1 − T2 = 15a

(2)

− T2 = 15a

x

x

∑F

= T2 = m3 a

(3)

18

T2 = 30a

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

T1 − 45a = 0 1000 a= 48 a = 20.8 m s −2

Solution : a. By substituting eq. (3) into eq. (2) thus (4)

Eq. (1)−(4) :

b. By substituting the value of acceleration into equations (4) and (3), therefore

T1 = 936 N T2 = 624 N

19

PHYSICS

Example 2 :

CHAPTER 3

Two objects of masses m1 = 10 kg and m2 = 15 kg are connected by a light string which passes over a smooth pulley as shown in figure 3.10. Calculate a. the acceleration of the object of mass 10 kg. b. the tension in the each string. (Given g = 9.81 m s−2) Solution : a. For the object m1= 10 kg, Simulation 3.1 m1 m2

Figure 3.10

T1

∑F

y

= T1 − m1 g = m1a T1 = T2 = T

a

where

T − 10 g = 10a W1 = m1 g

(1)

20

PHYSICS

Solution : a. For the object m2= 15 kg,

CHAPTER 3

T2

a

b. Substitute the value of acceleration into equation (1) thus

W2 = m2 g

= m2 g − T2 = m2 a y = 15 g − T = 15a − T + 15 g = 15a Eq. (1) + (2) : a = 5 g = 5( 9.81) 25 25 a = 1.96 m s −2

y

∑F ∑F

(2)

T − 10( 9.81) = 10(1.96 )

Therefore

T = 118N

T1 = T2 = T = 118 N

21

PHYSICS

Example 3 :

CHAPTER 3

Two blocks, A of mass 10 kg and B of mass 30 kg, are side by side and in contact with each another. They are pushed along a smooth floor under the action of a constant force F of magnitude 200 N applied to A as shown in figure 3.11. Determine a. the acceleration of the blocks, B A F b. the force exerted by A on B. Simulation 3.2 Solution :

Figure 3.11

m A = 10 kg; mB = 30 kg; F = 200 N

a. Let the acceleration of the blocks is a. Therefore

∑F = (m

x

200 = (10 + 30 ) a

a = 5.0 m s −2

+ mB ) a F = ( m A + mB ) a

A

22

PHYSICS

Solution : b. For the object A,

CHAPTER 3

a

F

A

FBA

∑F

x

= F − FBA = m A a

200 − FBA = 10( 5.0) FBA = 150 N

From the Newton’s 3rd law, thus OR For the object B,

FAB = FBA = 150 N

a

FAB

∑F

x

= FAB = mB a

B

FAB = 30( 5.0)

FAB = 150 N

23

PHYSICS

Exercise 3.1 :

CHAPTER 3

1. A block is dragged by forces, F1 and F2 of the magnitude 20 N and 30 N respectively as shown in figure 3.12. The frictional force f exerted on the block is 5 N. If the weight of the block is 200 N and it is move horizontally, determine the acceleration of the block. (Given g = 9.81 m s−2)

a

50

F1

f

ANS. : 1.77 m s− 2

Figure 3.12

20

F2

24

PHYSICS

Exercise 3.1 :

CHAPTER 3

One 3.5 kg paint bucket is hanging by a massless cord from another 3.5 kg paint bucket, also hanging by a massless cord as shown in figure 3.13. If the two buckets are pulled upward with an acceleration of 1.60 m s−2 by the upper cord, calculate the tension in each cord. (Given g = 9.81 m s−2) ANS. : 39.9 N; 79.8 N

Figure 3.13

25

**PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 Learning Outcome:
**

www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physics 3.2 Conservation of linear momentum and impulse (2 hours)

At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: State the principle of conservation of linear momentum. Explain and apply the principle of conservation of momentum in elastic and inelastic collisions Define and use the coefficient of restitution, e

v2 − v1 e=− u 2 − u1

**to determine the types of collisions.
**

Define impulse J impulse

= Ft and use F-t graph to determine

26

**PHYSICS Conservation of linear momentum CHAPTER 3 3.2 and impulse
**

3.2.1

is defined as the product between mass and velocity. velocity is a vector quantity. Equation :

