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i i l I I I i I

I I I I I I I I i



I I i 1 1 i i i 1 I I i I l
Translated by

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of Lock titles can be at the end Jound of each volume




V* o

HERODOTUS the grc-at Greek historian was born about 484 B.C., at Halicarnassus in Caria, Asia Minor, when it was





widely in most of Asia Minor, Egypt
far as Assuan),


Africa, Syria, the

country north of the Black Sea, and many parts of the Aegean Sea and the mainland of Greece. He lived, it seems, for some

time in Athens, and in 443 went with other colonists to the new city Thurii (in South Italy) where he died about 430 B.C. He was 'the prose correlative of the bard, a narrator of the deeds of real men, and a
describer of foreign places' (Murray). His famous history of warfare between the

Greeks and






dignity which delightful style. It includes the rise of the Persian power

enhances his

and an account of the Persian empire the description of Egypt fills one book;

because Darius attacked Scythia, the geography and customs of that land are also given even in the later books on the

attacks of the Persians against Greece there are digressions. All is most entertaining o o

and produces a grand unity. After personal inquiry and study of hearsay and other evidence, Herodotus gives us a not uncritical estimate of the best that he could



A- Co.




E. H.



fT. E.


L. A.

fW. H. D. ROUSE,







1961. 1946.First printed 1925 Reprinted 1930. 1969 Printed in Great Britain .



. Ch. 24-33. Themistocles' attempt to tamper with the lonians . Visit of Persian sailors to the field of Feuds of Thermopylae. Abandonment of Attica by the Athenians the Greek fleet at Salamis. Retreat of the Greeks. 40-48. Ch. The Greek fleet at Artemisium question of supreme command bribery of Themistocles by the Euboeans. 1-5. Ch. Ch. 18-23. Greek council of war Persian invasion of Attica and occupation of Athens.INTRODUCTION THE following is a brief analysis of the contents of Books VIII and IX. Thessalians and Phocians Persian advance through Phocis (27-33). . Ch. first . Persian march through Boeotia. Effect of the storm on the rest of the Persian fleet . Second battle off Artemisium. VIII . encounter between the two fleets. Olympic festival (26). Ch. based on the summary in Stein's edition : BOOK . Ch. 15-17. 6-14. Persian occupation of Euboea. 34-39. and its destruction by a storm. and unsuccessful attempt upon Delphi. Ch. 49-55. vii . Despatch of a Persian squadron to sail round Euboea.

Greek division of spoil and assignment of honours . Ch. 100-102. Ch. Ch. Persian fleet at Phalerum given by Artemisia in a council of war. Battle of Salamis. . Announcement . by Themistocles' advice. and demands made by Themistocles on various islands. Incidents in Xerxes' retreat. Ch. 112. 113. Greek and Persian fleets at Aegina and Samos respectively (spring of 479). Leutychides' command. Story of the revenge of Hermotimus. Ch. 114-120. his message to Xerxes. 97-99. Ch. 130-132. 121-125. Themistocles' message to Xerxes. advice Ch. 56-64. 66-69. Ch. and Persian pel them movement to encircle the Greeks. Message to the Greeks from the lonians. 74-82. Artabazus' capture of Olynthus and siege of Potidaea. Ch. Flight of Persian fleet. Xerxes' intention to retreat. Themistocles' reception at Sparta. news at Susa of the capture of Athens and the battle of Salamis.INTRODUCTION Ch. 83-96. Siege of Andros. Digression on the various Peloponnesian nationalities. Ch. Mardonius' selection of his army. Salamis. 103-106. Dicaeus' vision near Eleusis. 70-73. Greek design to withdraw the fleet to Decision to remain at the Isthmus of Corinth. viii . Ch. Ch. 126-129. and Greek pursuit as far as Andros . of this by Aristides. 65. Ch. Ill. Ch. Advice given to Xerxes by Mardonius and Artemisia. during the winter. Greek fortification of the Isthmus. 107-110. Unwillingness of the Peloponnesians Themistocles' design to comto remain at Salamis. Ch.

Persian attack on a Greek convoy Mardonius' council of war and determination to . 33-37. The Greeks at Erythrae repulse of Persian cavalry attack. Alexander's warning to the Athenians attempted change of Greek and Persian formation Mardonius' challenge to the Spartans. Mardonius' consultation of Greek Ch. Argive warning to Mardonius. Ch. march to Megara and withdrawal thence to Boeotia. 140-144. Ch. ix . 26-27. 44-51. Battle array of Greek and Persian the two Stories of the diviners in Ch. 136-139. his 611. 16-18. 1-5. Ch. Rival claim of Tegeans and Athenians for the post of honour. armies. 19-25. Ch. Ch. and Mardonius' test of a Phocian contingent. and death of its leader . Ch. Athenian answer to both. BOOK IX . 38-43. Ch. Ch. Ch. Mission to Athens of Alexander of origin of his dynasty. . fight. and retreat of Greeks to a new position. . . armies. 28-32. 133-135. 1215. Story of a banquet at Thebes. oracles. Ch. his fresh proposals troops Hesitation of the Spartans to send eventual appeals made by the Athenians despatch of a force. Greek change of position.INTRODUCTION Ch. . Macedonia . Speeches at Athens of Alexander and the Spartan envoys . . Mardonius in Attica to the Athenians.

Siege of Thebes and punishment of Theban leaders retreat of Artabazus. Ch. and Greek victory there. . Ch. 108-113. Ch. Story of the diviner Euenius. 107. Ch. 86-89. 90-95. Herodotus describes the preliminaries of Salamis. Cyrus' advice to the Persians to prefer hardship to comfort.INTRODUCTION Ch. Movements preliminary to the battle of Mycale. In the eighth and ninth books the central subjects are the battles of Salamis and Plataea respectively. . Story of Xerxes' adultery and cruelty. 96105. and the fate of his brother Masistes. Ch. Ch. Amompharetus' refusal to change his ground. Ch. . and his execution. Ch. Ch. 58-65. Assault and capture of the Persian fortified camp. fighters. Greek division of the spoil and burial of the dead. Pausanias' reception of the Coan female suppliant the Mantineans and Eleans after the battle Lampon's proposal to Pausanias and . 66-69. initial success of Spartans and Tegeans. 70-75. sacrilege of Artayctes. Ch. Flight of the Greek centre . 114-121. Battle of Plataea . . 52-57. Greek deliberation at Samos quarrel between Persian leaders. Ch. . Envoys from Samos with the Greek fleet. Flight of Artabazus Athenian success against the Boeotians disaster to part of the Greek army. 122. 106. his reply. 80-85. 76-79. Capture of Sestus by the Greeks. Ch. Distinctions of various Greek .

He said to sin against the laws of probability. times it is dillicult to reconcile his story with the geography. During the two night. could not have closed the two entrances of the straits without the knowledge of the Greeks . he is sea flight at Salamis. it is alleged. This account is questioned by the learned. the Greeks Salamis. if not facts of . who allows generals and credit armies to disregard known rules of war. because (it is alleged) the Persians. facing them. Sometimes. a differs from play xi . mainly on two grounds firstly. As to the battle of Salamis. the Greeks eastern wing being near Munychia being at Salamis. with much detail Somehas given rise to a good deal of controversy. Aeschylus. is plainly and at best the dupe of camp gossip. fleet. of the following day. in the Persae. a mere translator has no desire to add greatly to the literature of controBut it is worth while to review Herodotus' versy. secondly. animated by partiality or even malice. . because Herodotus' narrative that given by Aeschylus. opposite to and rather less than a mile distant from Xerxes' ships.INTRODUCTION and both the operations prior to . rowed out and made a frontal attack on the Persians . On the day before the battle. makes generals and armies do things which are and this is alleged to detract from his surprising for a historian. lay along the coast of Attica. Persian ships were detached to close the entrances of the straits between the mainland and At dawn. Plataea and the and his narrative actual battle. suspect. . if they originally lay along the Attic coast. the Persian its apparently. he is contradicted by the only other real authority for the More often. account.

would eventually be able to reconcile the For Aeschylus nohistorian with the tragedian.INTRODUCTION produced only eight years after the battle. How Greeks sailed out to attack them. be not too much to ask) an a priori desire to catch Herodotus tripping. As to the first objection. manner of telling the story certainly differs from that of Herodotus but the facts which he relates appear to be the same and in all humility I cannot but suggest that if commentators would re-read their c)o : . or their main body. that Herodotus and Aeschylus do not agree. Aeschylus does not say that some time His expression is $oo>s 8e Travres rjtrav elapsed. Herodotus and their Aeschylus in (if without this eKc^ai/ei? ku/ "quickly they were all plain to view. and that Aeschylus must be held the better authority. and not a despatch. the Persian manoeuvre was executed in darkness. it still remains to be shown in what the alleged It is a fact which appears to discrepancy consists. where contradicts what is apparently the view of Herodotus. at least. not modern battleships it is surely not incredible that the Greeks should have been unaware of its full As to the second ground of criticism." xii . execution. some of them. lay along the Attic coast opposite Salamis when the Messrs. that the Persians. according to Aeschylus. because. : parallel columns. and by small vessels. and the strait is only one thousand five hundred yards wide. But as a matter of fact. and Wells (quos honoris causa nomino) say that this was probably not so. escape the observation of the learned that Aeschylus His is writing a poetic drama. " some time " elapsed before the Persians could see the Greek advance.

apparently. the Persians. scholars have given themselves a fairly free hand to reconstruct the operations before Plataea as they must have hapunless indeed " someone had only real authority brings the public any nearer to xin . according to the historian's equally plain statement. persons whose business it is to see that nothing unusual happens in the locality) promptly dismiss as "camp gossip. and hardly then if its acceptance implies Herodotus' Reveracity construction of history is an amusing game. like most descriptions of battles. what with haps rather surprising . incidents which some M. we must presume (though meritorious efforts are made to explain the statement away) that Herodotus means what he says when he asserts in Ch. where it is played with distinguished success yet one may still doubt whether rejection of what after all is our . Hence there are real obscurities and the narrative is not without picturesque arid perdonius' . obscurity and camp gossip. the details are not always easy to understand and it must be confessed that there are gaps in the story. and has its uses. For instance. especially in places of education. It is full of detail but as some of the localities mentioned cannot be quite certainly identified. Asopus yet soon afterwards they are." Altogether. were then on the right bank of the therefore. ought only to be accepted in the very last resort. . commentators blundered. About's (being rather like gendarme. 15 that Mardonius' army occupied the " " ground from Erythrae past Hysiae . . on the left bank.INTRODUCTION Herodotus' narrative of the manoeuvres of Marand Pausanias' armies near Plataea is. ." pened an hypothesis which. not always very clear.

he was enough to do ample justice to her achievements but if he is to be charged with undue and unjust partiality. as elsewhere in his history. historian is to be discredited where his narrative does not accord with what is antecedently probable. and from what we know. from the circumstances of the case. disagrees with the character of either people. of a pro-Athenian bias which leads him to falsify history by exaggerating the merit of Athens at the expense of other states. tacticians .C. . generally.. Herodotus lived for some time at Athens. B. aliunde. . However. popular since Plutarch. Scholars who criticise Herodotus on grounds of probability If a ought to be guided by their own canon. are and unreasonable incidents battles lost and won do occur. especially Now we may readily believe that if Sparta. were an exceptheir record is not precisely the tional people known Pace the socialistic . about those two states. it is fair to say that most of the reconstruction of Salamis and Plataea was done before August. then be shown that the conduct which he it must attributes to Athens and to Sparta is somehow not consistent with what one would naturally expect. the Athenians of the fifth century. then he must be allowed to gain credit where antecedent probability is on his side and there is nothing in Herodotus' account of Athenian and Spartan actions during the campaigns of 480 and 479 which willing . Strategists and do make mistakes thus. Herodotus' authority is much impaired by the presumption. conception of an unrelieved similarity among all states and individuals.INTRODUCTION knowing what did actually happen. 1914. and consequent falsification. But here. xiv .

xv . This meant. as they . . the salvation of Hellas primary purpose of both Sparta and Athens. The spirit of the Hellenic world is general. . This policy was and thereby. the abandonment of Salamis meant the exposure of their decessfully. than in any other Greek state. chance of saving or recovering Attica lay in fighting a naval action close to its coasts nay. intense fear and hatred of was more Oriental absolutism and strange worships. . pendents to fresh dangers therefore. and as yet unaccustomed to naval warfare it seemed that Sparta could be best defended by blocking the land access to the Peloponnese they would defend the Isthmus suc. Sparta also had her share of these qualities she too would make no terms with the Persian only her methods of resistance were different. . probably. its own safety. . that they were more gifted. than most. . alive among the Athenians. intense local patriotism.INTRODUCTION record of Boeotia or Arcadia it seems fair to say. each state was interested in . of course. they pressed for the policy of meeting and defeating the Persian where he lay by the Attic coast. To Spartans disinclined to methods other than traditional. Primarily. the sacrifice and naturally that was a sacrifice not of Attica Their only to be made willingly by Athenians. both before Salamis and before Plataea (when the Athenians were naturally displeased by a plan which left Attica a prey to the enemy) was undoubtedly to do the best they could for themselves. had tried and failed to defend Thermopylae. the Athenians to prove successful incidentally accomplished what was undoubtedly but the also their object. without appealing to Herodotus' testimony. and more enterprising.

in fact. is treated with a severity which It is true even appears to be rather gratuitous. xvi . I believe. No Spartan could conceivably have been dissatisfied with the chapters on Thermopylae. as of most others in the history of the world and as the actions of both Athens and Sparta w ere the natural outcome of that desire. or of unduly dis. that nobody believes the story outside Attica. Sparta receives full measure from Herodotus. in his candid way. the glory of winning " the greatest victory ever won" is definitely given to the Spartan commanderOn the other hand Themistocles. it was the Spartans and Tegeans who in Herodotus' story were the real heroes of the day. was always the desire of all Greek states. the in-chief. r paraging the Spartans when he describes their delays and hesitations before their march to Boeotia." a fact which has not. "medized. Plataea is represented as a Spartan victory. it must be shown that Herodotus is prone to deny credit to the great rival of Athens.INTRODUCTION This. been denied. that Herodotus does not take pains to praise two other Greek states which at various times were at He tells us that the Thebans feud with Athens. even by Plutarch . But there is no evidence of that. it is difficult to see what else he could have said. The hypothesis of Herodotus' "obvious pro. there is no need to suspect Herodotus of unduly favouring the Athenians when he credits them with the plans which led to victory. typical Athenian. he reports a damaging story about the Corinthians and their but failure to take part in the action of Salamis he adds. True. If the charge of an excessively pro-Athenian bias is to be sustained.

But the the history of the war comes to an end. Greek temples from sacrilege. Cyrus the great protagonist of the drama is called before the curtain to speak . where for the first time a Persian army was defeated by a Greek within the boundaries of the Persian empire. be supposed to ask) that nerved most of the Greeks to resist Darius' and Xerxes' powerful armaments? The answer is plain it was fear of the caprice and cruelty of Oriental despots. part and parcel of the narrative. chapter of the book. . hangs by the Hellespontian shore. so perish all who lay impious The story is now on the religion of Hellas The play is played and in the last complete. at the begin[Besides the authorities enumerated ning of Vol. I of this translation. its epilogue. the defiler of temples.INTRODUCTION Athenian bias" readers is one which is bound to appeal to are laudably afraid of being led away hero-worship . The methods of Persian absolutism are vividly portrayed in the gruesome story of Xerxes' love and Masistes' death and the crucified body of Artayctes. they are congruous with the whole. but it has one fault it lacks who by evidence. With the crowning victory of Mycale. as a warning to all sacrihands legious invaders . chapters which conclude Book IX are no anticlimax . and desire to protect . ! . . the following xvii . and as striking an example of Herodotus' supreme art as any passage What was it after all (a reader might in his history. These concluding chapters illustrate and justify the Greek temper. overlooking the scene of Xerxes' proudest achievement and display. .

75 xvm . xxii. 144-65. pp. Munro. B.J Studies of Classical Philology. The Great Persian War. 1906. 323-32 and xxiv. A. Journal of Hellenic Studies. J. Goodwin.INTRODUCTION sources are recommended to the students of the : campaigns of Salamis and Plataea G. R. Harvard ff. Grundy. Prof.


opiv@ioi Tea-aepd/covra veas ' ' e'o^re? <?vve rTr\r)povv Meyapees eLKocri. Be e'l/coa-i. BniKoaiai Kal eftBojMJKOvra Kal rov Be o-rparrjyov rov TO f^eyicrrov Kpdro? ^TraprLijrai l&vpvfiidBrjv /j.AoKpol Be acfri ol 'OrrovvrioL e7re/3or'}9eov 2. Kal XaX/ciS 'AOrjvaiwv crfyt Trape^ovTcov Ta? Be OKTWKaiBeKa. 'RiriBavpioi Be O o/ / ' rp 1 poify^vioi oe Trevre. Be BvoKauoe eTrra. AaKeSaifiovioi Be BeKa.HPOAOTOY I2TOPIAI 1. T6 /cal TTpoOvfjLir]^ IIXaTatee? aireipoi TT)? rolcn KOriva'ioiai ra? Be K.tot Bvo re veas Kal TrevrrjKOvrepovs Bvo. 'AOrjvaloi {iev z/ea? 7rape%6efcarbv Kal eiKo<ri teal ejrrd' vrco Be dperr)<$ fjievot. 5J\ f . 5>\ v i Be Bvo. . *Hcrai' /Jiev Lpr}Tai Be ' OVTOL ol (rrparevofAevoi tV fJLOL Kal &)? TO 7r\f)0o<5 vewv TrapeL^ovTO. Ol Be *EXX?^&)^ e? rov vavriKov errpar OP ra*)(0evres rjcrav olBe. Kal K?. rrdpe^ rcov Kovrepwv.ia. ^LiKvivviot. dpiQ/uos Be TWV <j6wv vewv eV 'A premier IQV TIV.

admiral who had the chief command was of the 2. not that they had any knowledge of seamanship. . the Lacedaemonians ten. and the Megarians twenty and the Chalcidians manned twenty. and the Ceans two. . but of mere valour and zeal. These were they who came to Artemisium for and I have now shown how they severally furnished the whole sum. the Athenians furnishing the ships . battle . son of Euryclides . the Epidaurians eight. Eurybiades. and two fifty-oared barks and the Opuntian Locrians brought seven fifty-oared barks to their aid. the Sicyonians twelve. The number of ships that mustered at Artemisium was two hundred and But the seventy one. the Eretrians seven. Spartans' providing. the Troezenians five. besides the fifty-oared barks. .HERODOTUS BOOK : VIII to serve in the fleet 1. the Aeginetans eighteen. THE Greeks appointed were these the Athenians furnished a hundred and twenty . the Styrians two. The Corinthians furnished forty ships.seven ships the Plataeans manned these ships with the Athenians. 3 .

HERODOTUS ol yap ^ (rv/jL/jia^oi. Tore Be ovrot ol Kal ft)? eV 'Apre/jLLcriov 'EX- \^vwv diTLKOfjievoL eiSoj^ z^ea? %0ei(ras e? ra? 'A^era? /ral 7T\ea. d\\d \vcreiv TO /teXXoy ecrecrOai o-rpdrev/jia. rjv /^rj 6 Ad/cwv f)je/j. EiVpuftido'ea) avrol TGKva 6' ot>/c Trpoa/jLelvai ^povov o\ijov. ecrr' re Kal TOL/? otVera? vTreKOewvrat. co? TO vavriKOV AOifvaioLO'L xpebv eh} eirnpaTreiv. \Ljevero jap KCLT e? ^Lffe\it]i> TrefJiTTeiV '' ' (jiiiGOvai Trepl TJ}? TjyefjLovirjs. op9a voevvres' crracrt? jap e/ TOUOVTW KUKIOV ecnl OCTM MV avro rovro 1 O(TOV OVK dvrereivov aX\' el/cov. eVft) re TroXXa? KaraarpaTL?)^ airai'Ta row cr^ea? o/ yvovTes Be Ey/9oe? raura /3ouXeuo cte^oL'? eSeovro e? / T^ 'EXXaSa. 'EXXa?.ovevr).C.O'rjvaioia'i etyea-Qai ^yeo/JLevoidi. el crrafj. fjiev vcrTepov ejevero. Kapra e8eovro aviMV. ft)? avrol KareBo/ceov.a'^i^v. avriftavrcov 5e TWV (TV/jifjLd")(wv el/fop ol 'A0Tjvaioi fjueya Treiroir)EXXaSa Kal yvomes. a>? aTroXe'erat r.ai'a Bap/Bdpcov dire/Saive r. dp%as Xoyo?. " l at co? ybv eireidov.tvoi Trepieivai rrjv 3. eVel avTolcn irapa $6%av rd Trptjj/j. ^P rrjv Tlavcraviea) ^je^LOvLriv vftpiv 7rpo'io"%6/jLevoi TTJV TOU? d\\a ravra 4. a>? BieSej.av co? 7a/) 77 wcrdf^evoi rov Hepcnjv Trepl T/}? eiceLvov ifirj TOV djtova eiroLevvro. OVK efyacrav. 4 . 'A. irplv rj Kal eVl av^ii. /^era/Saz'Te? rot' A6r]vaiwv cnparrjTTeiBovcri fyefiL<noK\ea eVt 1 After the capture of Byzantium in 476 B.

and seeing that if they quarrelled wherein over the leadership Hellas must perish . later. before the sending to there. For in the that if the Laconiaii were not would rather make an end of the preparing than be led by the first Sicily for days. for civil strife is as much worse than united war as war is worse than peace. they judged rightly. Knowing that. and armaments everywhere. the Athenians waived their claim. the Greeks who had at last come to Artemisium saw a multitude of ships launched at Aplietae. and gave Themistocles. and contrary to all expectation the foreigner was shown to be in far other case than they had supposed wherefore they lost heart and began to take counsel for flight Then from Artemisium homewards into Hellas. there had been talk of entrusting the command at sea to the Athenians. seeing them to be thus planning. their leader they fleet that was Athenians. 2-4 the allies said. as was shown for when they had driven the Persian back and the battle was no longer for their territory but for his. But now. they made a pretext of Pausanias' highhandedness and took the command away from the Lacedaemonians. the Athenian admiral. a bribe of . 3. But when they could not prevail with him.BOOK for VIII. . they essayed another way. 1 4. alliance But when the allies withstood this. But all that befel . the Euboeans. but only so long as they had great need of the others. they gave ground and waived their claim. deeming the safety of Hellas of prime moment. till they themselves should have brought away their children and households. entreated Eurybiades to wait a little while.






