and Enolronmenl.

Vol. 29. No. I, pp, 21-31, 1994,

Prinled in Great Britain.

A Comparison of Passive Cooling Techniques
A comparison of passice cooling techniques of a non-airconditioned apartment j'IT Delhi climate condition has been presented. The various coolinq technlques namely. etaporatioe coolinq, mooable cannas, roof qardens, shading effect and air caoity in walls etc, have been incorporated in the thermal analysis. Numerical computations were carried out lor Delhi climatic conditions and it is inferred tha; (i) the evaporatioe cooling is the best option 10 reduce the incoming heatfiux if the water is easily aoailable, and (ii) the air cauiry also reduces the incominqfiu x enterinq through walls. Ihrou.lJh the roof

surface area of isothermal mass (m") breadth (m) C" specific heat of air (J/kg 'C) C, thermal air conductance of air-gap (W /m "C) C, specific heat of conducting material in jth layer of the roof/walls a/kg WC) C,. specific heat of water (J/kg "C) d depth of water film (m) [; shading factor for windows /, shading factor on walls h; heat transfer coefficient from the enclosed air to the underground surface (W Iml "e) h, convective heat transfer coefficient from the exposed surface of the roof/walls with and without water IUm (W/m' OC) h" heat transfer coefficient for the doors (W/m' 'e) hr,,' convective heat transfer coefficient from the roof surface to moving water (W/m2 -'C) h; heat transfer coefficient from bare surface of the roof/ walls to ambient (W/m' "C) h, heat transfer coefficient from inside surface of the roof/ wall to an enclosed room air (W/m' "C) h, convective heat transfer coefficient from the room air to isothermal mass and vice versa (W 1m2 "C) h, radiative heat transfer coefficient from the exposed surface of the roof/walls with and without water film (W1m' ''C) on the roof and walls (W/m-) thermal conductivity (W/m K) characteristic length of the roof (m) Mo mass of air inside room (kg) M. mass of water over the roof (kg) m; mass flow rates of water over the roof (kg/sec) n integers P(T) partial pressure of the saturated vapor at temperature T(Pa) Q rate of heat flux gain/loss to an enclosed room (W/m ') / time (sec) T., ground temperature at large depth CC) 1(1) K L" Al h

temperature ('C) ambient air temperature (T) T, isothermal mass temperature ("C) TRm" maximum room air temperature eC) TRm," minimum room air temperature eel T~ room air temperature CC) T... solair temperature ee) T" water temperature over the roof (T) TLL thermal load levelling U(I) overall heat transfer coefficient from tile roof surface in the case of movable insulator (W 1m I 'C) u,' water velocity (m/sec) t' wind velocity (m/sec) X position coordinate along the thickness of the roof (m) r position coordinate along flow direction (m).



iP intensity solar


Greek symbols rt fraction of solar radiation absorbed by the surface I' relative humidity !J.R difference between the longwave radiation incident on the surface from sky and surrounding, and the radiation emitted by a black body at ambient temperature (W/m') !J.y difference in relative humidity between enclosed air and outside air e emissivity '10 number of air change with infiltration (h - ') 'I number of air change with ventilation (h - I) P density (kg/rn ') If Stefan'S constant = 5.67 x 21O~' (W 1m' K 4) W 2n/period (sec- I). Suh:.'aipl$ a ambient air b floor/ground d, D door g, G glass window i east, west, north and south wall 1 isothermal mass j jth layer in the roof R room l' ventilation It' water ""It' wall.