Linear momentum, p

p = mv

The S.I. unit of linear momentum is kg m s-1. The direction of the momentum is the same as the direction of the velocity. velocity It can be resolve into vertical (y) component and horizontal (x) component.

py

p

θ

p y = p sin θ = mv sin θ

px

27

p x = p cos θ = mv cos θ

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

**3.2.2 Principle of conservation of linear momentum
**

states “In an isolated (closed) system, the total momentum of that system is constant.” constant OR “When the net external force on a system is zero, the total momentum of that system is constant.” constant In a Closed system,

∑

F =0

From the Newton’s second law, thus

∑

dp F= =0 dt dp = 0

28

PHYSICS

Therefore

CHAPTER 3

p = constant

then

∑p ∑p

x y

= constant = constant

According to the principle of conservation of linear momentum, we obtain The total of initial momentum = the total of final momentum OR

∑ pi = ∑ p f

29

PHYSICS

Example 4 :

CHAPTER 3

Linear momentum in one dimension collision

u B = 3 m s −1

B

u A = 6 m s −1

A

Figure 3.14

Figure 3.14 shows an object A of mass 200 g collides head-on with object B of mass 100 g. After the collision, B moves at a speed of 2 m s-1. to the left. Determine the velocity of A after Collision −1 : Solution m A = 0.200 kg; mB = 0.100 kg; u A = −6 m s

∑ pi = ∑ p f m Au A + mB u B = m A v A + mB v B ( 0.200)( − 6) + ( 0.100)( 3) = ( 0.200) v A + ( 0.100)( − 2) v A = −3.5 m s −1 to the left 30

u B = 3 m s −1 ; v B = −2 m s −1

PHYSICS

Example 5 :

m1

CHAPTER 3

Linear momentum in two dimension collision

u1

m2

50

m1

v1

Before collision

Figure 3.15

After collision

A tennis ball of mass m1 moving with initial velocity u1 collides with a soccer ball of mass m2 initially at rest. After the collision, the tennis ball is deflected 50° from its initial direction with a velocity v1 as shown in figure 3.15. Suppose that m1 = 250 g, m2 = 900 g, u1 = 20 m s−1 and v1 = 4 m s−1. Calculate the magnitude and direction of soccer ball after the collision. Simulation 3.3

31

PHYSICS

Solution :

CHAPTER 3

m1 = 0.250 kg; m2 = 0.900 kg; u1 = 20 m s −1 ; −1 u 2 = 0; v1 = 4 m s ; θ1 = 50

From the principle of conservation of linear momentum,

∑ pi = ∑ p f

The x-component of linear momentum,

∑

pix =

∑

p fx

**( 0.250)( 20) + 0 = ( 0.250)( v1 cos θ1 ) + ( 0.900) v2 x 5 = ( 0.250) ( 4 cos 50 ) + ( 0.900 ) v2 x
**

v2 x = 4.84 m s −1

32

m1u1 x + m2 u 2 x = m1v1 x + m2 v2 x

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

Solution : The y-component of linear momentum,

∑

piy = p fy 0 = m1v1 y + m2 v2 y 0 = ( 0.250) − 4 sin 50 + ( 0.900) v2 y v2 y = 0.851 m s −1

∑

(

)

Magnitude of the soccer ball,

v2 = v2 =

( v2 x ) 2 + ( v2 y ) 2 2 2 ( 4.84) + ( 0.851)

−1

= 4.91 m s

−1

Direction of the soccer ball,

v2 y −1 0.851 θ2 = tan v = tan 4.84 2x θ2 = 9.97 from positive x-axis anticlockwise 33

PHYSICS

Exercise 3.2.1 :