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thirty talents

VIII. 4-6

on the condition that the Greek fleet should remain there and fight, when they fought, to defend Euboea. 5. This was the way whereby Themistocles made he gave the Greeks to stay where they were Eurybiades for his share five talents of that money, as though it were of his own that he gave it. Eurybiades being thus won over, none of the rest was of a resisting temper save only Adimantus, son of Ocytus, the Corinthian admiral, who said that he would not remain but sail away from Artemisium to him said Themistocles, adding an oath thereto "Nay, you of all men will not desert us; for I will give you a greater gift than the king of the Medes



would send you for deserting your allies"; and with that saying he sent withal three talents of So these two were won silver to Adimantus' ship. over by gifts, the Euboeans got their desire, and Themistocles himself was the gainer he kept the rest of the money, none knowing, but they that had received a part of it supposing that it had been sent for that intent by the Athenians. 6. So the Greeks abode off Euboea and there fought and it came about as I shall show. Having arrived at Aphetae in the early part of the afternoon, the foreigners saw for themselves the few Greek ships that they had already heard were

might take them. Now they yet minded to make an onfall front to front, for fear lest the Greeks should see them coming and take to flight, and night close upon them as they fled it was their belief that the Greeks would save themselves by flight, and by the
attack, that so they

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VIII. 6-8

Persian purpose not so much as a firebearer 1 of them must be saved alive. 7. Wherefore this was the plan that they devised. Separating two hundred ships from the whole number, they sent them to cruise outside Sciathus (that so the enemies might not see them sailing round Euboea) and by way of Caphereus round Geraestus to the Euripus, so that they might catch the Greeks between them, the one part holding that course and barring the retreat, and they themThus planning, they sent selves attacking in front.

the appointed ships on their way, purposing for themselves to make no attack upon the Greeks that day, nor before the signal should be seen whereby the ships that sailed round were to declare their coming. So they sent those ships to sail round, and set about numbering the rest at Aphetae. 8. Now at the time of their numbering the ships, there was in the fleet one Scyllias, a man of Scione lie was the best diver of the time, and in the shipwreck at Pel ion he had saved for the Persians much of their possessions and won much withal for himself; this Scyllias had ere now, it \vould seem, purposed to desert to the Greeks, but he never had had so fair an occasion as now. By what means he did thereafter at last make his Avay to but if the Greeks, I cannot with exactness say for it the story be true it is marvellous indeed is said that he dived into the sea at Aphetae and never rose above it till he came to Artemisium, thus passing underneath the sea for about eighty furlongs.
; ; ;

The irvppopis carried the sacred fire which was always kept alight for the sacrifices of the army; his person was supposed to be inviolable.


eliceXa rcepl

\eyerai ^iev vvv teal a\\a rov dvopos rovrov, rd Be fj.ere^erepa a\r)6ea' rrepl /nevroi rovrov yvco/j,?) /AOL drroBeBe^Oa)



drriKeadai eVl TO 'Aprefj-icriov. 00? Be eai/^rjve rolcn crTpaTr)yo2a-i rtv
yevoiro, real ra? irepurefji^ Cetera?

re vavY]^ir\v


Trepl Rvfioiav.




"E^XXrjves Be


eviKO, rrjv ifJLepriv eKeivrjv

avrov ^ivavra<^ re KOI



Tropeveadai, teal TMV vewv. /jLera Be rovro, a>9 ovBeis
Bei\rjv otyLrjv

VVKTO, fjiecrrjv ufwavrav T yen

avrol 7Tttz'67rXeov eVl TOU^ fiap/Sdpovs, CLVTWV TTOi^aaadai /3ov\6fjievoi TT}? re TOV Bt,eK7r\,6ov. 10. 'Opco^re? Be cr^jea? ol re a\\oi ol He/3^ew KOL ol crrpaTijyol




a<pi ^avir\v eTreveiKavres dvr/yov

KCU avrol ra? yea?, e\TricravTes cr^ea? evrrerews \Tri<javTe<$, ra? /jiev ye aiprfcreiv, olKora /cdpra ( TWV \L\\rivwv opMVTes oXtya? yea?, ra? Be ewvrwv
7T\r)0ei re 7ro\Xa7rX?/o-ta? teal afjieivov TrXeoutra?.





ravra tcvK\ovvro avrovs e'? yfy TW^ 'Iwvcov rjaav evvooi deKOvres re e&rparevovro



avrovs Kal emcrrdfjievoi voartfo-ei' ovrw daOevea

o^owyre? co? ovBels



rwv 'EXXr/rcoy rrpi]yiJLara. VOKJL rjv TO yivofjievov, d/j,i\\av eiroievvro o/

e'^atVero elvat, ra oaoiai Be teal r)Bo/jLe-

There are many and some true
business that he

VIII. 8-10

tales of this

man, some

like lies


but as concerning the present opinion, which I hereby declare,

to Artemisium in a boat. Having then come, he straightway told the admirals the story of the shipwreck, and of the ships that had been sent round Euboea. 9. Hearing that, the Greeks took counsel together ; there was much speaking, but the opinion prevailed that they should abide and encamp where they were for that day, and thereafter when it should be past midnight put to sea and meet the ships that were But presently, none attacking them, sailing round. they waited for the late afternoon of the day and themselves advanced their ships against the foreigner, desiring to put to the proof his fashion of fighting and the art of breaking the line. 1 10. When Xerxes' men and their generals saw the Greeks bearing down on them with but a few ships, they deemed them assuredly mad, and themselves put out to sea, thinking to win an easy victory which expectation was very reasonable, as they saw the Greek ships so few, and their own


many times more numerous and more


this assurance, they hemmed in the Greeks in their midst. as many lonians as were friendly


Greeks came unwillingly to the war, and were sore distressed to see the Greeks surrounded, supposing that not one of them would return home so powerless did the Greeks seem to them to be. But those who were glad of the business vied each with each that he might be the first to take an
to the


For the


Bk. VI. ch.



ercarrTOS Trpwro? vea *\rrLKr)V

e\oyv Trapa



Bwpa Xdptyerai' A6 >]i>ai(t)v yap avroiai TrXetcrTO? dvd rd a-rparoTreBa.

11. Tofcat Se




rrpwra uev



fiap/Sdpoiai yevo/jii>oi e? Trpv^va^ avvip/ayov, Bevrepa

oXiyw Trep 0,770I%OVTO KOI Kara crroyLta. evQavra Tpnjfcovra aipeovcri rwv ftapftapwv Kal rov Yopyov rov
eovra ev TW crrparoTreSm av&pa. vea TCOL> 7ro\e/.iia)i' elXe dvrjp 'Adrjvalo^ AVKO/JL^^<; A.lcr%paiov, Kal TO TOU? 8' eV r?} dpia"n']Lov e'Xa/5e OUTO?. e ravTrj erepaX/cea)? dywvi^ofjievovi vu





ot /^ei/



Bo^av 'AvriBwpos Aijfivios

5^ "EXXTyi/e? eVl TO \ Be fidpfiapoi e? Ta? 'A^eVa?, TroXXov ev Tavrrj rfj vavdycovtaduevoi.
fjiom'O^ TOJV


eovToiv auTo/zoXeti e? TOU? Kal ol *A0r]valoi Bid TOUTO TO cpyov eBoaav ywpov ev ^a\auivi.


in/-*5'\>i/ 12. 12? oe






eucppovr) eyeyovee, r)V






WKros Kal

vBcop re crK\rjpal



rov Hrj\iov ol Be veKpol Kal rd vavi]yi,a %(frepovro e? Ta? 'Ac^eVa?, Kal rrepl re Ta? Trpwpas rwv vewv eiXeovro Kal erdpaaaov TOU? rapcrovs rcov Kwrrecov. ol Be arpari&rai ol ravrr] a ravra e? (fcoffov Kariarearo, e'XTU^ drro\ea'0ai e? ota KaKa r]Kov. rrplv yap r/ Kal dvaTTveuaai cr^ea? GK re TJ}? vavr)y'n]<; Kal rov


VIII. 10-12

Attic ship and receive gifts from the king for it was the Athenians of whom there was most talk in



But the Greeks, when the signal was given first drew the sterns of their ships together, their prows turned towards the foreigners then at the second signal they put their hands to the work, albeit they were hemmed in within a narrow space and fought front to front. There they took thirty of the foreigners' ships and the brother of Gorgus king of Salamis withal, even Philaon son of Chersis, The first Greek to take a man of note in the fleet. an enemy ship was an Athenian, Lycomedes, son of Aeschraeus, and he it was who received the



prize for valour.

They fought


seafight with

doubtful issue, and nightfall ended the battle the Greeks sailed back to Artemisium, and the foreigners
to Aphetae, after faring far below their hopes in In that battle Antidorus of Lemnos the fight.

deserted to the Greeks, alone of all the Greeks that were with the king and for that the Athenians gave him lands in Salamis. 12. When darkness came on, the season being then midsummer, there was abundance of rain all

through the night and violent thunderings from Pelion and the dead and the wrecks were driven towards Aphetae, where they were entangled with the ships' prows and fouled the blades of the oars. The ships' companies that were there were dismayed by the noise of this, and looked in their present evil for before they were case for utter destruction
; ;


d'jel ^Gpojjievoicn erremrrre. co? rjuepr) erre^a^^re. TroXXbv r>v en dypiwrepr). Kat rovroiai uev roiavrr) 77 vv% eyivero. Qvroi da-fjievoicri z'e'a? vvv rrepl ra KotXa T?}? EuySotT. (frepouevci rw rfj Kal OVK e/Sore? o/cco? e efyepovro e^ercnrrov 7TOL6er6 re rrdv VTTO e^iawOeir) TroXXw rr\eov az^ rw CLTJ. rrjv Ei//9ota^ rrdvres e'lrjcrav avral re 8ie<f)0ap/jLvoi VTTO %avre<$ vrjvcrl rov yevouevov ^eifjiwvo^. Kal TO TeXo? crfyi eyivero a%api. rr\eovres eireTTeaov KtXtcrcr^crf ra^Ta? Se $ia$>6eipavre<$. bpfjirifjieva fipovraL 13. ft)? Srj rr)v eixfcpovr) eyivero. /cat TO drro Hep^ea: 15. Be T% re XaySyOO? /cat pev/jiara re <TK\r]pai. drrerr\eov omcrw em rb 'Apre/jLLcriov. o\iya<. Be rj^eprj Seivov ri Troirjad/jievoi oi (rdx. (rrparrfyol \vfjbaiveff6ai.a dyyeXurj e\dovcra. <pv\davrrjv wpr/v.? S' eV ^Kfyerycn fidpftapoi. 'E^\\^vLK(o rov 0eov rb TlepcriKov /mev Si(f)@eLpovro' oi o-(/>t 14. rolai 5e ra\6el&i avrwv rrepnT\Geiv Eivfiotav 7. Tpirrj r&v f3ap(3dpwv veas ovrw 14 . e/c TLrfkiov. erreftorjOeov T/oet? rrevri]Kovra cr^ea? erreppwcrav dmKal d/j. a>? yap &rj rr\eov<Ji avrolcri %61/jLwv re Kal rb vBoyp eTreyurero eova-i Kara ra KoiXa ra? TreV/aa? 1 TT}? Eu/3o^?. co? TWZ^ /5a/3O'L rrepirr\eovre<. /cat rolcn Be EXX?7(T 'Arrt/cat.HERODOTUS roO yevofjievov Kara Kapreptj./3/oo? lo"%vpa e? Oakacrcrav roaoura) ocrw ev rreX. drpe/Jia^ re cr0i ei^ov ra? crovai / /cat drre^pdro /ca/cco? Trprjcr- t]av)(jir]v dyeiv ev ^ee? &rj rw rrapeovri. avrr) rrep eovaa vv vavaa^iij^ o//.

being in their evil plight well content to do nothing for the nonce. But on the third day. their course off the Hollows of Euboea. So these perished at the Hollows of Euboea. 12-15 recovered after the shipwreck and the storm off Pelion. they next must abide a stubborn sea-fight. kept their ships unmoved. ill brooking that so few ships should do them hurt. . they returned back to Artemisium. 15. and putting to sea fell upon certain which having destroyed. . and fifty-three Attic ships came to aid the Greeks. when to their great comfort the day dawned. when darkCilician ships ness came on. and were cast upon the rocks. All this was the in work of heaven's providence. that so the Persian power might be more equally matched with the Greek. waited no longer for the . and fearing Xerxes' anger. round Euboea had They waited then all perished for the same hour as before. pouring seaward and violent thunderings. 14. they were driven by the wind they knew not whither. and after the sea-fight rushing rain and mighty torrents . Thus did the night deal with them those that were appointed to sail round Euboea that same night was much crueller yet. inasmuch as it caught them on the open sea and an evil end they For the storm and the rain coming on them had. But the foreigners at Aphetae. and not much greater than it. the foreign admirals.BOOK VIII. who were heartened by the ships' coming and the news brought withal that the foreigners sailing in the late storm. but to 13.

(f)v\dcro-eiv. '5e cos" " ol 7T/309 rco ra^a/j. ol 'Apreuiaifd. 'EXXaSa TO^? fiapfidpovs. t ravrijv rr v /JLeptjv yparevaav c 16 .<? avvemrrre Be ware ra? aura? ra? I'e'a?. rapaaaouevecov re ru>v vewv real rrepiTriTrrovaewv rrepl aXXr. 01 du(f)l $rj 6Vw? TO 'EXXiyw/coi' arpdrevaa rov rropov K parer ova i. aXXa 7rapaK6\evaduevoi Kara fjAaov r. ecovrov ueydOeos re fcal 7rX?.'$eo? auro? VTT erriTrre.e/9?.evot. ovrw Be dya>i>L%6fjLevoi Biearijaav 17. avrolat dvBpdai rwv Be EXX?/^a)^ Kara eTkov 'EXX^i^t^a? rrevre. 'E^ ravrr) rfj vavaa^Lr] Alyvrrnoi fiev ru>v HfyO^ew arpariwrewv r^piarevaav. Trpi\d/3oiV teal 'E^eOre^ o/ "EXXT/z'e? erraverrXeov re ev ravrrj rfj imvaa^irj 7raparr\i]aioi avvef-uayov. BieffrdeLpovro I'ee? rwv 'EXX?. KVK\ovvro.Vw^ 8' vee^ TroXXal pev TroXXot Be dvBpes. ol Se /3dp/3apoi a)? vewv avrovs./z. o <ydp ziepgea) arparos vrro d\\i]\oiai e^ivovro. wa-rrep rolcn. o'l aXXa re /neyd\a epya drre^e^avro Kal vea<. <yivea-6ai r auras teal ra? o TOIGI Kara 0d\acraav rrepl rou a^/cov Rvpurrov. 16.ev ? ri^v Aewi^iS^p TTJV cr/3o\r)v rrapexeXevovro OKWS yur. 7roXX&j eri TrXeO^e? re r&v j3ap- ftdpwv Kal dvBpes.HERODOTUS OVK avk^ivav en rou? "EXX^zm? /za^j/? ap^ai. 8' o'l fj.Xa?' o/t&)? uevroi dvrel^e Kal OVK eiKe' Seivov <ydp ^pr^ia eiroievvro vrro veaiv Si) oXiyewv e? (frvyrjv rpdrreaOai. rrapija-ovori. ra? re vavjjLa^La<.

the Greeks abode in their place off Artemisium and the foreigners made a half circle of their ships. 17 . 16. At that the Greeks charged and joined In that sea-fight both had equal success. battle. that these sea-battles were fought through the same days as the land-battles at Thermopylae the seamen's whole endeavour was to hold the Euripus. . Leonidas' men strove to guard the passage . till foreigners' ships they drew off and men thus and parted each . nor yielded. and far held fast. they took five Greek ships and their crews withal. the word was to give the foreigner no into Hellas. and the Persian to destroy the entry Greek host and win the strait. . Of the Greeks on that day the Athenians bore themselves best. but gave the word and And it so fell out put out to sea about midday.BOOK VIII. For Xerxes' fleet wrought itself harm by its numbers and multitude the ships were thrown into confusion and ran foul of each other nevertheless they Greek battle . In that sea-fight of all Xerxes' fighters the Egyptians bore themselves best besides other great feats of arms that they achieved. as . and strove to encircle and enclose them round. 15-17 Greeks to begin the fight. 17. from other. So when Xerxes' men ordered their battle and came on. . for they could not bear to be put to flight by a few ships. Many were the Greek ships and men that there perished. more yet of the they battled.

<T ti02/ dt.creiz/. Sprja/jiov Brj ej3ov\evov co? Now Se Xa/3a)z^ o e/xicrTo/cXe'^9 ^ el dTroppayeiTj airo rov (3apf3apov <f)i)\ov Kal TO K. Tiva irakd/ji^v. TTJV arpari^v Tocn ($ doi>Twv e/ca<TTOf9 Trvp nrepi r^v wprjv avrw /z. etc SieGTYiaav.Kai OVK r}K. TWV [j. TCOV /Sac^Xe'o? a.iv TOU? dpicrTOvs. e? r/ oi 5e EXX?7^e? 009 SiaKpiffevres T/}9 vav^a^iT]^ dTrrfkXd^OTjaav. eo-rparevero vr)L 09 Trape-^o^evo^ avSpdai re &irjKocnoL(Ti KOI Be olfcrjifl IS. ov&ev oine Trpoaead^avro ovBev OVTG a>9 irape- 18 . 20. oloi T6 TO re \OITTWV /carvirepOe eiricrav av e\avvovTwv Trpofiara eVl TTJV QaXacraav TOU? crrpaT'rj'yovs eXeye cr(f)i w? Bo/ceoi 'yevecrOai.apixov. Oi yap / EL>/3oee9.ev veicpwv KOI TWV vav^iwv eireKpareoVy Tprj%ea)s $ re^. 19. dffp. Kal avri/ca 'jrvp crtpi dvaKavcrdfJievoL erpdirovTO irapa^p^crdiJLei'Oi 7T/309 TCL Trpofiara. eVt rdSe Troi^rea afyi elvaL \ey. 'Ad^valoi TCOV al ' ve&v Terpw/jievai rjvav. TauTa ijpeae 69 Trjv 'EXXa^a. rfj e\7rioi.eX?. fl? op/JLOV rfTreuyovTO.HERODOTUS o oitcrjirjv f /ameft>.evoi e/cdrepot. e? T^V 'EXXaSa.KO/jLLcrai>TO \eyovra. ravra Be rolcrt vvv e? roaouTO TTdpeyv/jLvov. axrre d ai.iaTO.iro<J r n}Ge. a>9 TOV TI Ba/c^8o9 ^yo>. TWV re TTpo/Bdrwv T&V l&vftolKCov KCLTaOveiv oaa Tf9 eOekoi' /cpecrcrov yap elvat.

Themistocles bethought him that if the Ionian and Carian nations were rent away from the foreigners. they were left masters of the dead and the wrecks but they had had rough handling. So they parted and each right gladly made When the Greeks haste to his own anchorage. 18. all at his private charges. I suppose. to the seas nearer their homes. the Greeks might be strong enough to Now it was the get the upper hand of the rest. 1 This means. Moreover he counselled them each to bid his men to light a fire . 20. Athenians. half of whose ships had suffered hurt and now their counsel was to flee to the inner . deeming it void of meaning. he brought to the war two hundred men and a ship of his own. agreed to do and forthwith they lit fires and then laid hands on the flocks. 19 . wont of the Euboeans to drive their flocks down Wherefore gathering the admirals to the sea there. and chiefly the . he would take such thought for that as should said) : . let everyone slay as many as they must do he would from the Euboean flocks it was better that the fleet should have them. nonce but in the present turn of affairs this (he . All this they bring them scathless to Hellas. had drawn off and come out of the battle. together he told them that he thought he had a device whereby he hoped to draw away the best So much he revealed for the of the king's allies.BOOK and VIII. as for the time of their going thence. 17-20 of the Athenians Clinias son of Alcibiades. 1 19. waters of Hellas. than the enemy. For the Euboeans had neglected the oracle of Bacis. and neither by carrying away nor by bringing in anything had .

ara. r]v fief yap eV 'ApreKara/corros oua?.KTL(I) ra> rrpoaereraKro. vcrraroi Se >e 22. rd$e 20 ""Ai/Syoe? "lcoi-'9. 'A&rjvaicov jjLVOS veas Ta? dpicrra rr\eovcra^ vSara. orav vbv Xa TOVTOLCTI ovoV Tolcfi 7r(TL /cal l %p r)(Ta/jiVOLa'i ra i ev rolcn Tore TTapeoval re TrpocrSoKi/noicri. rrepiTrerea re erron'icravro Trpijy/j. Ko/JLei'o^ crfyi eGijfJLaive ra yeyovora rrep\ AewviSrjv ot Be a>? errvOovro Kal rov crrparbv avrov. 6^fcrTO/cXe>. r^v ri KaraKanftdvr] vea>ouros wv o 'A/3/ocoi^o? dmrepov rov rre^ov. rraprjv Be 6 K TpTjxlvos Kardatcorros. vcnepair) ^fJLeprj eVt TO ^AprefJiicnov erre\e^avro. Trapfjv a<$i av/jL^opfj %pa<r6aL TT/OO? 21. yevos /J. oe ypd/jtuara ov Troieere Si/cat a ra . Qi fj-ev Sij ravra eTrprjcraov. p.ara. Kal et^e TT\GLOV /carrjpes eroifJLOVy el 7ra\)](reie 6 vauriKos crrparos. ravra.? ercopevero irepi ra evrd^vcov ev rolcn \i6oicn ypdfjLrfj ra "\wves erre\9ovre^ e'Xeye. a")}^aiveiv rolcn ev w? S' aura)? r/v ep/JLOTrv\r)<Ji eovcrL' 6 AvcriK\eos ^6ivalo^ KOL rraa AecoviSrj ero^o? roldi err 'Apre/jLicriw eovcn dyyeXXeiv rpirjtcovrepM. ovKen e? aya/3o\a<? ercoievvro r^v drroetcaaroi Trpcoroi. avrolcn ra Br//aSt jap et? d)Se 7Tpl rOVrWV ^pT/CT/AO?.HERODOTUS crouevov crcfricn crcf)L vroXe/iOf.

