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1.

BEP (Units) =

F S _V

2. BEP (In Rs.) =

F V 1 S

Fixed Exp = 5 MS (Margin of Safety) Variable Exp = 5 ----------------------Total Cost = 10 NPNL (No Profit No Loss) Profit = 2 ----------------------Sale Price = 12

3. TO EARN REQUIRED SALES a. SALES (In Units) =

F+ P S V

b. SALES (In Rs) 4. MS = SALES BEP

F+ P V = 1 S

BEP =Break Even Point F = Fixed Expenses S = Selling Price V = Variable Expense P = Profit PVR = Profit Volume Ratio MS = Margin of Safety

O R P = M S PVR

5. PVR =

S V 100 S

6. PVR = Changes In Sales 100 7. SALES = 8. BEP =


F +P PVR

Changes

In Pr ofit

F PVR