CHAPTER 3

An object P of mass 4 kg moving with a velocity 4 m s−1 collides elastically with another object Q of mass 2 kg moving with a velocity 3 m s−1 towards it. a. Determine the total momentum before collision. b. If P immediately stop after the collision, calculate the final velocity of Q. c. If the two objects stick together after the collision, calculate the final velocity of both objects. ANS. : 10 kg m s− 1; 5 m s− 1 to the right; 1.7 m s− 1 to the right A marksman holds a rifle of mass mr = 3.00 kg loosely in his hands, so as to let it recoil freely when fired. He fires a bullet of mass mb = 5.00 g horizontally with a velocity 300 m s-1. Determine a. the recoil velocity of the rifle, b. the final momentum of the system. ANS. : − 0.5 m s− 1; U think. 34

PHYSICS

3.

1.20 kg Before 0.630 m s-1

CHAPTER 3

1.80 kg 1.40 m s-1

blocks at rest on a frictionless tabletop. The bullet passes through the first block, with mass 1.20 kg, and embeds itself in the second block, with mass 1.80 kg. Speeds of 0.630 m s−1 and 1.40 m s-1, respectively, are thereby given to the blocks. Neglecting the mass removed from the first block by the bullet, determine a. the speed of the bullet immediately after it emerges from the first block and .b. the initial speed of the bullet ANS. : 721 m s− 1; 937.4 m s− 1

After Figure 3.16 In figures 3.16 show a 3.50 g bullet is fired horizontally at two

35

PHYSICS

Exercise 3.2.1 :

CHAPTER 3

A ball moving with a speed of 17 m s−1 strikes an identical ball that is initially at rest. After the collision, the incoming ball has been deviated by 45° from its original direction, and the struck ball moves off at 30° from the original direction as shown in figure 3.17. Calculate the speed of each ball after the collision.

Figure 3.17

ANS. : 8.80 m s− 1; 12.4 m s− 1

36

PHYSICS

3.2.3 Collision

CHAPTER 3

is defined as an isolated event in which two or more bodies (the colliding bodies) exert relatively strong forces on each other for a relatively short time. time From the Newton’s Law of impact, the coefficient of restitution is defined as the ratio of the relative velocity after collision to the relative velocity before collision. collision OR

v2 − v1 e = − u −u 1 2

Where

e : coefficient of restitution

v2 − v1 : relative velocity after collision u 2 − u1 : relative velocity before collision

37

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

The coefficient of restitution, e is used to measure the elasticity of the colliding bodies where its value always positive (0 ≤ e ≤ 1). 1) The coefficient of restitution, e is dimensionless (no unit). unit) Table 3.1 shows the type of collision based on the value of e. Coefficient of restitution, e 1 <1 0 Type of collision Elastic Inelastic Completely inelastic

Table 3.1

38

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

Elastic collision is defined as one in which the total kinetic energy (as well as total momentum) of the system is the same before and after the collision. collision Figure 3.18 shows the head-on collision of two billiard balls. Before collision 1

m1u1 m2 u 2

2

At collision

1

2

Simulation 3.4

After collision

m1v1

1

Figure 3.18

2

m2 v 2

39

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

The properties of elastic collision are a. The coefficient of restitution, e = 1 b. The total momentum is conserved. conserved

∑ pi = ∑ p f

c. The total kinetic energy is conserved. conserved

∑K = ∑K

i

f

OR

1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 m1u1 + m2 u 2 = m1v1 + m2 v2 2 2 2 2

40

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

Inelastic (non-elastic) collision is defined as one in which the total kinetic energy of the system is not the same before and after the collision (even though the total momentum of the system is conserved). conserved) Figure 3.19 shows the model of a completely inelastic collision of two billiard balls. u =0 Before collision 1

m1u1

2

m2

1 2 Simulation 3.5

2

At collision

After collision (stick together)

1

2

v

41

Figure 3.19

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

Caution: Not all the inelastic collision is stick together. together In fact, inelastic collisions include many situations in which the bodies do not stick. stick The properties of inelastic collision are a. The coefficient of restitution, 0 ≤ e < 1 b. The total momentum is conserved. conserved

