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Manual Therapy Project

Manual Therapy Project

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Published by Afroditi Kyr

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Published by: Afroditi Kyr on Sep 20, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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James Mennell was awarded the Golden Keys with Life membership in the

American Congress of Physical Medicine and in the American Physical Therapy

Association in 1949. He is believed to be the first to use the term “manual therapy”--


which he chose for the title of his book. He addressed the topics of massage, passive

movement, assisted movement, resisted movement, and joint manipulation.4

Geoffrey Maitland of Australia published Vertebral Manipulation, in which he

refined the art of oscillatory manipulation. He concentrated it on the treatment of what

he called reproducible signs. His approach was to identify either an active or passive

movement that was painful, to oscillate that joint, and to test again. By process of

elimination, Maitland treated the painful joint with what he hypothesized would be the

next most likely to succeed until relief was found. Maitland’s two books, Peripheral

Manipulation and Vertebral Manipulation, detail the method.4

In 1969, a physical therapist named McCaleb published “An Introduction to

Spinal Manipulation” in Physical Therapy. He wrote on the concepts of joint play and

stated that manipulation was helpful for joint dysfunction. He described the latter as a

“...partial absence or total absence of joint movement, called a joint lock.” 6

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