Concrete Shear Wall Design

BY WIRA TJONG, S.E

WT

INTRODUCTION
IR. WIRA TJONG, MSCE, SE

Front End Engineer of Fluor Enterprises’ Tucson Office, with Experience in Indonesia, USA, Korea, Taiwan, and Malaysia as Expatriate Christian University of Indonesia (BS and ENGINEER); Virginia Tech (MS), USA; University of Wales, Swansea, UK (PhD Research Program) Licensed Structural Engineer in AZ, UT, and CA. Area of Expertise – Codes Requirements and Applications – Seismic Design for New Buildings/Bridges and Retrofit – Modeling and Software Development – Biotechnology and Microelectronic Facilities – California School and Hospitals
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Concrete Shear Wall

WT ELEMENTS OF WALL DESIGN 97 UBC AND 2002 ACI REQUIREMENTS FOR WALL DESIGN WITH EMPHASIS ON SPECIAL CONCRETE SHEAR WALL   DEFINITION WALL REINFORCEMENT REQUIREMENTS    SHEAR DESIGN FLEXURAL AND AXIAL LOAD DESIGN BOUNDARY ZONE DETERMINATION – SIMPLIFIED APPROACH – RIGOROUS APPROACH  BOUNDARY ZONE DETAILING Concrete Shear Wall 3 .

WT DEFINITION SHEAR WALL IS A STRUCTURAL ELEMENT USED TO RESIST LATERAL/HORIZONTAL/SHEAR FORCES PARALLEL TO THE PLANE OF THE WALL BY:  CANTILEVER ACTION FOR SLENDER WALLS WHERE THE BENDING DEFORMATION IS DOMINANT  TRUSS ACTION FOR SQUAT/SHORT WALLS WHERE THE SHEAR DEFORMATION IS DOMINANT Concrete Shear Wall 4 .

25% OF GROSS AREA UNLESS Vu < 1/2 CONCRETE CAPACITY Hw T Av > Ah FOR Hw/Lw < 2.0 SPACING < 18" Concrete Shear Wall 5 .166 Acv(f'c)1/2 ] OR Lw 2 LAYERS IF T> 10" OR Vu > CONCRETE SHEAR CAPACITY THICKNESS > 10 INCHES [ 25 cm] REINF > 0.WT WALL REINFORCEMENT  MINIMUM TWO CURTAINS OF WALL REINFORCEMENT SHALL BE PROVIDED IF Vu > 2 Acv(f'c)1/2 [0.

0015 FOR OTHER DEFORMED BARS = 0.0012 FOR WELDED WIRE FABRIC NOT LARGER THAN W31 OR D31[N 16 mm] b.WT WALL REINFORCEMENT  WALL MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT RATIO (Dv or Dh) 0.0012 FOR BARS NOT LARGER THAN #5 [N 16 mm] = 0. MINIMUM HORIZONTAL REINFORCEMENT RATIO Dh = 0.083 Acv(f’c)1/2 ] a. MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT RATIO Dv = 0.0025 FOR OTHER DEFORMED BARS = 0.0020 FOR BARS NOT LARGER THAN #5 [N 16 mm] = 0.0020 FOR WELDED WIRE FABRIC NOT LARGER THAN W31 OR D31 [N 16 mm] Concrete Shear Wall 6 .0025  EXCEPTION FOR Vu < Acv(f’c)1/2 [0.

9 VD +. Concrete Shear Wall 7 . SHEAR DEMAND  FACTORED SHEAR FORCE / SHEAR DEMAND Vu = 1.VE = 0.0 FOR 100 PSF [500 KG/M2] LIVE LOAD AND GREATER f1= 0.WT SHEAR DESIGN N Vn > Vu A.5 OTHERWISE.VE f1= 1.2 VD + f1 VL +.