∑ pi = ∑ p f

c. The total kinetic energy is not conserved because some of the energy is converted to internal energy and some of it is transferred away by means of sound or heat. But the total heat energy is conserved. conserved

∑E = ∑E

i

f

OR

∑K = ∑K

i

f

+ losses energy

42

PHYSICS

Example 6 :

CHAPTER 3

Two titanium spheres approach each other head-on with the same speed and collide elastically. After the collision, one of the spheres, whose mass is 500 g, remains at rest. Calculate the mass of the other sphere. Solution : m1 = 0.500 kg; u1 = u 2 = u; v1 = 0 Before collision 1

u

u

2

v1 = 0 v2 = ?

After collision 1 By using the principle of conservation of linear momentum, thus

m2 = ?

2

∑ pi = ∑ p f m1u1 + m2 u 2 = m1v1 + m2 v2 m1u − m2 u = m2 v2

(1)

43

PHYSICS

Solution :

CHAPTER 3

v2 − v1 e = − u −u 1 2

Since the collision is elastic then e = 1, thus

v2 − 0 1 = − −u −u v2 = 2u

1 1 m2 = m1 = ( 0.500) 3 3 m2 = 0.167 kg

(2)

By substituting eq. (2) into eq. (1), therefore

44

PHYSICS

Example 7 :

CHAPTER 3

A ball is dropped from a height of 2.00 m above a tile floor and rebounds to a height of 1.30 m. a. Determine the ball’s speed just before and after strike the floor. b. State the type of the collision between ball and floor. Give reason. (Given g = 9.81 m s−2) Solution : h = 2.00 m; h = 1.30 m 0 1 a. i. Before collision, 1 u=0 s = − h = −2.00 m 1

v=0

Thus

y

0

2.00 m

v1 ' 1.30 m v1

1 1 Floor (2)

2 v1

2 v1

= u − 2 gs y

2

= 0 − 2( 9.81)( − 2.00)

v1 = 6.26 m s −1

45

PHYSICS

Solution : a. ii. After collision, Thus

2

CHAPTER 3

s y = h1 = 1.30 m

2

b. The initial and final velocities of the floor are zero. By using equation of Newton’s law of restitution,

v = ( v1 ') − 2 gs y 2 0 = ( v1 ') − 2( 9.81)(1.30 ) v1 ' = 5.05 m s −1

** v2 − v1 ' 0 − 5.05 e = − u − v = − 0 − ( − 6.26) 2 1 Thereforee = collision between ball and floor is inelastic. the 0.807 inelastic
**

46

PHYSICS

3.2.4 Impulse, J

CHAPTER 3

Let a single constant force, F acts on an object in a short time interval (collision), thus the Newton’s 2nd law can be written as

dp ∑ F = F = dt = constant

p2 : final momentum p1 : initial momentum

J = Fdt = dp = p2 − p1

where

F : impulsive force

is defined as the product of a force, F and the time, t OR the change of momentum. momentum is a vector quantity whose direction is the same as the constant force on the object.

47

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

The S.I. unit of impulse is N s or kg m s− 1. If the force acts on the object is not constant then

t2 J = ∫ Fdt = Fav dt

t1

where

Fav : average impulsive force

Since impulse and momentum are both vector quantities, then it is often easiest to use them in component form :

consider 2-D collision only

J x = ( Fav ) x dt = p2 x − p1 x = m( v x − u x )

J y = ( Fav ) y dt = p2 y − p1 y = m v y − u y J z = ( Fav ) z dt = p2 z − p1 z = m( v z − u z )

(

)

48

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

F

When two objects in collision, the impulsive force, F against time, t graph is given by the figure 3.20.