if any ill should befall the land army. For there came to them the watcher from Trachis. where he engraved on the rocks writing which the lonians read on the next day when they came to Artemisium.BOOK VIII. To these in the evils 21. bleating goats from coasts Euboean be banished. they no army longer delayed their departure. So this Abronichus came and declared to them the fate of Leonidas and his which when the Greeks learnt. but went their ways in their appointed order. to declare it to the men at Thermopylae . : 21 . a native of Anticyra. and . . This was what the writing said " Men of Ionia. last of all the Athenians. ready for his part to bring the news in a thirty-oared bark to the Greeks at Artemisium. But Themistocles picked out the seaworthiest Athenian ships and went about to the places of drinking water. 20-22 . if the fleet should be at grips. Abronichus son of Lysicles. there was a watcher at Artemisium. was with Leonidas." but verses the Euboeans gave no heed then present and soon to come they could not but heed their dire calamity. : " Whenso casts a Then let strange-tongued man on the waves yoke of papyrus. and in like manner. an Athenian. who was charged (and had a rowing boat standing ready therefor). you do wrongly 22. the Corinthians first. they shown that they feared an enemy's coming whereby they were the cause of their own destruction for Bacis' oracle concerning this matter runs thus . one Polyas. While the Greeks were doing as I have said.

r?7? 'EXXoTTt?. 'EiV@avra oe rovrcor eovrcov. aXX' VTT arayfcairis /ze^oi^o? /care^ev^de f) lovre airivraaQai. dyyeXX. 0e^crTO/eXe'?79 ravra 'iva rj eV d^orepa voewv. ovro) Srj dfj-a ?/XtVt) aKi Trdaa r) crrparii) eVeVXee aXr/? errl ro A. veas S drreareiXav 7rpoKaroifro/JLei>a<f dTrayyeiXdvrayv rovrwv ra rjv.ovra el%ov ev (f>v\aKfj. ical f^ rrjv XXa /jidXiara jivecr06' el Se vficv ecrri rovro /u. eOeko- ori air' rj/necov yeyovare Ka ftdpftapov air Se or i dp%))0ev TI e%0pr) Trpo? TOZ^ v{jLa)v i]iMv 76707/6. eireav crv/u/jiLa'ywjAev." 6<ypa(j).. t? Se ev rw epyco. }jLicrTOK\er]s fjiev oia-i avrifca fjLerd i ravra eveypatye' rolai e ravra TrXo/ro ?}X$e dvrjp ^pifafjiov rov arc* 'ApreOL S' viT diTLcrrirjs rov vs fJLKTiov d yye\\wv rov ( rwv R\\rfvd)V.?) Bvvarbv Troifjcrai. So/ceeiv e/noi. Ee/^r.? /jLoiprj^ 7?}? Se T?}? 'Icrriai(t)ri8o<.prefjLiaLov.Se rr)V rro\LV ea^ov rwv 'Icrnatewv. KOI $Laf3\r)9f) rrpos He TOU9 wya? Ka r] rj TV 23. V^els Oe eri Kal VVV K TOV fl(7OV T) [UV avrol Kal TWV }Lapwv SeecrOe ra avra v el Se /jLfjSerepov TOVTWV olov re yivea-dai. 24.? eroi- 22 . Kal /jLv ' ' l . Be ev rovra) rw X^PV Ate/ %/3t At ^ crOL TO drro rovrov eirXeov e? \cmairiv' dm. e \a6ovra ra ypd Kal <yevecr0ai Trpo? ewvrwv.HERODOTUS eVl TOV$ Trarepas a-rparevo/juevoi Kara$ov\ov/Jivoi.

and you are fast bound by such constraint that you cannot rebel. and keep them out of the sea-fights. where having waited till midday. that if the king knew nought of the writing it might make the lonians to change sides and join with the Greeks. Immediately after this there came to the foreigners a man of Histiaea in a boat.BOOK VIII. should join yourselves to us but if that be impossible for you. were maliciously reported to Xerxes he might thereby be led to mistrust the lonians. the whole armada at the first spreading of sunlight sailed all together to Artemisium. may be. and sent and when the swift ships to spy out the matter crews of these brought word of the truth. telling them of the flight of the Greeks from Artemisium. Xerxes sent a herald . on learning that. 23 . 22-24 to fight against the land of your fathers and bring Jt were best of all that you slavery upon Hellas. Not believing this. . then do you even now withdraw yourselves from the war. While they were there. which is the land of Histiaea. and overran all the villages on the seaboard of the Ellopian * region. they kept the bringer of the news in ward. 23. they next sailed to Histiaea." To my thinking Themistocles thus wrote with a double intent. and that if the writing . including the district of Histiaea. and entreat the Carians If neither of these things to do the same as you. 24. and on their coming took possession of the Histiaeans' city. 1 The northern half of Euboea. yet we pray you not to use your full strength in the day of battle be mindful that you are our sons and that our quarrel with the foreigner was of your making in the beginning. Such was Themistocles' writing.

ot o'l /mev drrerr\eov e? e? '\crriair)V errl oSoi' op/jLaro.daaro Be ve/cpol rdoe' ocroi rov arparov rov eojvrov r\aav KOL Bvo e tyep/JUJTrvXyo-i rovrwv . av\\o>yov rroirio-dfjievo^ rravros rov crrparoTreSov e\je raSe.? ray /3ov\o/jLev(o v^kwv Trapac K\irrovra rrjv rd^iv KOI e\6ovra Oei'iva&Oai TT/?O? TOU? dvorjrovs rwv dvOp&Trcov.^oxtcr.evoi.ie^oi e? ravrrjv erprrovro. SiarrepaiwOevres Se eOrjevvro e r^marearo rou? TOI)? veicpovs' rrdvres elvai m'ivra<$ Aatceoai/jioviovs teal ecrTT^ea?. O'L Be e/cearo a\ee? y cruy/ce.HERODOTUS ra vavriicov ev rrepl crrparov KijpvKa. /3ci(7iXeu? He^o^f. e/??? ravra rrp-tas rrep rou? veicpovs Toy? Ci)vrov' Kal yap Btj teal yzXolov r/v rcov fjiev ^(iKioi efyaivovro veicpoi Ki/j. rfj & ra? vcrrepair) i^ea?. Se 26. ""A^^/De? avfifia^oi. (}}aav Be TOU? vetcpovs eTre/arre e? rov 7rpo6TOip. fjiera 25. opwvoy yuey ot8' eKdvOave rou? re? Kol TOU? erXwra?. elvai. 'iva p.r) u^)Qeir\(jav VTTO rov vavrifcov arparov. 'Hroj' 3e cr<^)i auro/. <pv\\d8a re eVa^cra/ie^o?. co? 3e Siefir] e? rrjv 'lartai^v 6 tcfjpv%. Tavra ravra ovBev eyivero TT\OLWV GTrai'Loorepov ovrw 8er)(Tao-6ai. ^tou re Beo/jtevoi Kal evepyoi dyovres Be rovrov? e? o r^t /BaaiXeos errvvOdvovro ol Ylepcrai rrepl 24 .toXoi dvbpes ari 'Ap/ca- O\LJOI /3ov\6/u6voi TtreV. o'l ryfjv KOI rijv (Saai\O) Bvi'a/mv vTTepl3a\eea0ai" 7ra ryyi\a/jiei>ov.

the Persians inquired them what 25 .BOOK to the fleet. though there were the helots also for them to see. 24-26 having first shall show. 26. to Histiaea. that the men of the fleet might not So when the herald had crossed over see them. and Xerxes' army set forth on its march. he assembled all the men of the fleet and thus spoke " Men of our allies. and all of them supposed that Greeks were all Lacedaemonians and Thespians. men to find of Arcadia. to the number of four thouviewing the dead the fallen . . I VIII. All that day they spent in seeing the sight on the next the shipmen returned to their fleet at Histiaea. and the rest he buried in digged trenches. sand. Bringing these men into the of king's presence. which he covered with leaves and heaped earth. as many as twenty thousand) bestowed the about a thousand. hard to get as a boat. there was nought so he : see the sight. King Xerxes suffers any one of you that will to leave his place and come to see how he fights against those foolish men who thought to overcome the king's power. Of all (that his at Thermopylae left fallen men as own soldiers who had fallen is. but the Greeks lay all together assembled in one place. lacking a livelihood and desirous some service. so many were they who would They crossed over and went about . . Yet for all that they that crossed over were not deceived by what Xerxes had done for indeed the thing was with his own dead of the Persians a thousand lay dead laughable before their eyes." 25. After this proclamation. There had come to them some few deserters.

CLVTOVS re TOVTOVS KOL Tolon 1 TO. T 01 . K6L/J. raura elp^TO. are aTTo Se TOV v&TaTOv . Tiypdvrjs evOavTa 6 'Apra- fidvov roz/ TrvvOavoyap TO ae6\ov ebv cne^avov aXX' ov OVT6 r)vecr^eTo criycov elrre re e? 1 IlaTrat MapSoy^e. VVKTOS e7T0)']KaTO TrpoeiVa? avTolo~i.A. evOavTd 6 TeXXt?." TOUTW &ei\ir)v a)(f>\6 Trpo? /3a<ri.? aL avToicri TOIOV$. TO KfipTa.\eo<. TOV av fir) till On the hypothesis. o'i Be crcfri e\yov 'Q\v/j. usually received first full lately. 'Ei^ Se T&> Sia fjieaov %p6v(a. fcoiov? eV OL ov Trepl dywva TroievvTCU d\\a Trepl aper?}?.evov Trepl orev arywvi^ovTar o'i S' eiirov eXat'?7? TOP biSofJievov <yevvaioTu.acr/?7?.Tr)V GTefyavov. 07T\a CtVTWV. eaarutOria-av VTTO KOI KaTei\i]Orj(Tav e? TOZ^ Hapvijcrov ol ^co/ce'e? e TeXXt^v TCOV TOZ^ 'HXetoz'. that the games took place at the 26 moon after the summer .7ria dyovai teal Otwpeoiev dyoova o Be eTreipero o TL TO aeO\ov KOI LTnTiKov..HERODOTUS TL 6 elpteTwv avToi>s e woieoiev et? Se Tt? irpo TTUVTCOV ravra. QwKeutv yvfrtocras dvSpa? TOU? dpL(TTOv<$. 6<rcraXoicrt. eVetre TO eV e<rcraXot eyeyovee. 27. avriKa Krjpv/ca e? ^w/ceav. eo-/3a\6vTe<$ /cal ol yap TravaTpaTtfj CLVTOL QecraaXol crviji/ua^oi avTcov e? TOU? 01) TToXXotcrt eVecrt jrpoTepov TaiiTtf^ T?}? <7T/oaT7.

and led them to attack the Thessalians by night. he could not hold his peace. But Macan says that the above hypothesis about the date of the games is exploded. bidding them solstice. 26-27 the Greeks were doing. In the meantime. For the Phocians being beleaguered on Parnassus and having with them the diviner Tellias of Elis. while Xerxes was at Therma .BOOK this question in the VIII. that the conversation here recorded took place in late June. Tellias devised a stratagem for them : he covered six hundred of the bravest Phocians with gypsum. . immediately after the misfortune at Thermopylae. 27 . the Persian asked what was the prize offered. we should have to adopt some theory such as Stein's. wherefor they contended and they told him of the crown of olive that was given to the victor. but cried. For a few years before the king's expedition the Thessalians and their allies had invaded Phocis with their whole army. "Zounds. The Arcadians telling them that the Greeks were keeping the l Olympic festival and viewing sports and horseraces. Then Tigranes son of Artabanus uttered a most noble saying (but the king deemed him a coward for it) when he heard that the prize was not money but a crown. Mardonius. for Thermopylae was fought in late August. ! Such was Tigranes' saying. 27. and more than ever by reason of their latest disaster. but had been worsted and roughly handled by the Phocians. the Thessalians sent a herald to the Phocians. inasmuch as they bore an old grudge against them. themselves and their armour. what manner of men are these that you have brought us to fight withal ? 'tis not for " money they contend but for glory of achievement . there being one who put name of all.

(j)OTep(i)v e ol OecrcraXol ireii-^ravTe^ KtjpvKa rjyopevov Ofjioioi rj/^LV. "A. Kal :a9 avrrj 7. TOVTOVS wv at T6 <f)V\afcal e<f)0/3i]@r]o~av.^ ecrcraXwf ol ^w/ee'e? TJ/f TOV Tcetpv ep<ydo-avTO TroXiopKeovras ewvrov %d)pt]v ev Tr)v ITTTTOV eaftaXovcrav Se e? CLVTWV Vri Arara tr Td[jiTro\iv. Kal dvcLKeaTai. e TOIOVTOL Iv 28.HERODOTUS iScovTai. r?tpwv Se/car/.j3r}(7L Taura //eV 1^1.i4^ vv. eV TavTrj Ta Kveov<> e? avTrjv eBeKOVTO TOU9 eac7aXou9 eVySa/ ol 'ITTTTOI 01 Be a>9 dvapTraaOfJiepoi rou9 ecreTreo'ov 69 TOL/9 dud>opeas. TWV tyecraaXwv Trpwrai l^ovcrai ^o^avai a\\o TL eivai repas. clvai O ^povov TrpocrOe re 70. TouT&j/' 8?. TO TTCIV 6^O^T69 O) /J. <T(^)i d/j.Lea wcrre vvv re Trapd TCO ffapffdpw TOeV rxty e'crrt Kal Tcpos rjv^paTco^iaOai u/Ltea9. o~TpaTirj OUTGO wcrre Kparfjaai a?.KaKO/jLJ> CLVT yev(T0a) 28 . KOI aairiB&v TWV TO? e? fjikv T)/niff'as e? 77 AeX^ou?' o Trep vr]o\) Se "A/3a? aveOecrav eyevero TWV /inrpocrQe rov TOV rpiTroa TOV ev kekfyolcn. ir\eov alel /core fyepofjieOa' O~OVTO prjcrOai fJLGVTOL 7//.^0 eV e/ceiva ^yCiv fyvSave.l>rj(Tl. (!>&):< evOavTa ra 29. TOVTOV Kieiveiv.

though all rests with us. tripod before the shrine at Delphi. These two deeds had never been forgiven by the Thessalians and now they sent a herald with " Men of this message Phocis. . Hyampolis and put empty jars therein. . These rode on thinking to sweep the Phocians before them. and yourselves enslaved withal. and next after the sentinels the whole army fled likewise insomuch . Thus had the beleaguered Phocians dealt with the Thessalian foot.BOOK slay VIII. covering which with earth. 29. : . and their shields. Thessaliaii sentinels were the first to see these men and to flee for fear. as long as we were on their side and now we are of such weight with the foreigner that it lies in our power to have you deprived of your lands. The that the Phocians made themselves masters of four thousand dead. 28. supposing falsely that it was something beyond nature. till all was like the rest of the ground. and fell in among the jars whereby their horses' legs were broken. whereof they dedicated half at Abac and the rest at Delphi a tithe of what they won in that fight went to the making of the great statues that stand round the . We were ever formerly preferred before you by the Greeks. they awaited the onset of the Thessalians. 29 . ay. we bear you no ill-will for the past pay us fifty talents of silver for what you . and when the Thessalian horsemen rode into their country the Phocians did them mortal harm they dug a great pit in the pass near . 27-29 whomsoever they should see not whitened. and there are others like them dedicated at Abae. Nevertheless. it is time now that you confess yourselves to be no match for us.

OVVQI ' ecrcraXw^. ovre 7rape%eiv re aXX' OVK eaeadai e/co el aXXoj? /3ouXotaTO' elvai Trpo&orai T% 'EXXa^o?.V OU&V. 01 /jLev ydp TMV QWKGWV e'9 ra die pa rov TIapvrjcrov ecm Se KOI eTriTrjSeij Se^aaBai OJJ. ecrcraXot Kej^oXwfjLevoi TOLGI Qw/cevcrt ovro) Srj ol e/e eyevovTO 7776/^0^69 TW ftapftdpw TYJS o$ov. avrwv 69 be 7r\evves 30 . Tavrd . 'H9 Se e/c T?}9 /3a\ov. rwv ravrrj dvOpooTrwv OVK KOST aXXo /J.HERODOTUS dpyvpiov. rov Tlapi-rjarov ?y Kopvtytj. CLVTOVS Kei/Jiei'^ 877 eV ea)vrr)S' Tidopea OVVO/JLCL avrfjO'L e'9 TT)^ avrjveiicavTO KOI avrol dveftrjarav. H. jjiev \OfjLevwv Brj r^9 TpTj%ivir)s 9 yap A re TO e'cTTt r jj. a>? e/jiol Soravra eirayye'X. KOI v/nlv vTroSeKo/Jieda rd eVfcoWa eVi rrjv xwprjv drrorpetyeiv" 30.e/j. ft>9 JO) evpicrKO). cr(j)i e7rayye\\ovro ol ecra-aXoL ol yap OCD /tee? el 8e fceeiv.ij$i%ov av ol Qco/cees. 31.L\OV dve(Br)crav. 'EiTrei&r) Se avrjvei'xd^o'av OVTOL ol \6yoi. Kara New^a TTO\LV 32. TavTrjv wv rrjv ot &(Dpiewv T&V ev IleXowpia yrv OVK eaivavTO (3dp/3apoi' e/JujSi^ov re yap teal OVK Aw/otSo9 6*9 r?/!/ QodKiBa eae^ev TOU9 QtoKea? OVK aipeovcri.i)Tpo7ro~\is jrovvii<J(>. Kara Be TO e^^o? TO ecrcraXot ra EiXX^vcov fjv^ov.

but they would not willingly betray the cause of Hellas. This was the Thessalians' offer. . and that for no other reason (if 1 argue aright) than their hatred of the Thessalians had the Thessalians aided the Greek side. then methinks the Phocians would have stood for the Persians. To this Dorian territory the foreigners did no harm at their invasion for the people took the Persian part. The Phocians. . thereat the Thessalians in their wrath against the Phocians began to guide the foreigner on his way. but the most of them made their way out of the country to . which rises by itself near the town Neon. They replied to the offer of the Thes. between the Malian which in old time was territory and the Phocian. This answer being returned to them. 29-32 and we promise to turn aside what threatens your land. and they alone of all that region. and the peak of Parnassus called Tithorea. From the lands of Trachis they broke into Doris for there is a narrow tongue of Dorian land stretching that way. salians that they would give could do like the Thessalians part.BOOK did. if for no money. and the Thessalians would not have them harmed. . this region is the motherland of the Dryopian Dorians of the Peloponnese. When they entered Phocis from Doris. 31. 32. VIII. would not take the Persians' part. . ." 30. that they and take the Persian any cause they so wished. the Phocians themselves they could not catch for some of the Phocians ascended to the heights of Parnassus. about thirty furlongs wide. has room enough thither they carried up for a multitude of people their goods and themselves ascended to it.

HERODOTUS TTO\LV TTJV vrrep TOV Kpivaiov rreBiov ol Se fBdpftapoi TIJV ^wp^v Traarav TIJV QwKiBa' ecr(ra\. MijBtov Bt)\ov j3ov\6f. OtjaavpoLcri re Kal dvar v Be Kal 6i]aaari iro\\ol(jL KareaKevacr/jievov' Tore Kal vvv en ^pt](TT))piov avToOi. VTTO ecrw^ov Be TijBe. dTroTrefJi^Oe. \lopevofjLevoi yap Tavrrj irapa TOV Kyfacrbv Trora/jiov eBrjLovv Trdvra. eV CTTpaTOV ci eae/3a\e Be Trav TO ?rXr/^o9 r9 Be MaKeBcves Bpov BiaTeTay/jLevoi eaw^op. 'A^/yi^a? TropevojjievQv e? yrjv TIJV 'Qp^o/nevL e/j. 33. VTTO 34. Kal TOVTO Kai Tivas SiwTO Ipov av\i](TavTes evejrprjcrav.r] OTL TO. evQa r)V Ipov 'ATToXXw^o? TrXovcriov. fiapoi diTLKOVTo e? Ila^oTrea?.a\ ' t TLVCLS ie<f)0eipav jjLio-youevoi. TlapaTTorajjiiovs Be 7rapa/j. 7T\6laTOV Kal BwaTOlTaTOV TOV avTW e? Sep^ BoiWTOU?. el\ov T&V QoKecov rrpos TOLCTL opeai.ol jap OVTW rjyov TOV crrparov oKocra Be eTrecr^ov. d\\oi Be avTwv riyefjiovas e"%ovTe<$ 32 er/oa- .6i/36uevoi ol /3dpevOevTev Be tfBt. 'irdvTa eTre<p\eyov val eiceipov. Kal K.ijSi%6. Kal eV ra? TroXi? evievres irvp real 9 r / \ ra ipa.vTes' rroieeiv Kept. KCL\ Kara uev eKavcrav i\pvjJLQv Tro\iv Kara 8e ^apdbpav KOL "l^pu>%ov TeOpcoviov Kal 'A /bL(f)i tcaiav Kal New^a KOI OeSiea? Kal Tpireas Kal \L\dreiav Kal 'TduTro\i. 35. TO BiaKpivo^evrj i] aTpaTii) avT&v ecr^t^ero.v v Kal TlapaTTOTauiovs Kal Aj3a<i.ii>oL BofwTol typoveoiev. OVTOL fjuev Brj TWV fiapBdptov TavTfj TTOVTO.

the Phocians near the mountains.BOOK VIII. Parapotamii. the reason of the safeguarding being. and Abac. Marching this way down the river Cephisus they ravaged all before them. temple of Apollo. The foreigners overran the whole of Phocis. they plundered divination there. 33. Charadra. Tritea. where is the town of Amphissa above the Crisaean plain. AmphiNeon. and did certain women to death by the multitude of their violators. aforesaid. Hyampolis. the Persian part. and burnt and they pursued and caught some of . Pediea. burning the towns of . and men of Macedonia sent by Alexander safeguarded their towns. too. 34. Drymus. provided with wealth of treasure and offerings and there was then as now a place of This temple. each in his appointed place . Elatea. setting fire to towns and temples. 32-35 the Ozolian Locrians. Passing Parapotamii the foreigners came to Panopea. that Xerxes might understand the Boeotians to be on the Persian side. Tethronium. 35. Erochus. caea. C . where was a richly endowed . So this part of the foreign army marched as and others set forth with guides for the 33 VOL. The greater and stronger part of the host marched with Xerxes himself towards Athens and broke into the territory of Orchomenus Now the whole people of Boeotia took in Boeotia. IV. and there their army parted asunder into two companies. the Thessalians so guiding their army and all that came within their power they burnt and wasted.