166(f’c)1/2 + Dnfy] Hw SEGMENT 1 SEGMENT 2  FOR SQUAT WALLS WITH Hw/Lw < 2.0 FOR Hw/Lw =1.0 TO 3.WT SHEAR DESIGN B.083ac(f’c)1/2 + Dnfy] WHERE ac VARIES LINEARLY FROM 2.0 FOR Hw/Lw =2.5  Hw/Lw SHALL BE TAKEN AS THE LARGEST RATIO FOR ENTIRE WALL OR SEGMENT OF WALL Concrete Shear Wall 8 . SHEAR STRENGTH  Lw NOMINAL SHEAR STRENGTH Vn = Acv [2(f’c)1/2 + Dnfy] Acv [0.0 Vn = Acv [ac(f’c)1/2 + Dnfy] Acv [0.

85 Concrete Shear Wall 9 .WT SHEAR DESIGN  MAXIMUM NOMINAL SHEAR STRENGTH MAX Vn = Acv [10(f’c)1/2] Acv [0.6  OTHERWISE N =0.83(f’c)1/2]  STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTOR FOR WALLS THAT WILL FAIL IN SHEAR INSTEAD OF BENDING N =0.6 N =0.

WT FLEXURAL AND AXIAL LOAD DESIGN A.70 FOR NPn = 0.90 0.1f’cAg OR NPb TO N = 0. GENERAL   NO NEED TO APPLY MOMENT MAGNIFICATION DUE TO SLENDERNESS NON-LINEAR STRAIN REQUIREMENT FOR DEEP BEAM DOESN’T APPLY  STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTORS EXCEPTION FOR WALLS WITH LOW COMPRESSIVE LOAD N = 0.70 FOR NPn = ZERO OR TENSION Concrete Shear Wall 10 .

WT FLEXURAL AND AXIAL LOAD DESIGN  THE EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH FOR I. FLANGE ( 25 % PER ACI) c. OR T SHAPED WALLS a. 15 % OF TOTAL WALL HEIGHT FOR COMP. C. L . 1/2 X DISTANCE TO ADJACENT SHEAR WALL WEB b. 30 % OF TOTAL WALL HEIGHT FOR TENSION FLANGE (25 % PER ACI) Concrete Shear Wall 11 .

35 Po WHERE Po = 0.WT FLEXURAL AND AXIAL LOAD DESIGN  WALLS WITH HIGH AXIAL LOAD SHALL NOT BE USED AS LATERAL RESISTING ELEMENTS FOR EARTHQUAKE FORCE IF Pu > 0.8N[0.Ast) + fy Ast] Concrete Shear Wall 12 .85fc'(Ag .

Mu/(VuLw) < = 1.0 (SHORT/SQUAT WALL OR Hw/Lw < 1.10Agf’c FOR SYMMETRICAL WALL Pu <= 0. Vu <= 3 Acv (f’c)1/2 [0.1 BOUNDARY ZONE DETERMINATION .WT B.0 PER ACI : THE FACTORED AXIAL STRESS ON LINEAR ELASTIC GROSS SECTION < 0. Pu <= 0.2 f’c Concrete Shear Wall 13 .0 FOR ONE STORY WALL) OR c.05Agf’c FOR UNSYMMETRICAL WALL AND EITHER b.25 Acv (f’c)1/2 ]  AND Mu/(VuLw) < = 3.SIMPLIFIED APPROACH BOUNDARY ZONE DETAILING IS NOT REQUIRED IF  PER UBC : a.

15 Po  WITH LINEAR INTERPOLATION FOR Pu BETWEEN 0.35 Po 0. BOUNDARY ZONES AT EACH END OF THE WALL SHALL BE PROVIDED ALONG   0.15Lw Lw LBZ > 0.WT B.SIMPLIFIED APPROACH  IF REQUIRED.35 Po  MINIMUM BOUNDARY ZONE LENGTH : 0.15 Po AND 0.15Lw FOR Pu = 0.1 BOUNDARY ZONE DETERMINATION .25Lw FOR Pu = 0.15 Lw Concrete Shear Wall 14 .