Figure 3.20

0 t1

t2

t

**Shaded area under the F−t graph = impulse
**

Picture 3.1 Picture 3.2

49

Picture 3.3

PHYSICS

Example 8 :

CHAPTER 3

A 0.20 kg tennis ball strikes the wall horizontally with a speed of 100 m s−1 and it bounces off with a speed of 70 m s−1 in the opposite direction. a. Calculate the magnitude of impulse delivered to the ball by the wall, b. If the ball is in contact with the wall for 10 ms, determine the magnitude of average force exerted by the wall on the ball. Solution : m1 = 0.20 kg

u1 = 100 m s −1

1 1

v1 = 70 m s −1

v2 = u 2 = 0

50

Wall (2)

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

J = dp = p2 − p1

Solution : a. From the equation of impulse that the force is constant,

J = m1 ( v1 − u1 ) J = ( 0.20 ) [ ( − 70 ) − 100] J = −34 N s

Therefore the magnitude of the impulse is 34 N s. s b. Given the contact time, dt

= 10 × 10 −3 s

Fav = 3400 N

J = Fav dt −3 34 = Fav 10 ×10

(

)

51

PHYSICS

Example 9 :

18

F ( kN )

CHAPTER 3

0 0.2

1.0

1.8

t ( ms )

Figure 3.21

An estimated force-time curve for a tennis ball of mass 60.0 g struck by a racket is shown in figure 3.21. Determine a. the impulse delivered to the ball, b. the speed of the ball after being struck, assuming the ball is being served so it is nearly at rest initially.

52

PHYSICS

Solution : m = 60.0 × 10 kg a. From the force-time graph,

−3

CHAPTER 3

J = area under the F − t graph 1 J = (1.8 − 0.2 ) × 10 −3 18 × 103 2 J = 14.4 N s

(

)

b. Given the ball’s initial speed, u

=0 J = dp = m( v − u )

14.4 = 60.0 × 10

v = 240 m s −1

(

−3

)( v − 0 )

53

PHYSICS

Exercise 3.2.2 :

CHAPTER 3

1. A steel ball with mass 40.0 g is dropped from a height of 2.00 m onto a horizontal steel slab. The ball rebounds to a height of 1.60 m. a. Calculate the impulse delivered to the ball during impact. b. If the ball is in contact with the slab for 2.00 ms, determine the average force on the ball during impact. ANS. : 0.47 N s; 237. 1 N A golf ball (m = 46.0 g) is struck with a force that makes an angle of 45° with the horizontal. The ball lands 200 m away on a flat fairway. If the golf club and ball are in contact for 7.00 ms, calculate the average force of impact. (neglect the air resistance.) ANS. : 293 N

54

PHYSICS

Exercise 3.2.2 :

3.

CHAPTER 3

Figure 3.22

A tennis ball of mass, m = 0.060 kg and a speed, v = 28 m s−1 strikes a wall at a 45° angle and rebounds with the same speed at 45° as shown in figure 3.22. Calculate the impulse given by the wall. ANS. : 2.4 N s to the left or − 2.4 N s

55

**PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 Learning Outcome:
**

www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physics 3.3 Reaction and frictional forces (1 hour)

At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: Use Newton’s Third Law to explain the concept of normal reaction force. State and use equation for frictional force and distinguish between static friction,

fs ≤ µs N

and kinetic (dynamic) friction,

fk = µk N

56

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

**3.3 Reaction and frictional forces
**

3.3.1 Reaction (normal) force, N or R

is defined as a reaction force that exerted by the surface to an object interact with it and the direction always perpendicular to the surface. surface Case 1: Horizontal surface An object lies at rest on a flat horizontal surface as shown in figure 3.23. Action: weight of an object is exerted on

N

the horizontal surface Reaction: surface is exerted a force, N on the object .

∑F

y

= N − mg = 0

Figure 3.23

Therefore

W = mg

N = mg

57

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

Case 2 : Inclined plane An object lies at rest on a rough inclined plane as shown in figure 3.24. Component of the weight : y

N

x

Wx = mg sin θ W y = mg cos θ

Wx

θ

Figure 3.24

θ

Wy

Action: y-component of the object’s weight is exerted on the inclined surface. Reaction: surface is exerted a force, N on the object.