\<yovT(t)V. raOra e? rrdcrav ev Sei/maTi Se fjLjd\fo crrewre? e/^avTevovTo rrepl TWV ipwv ff()a KCLTCL 77)9 KaTOpV^WCTi LT6 KKO/JLlO'(iOO'i IT 6 ^e ^eo? cr^ea? ow/c ea Kiveeiv. rrXrjv e ^e\iTrov dvopwv real TOV Trpo<piJT6Ci).V.(/)0i dppcooi'rjv dnrLicaTO./3aTO9. e/c TrpOfcei/jLeva ecrcodev 6pa Trpb TOV vrjov TOV fj. KOI fKiXtcrra Kpotcrou TOV 36. Oi Ae?v. o/cw? crv\i'i(ravT<s TO Ipov TO ev Ae\(jt)0t(7i /SacriXet Se^f/y drrooe^aiev TrdvTa S' TyTrtcrraro ra e^ TW TO. ev Sefyf) TOV Hapvijcrbv CTreajfpv 7-779 drrepyovTes. ft)? OIK. ocra alel \6yov rj i]v ciia ev afjieivov TCL Tolai 70) nrv Ee/D^???. TO.HERODOTUS errl TO Ipov TO ev AeX(/>otcrt.eydpov e^evrjve Ipd. e? d\\i]V %a)/3?/K a^ro? iKavbs elvai TWV eajVTOV Ae?u/>ol Se raura a/coucrayre? crfyewv fiev ci67re/jii}rav. 'A/c?. ev TOVTW 6 ovvo/jia r)V rrpO(f)i]T^<?. e<pp6vTi.ov. TrXeicrrot dve8r)<rav e? 37. a)V ol AeXc^ol TIJV TCO\I.IOIGI eXirre. Trecov ocra oe teal OVTOI TrdvTa ecrivafjLwpeov KOI jap TCOV Ylavo&av\LO)V rcau T?)v TroKiv eveTrprjcrav fcal AloXiBewv. avT&v Se rrept. rr}? erropevovTO Se TavTrj a7rocr%icr^e^T65 aXXr?? crT/aaTi?}? T&vSee'iveKa. 'E?rel Se dy%ov rjcrav ol ftdpfiapoi e KOL drrwpwv TO Ipov. <l>a>/aSo9. Se rrvvdavo/jievoi. T0)v OVK ocnov r)V aTTTecrOai dvQpwTTMV ovoevi 34 . dl Se e? TrdvTes Be "A^(f)icrcrav TTJV AotcpiSa vire^rfkOov. xprjfjLara. ' e? ir)V TKva vvv KOI yvvaiKas A^aiiijv avrwv roO Ha/J^croi} ra? /cal e? TO }Lu>pvKiov avTpov avrjveiKCLVTO.

BOOK VIII. brought out of the chamber within and laid before the shrine. . But the god bade them move nothing. So . saw certain sacred arms. When the Delphians learnt all this they were sore afraid and in their great fear they inquired of the oracle whether they should bury the sacred treasure in the ground or convey it away to another . and Daulii and Aeolidae. 37. the most went up to the peaks of Parnassus and carried their goods into the Corycian cave. 1 In the heights above Delphi and some three hours distant from it. 36. too. 90 feet broad at the widest point. adjacent to Parnassus. 35 . 1 and some escaped to Amphissa in Locris in brief. the Delphians took thought for themselves. keeping Parnassus on their right. that they might plunder the temple at Delphi and lay its wealth before Xerxes who (as I have been told) knew of all the most notable possessions in the temple better than of what he had left in his own palace. that no man might touch without sacrilege. so many had ever spoken of them. whose name was Aceratus. They sent their children and women oversea to Achaia of the men. The cave is some 200 feet long. that hearing. burning the towns of the Panopeans The purpose of their parting from the rest of the army and marching this way was. 35-37 temple at Delphi. the prophet. These. and chiefly the offerings of Croesus son of Alyattes . and 20 to ' ' 40 feet high " (How and Wells). country. all the Delphians left the town save sixty men and the prophet. . laid waste whatsoever part of Phocis they occupied. On saying that he was able to protect his own. Now when the foreigners drew nigh in their coming and could see the temple.

HERODOTUS BJJ ijie ol Be AeXc^ou' TOLCTI Trapeovai cn-ffjiavewv TO (3dp/3apoi eVeiS?) eyivovTO eTreiyouevoi.dcrai fj. e\eyov Be oi a-rrovoo'T^o'avTe^ OVTOL TWV j3ap/3dpa>v. &>? Kal aXXa wpwv 6ela' Bvo yap 7T/509 TOVTOKTI oTrXtra? ue^ovas rj KaT avQ {HJOTCMV (f)ixni> e^o^ra? eTceo'Oai o~<pi KTeivovras Kal Bi.a\.a\icrTa. . eveiTLiTTOV. ^vjjLjjLiyevTwv 8e TOVTWV Tolcn /3ap/3dpoi(Ti e^eTreTrrco/fee. fjLa9oi>T<$ Be oi ol Be TcepieovTes Wv KTeivav 7r\ri@os TL aiiTwv. TTCLVTWV. TWV TO. eV TOVTW CK Kopvtyal ovpavov Kepavvol avTolo~L Hapvijcrov Q-(f)6(iyV. 39. a)? eyw irvvQavo^ai. Bot&)TO)y etyevyov.? 'A^yat^?. TejJievea eVrl Trepl TO ipov. AVTOVOOV Be ?reA. ^uXa/cro^ re Kal KVTOVOOV. elvcu eTn^wpLov<^ ?^wa?..(*)KovTa<.a? T^? Kao-raXtT/? ol Be TreaovTes drro V7TO Trj 'Taarreirj Kopvtyfj.0ol \eyovcn. ovrXa aprjia fyavrjvai e^w TrpoKeifJieva TOV vrjov' TCL eVt TOVTM BevTepa eTTiyevofJieva KOL 8m Brj Tepea CTI /xe^ova TrdvTcov (^ac^aTwv a^La 0c0/j. TOUTOU? Be rou? Bvo AeA. ' Kara TO ipov rr}? Tlpovairjs Aflrjvaii]?.ev yap Kal TOUTO KcipTa c'crrt. <&v\aKov fj. eVel Ipov yap TT}? &r) rjvav eVioi/re? ol {3dp/3apoc KaTa TO fiev n/oo^at?.ay/jLos eyivero. 38. e o~e TOV rrplv yevo/Aevov a p. CITTO Be TOV TOV air op pay eld at &vo teal e<pepovTO TroXXft) TraTay(i) es avrous KaT/3a\ov fioij K & TOV IpOV T7/9 IlyOOi'CU??? T a\.ev Trap* avTrjv TYJV 6Bov KaTVTrepde TOV Ipov r^? Tlpovaiiis. TOV Hapvr]o~ov \L9oi 36 en Kal e? rjueas ^aav <TOOI.

and two peaks brake off from Parnassus and came rushing among them with a mighty noise and overwhelmed many of them and from the temple of Athene there was heard a . descended upon them and slew a great . r thunderbolts from heaven. All this joining together struck panic into the foreigners and the Delphians. slaying and pursuing. which might be those said to have " come hurtling from the cliifs above (How and Wells). 39. The rocks that fell 1 from Parnassus were yet to be : 1 "Among the olives in the glen below" the remains " are some of the temple of Athene Pronaea large masses of reddish-grey rock. The survivors fled straight to Boeotia. were the native heroes Phylacus and Autonous. under the Hyampean peak. that weapons of war should of their own motion appear lying outside before the shrine but the visitation which followed upon that was more wondrous than aught else ever seen. These two. number. and Autonous' near the Castalian spring. 37 . 37-39 tell the Delphians of this miracle . indeed it is. 38. For when the foreigners w ere near in their coining to the temple of Athene Pronaea. whose precincts are near the temple. Phylacus' by the road itself above the shrine of Athene Pronaea. say the Delphians. they were visited by Marvellous miracles yet greater than the aforesaid. Those of the foreigners who returned said (as I have been told) that they had seen other signs of two menheaven's working besides the aforesaid at-arms of stature greater than human (they said) had followed hard after them.BOOK he went to VIII. perceiving that they fled. shout and a cry of triumph. but the foreigners came with all speed near to the temple of Athene Pronaea. there were they smitten by when .

Trpo? Se /cat (3ov\vcrwvTai TO eVl *yap Tolai rcaTrjicovcn TT}? avTolcru ecTTat. Brj Kal TOvBe e'lveKa OVK TJKKTTa. o'l Be 69 ecnreva-av Be TavTa Be e9 SaXa/xt^a. TavTa Kal Brj &)9 5* eovTi eTTifJbijvia em. 01 Te/cva Te Kal TO 1/9 oliceTa^. ^OLWTirj VTroKaTrj/Jievovs TOV /3dpevpov ovSev eov. Be 9 TTJV aXXot KaTea"%ov 9 TVJV ewvT&v.a o-(*)%eiv /utev eTCOLt'jcravTO.Te\eovcrt. Be ' TTJV Kr] pvy fj. 'iva Te Kal ryvvalfcas vTre^aydywvrai etc ?. a>9 TTJV IleXoTfovvr](jov rrepl TrXetcrTOf TG Troiev/jLevov? Trepielvai Kal TavTrjv e%ovTas ev fyvXaicfi. TCL eTTi/jLijvia fie\iToecrcra TrpOTiOevTes' avTrj BTJ q 38 . TW ipw' Xeyovcri TC CCTTL. AOrfvaLwv TTJ TL<$ BvvaTat. evdavTa TrXetcTTOt 69 O'L Aiyivav. Ol [JLev Brj aloi.HERODOTUS ' ev TO) Te[Level T^9 Tlpovaiys 9 Adrjvairjs TO eveatcrj^frav TOVTCOV fieV 40. /ACTO. Teeiv Kal Tpoi^rjva diTe(TTL\av.? rea?. aXXa Be CLTCIel ev Trj TWV fjiev evai. VVV TWV dvbp&V a\)TJ] ttTTO TOV IpOV Bid c ^\\rjvu>v vavTiKos crrpaTos UTTO TOV ^AOiivaiwv ^erfOevrwv e? TO. ev \e<yova-(. TO. 'O Be rwv ftapjBdpwv <pep6/jivoi. rwvSe Se e'lverca Trpo ' avrwv crxelv TT/OO? SaXa/tt^a Adyvaioi. TavTa TrvvOavbfJLevoi OVTCO Brj 7rpocreBe^0ijo~av 41. ftapov. OL Be eTcvvOdvovTo TOV ^]ad/jLov auTOU9 T6i^eovTa<f.

and moreover take counsel as to what they should do. whither their descent through the forSuch. most of them sent their households to Troezen. they therefore entreated the fleet to put in at Salamis. but learnt contrariwise that the Peloponnesians were all else go. Learning this. it is said by the Athenians that which was this a great snake lives in their temple. and the Athenians to their own country. that they themselves might convey safe out of Attica. was eigners' ranks had hurled them. and some to Aegina and Salamis. lying in the precinct of Athene Pronaea. Peloponnesian force awaiting the foreigners' attack in Boeotia. So the rest made sail thither. For inasmuch as the present turn of affairs had disappointed their judgment they were now to hold a council they had thought to find the whole their children and women . . and for another reason. 39 . as fortifying the Isthmus. after it had left Artemisium came by the Athenians' entreaty to land at Salamis the reason why the Athenians entreated them to put . the manner of those men's departure from the temple. 41. to guard the in proof whereof they do ever duly set acropolis out a honey-cake as a monthly offering for it this greatest : . then. and letting deeming the defence of the Peloponnese to be of moment. 39-41 my day. too. Being there arrived they made a proclamation that every Athenian should save his Thereat children and servants as he best could. but now of that they found no whit. 40. They made haste to convey all out of harm because they desired to be guided by the oracle. The Greek fleet. in there being.BOOK seen in VIII.

'EcTTyoareuoj'TO 5e oT^e* e/c vrjGOV AaKeBai/jiovioi cKKaiBeKa veas Kopivdioi Be TO avro TrXijpw/aa eV ^Apre/jLt(TL(D- yoviQ veas. ^AO-rjvaloi jrpbs rrdvTas rou? aXXof? Trape^ofjievoL veas Kovra teal eKarov.. 'QpfjLicvees 'ZiKvatvioi Be TrevTeKai&etca TrapeiBe Be/ca. OVTOI OVTO. vv}<jlwv ecrTparevBe CK TT}? e^co ^rrelpov. /^ovi'or ev %a\ajjLivi yap ov 44. VTTO TT.eyeo'dai.HERODOTUS fi\ir6eacra ev TM irpoaOe alel rare r]V a^avaios. 42. crrj/jLTji'dar]^ Be Tavra . 'ETriBavpioi Trevre. avveppee KOI TO)V 'Apre/jLicrLov e? ^a\a/nii>a 6 XofTro? irvvOa- Ej\\ll>0}V VCLWTLKOS <7T?aTO? K e? <yap YIu)ya)i>a TovTpoi&ji'iCiJV \ijne avXX. Tpoityvtot. 7r\eov e? TO crrpaTOTre^ov. [lev vvv ITeXoTro. eoi^re? OLTOL AcopiKov re /cat MaxeBvbv e9vo$. 1 e/c vvv X^P ^ e^avauTavre^.rj\tecov Ka\eo/j. Be Be r/oet?. vavap%os ^kv vvv enrrfv tofro? o? Trep eV ^Apre/jLicriw EivpVK\6LBew dvrjp ^TrapTirJTfjs. 'Evret Be ol djr ' ra? veas. ov TOV fiaaiXriiov ecav vea? Be TroXXw vrXetcrTa? re 6 ' /cat apicrTa TrXeoucra? rrapei^ovro 43. ol 40 .? re KOI M. fjid\\6v TI 01 rrjv ^AOrfvaloi KOI co? irpoOv- TTO\IV. &)? Be a<>i iravra aKporroXiv. KCU TT}? 9eov .evr]<. TrpoeLprjro GvveXkyQ^adv re Brj TToA-Xw vrXeui^e? pee? 17 eV 'Apre/AiaiM zvav fjid^eov /cat avro iro\iwv irXevvwv. re /cat TLuvBov KOL TT}? ApuoTTt^o? vcrrara ol Be '^p/Jiiovees elal ApuoTre?.

These were the Peloponnesians in the fleet. for the Plataeans did not 43. and had last come from Erineus and Pindus and the Dryopian region. 44. all these. except the people of Hermione. the rest of their fleet also heard of it and gathered in from Troezen. but it was the Athenians who furnished by far the most and the . Pogon. but was now When the priestess made that left untouched. w ere. the Athenians were the readier to leave their city. and came from more cities. a Spartan. Their admiral-in-chief was the same as at Artemisium. and the Corinthians with the same number of ships as at Artemisium . that were with the fleet the Lacedaemonians. the Athenians furnished more ships than any of the rest. had been named for their place of mustering and the ships that mustered there were more by far than had fought at Artemisium. r . known.BOOK VIII. Of those that came from the mainland outside the Peloponnese. the Sicyonians furnished fifteen. yet not of the royal blood . too. the port of which. When the Greeks from Artemisium had put in at Salamis. to have deserted the acropolis. the people of Hermione three. the Epidaurians ten. sea-worthiest ships. deeming their goddess. When they had conveyed all away. Eurybiades son of Euryclides. of their own sending. were of Dorian and Macedonian stock. 42. with sixteen ships. The Peloponnesians firstly. namely. driven by Heracles and the Malians from the country now called Doris. they returned to the fleet. The people of Hermione are Dryopians. a hundred and eighty. the Troezenians five. 41-44 cake had ever before been consumed.

irepalrjv ITXaraiee? aTroftdvres e? rrjv Bo&)T/?. eVt Se Ke/c/aoTro? /SacrtXeo? dp%r)V 'AOrjvaioi /LLerutpOfjidcrd'rja-av. A/9T6/ifO'tft). Aljivf)rat Be elcrl Aco/jiee? a?ro 8e vi](TU> Trporepov ovvo/jLa rjv Be AlyLVijras XaX/tiSee? ra? eV fiera iU) eiKocn 7rape%6/j.evoL KOI 'Rperpiees ra? f / P> V 7rra' OVTOI oe >'T > / Lcoves etcrt. rrjv AOrjvaloi Be eVl fjiev vvv 'EXXaSa fca\eo/jLei>rjv IleXacr^a)^ e^ovrwv rjaav IleXacr^ot. N^criwreco^ Se Alyivr/Tai.HERODOTUS nXaratee? 6vBe ri Trpijyjjia' ' A. e^^o? eoz^re? OVTOI Acopitcbv diro KopivQov. djrop. Wvos Na^ot Be Trapei^ovro recro-epas. OVTOL fJLCV VVV TOVTOVS Or(t)^OVTS ' \i- fyOrjaav.9 ^coprjs irpo^ KKO/jii$r}v eTpdrrovro OLKTeWV. TpirJKovra Trapeurjcrav /mev <T$>L KOI aXXat 7re7r\r)pa)/jievai XOVTO. a>? eyivovro Oi rwv 'EXX^a)^ Kara XaX/a'Sa.dr)vaioi(ri Bia TOI- a7raXXa<7<jo/iej'a)i> diro rov 'AprejAicriov.ev 69 TOV? M^Soi"? UTTO rai^ 7ro\irj- /zera oe K^ot ra? eov *\O)VIKOV diro \ \ T7- / \ 42 . Be rpet?. ovojjLa%6jjLi>OL Kpavaoi. 46. Aev/cdBioi. Be rrjat apiara ir\eovcrrj(7L ev ^a\afjuvi. * "Iwvos lEiovOov (Trpardp^eo) " eK\rj6r)crav diro rovrov 45. I KOL eV* vee$. ^evojjievov M7a/?ee? > Se TCOUTO 'A/jLTrpaKiwTai Be eTrrd veas e^oj/T? e7T/3oi]0*]crav. Trape^o/mevoi. aXXa r^cr^ ^ez/ r^ ewwrwv <j)i>\acr(Tov.

were Pelasgians. like the rest of the 1 That is. too. in the time of their king Cecrops they came to be called Cecropidae. and had arrived off Chalcis. furnishing the same ships as before they are of Ionian stock. from Athens. and fought at Salamis with the thirty that were most seaworthy. They had other ships. bearing the name of Cranai l . "dwellers on the heights. The Athenians. whereof the the Greeks sailed from Arte- misium. manned but they used them to guard their own coasts." All " " to pre-Dorian inhabitants of Hellas are Pelasgian Herodotus. townsmen furnished four ships . 45. The Megarians furnished the same complement Artemisium . had fought at Artemisium they are lonians and next the Ceans. probably. The Naxians . Of the islanders. 44-46 reason was that when Athenians at Salamis. . the Ampraciots brought seven and the Leucadians (who are of Dorian stock from Corinth) brought three. while the Pelasgians ruled what is now called Hellas.BOOK fight beside the VIII. the Aeginetans furnished thirty. the Plataeans landed on the opposite Boeotian shore and set about conveying their households away. and when the kingship fell to Erechtheus they changed their name and became Athenians. . and the Eretrians with the seven which . So they were left behind bringing these to safety. 46. The Aeginetans are Dorians from Epidaurus their island was formerly called Oenone. as at ships to the fleet. 43 . . After the Aeginetans came the Chalcidians with the twenty. they had been sent by their to the Persians. but when Ion son of Xuthus was made leader of their armies they were called after him lonians.

MTJ\IOI Be Kal ^. ' /jiov "I awe? AOrjvewv yeyovoTS. ^elioi re Kal Kal M^Xioi evrparevovro' ovroi yap OVK &ocrai> fjiovvoi vrjcricoreatv ru> /3ap/3dp(o yrjv re Kal 47. ^ifyvioi Be Kal 'A6r]vewv fiiav eKarepoi. rrpoOevros ILvpvfiidSea) yvwfjujv drrotyaiveaOat. Ovrot jiev arcavres eVro? rrpcorcov Kal 'A^epo^TO? rcorafjiov ecrrparevovro' 0ecr7r yocoTo! 7ap etVl o/Jiov pcovres \\/ji r/rpaKict)rr)cri Kal AevKa&ioicn. rpt^Koaiai Kal eftBo/jMJKovra Kal Be eyevero 6 "\wves eovres drr* Tra? f 49. ecr%arean> rwv &e e'/cro? ^wpewv ear pa rovrwv oiK^i^evwv Kpo' /JLOVVOI rjaav 01 ejSoijOrja-av rfj 6ioviKr)<$ $auXXo?' yu-ev Yiporwvirjrai Be yevos elal 48. eovre? :al ovroi AuoTre?. dXoyijaavres rwv evro\ewv drriKaro e? rovs "EXX 77^0. r(t)vii)rai O'L ej. rwv rrevrrjKovrepwv. Oi vvv a\\oi rpirjpeas 7rape\ofJivoi earparevovro.ifyviot Kal ^epi^ioi TrevrrjKOvrepovs' M?. rwv ve&v.9 AtjuoKpirov crTTevcravros. rov fiovXojuevov. revovro. OKOV BoKeoL eTTinjBeorarov elvat i>av- 44 . fl? Se e? rrfv ^a\a/jiiva crvvr]\0ov ol arpa- rrjyol drrb r&v elpriuevewv rro\iwv. rrdpej. e/3ov\evoi>ro.HERODOTUS reaiv Be Kara rrep ol aXXot v^aiMrai.Xto* n-ev yevos e'oWe? drro Bvo rrapei')(ovro.V0VIOL Se ttTTo Na^toi Be ^rvpees Be elal ra<? eV jjuiav Kal TrevrrjKovrepov. aura? rcapei'Xpvro veas ra? irep K. dvBpos rwv darwv BOKLKal Tore rpi7)pap~%eovro<s.

All these aforesaid came to the war from countries nearer than Thesprotia and the river Acheron for Thesprotia marches with the Ampraciots and Leucadians. the men of Croton alone came to aid Hellas in its peril. The whole number of the ships. All these furnished triremes for the fleet save Melians and Siplmians and Seriphians. 49. among all places whereof the Greeks r met at Salamis. 47. a victor in the Pythian farthest distant.BOOK . and the Cythnians one trireme and a fifty-oared bark both these peoples are Dryopians. aforenamed Eurybiades laid the matter before them. There were also in the fleet men of Seriphos and Siphnos and Melos. games. of Athenian lineage. When the leaders from the cities . being invited thereto by Democritus. bidding whosoever would to declare what waters in his judgment w ere fittest for a sea-fight. and they with one ship. they held a council 45 . who came from the lands . Of those that dwell farther off than these. the Melians (who are of Lacedaemonian stock) two. These Crotoniats are of Achaean blood. besides the fifty-oared barks.. 46-49 but they paid no heed to the command islanders and joined themselves to the Greeks. these being the only islanders who had not given the foreigner earth and water. VIII. The Naxians are lonians. a man of note in their town. was three hundred and seventy the eight. and the Siplmians and Seriphians (who are lonians of Athenian lineage) one each. who brought fifty-oared barks. whereof the captain was Phayilus. 48. The Styrians furnished the same number as at Artemisium. . who was then captain of a trireme.