2 BOUNDARY ZONE DETERMINATION – RIGOROUS APPROACH  BOUNDARY ZONE DETAILING IS NOT REQUIRED IF MAX.   TENSION COM PRESSION C'u N t LENGTH OF BOUNDARY M EM BER Lw Concrete Shear Wall u = N t C'u 15 0.003 . BOUNDARY ZONE DETAIL SHALL BE PROVIDED OVER THE PORTION OF WALL WITH COMPRESSIVE STRAIN > 0.003. COMPRESSIVE STRAIN AT WALL EDGES: gmax < 0.WT B.003 THE DISPLACEMENT AND THE STRAIN SHALL BE BASED ON CRACKED SECTION PROPERTIES. UNREDUCED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION AND NON-LINEAR BEHAVIOR OF THE BUILDING.

THE BOUNDARY ZONE LENGTH SHALL BE TAKEN AS Lbz > C .2 BOUNDARY ZONE DETERMINATION – RIGOROUS APPROACH  THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE STRAIN gmax = 0.007 • IF REQUIRED.0.WT B.1 Lw AND > C/2 Concrete Shear Wall 16 .015 •PER ACI. BLOCK C< Lw/[600*(Du/Hw)] (Du/Hw) SHALL NOT BE TAKEN < 0. BOUNDARY ZONE DETAILING IS NOT REQUIRED IF THE LENGTH OF COMP.

WT C. APPROXIMATE COMPRESSIVE STRAIN FOR PRISMATIC WALLS YIELDING AT THE BASE  DETERMINE De : ELASTIC DESIGN DISPLACEMENT AT THE TOP OF WALL DUE TO CODE SEISMIC FORCES BASED ON GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES Concrete Shear Wall 17 .

APPROXIMATE COMPRESSIVE STRAIN  CALCULATE YIELD DEFLECTION AT THE TOP OF WALL CORRESPONDING TO A COMPRESSIVE STRAIN OF 0.WT C.003 Dy = (Mn'/Me)De  Me IS MOMENT DUE TO CODE SEISMIC FORCES Concrete Shear Wall 18 .

5 PER UBC TABLE 16 N.7 R (2DE) BASED ON GROSS SECTION OR Dt = Dm =0. APPROXIMATE COMPRESSIVE STRAIN  Mn' IS NOMINAL FLEXURAL STRENGTH AT Pu = 1.5 TO 8.Dy  ROTATION AT THE PLASTIC HINGE Qi = Ni Lp = Di/(Hw .7 R DS BASED ON CRACKED SECTION WHERE R IS DUCTILITY COEFFICIENT RANGES FROM 4.WT C.  INELASTIC WALL DEFLECTION Di = Dt .5PL + PE  DETERMINE TOTAL DEFLECTION AT THE TOP OF WALL Dt = Dm = 0.2PD + 0.Lp/2) Concrete Shear Wall 19 .

WT C. Concrete Shear Wall 20 . APPROXIMATE COMPRESSIVE STRAIN  DETERMINE TOTAL CURVATURE DEMAND AT THE PLASTIC HINGE Nt = Ni + Ny Nt = Di/[Lp(Hw .Lp/2)] + Ny  WALL CURVATURE AT YIELD OR AT Mn’ CAN BE TAKEN AS Ny = 0.003/Lw  THE PLASTIC HINGE LENGTH Lp = Lw/2  THE COMPRESSIVE STRAIN ALONG COMPRESSIVE BLOCK IN THE WALL MAY BE ASSUMED VARY LINEARLY OVER THE DEPTH Cu' WITH A MAXIMUM VALUE EQUAL TO gcmax = (Cu' X Nt)  THE COMPRESSIVE BLOCK LENGTH Cu’ CAN BE DETERMINED USING STRAIN COMPATIBILITY AND REINFORCED CONCRETE SECTION ANALYSIS.