∑F

y

= N − Wy = 0

N = mg cos θ

58

W = mg

Therefore

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

Case 3 : Motion of a lift Consider a person standing inside a lift as shown in figures 3.25a, 3.25b and 3.25c. a. Lift moving upward at a uniform velocity Since the lift moving at a uniform velocity, thus

N

ay = 0

y

Therefore

=0 N − mg = 0

∑F

Figure 3.25a

W = mg

N = mg

59

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

b. Lift moving upwards at a constant acceleration, a

N

a

Figure 3.25b

By applying the newton’s 2nd law of motion, thus

N − mg = ma

N = m( a + g )

W = mg

∑F

y

= ma y

60

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

c. Lift moving downwards at a constant acceleration, a By applying the newton’s 2nd law of motion, thus

a

Figure 3.25c

N

mg − N = ma

N = m( g − a )

∑F

y

= ma y

W = mg

**Caution : N is also known as apparent weight and W is true weight. weight
**

61

PHYSICS

3.3.2 Frictional force, f

CHAPTER 3

is defined as a force that resists the motion of one surface relative to another with which it is in contact. contact is independent of the area of contact between the two surfaces.. is directly proportional to the reaction force. OR

f ∝N

f = µN

where

f : frictional force

μ : coefficient of friction N : reaction force

**Coefficient of friction, µ is defined as the ratio between frictional force to reaction force. OR
**

**is dimensionless and depends on the nature of the surfaces.
**

62

f µ= N

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

Static, fs (frictional force act on the object before its move) move Kinetic, fk (frictional force act on the object when its move) move Rolling, fr (frictional force act on the object when its rolling) rolling

There are three types of frictional force :

f s = µs N

Can be ignored where thus

f k = µk N

fr < fk < fs

µr < µk < µs

f r = µr N

Caution: The direction of the frictional force exerted by a surface on an object is always in the opposite direction of the motion. motion The frictional and the reaction forces are always perpendicular. perpendicular Simulation 3.6

63

PHYSICS

Case 1 : Horizontal surface

CHAPTER 3

Consider a box of mass m is pulled along a horizontal surface by a horizontal force, F as shown in figures 3.26.

N

a

f

Figure 3.26

F

mg

x

x-component :

∑F ∑F

= Fnett = ma F − f = ma

y-component :

=0 N = mg

y

64

PHYSICS

Case 2 : Inclined plane

CHAPTER 3

Consider a box of mass m is pulled along an inclined plane by a y force, F as shown in figures 3.27.

N

a

x F

Wx

f

Figure 3.27

θ

θ

Wy

Simulation 3.7

F − Wx − f = ma F = ma + mg sin θ + f

x-component (parallel to the inclined Fx = ma plane) :

W = mg

∑

y-component (perpendicular to the inclined plane: F =0

N − Wy = 0 N = mg cos θ

∑

y

65

PHYSICS

Example 10 :

CHAPTER 3

F

30

A box of mass 20 kg is on a rough horizontal plane. The box is pulled by a force, F which is applied at an angle of 30° above horizontal as shown in figure 3.28. If the coefficient of static friction between the box and the plane is 0.3 and the box moves at a constant speed, calculate a. the normal reaction force, b. the applied force F, c. the static friction force. (Given g = 9.81 m s-2)

66

Figure 3.28

PHYSICS

Solution :

CHAPTER 3

m = 20 kg; μs = 0.3

constant speed

fs

N

**F sin 30 F cos 30
**

30

F

mg

a. Since the box moves at constant speed thus a Fx = 0 x-component : F cos 30 − f s = 0 F cos 30 − μ s N = 0

∑

=0

0.3N F= cos 30

(1)

67

PHYSICS

Solution : y-component :

CHAPTER 3

=0 N + F sin 30 − mg = 0 N + F sin 30 = ( 20 )( 9.81) N + F sin 30 = 196

y

∑F

(2)