CTTL\eyovres TOV \6yov rovSe. ra/ita? re TOV ipov /cal 7reV^ra9 dv9po)Trovs. eva avrov fjifiva ev TW $Le(3aivov r^v ev ev rpicrl erepoicri ^rjal eyevovro Am/cr).crou cnparri<y(i)v ' \t]\vde avrjp Adr/valos dyj\\o)v TOV ftdpftapov e? rrjv 'A-TTifeyv /cal Trdcrav 6 yap Sia Boiwrwv Trvpiro^eecfOai. cTT^aro? dfia Hiep^r). w? el viKr)6ea)(Ti TT) ' rj vav/jLa-^ir]. vrjGw. 'ATTO Se r^9 Siafidaios TOV &iaTpi"fyav're<$ E*vpu>7rr]v. eVeV/o^cre re KOI OTt OVK fjilj8lov. \\'](T7r6vTOV. KaXXiaSea) ap')(pVTO<$ 'AOyjvaioia'i. CLVTWV real Trjv Tl\araia)V e/jiTrpijcras 9 ra9 axraurw?. iv ^aK-afjuvi fiev ei> eovres TroXiop/crjcrovTai.HERODOTUS TroieeaOai TWV avrol yap ^ATTLKTJ airelro r)&r). d/na /mev 9 ^aKa/Mva. f ! 51. Kai iiva^ o\iyov<> evpicrKOvcn TWV *A. 'iva <j$i TL/jLWpirj ovBe^ia 7ri<f)avtjo-6Tai. cov. ol (j)pad/jiei>ot Trjv d/cpoTroXiv Ovprjai. TO rjfjivvovTO 46 . aipeovai eprj/wv TO dcrTv. 50. re /cal ' TOU9 eTTiovTas. 7T\etcrTat (Twe^ermnov Trpos TOV 'Io~0fjLov TrXooaavTas vav/jLa^eeiv Trpo rr)? HeXoTrovvtjo-ov. Tavra TWV CLTTO ITeXo7ro^y?.6i}vaL(ov ev TU> ipS) eovras. 9 evOev TropevecrOai ijp^avro ol fidpfiapoi. TWV &e \OLTrewv al yvwjAai Se rwv \eyovTcov al rrpoeriOee. 7T/509 Se TW 'Icr$/zco e9 TOU? kwwrwv k^oiuovTai. rj/ce re Kal irdvra etcelva eSrjiov. Trpos Se {3iov OVK eK^wprja-avTes l 0"OKOVT6$ e^Vpr]KVaL TO /JiaVTijlOV TO 1] e^prfae. rrjv 7ro\Lv..

laying waste all the country round. but off the Isthmus they could win to their own coasts. partly by reason of poverty. There they took the city. They burnt Thespia and Plataea because they learnt from the Thebans that those towns had not taken the Persian part.BOOK . Then the opinion of most of the speakers tended to the same conclusion. 51. were masters of Attica they had no more hope it was among other places that he bade them judge. the reason which they alleged being this. bringing news that the foreigner was arrived in Attica. and was arrived at Athens. For the army which followed Xerxes through Boeotia had burnt the town of the Thespians (who had themselves left it and gone to the Peloponnese) and Plataea likewise. that if they were defeated in the fight at Salamis they would be beleaguered in an island. the foreigners had spent one month in their passage into Europe. that they should sail to the Isthmus and do battle by sea for the safety of the Peloponnese. Now after the crossing of the Hellespont whence they began their march. there came a man of Athens. temple-stewards and needy men. 47 . While the Peloponnesian captains held this argument. and in three more months they arrived in Attica. 50. and was wasting it all with fire. and also because they supposed themselves to have found out the meaning of the Delphic oracle that the wooden wall should be . 49-51 . these had not withdrawn to Salamis. who defended themselves against the assault by fencing the acropolis with doors and logs . where no help could come to them . then left desolate but they found in the temple some few Athenians. Calliades being then archon at Athens. VIII.

v KO /~\ '$' 52.HERODOTUS TOVTO elvai TO KprjcrcfrvyeTov Kal ov T-9 vea$. if) $r) ovre Tt9 e^i^Xacrcre OVT av KOT6 TL<> KaTa TdVTCi dva/3airj Trj dvefiriaav Tives KaTa TO ipov TT]<S 'A<y\avpov. ' ' Sa) KOTOS' oit&e \6yovs TMV avTe/Jiri")(avMVTo rrepl 6/^0X071175 eveSercovTO. e/jLTrpocrde wv rrpo OTTl(T06 Se TMV TTV\WV dvocov.O. 142. Xpo^w S" etc TWV drropcov (j)tivr} e^oSo? Tolai ftapftdpoiGL' e'See yap KaTa TO 6eoTrpoiTLov rrdo-av TJJV 'ATTIKTJV T^V iv TTJ yevecrOai VTTO Tlepcrycn. o'l Be 8e Hepcreayv ol 9 TO /jieyapov Ka TrpwTOv dvafiefirjKoTes 1 In vii.vov e? TO (ppdj/JLa. 8e ci\\a T6 Kal Sr] Kal 7rpO(TiovTwv TWV ftapfidpwv Trpo errl drropirjai eve^eaOai ov ^vvdp. 48 . 7ro\i6pKeov Tporrov TOIOV$' (TTVTnrelov rrepl TOVS OICTTOVS rrepidevTes a\lreiav. evOavTa KQr]vaiu>v ol Toj. vJi oe Liepaai i^ofjievoi em TOV TOV i'. KaiTOi rrep TOV %topov. Kairrep 6'yu.evov cr</)ea? e 53.a>9 7ro\iop/ce6/jiGvot ea")(aTov KCLKOV Lnrijfjiivoi Kal TOV $r) avTO TCL TO f fjLavTi]iov v S~ TT ' ' v . OL eppiTrreov ecovTOvs KaTa TOV T6t^eo9 K.TW ' $ie$>6eipovTO. e? TO IJ/JHJVOVTO. a)9 3e ei&ov avTovs dvafteol 'Adyvaioi eVl Tifv a/cpovroXt^.

and others fled into the inner chamber. peyapov here = Ipov . Those Persians who had come up first betook themselves . chiefly by rolling great stones down on the foreigners when they assaulted the gates.'s description (say How and Wells) is accurate and obvious. had ascended to the acropolis.' facing the same way as the main entrance of the Acropolis. But at the last in their quandary the foreigners found an entrance for the oracle must needs be fulfilled. The ascent was probably made by a steep cleft running under or within the N. . though the way led 2 When the Athenians saw that up a sheer cliff. subject to the Persians.BOOK ships. some of them they cast themselves down from the wall and so perished. but defended themselves by counterdevices. 51-53 impregnable. There the Athenians defended themselves against their besiegers. arid believed that this. which is called by the Athenians the Hill of Ares. albeit they were in extremity and their barricade had failed them . the western entrance of this cleft is 'in front. and all the mainland of Attica be made In front of the acropolis. insomuch that for a long while Xerxes could not take the place. 1 The Persians sat down on the hill over against the acropolis. and knew not what to do. nor would they listen to the terms of surrender proposed to them by the Pisistratids. and besieged them by shooting arrows wrapped in lighted tow at the barricade. there was a place where none was on guard and none would have thought that any man would ascend that way here certain men mounted near the shrine of Cecrops' daughter Aglaurus. and not the was the refuge signified by the prophecy. 52. VIII. 49 . wall of the Acropolis . and behind the gates and the ascent thereto. 2 Hdt. 53.

C)/ 8e eV SaXa/xm ? f/ EA. evTrprj^irjv. eVreraX/xe^a. Seoovd re Kal AOi^vairiv epiaavras Trepl rij^ ^coprjf.vii<r0r]v. ^XMV e? &e 7raz>TeXea>9 ra? Trjv dTrerrefji^re dyj\eovra &e r?}? SoOcra a<yye\ov i Trapeovadv cr^i ToO tci'ipvicos TreyLM/ao? 'rjvawv TOJ? . etre S?. (vas. ' w? cr^>i 6^777- e'9 KOrivaiwv dKpo7ro\iv. ecrrt eV d/cpoTTo^i. 54.HERODOTUS 717509 ra? 7rv\a<$.v6{Avoi K TOV OVTOL o<rov T6 jiv vvv ravra 56. eiVe al T^ ev0v/jii6v ol eyevero ' tfrvydSes rot)v ol Be e/JLTrprjaavri. Tocrovrov 6opvj3ov diriKovro 609 eWot TWZ^ a~rpaov8e KvpwOrfvai epevov TO 69 Te Ta9 i^ea9 ecreTTLTrrov KOI ecr^e 7T6yol T^Z/ Ta deipovTO 50 a)9 dTTodevao/uLevoc' TolaL TC VTTO\/TTO- . e TW rd ^0709 Trapd 'AOrjvaiwv \ioo~ei- elvai aXXco t^w /ca-re'Xa/Se dpcov Sevrepy 8e ol Qve.' evvTTvlov eVereXXero raura. ToO T^ ^e elveicev TOVTWV G7re/j. /5acriXeo9 69 TO pa>v acrjov K6\. TO ipov ffv\^(7avT<f eveirprjcrav Tfdcrav rrjv dKpo7ro\Lv. (frpdaci). wz/ o'v/rti/ Tti^a t'So).^69.iv efjuTrprjcrOrivai VTTO T?)9 TWV /3ap- rj/nepy dfrb e'yLtTr^o^crto? VTTO t/)o^. TO Ipov.ravrrj 'E/oe%^eo? TOU 77776- 6d\acro~a evi. ' aii re ^7?. 55. ravrrjv wv rrjv e\air)v dfia ru> fxapTvpia OeaOai. ScvTepr) ecovrw /ce\eve rpoTTw TO) a(j)6Tpa) @vcrai rd Ipd dvafidvras 9 aKpOTtoKiv. raura? Be dvotavT<$ TOi>9 i/ceras etyovevov eVel Be o~(j)i Trdvres /care(TTpwvro.\?. A0r)vaiO)i> eTroirjaav TO.

whether it was some vision seen of him in sleep that led him to give this charge. when the Athenians bidden by the king to sacrifice went up to the temple. When it was told to the Greeks at Salamis what had befallen the Athenian acropolis. and when they had laid all the Athenians low. The Athenian exiles did as they were bidden. but threw themselves aboard their ships and hoisted their sails for flight. Cecrops 51 . Being now wholly master of Athens. 53-56 to the gates. and slew the suppliants . which thing they reported. Those that were Athene created the olive. Xerxes sent a horseman to Susa to announce his present success to Artabanus. 54. 1 salt pool . . and a salt-pool. : this tokens of their contention for the land. On the next day after the messenger was sent he called together the Athenian exiles who followed in his train. they plundered the temple and burnt the whole of the acropolis. 56.BOOK VIII. which (as the Athenians say) were set there by Poseidon and Athene as 55. they saw a shoot of about a cubit's length sprung from the trunk . wherein is an olive tree. I will now show wherefore I make mention ot on that acropolis there is a shrine of Erechtheus the Earthborn (as he is called). and bade them go up to the acropolis and offer sacrifice after their manner. which they opened. that the olive tree was burnt with the temple by the foreigners but on the day after its burning. 1 Now it was so. they were so panic-struck that some of their captains would not wait till the matter whereon they debated should be resolved. or that he repented of his burning of the temple. Poseidon the adjudged the land to Athene.

TJV aTraeipMcri ra? z'ea? a?ro ^a\a[jLLi'OS. TroXXo? rjv 6 aTotc\eri<$ ev Tolcri \oyoiai.. 'fi? Se apa crvv6\e)(9t]crav. rrpiv r) TOV TU>V Etvpv/3idS>]v TrpoOelvai TOV \6yov (TWijyaye TOU? aTpaTy]yov<. ei TI 6e\ei. 47re apa. eirf TrvOo/jievos 8e avTOV w? TOP SeBoy/Aevov avdyeiv ra? i^ea? 'l(T0/J.i^ato? o TL vea eipeTO Mz^cr/^tA-o? avrjp 6irj fte/BovXev/^evov. ewvrov e? o a\\a TTO\\CL TrpouTiOeis. rjKovcre NLvr)(7i(j)L\ov.Ta/3ov\evcrao-@ai ware ireipw avrov 58. 59. /neveiv. TTOievjJievos.T nqv aTroXeerat a\\' et 'E d(Bov\ir)<Ti. KLi>d T6 TrdvTa KOI TO. evOavTd 6 @e/JLi(TTOK\er]^ Trapi^ofjLevos ol KctTa\eyei. Wi real Sia^eaL ra (BeftovXevfjifva. /jit^avt]. dveyvwcre -^p^l^v etc re T?)? z^eo? e/cj37]vai crv\\e^ai re TOU? arpaTijyovs e? TO cruveSpiov. ola KapTa 52 .r avOWTTWV rrjv a/\Xo? WCTT6 T^? ecrrl OV re ?. 57.Ol> Kal TTpO T^? TleXoTTOWtjcrOV VCLV" OUT' fjLa^ii'. en pa.HERODOTUS avTwv CKVpcaOtj irpo TOV 'Icrd/j." Kapra re rw e^ucrro/cXe^ i'lpecre rj VTTO- z^ea T^ l^vpv/3id$ea). 'Ejvdavra TTJV &rj @e^iaTOK\ea aTTiKo^ievov eirl 'A(9>. Trepl ovSefjiiijs erL TraTpiSo? vav- Kara yap KOI OUT6 OVT T? i TroX^? eKacnoi J.ov vav^avv% re eyiveTo KOI 01 SiaXvOevres etc TOV crvveSpiov ecreftaivov e? ra? veas. ol KOIVOV TL TTfjLa (rvjiuaL' dTTLKO^vo^ Be o S' avTov e? rrjv vea exeXeve ea-ftdvra \eyeiv. TIV KWS &i>vy avayvwcrai Evpu^LaS^p /j.

he went to Eurybiades' ship. as it w ere of his own devising. if there be any means thereto. till he prevailed with the Spartan by entreaty to come out of his ship and assemble the admirals in their place of . and added much thereto. MnesiphiluSj an Athenian. Themistocles then being returned to his ship. asked him what was the issue of their counsels. will be able to hold them. if haply you may be able to persuade . Adimantus son entreaty . They being assembled (so it is said). Eurybiades here. and said that he would confer with him on a matter of their common interest. your ships will have no country left wherefor to fight. before Eurybiades had laid before them the matter wherefor the generals were brought together. 59." to change his purpose and so abide r 58. r meeting. Nay. Learning from him that their plan was to sail to the Isthmus and fight in defence of the Peloponnese. " Then/' said Mnesiphilus. go now and strive to undo this plan. but the armament will be scattered abroad and Hellas will perish by unwisdom. and neither Eurybiades. 56-59 fleet behind resolved that the should fight to guard the Isthmus and at nightfall they broke up from the assembly and embarked. 53 . Themistocles spoke long and vehemently in the earnestness of his and while he yet spoke. VIII. nor any other man. This advice pleased Themistocles w ell making no answer to Mnesiphilus. Eurybiades bidding him come aboard and say what he would. for everyone will betake himself to his own city. " if they put out to sea from Salamis. 57. Themistocles sat by him and told him all that he had heard from Mnesiphilus.BOOK left .

KOL /JLtv /cal ToBe ev V6(TTi. ol ovSeva /caTr/yopeeiv o Be d\\ov \6yov " 'E^ croi vvv ecrrl crcocrat rdBe. rjv rd TOV 7roXe//. Be rd ^prjard olrcora ev /c eyco \eyco Troitfcrys. aTraeipwcri airo 2<zXa/xt^o? BiaBpijaovrai' ei' ira- peovrwv yap TWV av jjifjid^wv OVK efyepe. KOI OVTQ) cr^ea? auro? a Kiv&vvevcrei. rj/jiiv aurt? Be vireKKeiTai TcepiyiveTai. 69 Trjv T6 KOL avrolcri yvvaiKes. e? TO ijtcicrra crvfji^opov earl e'Xacrcro^a?' veas e \ovai fiapvrepas KOI TOVTO Se aTroXeef? SaXa/u^a 1JV Trep teal ra TO> i>avTiKO) avrwv re al Me'7a/3a :at Aiyivav.ou eK/SaLvy. 7T/909 Be TOV E*vpv{3idSrji> e\e<ye etceivwv p.ev TL ovSev TWV Trpbrepov Xe^eVrco^.Xee9. rocrdBe ev evprjcreis' Trpwra pev ev aTeivw vr^vcn o\iyy<TL TT/OO? TroXXa?. d/covcra?. a>? erreav 60.eiTO. evpv%(i)pLrj Be TT/JO? exeivayv. TT/QO? /lev TW 'lo-^w ev dvaTreTTTa/j-eva) ^au/xa^^cre/-?. re aTrdarj rfj rfv T^y rieXoTro^^cro^. ov Tore /nev rjirims 7rpo9 roi^ iopiv6iov ap. TOV /cal Trepiexecrde 54 . 6 KopivOios crrparrj'yo<. /cal 6 7rl a pa Be 7reo? orrparo^. ev roicri elire "*O / dywcri ol rrpoe^aviarTd/jLevoi " pcnri^ovTai" o Be Ol Be 76 ey/caTaXenrofjievot.*. \eyo)V rrjv rjv efjiol TreiOr) vavp^ay^Lriv KOCT/JLOV avrov fJLevwv TOVTWV Toiai \Q^OI<JL dvriOes yap e/cdrepoi' (rv/jLJ3d\\a)i> o? TOV ^\a9fjiov ra? veas. 'A&ete cacrro/<. vroXXo^ TT/^O? TO yap ev aTeivw vavfia^eeiv L. aXXa vrv^j(rcofjLv.HERODOTUS 6 *IKVTOV Be avrov.

" 60. they that come forward before " their time are beaten with rods. where it is least for our advantage. said. Secondly. and imperil : as I counsel you." Ay. we shall win a great victory. our ships being the heavier and the fewer in number . all Hellas. we save Salamis. and moreover you will lose Salamis and Megara and Aegina. Hear me now. . " to save lies in your hand. in my plan. 59-60 of Ocytus. and judge between two plans. if you will be guided by me and fight here at sea. If you engage off the Isthmus flee . and so you will lead them to the . it would have ill become him to brin^accusations against the allies in their " It presence . "but they that wait too long win no crown. and not be won by the words of these others to remove your ships over to the Isthmus. But if you do you will thereby profit as I shall show firstly. : 55 . whither we have conveyed away our children and our women. if the war have its rightful issue for it is for our advantage to fight in a strait as it is theirs to have wide sea-room. he said now nought of what he had said before. Themistocles. how that if they set sail from Salamis they would scatter and . even if victory attend us otherwise and their land army will follow with their fleet. for railing you will fight in open waters. too. and it is your chiefest desire you will be defending the Peloponnese." said Themistocles. " At the games. there is this. he trusted to another plea instead. the Corinthian admiral." said he. Thus for the nonce he made the Corinthian a soft answer then turning to Eurybiades. justifying himself. Moreover. by engaging their many ships with our few in narrow seas.BOOK VIII. Hellas.

7/ o-v/ji/3dX\ecr0a(.ev TT/OO? rfjcrL vrjvai. dei$ eTrl ryv YleXoTrovvrjcrov. Keadv re /cal /carei^ovro at 'AOfjvai. ewvrolo-i ^ee? /cal 7ro\is /cal }Lopu>6iovs re e&ij\ov fiefov ij Trep a(f)i efceivoKri.ea irape^o^evov ovrco efce\eve ravra Be ol irpoe^epe on. ol ftdpftapoi ovre vfjilv e^ TOV ^\a6fj. airlacfi re ovSevl tcocrfjiw.evoicn OVK edeXec ovSe 6 ^eo? Trpoa^cope^iv 'ATT^/C?}?. ^i/uLaivtov Be ravra J&vpvfiidBrjv. dvarpe-^reLS rrjv EXXa8a* ai z^e'e?. ear* av BirfKoaiai eu>cn 7re7r\rfpo)/jLvaL' ovBa/AOvs yap ru> 'E^XXyvcov avrovs emovras drroKpova-eaOai. 7roi(ri &)? TO eiruirav e9e\ei yivecrdat' /AT) Be ol/coTa (3ov\evoiJ. yvcajjias" Tavra \eyovros e^aTO/cXeo? avns 6 ea)v re 'ASet/za^To? (Tiydv eTre^epero. 62. ry /arj earl Trar/oi? /cal EtvpvfitdSvjv OVK TroXiv yap TOV eTTi^rri^L^eiv diTo\L dvBpi' e/ucrTO/eA. eKaa-repw MeydpOLcri re K6p$aveo/jiV Trepieovai /cal Alyivrj KOI ^a ev rfj r]fjuv KOI \oyiov earl rwv e^Qpcov ol/cora yu-eV vvv ftovXevo/nevoia-i a yeveaOai.? /cal Ka/cd eirj re /cal TOU? yfj e\eye.. \eywv fj. aXV 56 . rjv Be ye /cal rd eyw eXfri^ta yevrjrai teal vi/crjcr(i)/j. av6 pWTrrjias 61. ovSe crtyeas.ov oure TTpoftrjcrovrai. TO rcav yap rjfuv rov 7ro\efjLOV (frepovcri el Be ravra Treideo. yLte^eet? avrov /cal fjievwv dvijp el Be fJLi]. rore 8>) 6 rro\\d re \6yct) 009 icelvov e/ucTTO/cXe'?.d\\ov el \6yy Bieftaive e? eTrecrrpa/JL/Aev ecreat.HERODOTUS avrov re irovvi](Tov /cal /ieVw/^ ^ Trpoi'avfjLa^rjcreL^ IleXo- rw \a0fjLW. el Trep ev (frpoi'eeis.

we then . Thus declaring. and you will not lead our enemies (if you be wise) to the Isthmus. giving them had a city plainly to understand that the Athenians Thus . 57 . human 61. advance no further than Attica. " If and spoke more vehemently than before. 60-62 Peloponnese as well by abiding here as you would by fighting off the Isthmus. by so abiding you will be a right good man but if you will not. 62. you will overthrow Hellas for all our strength for war is in our ships. where it is told us by an oracle that we shall have the upper hand Success comes oftenest to men of our enemies. and that Eurybiades let must not suffer one that had no city to vote Themistocles (said he) have a city at his back ere he took part in council. . you will never have the foreigners upon you at the Isthmus they will . said Themistocles but Adimantus the Corinthian attacked him again." . Nay. devices. . And if that happen which I expect. saying that a landless man should hold his peace. . when they make reasonable designs but if they do not so. you abide here. But if you do not so. neither will heaven for its part side with . and country greater than theirs. Thereupon Themistocles spoke long and bitterly against Adimantus and the Corinthians. as long as they had two hundred ships fully manned for there were no Greeks that could beat them off. but depart in disorderly fashion and we shall gain by the saving of Megara and Aegina and Salamis. be guided by me. he passed over to Eurybiades. taunting him thus because Athens was taken and held by the enemy.BOOK VIII.