• Centre for Energy Studies. Indian Institute Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-l 10016, India.

of Technology



G. N. Tiwari et al.
Table I. Classification

of solar houses

Solar houses Summer house Passive cooling



Winter house Active cooling



lPassive heating Active healing

Without treatment



With treatment



Water spray

Movable canvas


Roof garden inverted earthen pot

Painting of walls

Earth air


INTRODUcnON A BUILDING cooled and healed by the use of solar energy is generally referred as a solar house. The classification of solar house has been given in Table I. The cooling and the heating of a building can be done either by a passive or an active method. Sodha et at. [II and Kaushik et at. [2J have described the various passive techniques for cooling and heating which can be integrated with the walls and roof of a building. For heating a building, the well-known concepts namely 'Trombe Wall', {3]'The Water Wall", {4J'The Transwall', [5) and 'A Solarium', [6] etc. are used. The relative thermal performance of these concepts for a south wall has been studied by Tiwari et al. [7]. Later, the effect of these concepts for a south wall was integrated with non-airconditioned houses and the studies have been carried out by Tiwari [8] for cold climatic conditions. In order to cool the building, there are various cooling concepts namely water film, [9], roof pond, IIOJ, roof garden, movable insula tion, plantation of vegetables over the roof, [11] and air cavity in waJl [121 etc. which can also be integrated to provide thermal comfort inside the building. The detailed relative thermal performances of these concepts have been studied by Singh (12]. The use of an earth air tunnel for the same purpose is also a most promising technique, {13Jwhich can be considered as an active mode of operation. Srivastava et al. [14) have also designed a building for thermal comfort under the semi arid climate of India by considering the chimney effect. In this communication, comparative studied of a nonairconditioned two room apartment have been presented by incorporating the various cooling techniques through walls/roof including ventilation and infiltration, [15]. The energy balance equations for the different components of the house have been separately written. The steady state solutions for room air temperature has been derived to evaluate the thermal comfort index inside room.

DESIGN OF SOLAR HOUSE The floor plan of a two room apartment has been shown in Fig. I(a). The partition inside the house has been done by wooden wall. The windows and doors were provided in the east and the west direction as cross ventilation is required. The windows are also provided in the bath room as well as in the kitchen for a better light during the day. The elevation of the plane at X - Y has been depicted in Fig. I(b). In this case, the inclination of the roof is toward north facing so that the incident solar radiation on the roof will be minimized. The crosssectional view of the roof and walls with different cooling concept have been shown in Figs 2 and 3 respectively. In this case, a thermal comfort can be achieved by reducing the incoming flux inside the room through the walls and the roof. The dimensions of the roof/walls, windows and doors are given in Table 2. The air cavity in the wall will act as an insulation which can minimize heat transfer by conduction. The roof and the walls are constructed of concrete, mud-phuska" and bricks which can also be used for load levelling and for a phase lag between maximum temperature inside and outside the room. THERMAL ANALYSIS In order to write the energy balance equation for the different components of the proposed two room apartment, the following assumptions have been made: there is no stratification in air temperature inside the enclosed room:

Table 2. Areas of different components

of house

number Component South wall North wall East W3Jl West wall Door (East and West) Window (East and West) Floor Roof Areas (m')

2 J
4 5 6 7

IOx4=40 IOx3:30

1.9 x 0.9 = 1.71

.. Refers to a mixture of soil, dried grass and water.


2x 2 = 4 IOx6:60 61

A Comparison of Passive Cooling Techniques












~ ;:


Fig. I. (a) Floor layout plan of two room apartment non-air conditioned, showing location of living rooms, kitchen and bathroom, respectively. (b) Cross-sectional view at X-Y of Fig. lea) showing location of window and the door respectively.


the house is in steady state condition; one dimensional heat propagation due to conduction has been considered; there is continuity in temperature and the flux at interface; the heat lost to the floor has been considered in a steady state condition, and the numerical computations have been carried out for clear climatic conditions, etc. The solar radiation, after reflection from the exposed surface of the roof and the walls, is absorbed by the roof and the wall. The absorbed solar radiation is transferred inside the room by conduction. In order to find the rate of heat conduction inside the room, the following one dimensional heat conduction equation is solved: K 02T

sides of above equation and after algebraic simplification one gets,
T;(x, t)



+ B, +

I IC"i exp (fJp,x) ,.=


+ D",. exp (where
fJp. "" Ai' Bi'

fJ;nX)] exp (inwt)


nwpc.Jli1 -_.1_,

(I +i)