By substituting eq. (1) into eq. (2), hence

** 0.3 N N + sin 30 = 196 cos 30 N = 167 N
**

b. Therefore the applied force is given by

0.3(167 ) F= = 57.9 N cos 30

c. The static friction force is

f s = μs N f s = 0.3(167 ) = 50.1 N

68

PHYSICS

Example 11 :

CHAPTER 3

F

20

30

A block of mass 200 kg is pulled along an inclined plane of 30° by a force, F = 2 kN as shown in figure 3.29. The coefficient of kinetic friction of the plane is 0.4. Determine a. the normal force, b. the nett force, c. the acceleration of the block, d. the time taken for the block to travel 30 m from rest. (Given g = 9.81 m s-2)

69

Figure 3.29

PHYSICS

Solution :

CHAPTER 3

m = 200 kg; F = 2000 N; μk = 0.4

a

F sin 20

** mg Fy = 0 a. y-component : N + F sin 20 − mg cos 30 = 0 N + 2000 sin 20 − ( 200)( 9.81) cos 30 = 0
**

30

**mg sin 30 fk
**

N

y F 20 F cos 20

x

30

mg cos 30

∑

N = 1015 N

70

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

Solution : b. The nett force is directed along the inclined plane surface. x-component : Fnett = Fx

Fnett = F cos 20 − mg sin 30 − f k Fnett = F cos 20 − mg sin 30 − μk N Fnett = 2000 cos 20 − ( 200)( 9.81) sin 30 − ( 0.4 )(1015) Fnett = 492 N Fnett = ma c. −2 a = 2.46 m s 492 = 200a

d. Given

∑

1 2 s = ut + at 2

s = 30 m; u = 0

1 30 = 0 + ( 2.46) t 2 2 t = 4.94 s

71

PHYSICS

Exercise 3.3 :

1.

CHAPTER 3

Figure 3.30

A 5.00 kg object placed on a frictionless, horizontal table is connected to a string that passes over a pulley and then is fastened to a hanging 9.00 kg object as in figure 3.30. a. Sketch free body diagrams of both objects, b. Calculate the acceleration of the two objects and the tension in the string. (Given g = 9.81 m s−2) ANS. : 6.30 m s− 2; 31.5 N

72

PHYSICS

Exercise 3.3 :

CHAPTER 3

2. Two object are connected by a light string that passes over a frictionless pulley as in figure 3.31. The coefficient of kinetic friction of the plane is 0.3 and m1 = 2.00 kg,

m2 = 6.00 kg and θ = 55°.

a. Sketch free body diagrams of both objects. b. Determine i. the accelerations of the objects, ii. the tension in the string iii. the speed of each object 2.00 s after being released from rest. (Given g = 9.81 m s−2) ANS. : 2.31 m s− 2; 24.2 N; 4.62 m s− 1

Figure 3.31

73

PHYSICS

Exercise 3.3 :

CHAPTER 3

3. A 5.00 g bullet is fired horizontally into a 1.20 kg wooden block resting on a horizontal surface. The coefficient of kinetic friction between block and surface is 0.20. The bullet remains embedded in the block, which is observed to slide 0.230 m along the surface before stopping. Calculate the initial speed of the bullet. (Given g = 9.81 m s−2) Tips : Use Newton’s second law of motion involving acceleration. Principle of conservation of linear momentum. Equation of motion for linear motion. ANS. : 229 m s− 1

74

PHYSICS

Exercise 3.3 :

CHAPTER 3

4. The block shown in figure 3.32, has mass, m =7.0 kg and lies on a smooth frictionless plane tilted at an angle, θ = 22.0° to the horizontal. a. Determine the acceleration of the block as it slides down the plane. b. If the block starts from rest 12.0 m up the plane from its base, calculate the block’s speed when it reaches the bottom of the incline plane. (Given g = 9.81 m s−2) ANS. : 3.68 m s− 2; 9.40 m s− 1

Figure 3.32

75

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

THE END…

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