dvi^p A. . Tavra $e Xeyo^ro? ave&i/JLOI.lyivav.evos 67TfitT ArTLKT) Keip6TO f) o T v TTG^OV (TTparov TOV He/)^ea) eovcra ivalwv.ei>oi 7TKa\eovro. rovs otVera? KOfjiievfieda e? irep rj/jLereprj re ecrrl etc fj ra \6yia Xeyet u/xet? UTT' rjfjiecov avrrjv Beeiv KTicrOrjvai" Be crv^fjid^wv roiwvBe TWV e^wv BefucrTO/eXeo? Bda/cero l&vpv/3id&r)<. CK 2aXayu.HERODOTUS rrjv ev 'lra\irj. 67rl Be Alatcov KOI rou? a\\ov<> Ala/dBas vea diTecrTe\\ov e? A. rotcrt Oeolcn KOL eTTiKaX-eaacrOai. v. "E^)?. OVTU> ol Trepl ^a\afuva co? teal cifjia rw avroi) re fjueprj vau/uLa^crovTe^. dydyy ra? ov/ceri yap ol <yi>(t)/jit]v. TavTTjv $e eylvovro alpeerai rr)v eVecrt dfcpo- avrov nevovras ^LavavfjLa^eeiv. Be At/caio? o OKi>Beos.W. KOI yap iracn Tolai deolai. TW)(elv Tore ewv a/jia ^jj^apiJTw TO> AaKeBaiaovLfo ev TCO ^piacriw TreBia). distant. /j. IBelv Be t ds re KOLI TOVTOV TOV J^PQVOV. i ' 1 The images of Aeacus and his sons cp. 'AOrjvaicov \OITTOL. from which Eleusis Ls about 15 miles Plutarch says that the vision was seen on the day 58 .t^o? Ai'avrd re KCU TeXaoJ? ev^d/j. tcai dva\a/36vre<. eri.ijBoicri \oyifjios yevofj<.ev TavTa' Be G$I eBo^e. /jLev 64. TJV irpos rov 'lafffjibv 63.0^valo^ ' Trapa M. a N. of Athens. TOI/? av^ayows.' So/ceeiv $ diro\'nrwcri. 80. rjXia) dviovri creto'/io? eyevero ev re rfj ev^aaOai AlatclSas eTroievv ev eBo^e Se yfj real Ty 6a\dcrcrr). y 65. i i iii.

where the Greeks were and they sent a and the rest that were of ship to Aegina for Aeacus his House. 62-65 without more ado will take our households and voyage been ours from old time. chiefly seas 64." 63. . an exile from Athens who had attained to estimation among the Medes. we must there plant a colony and you. to abide and fight on the to change . so they did they prayed to all the gods. which to my thinking he did his purpose because he feared lest the Athenians should leave him if he took his ships to the Isthmus . saw dust coming Salamis prepared. and no Athenians were therein. left without allies such as we are. he. These words of Themistocles moved Eurybiades to Siris in Italy. and to As they call the sons of Aeacus to be their helpers. namely. This was the tale that he told At the time when the land of Attica was being laid waste by Xerxes' army. resolved. Thus after this wordy skirmish the Greeks at Eurybiades so willed. for if the Athenians should leave the fleet the rest would be no match for the enemy. At sunrise on fight their battle the next day there was an earthquake on land and sea and they resolved to pray to the gods. will have cause to remember what I have said. 1 65. which would thus have been fought Boedromion) for it is assumed that date with the standing date of the . son of Theocydes. being with Demaratus the Lacedaemonian on the Thriasian 2 plain. : of the battle of Salamis. There was one Dicaeus. on September 22 (20th of the vision coincided in Eleusinian festival. and called Aias and Telamon to come to them from Salamis. which has and the oracles tell that . He chose then the plan aforesaid. to where they were. . 59 . since .BOOK VIII. where they were.

KOI CIVTWV re o /3ov\6[Avo<$ Kai TWV n rr}<? a\\wv d/coveis TCLVTO. Kai ol eivcLi TOV TWV ipwv ra)i> ev rov ^fJidpi]'TOV. KOL TrjV " ^. KLVVVO<. KOl Trj /JL6V rye KaTdCT re \\e\OTrovvricrov." e/c TOI^ fiev TavTa eirl irapaiveeiv. <f)aiv(r0ai eivai . lov e? Tifjiwpiriv h$r\vaioiGi re f}l> KCLI fJ. eptj^ov eovcn^ OTL 0LOV TO (^6e r^'JOfJLVOV. aTroySaXeei? TTJV /ce^aXijv.rjvwv. elpeadai re avrov o ri TO <f>0y" yopevov eirf TOVTO. TOV vavTiKov djroftaXelv. TOV teal KOviopTov Kai TT}? (f)O)vrjS <yevea6ai ve(j)O<f fjieTapaiwOev <pepea0ai eVt TO (TTpaTOTreBov TO TWV 'EjXX. ev TTJ avTw fta&Ckei f}V KCU ITTL GTpaTifj rpirelptt) e'crrat. eirea TavTa. auro? Be eiTreiv OVtC (TTL 6'/C&)? OV fJi*/a Ti (TiVOS (TTai TJJ TU^G jdp dpiSr/Xa. Kai ae oi>Te eyw Bvvr}(TO/j. KivSvvevaei j3ao~i\evs opTrjv Trj erea TCLVT^V a<yovcri ^A.?* i}v TOL e? /Sacr^Xea dvevei^Ofj TO.HERODOTUS KOviopTov ^(opeovTa fjLd\Ld"rd KIJ air 'EXeuan'O? w? re eir) dvBpwv Tpicrjjivpiwv. 5e ra? Be i^ea? TaTT^Tat ra? e aa/ztw.6rjvaloi dva iravra M^r/ol KOI Ty Kovprj. TT/OO? Te /cal /jirjBevl a'XXw TOV \6yov TOVTOV eiV?. aXX' e%' ^<TVY05j Be Trepl Brj Be a"T/)aTtr)? TijcrBe Oeolcri ^teX?. CLVTOVS [jLadelv on TO VCIVTIKOV TO tze OVTW 60 .crei. airoOw/jid^eiv TOV KoviopTov (f)Mvfj<$ OTGWV KOTC atcoveiv.ija <f)a)Vi]V ev 'E\\rf TavTrj eiTrelv TTJ laK)^d^ov(7i.ai pvcraadai our' aXXo? dvOpa^Trwv ovBe yap el?. CLT^ ' JJLVO~TIKOV ' ICLK^OV. dvOpfbiroyv.d^OLO't.

the king himself and his army on land will be endangered but if it turn towards the ships at Sal amis. not being conversant with the rites of and Eleusis. and whatever Greek will. harm will befall the king's host for Attica being unpeopled. immediately they heard a cry." " Demaratus and great . . and comes from Eleusis to the aid of the Athenians and their allies. which rose aloft and floated away towards Salamis. the gods shall look to it. . you will lose your head. Keep silence. it is plain hereby that the voice we hear is of heaven's sending. By this they underThis was stood. and neither I nor any other man will avail Hold your peace and for this host. is then initiated . and after the dust and the cry came a to save you." Such was Demaratus' counsel . "Without doubt. Demaratus. which cry seemed to him to be the lacchus-song of the mysteries. the king will be in peril of losing his fleet. asked him what this voice might be Dicaeus said. 1 Demeter and Persephone. 65 thirty thousand were raised bv the feet of about j and as they marvelled greatly what men they should be whence the dust came. 61 . that Xerxes' ships must perish. and the cry which you hear * is the lacchus which is uttered at this feast. As for this feast. And if the vision descend upon the Peloponnese. Demaratus. it is kept by the Athenians every year for the honour of the Mother and the 1 Maid. to the Greek fleet. ' replied thereto.BOOK from Eleusis as it VIII. cloud. some men . . be he Athenian or other. for if these words of speak to none other thus yours be reported to the king. .

Trapfjcrav fjierdrre^rrroi ol pavvot. Ot ra~)(6evTe<5. ev9avra TO-5 i <yv(i)fjLa<. KOI yuaXa KapvcrTiovs re tcai re teal TOU5 XoiTrot/5 /cal T?/^tou5 rrdvras.5. teal i^ovro 62 . r/oco/xa Toy Hereto vavriKOV arparbv etc Tprj^Lvo^ Oeriadfjievoi TO TO ACIKWVIKOV $ie/3r)(Tav 65 T^y 'IcrTiairjv.HERODOTUS \eecr0at /^eXXoi.. rr\i)v rwv rrevre rroXuuv rwv rolffi ev ep/jLO7rv\r}(ri rcporepov ra ovvo/Jiara. <? eVt T e/9yLto7ri/Xa5' avnQr)<j<> ' yap re VTTO rov fiJLWvo^ avrwv KOI KOI rfjcri err OVKW TOU5 TOT j3acri\ei. ^l^\iea<. eovres apiTa5 'A^ ^0. ocra> yap rrpoefiaive eo'carepa) TrXeco a>i> T^5 'EXXa6o5 6 IIe/Jcr7. 'Evret e6ved ol eiTrero. 6V. re real irvOecrOai errel rwv emrc\e6vrriyv Se drriKo/jLevos rrpo'i^ero.vdvep e/capaSotceov rov TroXeftoi' tcfj drco^^crerai). fcal Talap%pi rwv tOvewv rwv ff(f)erepa)v rvdrro rwv vewv. /cat eV ft>5 ereprjcri. eae^a\ov KOI rpcri (ITTLKOVTO TOLCTL OVK \dcr<jove<. ravra re [lev tcai AtVato? aXXeoz/ 6 66. yw-e^ rpial 5 rj/jiepycri. Se 6? eTreiBrj 7Ticr^oi/Te5 rjfjiepas rpei? 67r\eov BS Ei'^tTrou. e'yuot BoKteiv. eyevovro ev ^aX^pw. Kara re rjireipov rj vrjval /cal aTTLKO^evoi. ol Se Xonrol ft>5 drrifcovro 5 TO ^dXijov. drriKaro 5 T5 \\dijvas rrdvres ovroi rc\rjv Ylapitav (Yldpiot &e vrro\ei<^)9evre^ ev K. KOI Aw/^ea? real Aofcpovs /cal BoiWTo^ rravcrrpanf] ercofjievovs rr\r)v Qecrmewv teal H\araiO)v.5. roaovrw 67..

I set these. I say. and in three more days they arrived at Phalerum. save the five states of which I have before made mention. and at Thermopylae. the Dorians. the Locrians. they When he was come. incline) Xerxes then came himself down to the fleet. To thinking. 65-67 Demaratus and others (he true. and they sat according to the opinions. the Melians. that he might consort with the shipmen and hear their In ch. six states are mentioned. 1 For the farther the Persian pressed on into Hellas the more were the peoples that followed in his train.BOOK VIII. 1 not yet in the king's following namely. 63 . So when all these were come to Athens. who at that time were . son of Theocydes. and the men of Carystus and Andros and Tenos and the rest of the islands. the tale told by Dicaeus. and the whole force of Boeotia (save only the Thespians and Plataeans). being come to Phalerum. 46. however. except the Parians (who had been left behind in Cythnus watching to see which way the war should the rest. after three days' waiting sailed through the Euripus. where. 67. 66. and sat enthroned. fleet. there appeared before him at his summons the despots of their cities and the leaders of companies from the ships. the forces both of land and sea were no fewer in number when brake into my Athens than when they came to Sepias and Therfor against those that were lost in the mopylae storm. yea. and in the sea-fights off Artemisium. and said) could prove it They that were appointed to serve in Xerxes' when they had viewed the hurt done to the Laconians and crossed over from Trachis to Histiaea.

pera oe erre^^ o Tvpios.v a\\oi Kara Se ra&e e^ry.\ev$. ra Tvy^dvw (frpoveovaa apio-ra era. e/cdarM rtfirjv e o SiSftmo? o>9 f3acri. ovre avrovs 64 . 7T(-piiu>v TOV elputra 6 MapSoz^io? ap^d^iStoviov. ovre " yevojucwj ev rfjcn vaufjia^irjcn rfjai rrjv &e eovcrav yvco/jirjv fj. TMV vewv aj/S/je? TMV a&v Kara BaXacraav Trdvrcos Seei ere oaov avBpes <yvvaiKcov. dvBpwv Kpecra-oves roaovro etVl TI . Kara vroXi? ^e v^ovrai. rco^ dvTirro\e^o)v Trpijy/jiaTa. EtVet^ raSe \eja). elpcora drroTreipco/jievos eKaarov vav p. TT. 'ETrel & CLTTO ' .6 ^iKaiov earl e? Kvvcrdai.HERODOTUS w? /Jiev a~(f)i j3a(rt\v<. ra -at roi rd&e \eyct). a>9 ovre yap crtro? rrdpa crc/)t ey 70) Trvvffdvofiai. trrl Be toXXo*. ol /j. vrfaw ravrrj. el Be Kocr/jim ' 'i^ovro. Troieoiro. a>9 icevovs eVpeTre. irj Map8ofte. TT} 8e eyco o'l o/cea) avro- ra . z^ea? TOVTO a\\a ra? avrov e\r]^ TTyoo? 777 Trpoftairwv e? rot Secnrora olot T6 TToXXoz^ 77 . (peiBeo ol <yap vavjjiayliiv iroieo. Tre Se dvaKivSweveiv OVK e^e^? pen ra? e raw eiveKa rot Se roi avrear^a-av. co? 670) A premie a.a^ivjv 68. /cat r^ waei ra ovov crc/>ea? voewv elcri rot dvre-eiv ol aXXa Siao-KeSas.

For the Greeks are not able to hold out against you for a long time. 67-68 And why must you at all costs imperil yourself by fighting battles on the sea ? have you not possession of Athens. Mardonius went about questioning them. : march. but it is right that I should declare my severally. and of the rest of Hellas ? no man stands in your path . and next he of Tyre. TV. they that resisted you have come off in such plight as beseemed them. but you will scatter them. from the Sidonian onwards and all the rest gave their united voice for offering battle at sea but Arte" Tell the misia said king. then.BOOK VIII. And this I say to you Spare your ships. if you / . 68. I will show you now what I think will be the course of vour enemies' If you make no haste to fight at sea. first in place the . Xerxes sent Mardonius and put each to the test by questioning him if the Persian ships should offer battle. for the sake of which you set out on this opinion. honourable rank which the king had granted them king of Sidon. and then the rest. and they will flee each to his city they have no food in this island. but doings. keep your ships here and abide near the land. for their men are as much stronger by sea than yours. Nay. When they had sat down in order one after another. 65 . you will easily gain that end wherefor you have come. even that which I deem best for your cause. Mardonius. nor. as men are stronger than women. I pray you. as I am informed. VOL. my master. . and offer no battle at sea . master. that I who say this have not been the hindmost in courage or in feats of arms in the fights near Euboea. or even go forward into the Peloponnese.

rwv o<pe\o<. p/ ?> ovoev. v@pa)7ra)v fcafcol oov\oi crol $e Kdicolcn ^pyjcrroi. roicri & v eovn apiarw Trdvrwv /ca/col $ov\oi etVt. OL ev avfjifjui^wv }Lv'jrpLOi > \eyovrai elvai e'o^re? AlyvTrnoi re KOL KOI KtXi/ce? KCU TId/ji(f)v\oi. rdBe KaraBo^as. 'Evrel Be jrapijyye\\oi' i avair\eLV. TT^OO? Se. teal avr]<yov ra? veas e eirl rr]i> SaXafttra /car a(f)i rj aviv. v*. eVl TTJV H6\07rovvr](Tov e\avvr)S rbv drpefiielv TOU? etceWev avrwv ovBe &(f)L p. Tavra evvooi \eyova-rjs Trpo? rrj MapSoviov. .HERODOTUS f)V crv arparov. 70. at <yva)/jLai e? Hep^i/. co? OTL OUK ea KCLKOV TI TTia o /jievrjs Trpo? ftacriOL Se vavjjLa^irjv TroteecrQai' KOI fyOoveovres avrfj. KOI vojufav ert Trporepov airov^airiv eivai Tore TTO\\W fjia\\ov aivee.. TT/JO? f^ev T&vftoirj <70ea? eOe\oKdKeeiv Co? ov irapeovros avrov.? auT%. rbv KCU ? Ovfjibv /3aXeu. <rv/Ji(f)opr}v ocroi fjiev ^Apre/jLLcriy. OJJLW^ Be roicn TrXeocrt Treifleadai eK\eve. eTTOievvro TOU? Xoyou? Xeo?. Tore Be auro? ayeo/JievoL re Trapea-Kevaaro der)<raaOaL vav^a^eovra^. 69. at fiacriXev. Kapra re rfj yvco/Jir] rfj 'Apre/iicrt^?. jap rj^epri eTreyevero' OL Be rore vav payiriv TrapercpiOrjcrav kv vvv OVK 7roiijcra(r0ai' Trapea/cevd^ovTO e? rrjv 66 . are ev 7rpa)rot(ri Sia Travrcov TWV avfi/jid^coVy erepTrovro eVel Be avaKpicn o>5 aTroXeo/ie^?. 7rpO(T$r)\TJa-r)Tai.e\i]crei rcpb rwv ^ fjv Be avTitca e 6 VCLVTLKOS co? aTparos TOIGL KaKa>@ei<.

that pass for your allies. at once on sea. and they left to offer battle. in whom is no usefulness. I fear lest your fleet take some fight that those of hurt and thereby harm your army likewise. When the command to set sail was given. all her friends were sorry for her words. thinking that the king would do her some hurt for counselling him against a sea-fight but they that had ill-will and jealousy against her for the honour in which she was held above all the allies were glad at her answer. 68-70 your army into the Peloponnese. for the night came made preparation for the next day instead. thinking it would be her undoing.BOOK le<id VIII. 67 . men of Egypt and Cyprus and Ciliciaand Pamphylia. . good men's slaves king. for 70. When that were . and now he purposed to watch the battle himself. call this to mind are wont to be evil and bad men's slaves good . they will have no mind to fight But if you make haste to sea-battles for Athens. But when the opinions were reported to Xerxes he was greatly pleased by the opinion of Artemisia he had ever deemed her a woman of worth and now held her in much higher esteem. they put out to Salamis and arrayed their line in order That day there was not time enough at their ease." Artemisia spoke thus to Mardonius. Nevertheless he bade the counsel of the more part to be followed 69. But the . and O you. have evil slaves. he thought that off Euboea his men had been slack fighters by reason of his absence. who are the best of all men. . is it likely them who have come from thence will abide unmoved . More- over.

vTrep 77)9 TT}? *A. Oi Be /9o7. ouroi {iev rjcrav ol ySo?.0rjvaiwv vav/na^eeiv fjie\\oiev. Kai ' Beovre? 1 rfj 'EXXaSt Kiv&vvevovcrr)' roiari Be d\\oi(Ti into a regular road) leading to the A track (later made Isthmus along the face of Geraneia : narrow and even 68 . TOVS Be dppcoBir). eVl rrjv TleXoTroi'^T/cro^.^//(TazvT69 69 TOV o'lBe i]aav 'lL\\r va)v. /jLvpidBwv 7ro\\ea)V Kai Travros dvBpos TO epyov Kai <ydp \ldoi ^la~0/jLO) TW I\LVVOV ovBeva %povov ol /3or)ovre VVKTOS ovre 72. 71. OVK rjKicrTa Be EXX^i/a? erye 8eo? re TOVS IITTO Tle\O7rovv dppo&Beov Be OTI avrol ^ev ev 5La\a/jLivt. AaKeBai/jiovioi re Kai 'Ap/ca/ ^69 7ra^T69 Kai 'HXetOi Kai KopivQioi Kai 'EvriBavpioi Kai <$>\idaioi Kai Tpoiffivioi Kai '\LpjjiLovees.HERODOTUS f/ iriv.^?/cra^T69 Kai virepappwecretyepovro. re Trevres Ti]i> ecowrwv apb)v 6 Tre^o? VTTO T^V Trapeovcrav VVKTO.6vTes ex TWV TroXtwi/ 69 TOV ^ KXeo/z/S ooTO9 o j Se ev Kai <TL'7^cocra^Te9 TTJV TOVTO are Be olfcoB6/jLov Bid TOV 'Ia0/jLov retY09. 6'/Cft>9 KatVot ra KCIT* Suvcna fjiT) iravra OL l)7T6lpOV (T/3(i\OieV a)? yap eTTvOovTO rd^iara TleXoTrovvtjaioi rou9 ' crvv&pa/j.

and very easily made 69 . Those Greeks that mustered all their people the Isthmus were the Lacedaemonians and all the Arcadians. and they that mustered there never . For as soon as the Peloponnesians heard that Leonidas' men at Thermopylae were dead. the work was brought to accomplishment for they carried stones to it and bricks and logs and crates full of sand. leaving their own land unguarded. Being there encamped they broke up the Scironian road. having resolved in council so to do. that they themselves were about to fight for the Athenians' country where they lay at and if they were overcome they must be shut up and beleaguered in an island. the Eleans. Phliasians. at work by night or by day.BOOK VIII. Sicyonians. 1 and thereafter built a wall across the Isthmus. rested from their 72. and especially they that were from the Peloponnese . Corinthians. and were moved by great fear for Hellas in her peril . but the rest of the Peloponnesians cared dangerous impassable. Troezenians. and men of Hermione. As there were many tens of thousands there and all men wrought. Peloponnese. 70-72 Greeks were in fear and dread. These were they who mustered there. Nathless the Greeks had used every device possible to prevent the foreigners from breaking in upon them by land. their general being the brother of Leonidas. 71. they hasted together from their cities and encamped on the Isthmus. the land army of the foreigners began its march to the Salamis. Epidaurians. At the next nightfall. for some six miles. Cleombrotus son of Anaxandrides. and the cause of their fear was.