CO) and D'lj are constants and can be determined by using the energy balance equations for each case by separating real and imaginary part, here j refers to the roof for the jlh layer.




er. at


ROOF Normal roof (Fig. 2(a»

In a steady-state condition, the solution of equation (I) can be expressed as
TAx, I)


L t; exp (inwt),


The energy balance equation at x = 0 (Fig. 2(a» for the surface exposed to the solar radiation and external environment is
- K OT \





= Ct.1(t)- (h,. +h,)(Tllx~o

- T,,) -eAR (3)

After substituting equation (2a) in equation (I) and equating time independent and dependent parts of both

;: ho(7~~, Tdx~o) -


G. N. Tiwari et al.



I ~l


-*-, ,


Wa~r tUmj9unny bogs

, -*, ,
Roof gorden.

Grass Soihwater



..;:0. !"..~~):..: !::~..;.,~~~~;;, ;ili. :·b.r.f"~~12- M;J x

(01 Normal


(b) Water film/spray/gunny





r.c.c. inverted beam



Cross so:ction of moving wat" loyu over tho: roet.


MovQbt~ conVQs.

Fig. 2. Cross-sectional view of the roof with different treatment. (a) Normal roof consists of layers of concrete. mud phuska and brick. (b) Water film/spray/gunny bag (special case of (dl), (c) Roof garden over the normal roof. (d) Cross-section of moving water film over the normal roof. (e) Movable canvas d uring sun shine hours.

where h; = h, + h., h, 11, denotes the heat transfer coefficent by convection and radiation from surface to outside environment and etJ.R denotes the amount of net long wavelength radiation exchange with the sky, and
T". = --,;-;: T" +

hi .. =



1.·.1 +O.664(Pr)






q, 4,.


h,.(T". - T,),
•.) - P(T,,)' r],

is known as solar temperature.
Water film (Figs 2(b) and 2(c))

= O.OI3h,IP(T

IIr = C •.[(T".

+ 273.15)4

- (T,.

+ 261.15)4)/(T.

- T,,),

The reduction of the heat flux entering into the room through the roof by utilizing the evaporation of the water over the roof surfaces is a highly effective approach; this can be achieved by an open roof pond or thin film or flow of water or by a roof garden. A roof garden is essentially an evaporative cooling system except that it requires a layer of soil on the roof for grass and other vegetation to grow. A general formulation of the water evaporative COOling has been presented; the water film, open roof pond, moving water and roof garden are special cases of this analysis, 19). The energy balance equation for the flowing water layer over the roof of thickness d (Fig. 2(d» is given by

where L" is the characteristic length of the roof. In a normal operating temperature range, the saturation vapour pressures at water and ambient air temperature can be expressed as, Nayak et al. 110,

where RI and R2 are the two constants which can be obtained from the steam table by using the least square curve fitting, Further equation (5) can be rewritten as MaT,

er; (bd P..C". at + m. •.C. aT".) dy ay
= [IXI(r)-qr-q,

.C'·-J"i· +mkC"."bY



= bH (T,,,-T •. )


+ bh, ..(Tllx~
... ·(Tdx~o-T".»)dy·b (5)






A Comparison of Passive Cooling Techniques


where b., bn, U and U" are constants and can be evaluated by using the Fourier analysis techniques, {12].
H' = h,+h"+RoR,,

= h,+h,+rRoRI•

n, = 0.0 13h"
M" = bdp.,C". Mocable shading (Fig. 2(e»

CONTINUITY OF TEMPERA TITRE AND FLUX AT INTERFACES At the interfaces x = Xi and x = xi+ and heat flux must be continuous, i.e.

the temperature

Tix, t)1.,~-" = T(x, 1)lx= \"


