THE INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (revised to 2005

)
CONSONANTS (PULMONIC) Bilabial Labiodental Dental Plosive Nasal Trill Tap or Flap Fricative Lateral fricative Approximant Lateral approximant 150 126 127 101 102 114 121 184 128 129 115

NUMBER CHART
Alveolar Post alveolar Retroflex 103 104 116 122 124 130 131 132 133 148 149 151 155 152 156 153 157 154 158 134 135 125 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 105 106 117 Palatal 107 108 118 Velar 109 110 119 Uvular 111 112 120 123

© 2005 IPA Pharyngeal Glottal 113

146 147

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible. CONSONANTS (NON-PULMONIC) Clicks 176 177
Bilabial Dental

VOWELS Ejectives 401 101 + 401 103 + 401 109 + 401 132 + 401
Examples: Bilabial Dental/alveolar Velar Alveolar fricative Open-mid Close-mid Close Front Central Back

Voiced implosives 160 162 164 166 168
Bilabial Dental/alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular

301 • 309 319 320 302 • 310

317 • 318 321 397 • 323 322 303 • 311 325 326 • 395 324

316 • 308

178 (Post)alveolar 179 Palatoalveolar 180 Alveolar lateral OTHER SYMBOLS

315 • 307

314 • 306

169 Voiceless labial-velar fricative 170 Voiced labial-velar approximant 171 Voiced labial-palatal approximant 172 Voiceless epiglottal fricative 174 Voiced epiglottal fricative 173 Epiglottal plosive DIACRITICS 402A Voiceless 403 404 411 412 413 414 415 416 431 432 419

182 183 181 175

Open Alveolo-palatal fricatives Alveolar lateral flap Simultaneous

304 • 312

305 • 313

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel.

S and x
433 (509)

SUPRASEGMENTALS 501 502 503 Primary stress Secondary stress Long Half-long Extra-short

Affricates and double articulations can be represented by two symbols joined by a tie bar if necessary.

ÆfoUn´"tIS´n

Diacritics may be placed above a symbol with a descender, e.g. 119 + 402B 405 406 407 420 421 422 423 428 429 430 417 418
Breathy voiced Creaky voiced Linguolabial Labialized Palatalized Velarized Pharyngealized

504 505 507 508 506 509

n9 d9 Voiced s3 t 3 Aspirated tÓ dÓ More rounded O7 Less rounded O¶ Advanced u™ Retracted e2 Centralized e· Mid-centralized e+ Syllabic n` Non-syllabic e8 Rhoticity 327 a±

bª aª b0 a0 t £  d£ tW dW t∆ d∆ t◊  d◊ t≥   d≥ e6 e§
 (

408 409 410 424 425 426 427 209

t 1 d1 Apical t ¡ d¡ Laminal t 4 d4 Nasalized e) Nasal release dˆ Lateral release d¬ No audible release d}
Dental

e… eÚ e*

Minor (foot) group Major (intonation) group Syllable break

®i.œkt

Linking (absence of a break)

TONES AND WORD ACCENTS LEVEL CONTOUR Extra 512 519 high 524 529 Rising

Velarized or pharyngealized Raised Lowered

513 514 515 516 517 518

520 521 522 523

High Mid Low Extra low

525 526 527 528 510 511

530 Falling 531 rising 532 rising 533 falling
Global rise Global fall RisingLow High

Advanced Tongue Root Retracted Tongue Root

®6 = voiced alveolar fricative) ( B§ = voiced bilabial approximant) e5 e∞

Downstep Upstep

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