Acopiewv /jiei> 7ro\\ai re real So/cifjioi ' A. Be \oi7ra e6vea TWV OLKL $ Tr]V a\\OTpir]V. Twr KaTe\e%a. avTMV rrapacrTas criyfj \o<yov 7roieeTO. fJieVTOL T7/9 CWVTWV. ApvoTcwv Be T KOI 'Aaivij rj TT/OO? KapBa/jiv\rj Trj Be TlapwpefJTai TrdvTes. etc TOV /zecrou KctTeaTO' el Be elirelv. Ot crvvea-Tacrav. O\vp. eTrra Tecrcrepa BTrfavSa ecrTi.7ri. eic TOV yttecrou 74. eovTa Kara iSpVTdl VVV T6 KCLi TO TfO\ai OIK60V. wv T&V eTTTa eOvewv al \oirral 7roXte9. O&fjia Troievp^evoL Tr]v RvpvfiidBeo) dftov\L7ji'. ai Be viro TG 'Apyeiwv ap^o/jLevoi KOL TOV ^povov. Qltceei Be Trjv TleXoTrowtjcrov Be TO. TO.HERODOTUS J ovBev.reXo? Be e^eppdyrj e? TO /AtVov.LTG)~\. JJLOVVOI eh>ai "Iwi/e?.ai avTolai reco? Bei- Trepl Ty dvBpl IleXoTro^^'crft).aJV Be 'H\i? fMOvvij. Br) OVK dvrjp ovTay Trepl <r(f)i.a Be KCU Kdpveia eOvea cirrd. crvXXoyos re Br) eyivero teal TroXXa eXeyeTO Trepl TWV avTMi>. 70 . Aa^iee? re KOL AtrcoXol /cal AyouoTre? KOI AIJ/JLVIOL. /JLEV Bvo CLVToyOovo. eoi^re? 'Opi>e>)Tai /cal ol TreploiKoi.ev Se e0vo<$ TO 'A^/attKOV etc /lev TleXoTTOi'inj&ov OVK e^e^ct)pr]O'. %(JL)pr)V Ap/cdBes re KOL Kvvovpioi. 'Icr^yua) TOIOVTW TTOVW TOV Traz/ro? ijBr) KOL Ticri viva\ OVK {lev Brj ev TW are Trepl o'i Be ev dppooBeov. ol Be Kvvovpioi eovTes Bofceova-i. etc TOVTWV 73.

the Achaean. to cope withal. with their ships . are native to the soil and are now settled where they have ever been . and wonder at Eurybiades' unwisdom. has never departed from the Peloponnese. sat apart from the war freely. the Arcadians and Cynurians. but has left its own country and dwells in another. but their Argive masters and time have made Dorians of them they are the Now of people of Orneae and the country round. 74. and the only lonians native to the soil. Cp. there vii. . save those aforeand if I may speak said. although they heard of the work. 1 two 73. were affrighted. For a while there was but murmuring between man and man. . seeing that now all they had was at stake. . all the Paroreatae. The four that remain of the seven have come from elsewhere. the Aetolians Elis alone Hermione and that Asine which is near Cardamyle and the Lemnians. . was no longer any excuse for their not coming. and their dread was less for themselves than for the Peloponnese. but at the last came an open outbreak and an assembly was held. where there was much speaking of the same matters as before. of Laconia The Cynurians are held to be lonians. VIII. the Dorians and Aetolians and Dryopians the Dorians have many notable and Lemnians the Dryopians have cities. by so doing they took the part of the enemy. 1 That is. So the Greeks on the Isthmus had such labour . 71 . and one nation. these seven nations all the cities.BOOK . some saying . 72-74 and the Olympian and Carnean festivals nothing were now past. and they had no hope of winning renown but they that were at Salamis. . 205. namely. Seven nations inhabit the Peloponnese of these.

KOI J^p^/JLacn 6\/3lOV. Alyivrjrai e /col Meyapees avrov &>? 75.HERODOTUS OL aev o)9 c? Tvjv He\o7rovvtja-ov %peoi> rrepl en." V 76. e^eX-Owv Be Tre/jiTrei e? TO crrpaTOTrebov TO M^So)V av$pa TrXoia) evTeC^d/Jievo^ ra \eyeiv ^peov.0r)vai(ov \d0prj rwv d\\a)v ^\\ijva)v (rvy^dvei yap fypovewv TCI /SacrtXeo? fcal (3ov\6{Levo<.evrjv KCU T^9 rjTreipov. rovro /JLCV 69 rrjv vrjcrlBa rrjv ^vrrdX.Xot<ri ofjiocfipoveovcn ovre dvncrri](jovrai vfuv.6p. ""E7re/u. dvtjyov fiev TO arc 72 . urjBe ' CLTTO- 7r\iv o)/3?79 KOL Kivrj<. Trpo? ecovrovs re cr^ea? o-^ea-Oe vav/jLa^eovras rov$ rrpr']y[jLara) f rd v/iierepa (fcpoveovras fcal TOU? ^. TW ovvojjia IJLGV r^v Se /cal TraiSaycoyos r)v rwv e/Atc TOV Brj vcnepov TOVTOOV TWV Trprjy/jLaTwv T eTTOLTO'e. /jiera^u SaXa/it^o9 re Kei/j. aXX?.e aTpartiyo^ o A.. /jLev ravrd ofyi errjfjLqva*.-v^e ^u. eeaovTO rfj VTTO rwv \a6utv J~6p%6Tai K TOV arvve^piov. O>? CTTcBeKOVTO 01 O? TOT6 6(777^669 TToXi^Ta?. XacrcreTO* erreiBrj 7roXXou9 rwv YLepaewv drrefiiftdaavro' rouro Be. /cal vvv /cdXXiarrov v/JLeas epywv drrdvrwv e^ep ovre yap r)v fjLT) TrepiiB^re BtaSpdvras avrovs. /jid\\ov ra v/jterepa KarvrrepOe yiveaOai rj rd rwv ' f r ftovkevovrai fypdaovra on ol EXXT/re? Karappw&ijKores.eiav.evos e\eye irpos TOU? a-rpaTrjyovs rwv ftapftdpwv rdSe. eKrroBwv drca\' O rolcn Be 009 mcrrd eyivero rd dyye\Oevra. 7rXou) a7riK.6\07rovvr)(ria)v. 'EsvOavra ryvfjopri Qe/ito'TO/cXeT. eyirovro fie a at vv/cres.? H. /cal KivBvveveiv rrpo Bopia\cbrov uevovras ad^eaOai.

and he was of Themistocles' household and attendant on his children at a later day. nor escape. when the Thespians were receiving men to be . . and you will see them battling against each other. will they withstand you any more. rather than abide and fight but the for a land won from them by the spear Athenians and Aeginetans and Megarians pleading that they should remain and defend themselves where they were. went privily out of the assembly. and first they Persians put faith in the message landed many of their men on the islet Psyttalea. your friends against your foes. if you suffer them not to For there is no union in their counsels. when the Peloponnesians were outvoting him. they advanced western wing 73 . their citizens. and a wealthy man withal. 75. midnight. With that declaration he departed away. Then Themistocles. then. charged with a message that he must deliver.BOOK VIII. which at lies between Salamisand the mainland their . and that now is the hour for you to achieve an incomparable feat of arms. This man's name was Sicinnus. He now came in a boat and spoke thus to the foreigners' admirals " I am : sent by the admiral of the Athenians without the knowledge of the other Greeks (he being a friend to the king's cause and desiring that you rather than the Greeks should have the mastery) to tell you that the Greeks have lost heart and are planning flight. . Themistocles made him a Thespian. and sent to the Median fleet a man in a boat." The 76. 74-76 that they must sail away to the Peloponnese and face danger for that country.

X' aTToXa/ji^de^Te^ ev rfj ^oCkafUvi. e? roidSe arcoKOi/Ji'r]9evre^ ovozv ora^ /oreyUio? xpvcraopov epov /crrv Tcocn. vftpios SoKevvr dvd rrdvra vlbv. Mouz/ir^t?. 1 For a off Salami's. (/ TO-? veas. The locality is of Ceos and Cynosura conjectural. Xprjo-fjiolaL $e OVK e^a) avri\eyeiv etcrl d\r]6ees. 1 p-fi/j. ov /3ofXo/xe^o? evapyeoos \eyovras Karaf3d\\eiv. 'iva Brj rolcri a rrjv ^vTrdXeiav Twz^Se TWV Tlepa-ecov ewe/eev.a. 77. Karetyov re fJ>e%pi.vi>6orovpav evrjy Xtvrapa? rrepcravres 'AOijvas . Sia Biter) a-ftea-aei Kparepov Kopov. Ka\OfjiVTr)v aTre/3L/3a^oi> w? eTreav yivrjrai.Ta is suggested. 74 . e? Be TTJV rov rropOfjiOv rf](ri VI^VCTL.? irdvra rwvSe Be ewerta avfjyov R\\rja'i yu^Se fyvyeiv aX. KOL rwv vavrjyiwv (ev yap By rropw fjie\\ovcn^ jjuev ecreaOat eVetro TOU? VOLCLTO ol evavrioi.HERODOTUS e<77rep?7? Kepas KvicKov^Gvoi 717)09 rrjv dvrjyov Be ol dfji^n rr)V Keoy re KOI rrjv Kvvoaovpav reray/jievot. e^oiGO/jievcov evOavra /xaXtcrTa TT)? TWV re TT}? r. &oiev eV 'A^re/zfcrta) aycovio-fAaTcov. rcepircoieaxji erroievv Se criyfj ol rou? 3e S/aravra. /cal elva\L7jv K. see brief notice of controversj? respecting the operations the Introduction to this volume. and would certainly be more natural. GO? /m>) rcvvOaorj pev ravra T?}? irapapreovro.

76-77 towards Salamis for encirclement. sea. having ravished the glory of Athens. when I look into such . 77. Artemis 2 golden-sworded. but should be hemmed in at Salamis and . and thine.washed Cynosura. and I would not essay to overthrow them. they might thus save their friends and slay their foes.BOOK VIII. silence. fall . Munychia on the Attic 75 . 1 The purpose of their putting out to sea was. But. matter as this " : When that with lines of ships thy sacred coasts they have fenced. All this they did in it. All in the madness of hope. by pride o'erweening engendered. And the purpose of their landing Persians on the islet called Psyttalea was this. lest their enemies should know of So they made these preparations in the night. for oracles. There were temples of Artemis both at Salamis and at shore. and they too put out to sea that were stationed off Ceos and Cynosura and they held all the passage with their ships as far as Munychia. I have no way of gainsaying their truth for they speak clearly. for the justice of heaven quench it . Then shall desire full fed. punished for their fighting off" Artemisium. that as it was here in especial that in the sea fight men and wrecks would be washed ashore (for the island lay in the very path of the battle that was to be). that the Greeks might have no liberty even to flee. Raging in dreadful wrath and athirst for the Utterly perish and shall 2 nations' destruction. taking no rest.

79. 78.HERODOTUS yap %a\/cu) avfjifjiL^eraL. Twv Be ev ^ah-afMVi (TTpaTijywv TroXXo?' Trjcri. e&otceov wpwv avrovi lerayfjievovs. e\eye rdBe. TOT' eXevdepov 'EXXaSo? fj evpvorra K-povlBrj^ eTrdyet 6? /cal rrorvia Nt/a. t'lfjiewv dyaOa TrarpiBa epyd- \eya> Be roi on icrov earrl rro\\d re /cal o\lya XeycLV rrepl drroir\bov rov evOevrev ITeXo- 76 . (o@i(7/jLos \oya>v ySecrav vr)vcrl Be ol OVKW crc^ea? 7rcpiexvK\ovvTO ttXX' uxTTrep T/}? j^epijf ftapfiapoi. e Alyivrjs Kara 'ApKTTeiBr]s 6 Avai/Jid^ov. a't/^ari 8' "Aprj? Trovrov (>oiviei.ue OL r)6fjncrTOK\. eovra [lev ecovru) ov fyikov Be TCL fjid\i(TTa' VTTO Be fJieydOeos TWV TrpoaKrjfcoee Be OTL (TTrevBoiev ol -\ i' Tle\O7TOVi]O'Ov (ivdyeiv ra? z/ea? ?r/3o? rov / ^ 'fQ f^\ oe trjA. ^vvea-rrjKOTwv Be rwv crTpaTrjywv. ^(opt^v eivai. roiavra jj. avyp ^AOrfvalo^ Bieftr) fiev e(i)cnpaKia'/jLi>os Be VTTO vevofJLLKa. TrvvOavofJLevos TOV BIJ/JLOV rov eyw avrov TOV TpoTrov.Xw Kaipw KCU rr\eco Br) KCU ev rwSe rrepl rov r)jv OKorepos crerai. "'H/xea? crracnd^eiv %pe6v ecrri v ' ' -v >'-v ev re rq> a\.ev /cal ovrw evapyews \eyovn Trept.e7j^.. xprjcr/jLwv ovre ai)ro? \eyeiv eyivero OIL oure Trap' a\\cov evSeKO/^ai. apicrrov avBpa yeveaflai ev OL/TO? winip crra? eirl ^KO^vrjui KCU TO o-vveSpiov Me/ucrrotfA-ea.

Aristides said. an Athenian. that he might converse with him. . 78. I neither venture myself to gainsay him as touching oracles nor suffer such gainsaying by others. But among the admirals at Salamis there was and they knew not as yet a hot bout of argument that the foreigners had drawn their ships round them. But as they contended. and so called Themistocles out. 79. but supposed the enemy to be still where they had seen him stationed in the daylight. but one that had been ostracised by the commonalty from that which I have learnt of his way of life I am myself well persuaded that he was the best and the He then came and stood in justest man at Athens. the place of council and called Themistocles out of it. when Themistocles came out. to see which of us two shall do his country more I tell you now.BOOK VIII. there crossed over from Aegina Aristides son of Lysimachus. " Let the rivalry between us be now as it has been before. Now he had heard already. Peloponnesians to talk much or little about sailing . that the So Peloponnesians desired to sail to the Isthmus. albeit Themistocles was no friend of his but his but in the stress of the present chiefest enemy danger he put that old feud from his mind. that it is all one for the good. and hallowed Victory then shall grant that Freedom dawn upon Hellas. and the terrible bidding of Ares Redden the seas with blood. 77 . ." Looking at such matter and seeing how clear is the utterance of Bacis. But Zeus far-seeing. 77-79 Bronze upon bronze shall clash.

rjv fiev TreWwvrai. So^co TrXacra? \eyeiv teal ov Treiaco. d\\d crept cnjfjirjvov auro? TrapeXOaiv co? ^ ejredv Be crrjuijvr]'. Alylvrj? re IJKCIV /cal ^07^5 e TOi/9 eVop/^eo^Ta?' rrepLe^eaOai yap Trap TO crrparoTreSov TO 'EXX^^^/co^ VTTO TWV vewv TWV rrapapreecrOai re crvve(Bov\eve a /cal o uev ravTa etTra? e<TTai' '* rcbv Be a"U9 TWV lyLvero \oywv d/ji(picr/3acrLrj' oi Tr\vve$ ' crTparriy&v OVK rj/ce tTreiOovro yap ra ecrayyekOevTa.(TTa. ravra ra Kd\\t.HERODOTUS rcovvr\(jLo:cn. real ev Ta jap evonevos eSeojAiyv jevecrOai. Kdpra T6 xpi](na &LaKe\eveai ya> rjKeis. \Lv0avra eKeye 7rape\6a)v 6 ei. eyco 9 yap TjV UVOS OTL VVV OvB /3m8?79 0\fO(Tt. rj Trep Brj ecpepe rrjv d\t]0eir]v rracrav. rT/9 rjpX 6 dvijp TLavaiTios 6 Sa)<Ti/ie^eo9.o\eovcra. avroTTTrj? rot Xeyce) yevoKoplV0lOL T6 KOL oloi re eaovrcu o e/e7rX<wcrar a jap " vrro rwv TroXe/uwz' KVX\W. &>9 crv ' 81. auro? cr^t ayyeiKov. ei Trep Trepie^ofJieOa Travra^oOev. OJJLOLOV rjiJitv r)V &e avrolcri fjirj TTi ov yap eri SiaSprjcrovrai. 80.. VTTO M^Sft)!'' eSee yap. ore OVK etcovres e? /ua^i/ KaTicrraarOai ol crv Se eirel Trep Xprjara dTTayyeXXwv. KmcrTeovTUiv Be rovrwv rpirjprjs dvBpcw TTJVICOV avTO/j. r)v yap eyw avra \eyw. auro? laQi yap e^ efieo ra 7rotV{iva r)6e\ov defcovras TTapaaTTqaaaQai. a)? ov Troievvrcov T&V ftapfidpwv ravra. 78 . 82.

they cannot we are hemmed in on all sides by our enemies. give your message to them yourself. . go before them yourself and tell them how it stands. and had been slip unseen through the blockade for all the Greek fleet was compassed round by Xerxes' ships. this. and they had best (he said) prepare to defend themselves. they will think it is of my own devising. . 82. When you have told them." 81. Know that what the Medes do is of my contriving for when the Greeks would not of their own accord prepare for battle. that is best but if they will not believe you. and they will never take my word for it that the foreigners are doing as you say . . if they believe you. Thus he spoke. it will be the same thing to us for if we are hemmed in on every side. there came a trireme with Tenian deserters. But now since you have come with this good news. and this brought 79 . he hard put to it to departure. it was needful to force them to it willy-nilly. nay. from Aegina. . Aristides then came forward and told them . you go in now. Do . VIII." tocles answered. But while they yet disbelieved. whose captain was one Panaetius son of Sosimenes. and took his said. news was true. he was come. as you say. 79-82 for I say from that which my away from hence eyes have seen that now even if the Corinthians and Eurybiades himself desire to sail out.BOOK . . " and your news is good for you have come with your own eyes for witnesses of that which I desired might happen. they will no longer be able to take to flight. They fell a-wrangling again for the more part of the admirals would not believe that the . right useful/' Themis- If I tell it. and tell them " Your exhortation is 80.

VTIKOV e? Tola i "E'XXricri e? T? oyScoKOvra fcal &vo jap Btj vtwv Tore fcareSee 83. air Ai<yivi]s Tpirjpr]?. KOI rj/ce rj yea?. 'EvQavra avfjyov Ta? yea? a OL fjiev ftapoi. T) Kara roixj 84. jevecrOai TTJV dpyj]v t AiyivrJTai Be AlaKuoas aTroBrf^craaav e'? Alyivav. Trapea/cevd^ovTO a>^ vav- fjia^aovre^..eiviris Be dvayo/jLevoiai \et' av/jL7T\aKicrr)S Be T^? yeo? /cal ov ovrco Brj ol a'XXoi 'Apeivirj *A0rjvaloi /zey OVTCD \eyovai . vrjl rfj CLVTO- SaXa/ztya \\pr6fjLio. 'A/j. Kpeauw Tolai (frvcri ev dvOputrrov ^ao-oai dvTLTiOe/jLeva. <-o? <j)d(T/jia (T(j)i yvvaiKos e<j)dvr] (fravei&av Be BiaK/y Kara TOL/? t 80 . eaftaiveiv e/ce\6ve ? Ta? KOI OVTOL f. Be o~0t avri/ca eTreKearo ol ftdpr/ EXX?. ocra KOI Kaiacfrdcn eyyiverai' Trapaiveaas Be TOVTMV rd /cpecrcra) aipeeaOai ical /caTa TrXe^a? TTJV prjaiv.?.iev Brj ecrefBaivov. Tiov Trjvicov p/j/jLcna.CLI rfj TT. Ta Be erred TrdvTa Sr.HERODOTUS Be rovro TO epyov eveypd(f)r)o~av 'Yijviot ev AeX<ot<7 e'? TOV TpirroBa ev TOLQ-I TOV fidpftapov Bid ffare\ovcri. ^co? T6 8i<paii>e fcal 01 crvXXoyov TWV /jiev 7ri/3aTe<j)v Troirja-d/jievoi.ye? eVl rrpv^viiv or) a'XXoi dveicpovovTO KOL co/ce\\ov Ta? yea?.1 ov if) Arjfivir} irporepov eV e%eir\ripovTO TO VO. Tavrrjv elvai TTJV dp^acrav. \eyerai Be /cal rdBe. IJio\r)crdvr) crvv Be e'? wv TCIVTTJ K. Totcrt Be "EXX^cri a>? TTtara Brj TO. Trpotjyopeue ev etc e^ovra rjv Trdi'Twv e/cutfTO/cXe?.

64. 1 84. With this ship that deserted to Salamis and the Lemnian which had already deserted to Artemisium. . With that the Greeks stood out to sea in full force. . 83. which had fallen short by two of three hundred and eighty. the Greek fleet. . an Athenian. 1 cp. and as they stood out the foreigners straightway fell upon them. now attained to that full number. last It the tale of the was now earliest dawn. and the two not able to be parted. This story also is that they saw the vision of a woman. wherein Themistocles made an harangue in which he excelled all others the tenor of his words was to array all the good in man's nature and estate against the evil and having exhorted them to choose the better. . The rest of the Greeks began to back water and beach their ships but Aminias of Pallene. 81 . who told. believing at made ready for battle. 82-84 them the whole truth. The Greeks. This is the Athenian story of the beginning of the fight but the Aeginetans say that the ship which began that one which had been sent away to it was Aegina for the Sons of Aeacus.BOOK VIII. came the trireme from Aegina which had been sent away for the Sons of Aeacus. the others did now come to Aminias' aid and joined battle. pushed out to the front and charged a ship which being entangled with his. For that deed the men of Tenos were engraved on the tripod at Delphi among those that had vanquished the foreigner. Tenians. and they called the fighting men to an assembly. . he made an end of speaking and bade them embark. Even as they so did.

86.at 5e avrotai. ape'ivoves avrol ewvrwv Tt? 77750 #i^u. Tlepl fjLev vvv TOWTOU? OUTO> el^e. ovvofJLdTa rpitjpdp^wv /caraXe^ai TWV Sa? ekovrwv.K6$aifj.oi>iov$ "Iwi/e?* ei%ov TO 7T/30? T?)^ 7. ravryv rj rr/v fjfjiepriv uaKpw vra? 7T/909 Eu/Sot?. ovroi 8e Aa. Kalroi rfadv ye Kal eyevovro Alyivrjrewv.a> T6 :al TOf [leipaiea. at Be vrc are yap rwv fjiev 'EXX?. ol Se TrXeO^e? oi/. %/3r. avvoia-evOaL olbv rrep aTreft'rj. plepl'ijv. "'fl . pijdr) Be evepyervis ftaaiX.TO Se 7r\f)6os rwv vewv ev rf) ^a\a/j.. e/teXXe roiovro crtyi. 85. /3ao-/Xeo? opoadjyai Kd\eovrai rrepcncrrl. at fjiev VTT 'Affyvaitov Sia^deipo/aevat.eos dveypd^?) /cal TroXX^. dvaKpovecrOe Kara <yap 8' juev Brj (ovroi elj(pv 'A07jvaiov 9 ererd-^aro TO TT^O? 'EXeL'cru'o? re KOI e(nrepr)s Arepa?).^a)^ avv vavjJLa^eovrwv Kal Kara rd^iv. ovSev l rr\rjv eo}jiij(TTop6$ re rov 'A.eo uez'0? / Bei/naivwv Oe-i eBo/cee re eKaaros ecovrov 82 . ol S' evepyerat. ^a^iwv dfuporepwv. Kara avrwv Kara T? e ei>To\as 6\iyoi.ei>a>v en ovre crvv vow rroieovrwv ovSev.cro//. /uov on erv- rovro TO epyov pdvvevae fcaracrrrja-dvrcov rwv fleporewv. r Se e'iveica ^kvai rovrcov lovvwv.li>L eKepat^ero.vBpo$d/navro$ <&v\aKov rov 'Icrrmtou. rwv Be pcov ovre reray/j. ' oveiBio-acrav rrporepov rdBe.HERODOTUS \eva-aaOai 'EtXhr/vcov ware real array aKovaat TO rwv arparoTreSov.