Another method to reduce the incoming heat flux inside room due to incident solar radiation is the use of movable canvas as shown in (Fig. 2(e).) In this case, the canvas is placed over the roof during the day time and it is removed during the night time. During the day time, the canvas acts as an insulation which does not allow the incident solar radiation to enter inside the room due to the shading over the roof as well as poor thermal conductivity of the canvas. In the night time, there is reverse heat loss from inside room to ambient/sky due to temperature difference in the absence of the canvas. In order to estimate the rate of heat flux entering inside the room, the energy balance equation for (Fig. 2(e» can be written as


where j and j + I refer to the interface between jth and U + I)th layer of the roof and the walls. The surfaces in contact with room air At the surface which is in contact with the inside room air temperature, the rate of heat flux entering the room can be written as (13)

!1.1(t) gAR T~,(t) = UU) + T,,(I) - U(t)'

In the present case, two types of walls namely solid and cavity walls have been considered for the evaluation of an enclosed room air tempera ture. The energy balance for the exposed surface and the surface which is in contact with room air can be written as
Solid wall. (Fig. 3(a).)

In this case as


will be periodic and can be expanded


= bo




boo exp ( - inwt).


Qww = K.-~--'. = h,(T,- TR) t.. .....'"j x __

Further, the heat loss coefficient Vet) has one value during the day and another value during the night due to movable canvas and hence it can also be expressed as
Vet) = Uo+




. o;

exp (inwt)


Cavity wall. (Fig. 3(b).) In this case, there will be an additional energy balance equation in comparison with solid wall which can be written as





Fig. 3. Schematic representation of proposed configuration of walls (a) solid wall and (b) air cavity walL


G. N. Tiwari et al.

- s; iiT,! ~ vX


C,(T.I,=x, - T,+



Glass windows The rate of heat flux entering inside the room through a glass window can be written as


s.; o~~:1,="

QG =

(fi(l)f., - U~(TR - T,,): during sunshine hours

whereas C, is the air conductance of cavity provided in the walls (i] refers to east, west, north and south wall. f, is a term signifying sunshading, i.e. /, I no shading and .f. = 0 means 100% shading, 1,(1) is the radiation on ith wall and can be evaluated by Liu and Jordon formula, Duffie and Beckman [16] and Fig. 4.

= U"(TR-

T,,): (I 7)


during off sunshine hours,

whereas j', is a factor which determines that a curtain has been used or not. In the case of curtain, [; = 0.15 otherwise [; = I.












\ \


----\ \

Seomradiotion Oiffu~erodiotiol'l















, \ \



\ \




12 NOON lime(hr)-








X ....
~ 10 iii

e ~ " e ..
E !!





25 E 20 25






Fig. 4. (a) Hourly variation of beam and diffuse radiation on the horizontal surface for a typical summer day in Delhi (16 May [981). (b) Hourly variation of ambient air temperature and the heat transfer coefficient in the case of movable canvas.

A Comparison of Passive Cooling Techniques


The rate of heat transferred through the door material from inside the room to outside or vice-versa is given by
(18) Floor of the house

Now, the energy balance equation for an enclosed room air temperature can be written as: (the rate of heat flux gained from the roof, the different walls, the windows and the doors]
= M"C"

dT d/

In this case, the heat conducted through the floor of the house is determined in a steady state condition. If the floor is constructed with various layers of different material for water proofing, then the rate of heat transferred to ground can be estimated as

+ [the rate of heat

lost to the floor, isothermal mass]

+ [the rate of heat carried away due to ventilation/
(22) Since the ra te of heat flux entering the room is periodic in nature due to periodical behaviour of solar intensity and ambient air temperature and hence the room air temperature can also be written as:






where 7;, is the temperature inside ground and





T fI.,j exp (inwt)



Isothermal mass

In a residential house, the amount of furniture, public utility, and kitchen material, etc. depends upon the number of occupants which introduces the concept of isothermal mass. In this case, a fraction of energy is stored by isothermal mass and the fluctuations in temperature inside the room can be minimized. This provides a reasonable thermal comfort index throughout a complete cycle. The energy balances can be written for isothermal mass as
(20) Ventilation/ infiltrat ion

where TRd and TRn can be obtained from the time independent and time dependent parts of equation (22). Equation (22) has been first solved by neglecting the effect of isothermal mass and it was observed that the heat capacity of enclosed air can be neglected in comparison to the heat capacity of isothermal mass. For simplification, an isothermal mass has been considered as equivalent to water mass due to its large heat capacity.