H BZ > Lw > Mu/4Vu 1ST FL GROUND Fl Lu LBZ >18" (46cm) Lw FOR L.T WALLS 2ND FL T BZ >lu/16 Vertical Extent of Bound.WT D.L. OR T SHAPED WALL. Reinf. C. I. Bar Ec =0.003 21 . THE BOUNDARY ZONE SHALL INCLUDE THE EFFECTIVE FLANGE AND SHALL EXTEND AT LEAST 12 INCHES [30 CM] INTO THE WEB  Concrete Shear Wall Ld of Vert.C. BOUNDARY ZONE DETAILS  DIMENSIONAL REQUIREMENTS EXTEND 12" INTO WEB FOR I.

WT D.005 LBZ TBZ with minimum 4 -# 5(DIA 16 mm) M inimum Hoops/Tie s Are a : Ash = 0.ACI ' hx' < 14 inches (35 cm) 2. Per UBC: 'x' or 'y' < 12 inches (30 cm) Per . Adjacent hoops shall be overlapping 4. y x x / hx x As > 0. dir. Hoop dimensional ratio (3x/2y) or (2y/3x) <3 3.09 s hc fc'/fyh with v e rtical spacing Sv < 6"(15 cm) or 6xDIA of v e rtical bars y TBZ < 10 + [(35-hx)/3] in cm Concrete Shear Wall 22 . Per ACI: Sv < Tbz / 4 Sv < 4 +[(14-hx)/3] in inches 6 db e xte nsion hc for trans. BOUNDARY ZONE DETAILS  CONFINEMENT REINFORCEMENT LBZ h c for longitudinal dire ction Alte rnate Ve rtical Bars Shall Be Confine d 6 db (> 3 in ) (>75 mm) Consecutive crossties engaging the same longitudinal bar shall have their 90-deg hooks on opposite sides of column Notes: 1.

BOUNDARY ZONE DETAILS  REINFORCEMENT INSIDE BOUNDARY ZONE   NO WELDED SPLICE WITHIN THE PLASTIC HINGE REGION MECHANICAL CONNECTOR STRENGTH > 160 % OF BAR YIELD STRENGTH OR 95% Fu Concrete Shear Wall 23 .WT D.

WT STRAIN COMPATIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR ESTIMATING M’n and C’u  STRAIN DISTRIBUTION AT gcy = 0.003  S7 24 .003 gsi > gy : gsi < gy : Tsi = As fy Tsi = As fs WHERE fs = Es gs TENSION COM PRESSION C'u STEEL STRAIN  S2  S3  S4  S5 Concrete Shear Wall  S1 CONCRETE STRAIN  S6 c=0.

85 f’c B C’u  MOMENT EQUILIBRIUM M’n = E Tsi X esi + E Csi X esi + Cc ec SOLVE FOR Cu’ THAT SATISFIES THE ABOVE EQUILIBRIUM.2 D + 0.WT STRAIN COMPATIBILITY ANALYSIS  FORCE EQUILIBRIUM Pu + E Tsi + E Csi + Cc = 0 WHERE Pu = 1.85 f'c Pu 25 . Center Line  TENSION COM PRESSION B C'u Cc STEEL FORCES e T S1 Lw CONCRETE STRESS INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL FORCES ACTING ON WALL SECTION Concrete Shear Wall Cs7 T S2 T S3 T S4 T S5 CS 6 0.5 L + E AND Cc= 0.

RCWALLPRO.COM Concrete Shear Wall 26 . BENDING AND SHEAR OR FACTORED AXIAL STRESSES IN THE WALL THE RIGOROUS APPROACH INVOLVES DISPLACEMENT AND STRAIN CALCULATIONS ACI/IBC EQUATIONS ARE SIMPLER THAN UBC EQUATIONS    COMPUTER AIDED CALCULATIONS ARE REQUIRED FOR THE RIGOROUS APPROACH SHEAR WALL DESIGN SPREADSHEET  WWW.WT SUMMARY   TWO APPROACHES TO DETERMINE THE BOUNDARY ZONE THE SIMPLIFIED APPROACH IS BASED ON THE AXIAL FORCE.

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