THERMAL LOAD LEVELLING The thermal load levelling (TLL) for a non-air conditioned room is defined as

The value of TLL should be minimum for best load levelling along with reduced TR",u and TRm;n and the calculated values of TLL for different cases are given in Tables 3(a), (b) and (c).

The rates of thermal energy carried away from inside room of the house due to ventilation and infiltration are determined by the following expression, Shaviv and Shaviv [15],

Q,. = v" + V,(TR




NUMERICAL COMPUTATIONS and In order to have numerical computations for an enclosed room air temperature, equation (22) has been used. The numerical computations have been carried out for the following cases:

'1" = 0, without infiltration, i.e, the room enclosure is

(0 Normal roof with and without cavity wall,
(ii) Roof with water flow with air cavity wall.

air leak proof; > 0 with infiltration, i.e. there is a leakage of room air regularly; '1 = 0 without ventilation, i.e. the doors/windows are closed for blockage of room air to go out; > with ventilation, i.e. the room air is moving out through doors and windows whenever it is required to achieve thermal comfort. In the case of requirement of ventilation, the window should be opened for cross-ventilation and the excess thermal energy available inside room of the house will be carried away by the wind which will pass through the room.

(iii) Roof with shading with air cavity. (iv) Roof with movable canvas with air cavity. A separate computer program was developed for time dependent and independent part for cases (i-iii) which gives a matrix of the order of 13 x 13. In the case (iv), a matrix of the order of 26 x 26 was solved by considering the number of harmonics n = 6. Further. the thermal load levelling (TLL) has also been computed by using the maximum and minimum temperature of the enclosed room air temperature. The following physical properties of roof/walls component and heat transfer coefficients have been used for evaluating enclosed room air temperature.


G. N. Tiwari et al.
Table 3(a). The thermal load levelling (TLL) for normal roof Thermal load levelling (TLL) 0.211 0.198 0.220 0.215 0.[99 17.19

Serial number I 2

TRmiQ Different combinations of wall



sr :
T".,..,-TR""" 12.49 11.66 13.66 13.06 11.80 17.19


4 5 6

Wall with air gap (solid wall '" 0.11 m and air gap = 0.05 m) Wall with air gap (solid wall = 0.23 m and air gap = 0.05 m) Solid wall. 0.11 m Solid wall, 0.23 m Solid wall. 0.35 m Ambient air

23.41 23.4 24.24 23.84 23.76 27.41

35.90 35.06 37.90 36.90 35.56


Table 3(b). Thermal

load levelling (TLL) for different roof temperature Thermal load levelling (TLL) 0.213 0.210 0.219 0.205 0.214 0.220 0.223 0.226 0.222 0.225 0.227 0.224 0.225 0.226 0.227

Serial number

Different roof treatments 30% shaded roof 60% shaded roof 90% shaded roof Without movable canvas With movable canvas Water spray Water film Gunny bags Roof garden y = 0.1 Roof garden}' = 0.2 Roof garden l' = 0.5 No shading }' = 0.3 Shaded roof (30%) with water spray 60% shading with water film 90% shading with gunny bags

T 11m"




sr :

2 3 4 5

7 8

10 11 12 13 14 15

23.15 22.90 22.65 24.16 23.45 22.44 22.13 21.81 22.35 22.08 21.81 22.1 I 22.03 21.95 21.85

35.71 35.52 35.34 36.64 36.17 35.13 34.85 34.59 35.10 34.87 34.60 34.89 34.83 34.75 34.67

[2.56 12.62 12.69 12.48 12.72 12.69 12.72 12.78 12.75 12.79 t2.79 t2.78 12.80 12.80 12.82

Table 3(c). Effect of isothermal mass on thermal (TLL) Thermal load levelling (TLL) 0.230 0.226 0.217

load levelling

Normal roo/with/without shadinq h; = 22.78 W/ml T hi" = 5.7 to 8.00 W 1m 2 'C (heat
(for roof and walls)



Serial number I

Different isothermal mass 250 kg 500 kg 1000 kg


20.65 20.71 21.05


sr :
T 11m;,


T !1m;,

e = 0.9 AR = 61.11 W/m!.



33.01 32.90 32.72

12.36 12.19 [ 1.67

Roof with movable canvas


= 22.78

= 3.16 W 1m l "C (when canvas

W/m1 "C



is not used) is used)

Physical properties of roof/walls material, Singh (12]

hi" = 5.7 to 8.0 W/m! "C (heat flow downwards) AR = 61.11 W/m2 ''C e = 0,9.


water film! roo/garden

Mud Concrete Thermal conductivity (W/rn '"C) Density (kg/m ') Specific heat (JIkg"C) Thickness (m) 0.72 1858.0 655.2 0.15



0.52 2050.6 1840.0 0.10

Brick tiles 0.72 1922.4 837.4 0.05


hi" = 285.98 W/m!C f. = 6.0 m
r (relative humidity) = 0.1. 0.3, 0.5

R, R,
[000.0 4190.0 0.005

= 325.17 = -5154.89

N/ml "C

r = 3.5




t;t_f= 0.54 (for water film case)
= 0.6 (for roof garden

A Comparison of Passive Coaling Techniques


Thickness of wall : 0.11 m, 0.23 m, 0.35 m air gap = 0.05 m. The value of air conductance corresponding to 0.05 has been used for calculations and it is same for ali thickness of walls.

through windows, in the absence of solar radiation on the east and west walls. The effect of wall thickness with and without air cavity, roof shading effect, movable canvas, roof garden, shading effect with water film on thermal load levelling (TLL) for a non-airconditioned room have been given in Tables 3(a) and 3(b) respectively. It is inferred from these tables that: • the thermal load levelling is maximum for the solid walls and the normal roof (serial number 3 of Table 3(a» and it is lowered either in the case of air cavity walls or in the case of greater thickness of the solid walls; • the fluctuation of room air temperature (T, i.e. last column of Table 3(b)) for different roof treatments has also been reduced in comparison to room air temperature fluctuation (serial no. 3 of Table 3(a» with the solid walls and the normal roof; • the thermal load levelling in the case of any roof treatment is not significantly affected; • there is significant reduction in maximum (T Rnoa,) and minimum (Tllmin) room air temperature in the case of roof treatment with gunny bags (serial no. 8 of Table 3(b)), and; • the ratio of inside temperature swing to outside temperature swing for gunny bag is about 0.75 which is required condition for roof cooling. Further effect of isothermal mass on room air temperature and thermal load levelling (TLL) has been shown in Fig. 6 and Table 3(c) respectively. One can

Climatic data

The hourly variation of beam and diffuse radiation for a typical hot day of Delhi has been shown in Fig. 4(a). Figure 4(a) has been used to calculate solar radiations on different walls and inclined roof by using the Liu and Jordon Formula, {16J. The hourly variation of intensity and U value (in case of movable insulation) have been shown in Fig. 4(b). The coefficients of equation (10) have been evaluated by using this value of U from Fig. 4(b). The hourly variation of room air temperature with different roof treatment and with cavity wall has been shown in Fig. 5. It is observed that there is a sharp decrease in maximum and minimum room air temperature due to evaporation processes over the roof with gunny bags/water film. Further, there is a sharp increase in room air temperature between 0800-1000 hours. It is due to the fact that the solar intensity is maximum on the east wall during this period and is trapped inside. The room temperature also decreases due to thermal losses







Time (Ilf)_

Fig. S. Hourly variation of room temperature with different roof treatments namely: I solid wall with normal roof; II air cavity wall with canvas; and III air ca vity wall with gunny bags.


G. N. Tiwari et al.



.P 30 ,;

SOLiOWALL 0.11'"

§ 28






Fig, 6. Effect of isothermal mass on the hourly variation of room air temperature in the condition of normal roof and the solid wall.

observe that the thermal load levelling (TLL) is significantly decreased along with the reduction in the fluctuation (T) due to increase in isothermal mass. Further, the effect of ventilation has also been carried out through numerical computation and it was observed that there is an increase in room temperature because of higher ambient air temperature. Hence, the ventilation is only required if outside ambient air temperature is lower than room air temperature as expected.

CONCLUSIONS On the basis of numerical computations, the following conclusions have been drawn:
(i) the evaporative cooling is the best technique for

minimising heat flux through roof which can be obtained through roof garden, and (ii) the ventilation through window should be allowed only during night period, if required.

REFERENCFS I. 2_ 3. 4_

6_ 7_ 8. 9. 10.
[ I.


M. S. Sodha, N. K_ Bansal, P. K. Bansal, A. Kumar and M. A. S. Malik, Solar Passim? Buildinl{ _Science and Design, Vol. 2. Pergamon Press International Series on Building Engineering, Oxford (1986). S. C. Kaushik, G. N. Tiwari and 1. K. Nayak, Thermal control in passiee solar buildin.q. Goo Environ. Academic. Jodhpur. India (1988). F. Trombe, Maisous-Solaries, Techniques de Ingenieur, 3, C, 777. Underground Space Centre, Report from Univ. of Minnesota (1978). T. 1, Maloney and V. Habib, Design, fabrication and testing of marketable waterwall components, DOE report DES-5171-2 (1979). R. Fuchs and 1. F. MI;Clelland. Passive solar heating using a transwall structure, Solar Energy 23, 123-128 (1971). M. S. Sodha, J. K. Nayak, N. K. Bansal and I. C. Goyal. Thermal performance of solarium with a removable insulation, Bld_qEnoir. n 23-32 (1982). G. N. Tiwari, M. Upadhyay and S. N. Rai, A relative thermal performance of winter south wall, Energy and Bldg. 17,313 (1991). G. N_ Tiwari, Design of a non-aircondiuoned passive solar house for the cold climate of Srinagar, Bldg Enoir. 26,371-380 (1991). G, N_ Tiwari, A. Kumar and M. S_ Sodha, Cooling by water evaporation over the roof, Enerqy Conversion and Management, 22, 143 (1982). M_ S. Sodha, U. Singh, A. Srivastava and G. N. Tiwari, Experimental validation of thermal model of open roof pond, Bldg Enoir. 16,93 (1981). 1. K. Nayak, A_ Srivastava, U. S. Singh and M. S. Sodha, The relative performance of different approaches to the passive cooling of roof, Bldg Enoir. 17, 145 (1982). U, Singh, Analysis of Some Solar Passive Concepts, Ph.D_ thesis, C.E.S .. I.I.T. Delhi. New Delhi, India (1982).

A Comparison of Passive Cooling Techniques
13. S. P. Singh, A Study of Earth Coupled and Evaporative Passive Cooling Systems, Ph.D. Thesis, c.E.S., I.LT. Delhi, New Delhi, India (1987). 14. A. Srivastava, J. K. Nayak, G. N. Tiwari and M. S. Sodha, Design and thermal performance of a passive cooled building for the semiarid climate of India, E"ergy and Bldg. 6, 3-13 ([984). [5. E. Shaviv and G. Shaviv, A model for predicting thermal performance of buildings, Architectural Science and Design Methods, Working Paper, ASDM-8 (1979). 16. J. A. Duffie and W. A. Beckman, Solar Thermal Engineering Process, Wiley. New York (1980).


ME 29:1-C

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