Thus it was with these two but the great multitude of the ships were shattered at Salamis. but the foreigners were by now disordered and did nought of set purpose. Yet but feAv of them fought slackly. These benefactors of the king are called in the Persian language. and to the Lacedaemonians the lonians. and Phylacus was recorded among the king's benefactors and given much land. and the more part did not so. / . some destroyed by the Athenians and some by the Aeginetans. The Phoenicians (for they had the western wing. . each man thinking that the king's eye was on him. Many names I could record of ships' captains that took Greek ships but I will speak of none save Theomestor son of Androdamas and Phylacus son of Histiaeus. == Perhaps from old Persian var. 1 86. on the eastern wing. 84-86 for all the to hear. . and Kshayata. towards Eleusis) were arrayed opposite to the Athenians. nearest to Piraeus. and feared Xerxes.BOOK cried VIII. orosangae. it was but reason that they should come to such an end as befel them. Samians both and I make mention of these alone. . as Rawlinson suggests. For since the Greeks fought orderly and o o in array. or. what madness is this ? how long will you still be backing commands loud enough Greek fleet water?" 85. to guard. Yet on that day they were and approved themselves by far better men than off Euboea all were zealous. 1 king. " Sirs. (How and Wells' note. from Khnr sangha (Zend) worthy of praise or record. because Theomestor was for this feat of arms made by the Persians despot of Samos. as Themistocles had bidden them. uttering first this reproach.) 83 .






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l <f)i\iy dvBpwv re Ka\vv$ecov Kal avrov GTTLrrXeovros rov K.a\.vv$ecov /3aai\eo<; ka/jLaGiOvfjiov. el iJLev Kal ri veiKos Trpos avrov eyeyovee en rrepl ovrwv, ov /j,evrot e^co ye eirev ovre el etc Trpovohjs avra eTroiijcre, ovre el avve-




rrecrovcra vrjvs.


KaXvi'Sewv Kara rv^Tjv rrapaBe eW/3aXe re Kal KareBvcre,

evrv^Lr) ^prjaa/jie^ Bi7r\a ecovrrjv dyaOa epydaaro. o re yap rr)? 'ArriKrjS veos rpirfpap^os
a)? eloe JJLIV

6/jil3d\\ovcrav vrjl





/3ap/3upa)i>, <







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a\X,a? erpdrrero. roiovro avry crvvi'iveiKe yeveaOat Bia(f>vyeiv re Kal f^rj drroXeadai, rovro Be crvveftr]
dfjivveiv, drrocrrpe^lras TT/JO?









\eyerai yap rrapa Kep^rj. fta(Ti\ea Orjev/jievov ^aOelv rrjv vea ju./3a\ova-av, Kal Brj Tiva elireiv rwv irapeovrwv " AecrTrora, ripa? AprefjLKTL'TjV &)? ev dytovi^erai Kal vea rwv rro\e/jid\Lcrra evBoKifj-rjcrat,



VIII. 87-88

Now as touching some of the others I cannot exactness say how they fought severally, but what befel Artemisia foreigners or Greeks made her to be esteemed by the king even more

than before. The king's side being now in dire confusion, Artemisia's ship was at this time being and she could not pursued by a ship of Attica

escape, for other friendly ships were in her way, and it chanced that she was the nearest to the enemy

wherefore she resolved that she would do that which afterwards tended to her advantage, and as she fled pursued by the Athenian she charged a friendly ship that bore men of Calyndus and the king himself of
that place, Damasithymus.
It may be that she had had some quarrel with him while they were still at the Hellespont, but if her deed was done of set

purpose, or if the Calyndian met her by crossing her path at haphazard, I cannot say. But having charged and sunk the ship, she had the good luck
to work for herself a double For when advantage. the Attic captain saw her charge a ship of foreigners, he supposed that Artemisia's ship was Greek or a deserter from the foreigners fighting for the Greeks,

and he turned aside to deal with others. 88. By this happy chance it came about that she and moreover the escaped and avoided destruction upshot was that the very harm which she had done won her great favour in Xerxes' eyes. For the king (it is said) saw her charge the ship as he viewed the battle, and one of the bystanders said, "Sire, see you Artemisia, how well she fights, and


/careBvcre;' KOI rbv eTreipeoOat el d earl 'ApT6yiucm;9 TO epyov, Kal rovs <j)dvai, cra(/)e&)9 TO 7riar]/jiov TT}? vebs emo-rafjievov^' rrjv Be BiaTO, re jap (f)0apeicrav r^rcLcrrearo elvai rro\^iirjv.








TO TWV etc T/)? KaXvv&iKrjs veo$ fjLrjSeva dTrocrwOevra Karifyopov " Be elTrelv \eyerai TT/OO? TO, ^>pa^6[Jieva Ol civSpes ryeyovaal pot, <yvval/ce$, at Se
yevo/meva, KCLI

Be TO)


tzep^iji' (fracrl eiTrelv.

TOVTO) UTTO fjiev Wave o 'Apiafiyvrjs 6 Aayoetof, 'B.ep^eco eatv ?, O-TTO ^e aX\,oi TTO\\OL re real ovonaarol Tlepcreoov /cal M?;Sa>^ KCU rwv aXXwv (TVfjL^d^wv,
89. 'Ef






are yap veeiv

emcrrdfjievoi, rolcn al vee<$ Bie<pdeipovro, KOI /u.rj ev y^eipoiv VO/JLM cnro\\viJ,evoi, 69 rrjv ^akapUva









6a\d<jcrr] Bie<j)Qdpr]crav veeiv OVK eiricrrdf^evoi. errel Be al rrpwrai e9 (frvyrjv erpdrcovro, evOavra al rr\elcrrai Bie&deipovro' ol ydp orciaQe rerayfievoi,

/jievoL &>9

TO rrpoffOe rfjtfi vrjval rrapievai rreipo)dTroBe^o/jievoi ri Kal avrol epyov /3aai~\,ei,

rrjcn cr$erepr]<Ti vijval <pevy ova-yen rrepLemrrrov.


90. 'E'yei'eTO ^e Kal rb$e ev rives Qoivitcwv, rwv al

rw OopvfBw rovrw.

e\.0ovres rrapd (BacriXea Bie(3a\\ov TOL/? "\wvas, ft>9 BS efceivovs drro\oiaro al vees, a>9 TrpoBovrwv.

wv ovrw ware *\wvwv re TOU9 arpa-

rrjyovs fjurj drro\e<jQai Qoiviicwv re TOU9 Biaen rovrwv f3d\\.ovras \a(3elv roiovBe /Jiicrdov.

ravra \eyovrwv evejSaXe


how she
has sunk an
if it

VI11. 88-90

asking deed, they affirmed it, knowing well the ensign of her ship and they supposed that the ship she had sunk was an enemy for the luckiest chance of all which had (as I have said) befallen her was, that not one from the Calyndian ship was saved alive to be her accuser. Hearing what they told him, Xerxes " is reported to have said, My men have become " women, and my women men ; such, they say, were his words. 89. In that hard fighting Xerxes' brother the admiral Ariabignes, son of Darius, was slain, and withal many other Persians and Medes and allies of for since they renown, and some Greeks, but few could swim, they who lost their ships, yet were not slain in hand-to-hand fight, swam across to Salamis but the greater part of the foreigners were drowned in the sea, not being able to swim. When the foremost ships were turned to flight, it was then that the most of them were destroyed for the men of the rearmost ranks, pressing forward in their ships that they too might display their valour to the king, ran foul of their friends' ships that were in
; ;

Xerxes then enemy ship ? were truly Artemisia that had done the





90. It happened also amid this disorder that certain Phoenicians whose ships had been destroyed came to the king and accused the lonians of treason,

was by their doing that the ships had the end of which matter was, that the Ionian captains were not put to death, and those Phoenicians who accused them were rewarded as I will show. While they yet spoke as aforesaid, a Samothracian ship charged an Attic and while
saying that











'ATTLK?) KaTOveTO KOL e Kare&ucre TWV ^afJLoOprfiKwv TTJV

are Se eoWe9 aKOVTiaral


rot ? eVi/Sara? a-no TTJS Kara&va-dcrrjs 1/609 \ovres ciTrrjpa^av teal eTre'fiycrdv re real ec ravra ryevbfjieva rou? "Iwz/a? eppvaaro' avrr/v. el^e cr<ea? He/?^? epyov fieya e'pyacraco? erpaTrero TT/OO? TOI)? OotVt/ca? ota V7rep\vre /cat Traz^ra? alrico/jievos, KCLI eK\Vcr ra? Ke<f)a\a<s dTrora/Jieiv, Iva /j,ij avrol


KdKol yVO/bL6VOl TOU9 dfJLe'iVOVCLS biaftaXXtoCTl. OKWS yap Tuva l&oi Hep^T/9 rwv ecovrov epyov









TW avriov ^aXa/juvos TO KaXeerai

<ypa/n/jiaTi<TTal dveypa<j)ov KOi Tr]V TTO\IV. 7T/OO9

At7Xeft)9, ave rrvv9dve'ro TOV Troirjaavra, Kal ol TraipoOev TOV rpLtjpap^ov 6 Ti KOi 7TpO(T6/3d\TO




TWP Se (Bapftdpwv K7T\60VTWV 7TpO9 TO





vTrocrTavTes eV

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pdi^ov Ta9 T6 dvTiffTafJievas KOI Ta9

TWV vewv,




GKifkeovcras' ora>9

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vea KOI

T6 rj e/uiia-TOK\eo<? Tlo\v/cpLTOv TOV KptoO a^8po9 vrjl efji{3a\ovaa ^i^wvir], 77 nrep el\e acraovcrav errl ^KidOfo T)jv Alytvaiijv,



VIII. 90-92

the Attic ship was sinking, a ship of Aegina bore but the Samothracians, being javelin throwers, swept the fighting men with a shower of javelins off from the ship that had sunk theirs, and boarded and seized her themselves. Thereby the lonians were saved for when Xerxes saw this great feat of their arms, he turned on the Phoenicians (being moved to blame all in the bitterness of his heart) and commanded that their heads be cut off, that so they might not accuse better men, being themselves cowards. For whenever Xerxes, from his seat under the hill over against Salamis called Aegaleos, saw any feat achieved by his own men in the battle, he inquired who was the doer of it, and his scribes wrote down the names of the ship's captain and his father and his city. Moreover it tended somewhat to the doom of the Phoenicians that Ariaramnes, a Persian, was there, who was a friend of the lonians. So Xerxes' men dealt with the Phoenicians. 91. The foreigners being routed and striving to win out to Phalerum, the Aeginetans lay in wait for them in the passage and then achieved notable for the Athenians amid the disorder made deeds havoc of all ships that would resist or fly, and so did the Aeginetans with those that were sailing out of the strait and all that escaped from the Athenians fell in their course among the Aeginetans. 92. Two ships met there, Themistocles' ship pursuing another, and one that bore Polycritus son of Crius of Aegina this latter had charged a Sidonian, the same which had taken the Aeginetan

down and sank the Samothracian







179 eVXee IIu$e>?9 6 ^Icr^evoov, rov KaraKorrevra dperfjs e'lverca el^ov ev rrj


ol Hepcrai



Trepidyovcra a/xa rolcri Tlepcrrjcri ^iBwvir), ware Tlv0ei]V ovrco viivs 77 a>9 Se e'cretSe rrjv vea 69 ALjivav.



TLo^vKpiros, eyixo TO KOI Scocra9 rov




6 TIo\ve/M(TTOK\ea' ol Be /3dp/3apoi al i^e69 rrepieyevovro, (frevyovres arrifcovro 9 v VTTO rov rre^ov arparov.
vrjl e/J,/3a\cov








vav^ayiy ravrrj ijKovaav 'EXA.l<yivfjTCU,












re 6

Avayv paa 10$ Kal



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rolaL yap


A.0r)val(ov rpirjpdpxoKTi


K6K6~\,vcrro, 7T/?o9 Spa^/nai, 69 av



K6iro /nvpiai


7rot,uvro yvvaiKa


ra9 'A^z/a? crrpareveaOai.

avTTj fjiev o~tf, &)9 rrporepov etprjrai, Siecpvye' rj&av Be Kal ol dX\,oi, rcov at i/ee9 rrepLeyeyoveaav, ev

ABei/biavrov Be rov Kopivdiov \eyovaL *A9r)valoi avriKa Kar apjd /Jbiayov al vees, K7r\ayevra re Kal VTrepBelcravra,
1 Polycritus cries to Themistocles, "See how friendly we " are to the Persians Polycritus and his father had been



VIII. 92-94

ship that watched off* Sciathus, wherein was Pytheas son of Ischenous, that Pytheas whom when gashed with wounds the Persians kept aboard their ship and made much of for his valour ; this Sidonian ship was carrying Pytheas among the Persians when she was now taken, so that thereby he came safe back When Polycritus saw the Attic ship, to Aegina. he knew it by seeing the admiral's ship's ensign, and cried out to Themistocles with bitter taunt and reproach as to the friendship of Aegina with the Persians. 1 Such taunts did Polycritus hurl at Themistocles, after that he had charged an enemy As for the foreigners whose ships were yet ship.

undestroyed, they fled to Phalerum and took refuge with the land army. 93. In that sea-fight the nations that won most renown were the Aeginetans, and next to them the Athenians ; among men the most renowned were Polycritus of Aegina and two Athenians, Eumenes of Anagyrus and Aminias of Pallene, he who purHad he known that she was sued after Artemisia. in that ship, he had never been stayed ere he took hers or lost his own such was the bidding given to the Athenian captain, and there was a prize withal of ten thousand drachmae for whoever should take for there was great wrath that a woman her alive should come to attack Athens. She, then, escaped and the rest also whose ships as I have already said were undestroyed were at Phalerum. 94. As for the Corinthian admiral Adimantus, the Athenians say that at the very moment when the ships joined battle he was struck with terror and
; ;

taken as hostages by the Athenians when Aegina was charged with favouring the Persians (vi. 49, 73)


HERODOTUS TO.z>e?. l&o ce Toi>9 Kopivfflowi TIJV cnpar^jiSa favyovcrav a)crauTft)9 TT}? ol^eaOai. Icrria deipdfjievov ol^eaOaL (frevyovra. KaTdTrpo'&ovs o? 8e ^al Si. CIVTIS Ta8e \eyeiv. aXX' ev TTpMTOiai cr0ea9 avrou? T?}9 vavfia^i^^ vofjii^ovai yevearOai' ^apTvpeei Se KCU TI aXXr) EXXa9. f 95. yive<r6ai SaXayLUi'i?79 Kara ipov 'A.9 Se 6 Avcn/Lid^ov dvrjp 'A TOV Kal oX/yro TI TrpoTepov TOVTCOV eTre/jLvijcrdrjv &>9 a^8/?09 apitrrov.0rjvaLrj<$ ?LKipdoo<. yn?) OVTCO 8?. TOU? CLTTO TOV " 'ASei/za^re. VLKWCTL OGOV avTol Tavra 7TiKpaT)]cravT<. T&V %6pa)i>" \eyovTwv aTna-reetv yap TOV 'ASei/jiavTov./3d\\ovTai rfjSe co? Se eivai Oelov TO Trpfjy/jia. eV e^epyaa-jAevoia-i e\6elv 69 TOVTOVS /nei> TOiavTrj <ar9 e^et UTTO 'AOrjvaicov. K\rjra TOV ovre <rr pat ir/s $avr\vai ov&eva. ov ixemoi avTol ye Kopiv0ioi 6/jLO\oyeov(7i.. o-v/j. YJV X?. afyi a>9 Be dpa (pevyovras Oeir] TrofjiTrf). av inev djro- Ta? i^ea? e'<? (j)vyr^i> op/jirjcrai. rwi> vewv. OUTO? e/^ TCO Oopvftu) TOVTM TW Trepl SaXa/u^a yevof^evw TuSe eVotet" 7rapa\a/3ojV O'L TcapaTeTa"%aTO trapa 92 . yap ayX v y^veadai \eyeiv raoe. 'AptcrTet8r. OVTG 11 rwv airo T?}? el&odL Trpoafyepea-dai TOLCTI KopivOioiai. VIKWVTCS fyaivwvrai ol EXdiroa'Tpe-^ravTa Trjv vea avTov r/ Te KOI TOV<$ a\Xof9 TO (TTpaTOTreBov. 609 avTol otoi re e^ez' dyo/jLevoi o/^rjpoi aTroOvi'icrKeiv.

But when (so the story goes) they came in their flight near that part of Salamis where is the temple of Athene Sciras. those that were in it cried. you have turned back with your ships in but even now flight. he carried them across to . and hoisting his sails fled away and when the Corinthians saw their admiral's ship fleeing they were off and away likewise. VIII. 94-95 . ere it drew nigh to them.BOOK panic. mantus. If the Persians at the outset of the battle were occupying the ends of the whole strait between Salamis and the mainland. : ." Thus they spoke. 1 there by heaven's providence a boat met them which none was known to have sent. Thereupon Adimantus and the rest did turn their ships about and came to the fleet when all was now over and done. did in this rout at Salamis as I will show taking many of the Athenian men-at-arms who stood arrayed on the shores of Salamis. it is not clear how the Corinthians could get to this point. and hold that they were among the foremost in the battle and all Hellas bears them witness likewise. . known aught of the doings of the fleet and this is how they infer heaven's hand in the matter when the boat came " Adinigh the ships. But Aristides son of Lysimachus. 93 . and betrayed the Greeks they are winning the day as fully as they ever prayed that they might vanquish their enemies. but the Corinthians deny it. Thus the Athenians report of the Corinthians . that Athenian of whose great merit I have lately made mention. : 1 The temple stood on the southern extremity of Salamis. and when Adimantus would not believe they said further that they were ready to be taken for hostages and slain if the Greeks were not victorious for all to see. nor had the Corinthians. 95.

dpreero re 6*9 7ro\/JLOv 0)9 1 A narrow hecidland 2| miles south of Phalerum just where ships would be driven from the battle by a west wind. TOI<TI Tolcri ecovrov.^^09 TrdOos. eroi^ot. Eep^? Se &><? /na0e TO 70. /cat ST) al :ara ra vavrfyia ra ravrrj elprj/jLevov TroXXotcri erecri e^eve^Oevra TO TOVTCOV ev ). 94 . Xprja-ecrOcu (3acri\ea. OL TOi>9 Tlepcras TO 1/9 eV Kare^ovevaav rrdvras. . 7au iva avrl re a-^eSt'^9 e&xri /cat Tet^609. 69 TO 2^ KOI dTro\aji$>0e\<$ ev bv e/3ov\eve.HERODOTUS e? rrjv ^vrrd\eiav L. Trporepov xprjcr/iiq) Avcria-rpaTM 'AOrjvata) av&pi TO TOVTO &e e/xeXXe aTreXacraz^ro? ySacr^Xeo? ec 97. rjaav e? a\\t]v vavjna%ir)v. 'fl? Se 6*9 t] vavfjia^ir) f/ $ie\\vro. e'XTrt^o^Te? r^crt Trepieovarjcri vrjval en. rwv be vavr)yiu>v vroXXa V7ro\a/3a)v civefjios %ecf)vpos efyepe r^? 'Arrf/CT}? T^P rjiova irepl Trjv Ka\eo/jL6i>r)v Tr^rjadfjvai TOV xpiycr/jLOV TOV re KwXtaSa* ware a a\\ov iravra TOV T/9 vav/jLa'xirjs raur^? elprjfjievoi BdfttSi real Moucratw. 69 Sia%ovi>. Kareipvcravre? vavrjyLcov rrjv ^a\afjiLva OL EXX?^e? TWV oaa ravrrj ervy^ave en eovra. iv . VY](JOV rf) arre vrja-lSi ravrrj 96. ay aw.

he essayed to build a mole across to Salamis. as though he would fight at sea again. . about the wrecks that were here cast ashore (the import of which prophecy no Greek had noted) : "Also the Colian dames with oar-blades. but also that which had .BOOK VIII. The sea-fight being broken off. But many yet again of the wrecks were caught by a west wind and carried to the strand in Attica called Colias 1 so that not only was the rest of the prophecy fulfilled which had been uttered by Bacis and Musaeus concerning that sea-fight. been prophesied many years ago by an Athenian oracle-monger named Lysistratus. thinking that the king would use his ships that were left. the Greeks towed to Salamis all the wrecks that were still afloat in those waters. 2 and made fast a line of Phoenician barges to be a floating bridge and a wall and he made preparation for war. and held themselves ready for another battle. 2 Ctesias and Strabo place this project before and not after the battle plainly it would have been useless (and indeed impossible) to the Persians after their defeat. and so But that neither the Greeks nor discover his intent. his own men might . Xerxes was aware of the calamity that had befallen him. and they slaughtered all the Persians who were on that islet. When Ionian counsel or their own devising) might sail to the Hellespont to break his bridges. 95 . and he might be cut off in Europe and in peril of his life . 96." shall roast their barley was to happen after the king's departure. 95-97 the island Psyttalea. The rest who saw him he planned flight. he feared lest the Greeks (by But this 97.

?/cre/zr M. rovro TO 99. TI TOVTCOV Se TWV dy<ye\(DV ecrrl ovftev o Odacrov ITepcr^cri a pay'iv'67 a i Ovrfrov TOVTO.7raBrj(j)opL'rj T&) H<^>ato'Tft) 7riTe\Ovcri. ou vv% epyet /JLIJ ou /caravvcrai TOV nrpoKGi^evov avrw SpofjLov TTJV OVK 0//-/3/30?. rocrovroi ITTTTOI re real /card JLero'irv 6Sov e re KOL dvrjp reray/jLevos' TOVS ovre ov Kav/Jia. erep^re OVTCO Ylpcrea)v TOU9 v7ro\ei(f)@evTas 0)9 ra9 T6 6801)9 fivpcrivr) Trdaas zcnopecrav rjcrav KOL eQvfJLiwv a KOL avrol 77 ev Ovcrurjcri re /cal Se Sevreprj crfyi. eov ovrw rolcrt a>? e^evp^rat rj/nepecov \eyovcn <ydp ocrewv av y 1} Tracra 0^09. TL 'H fjiev KcCKeovcri TLepcTCLi dyyap)]iov. One was "a relay or team race. 6 fiev Brj 7T/3WT09 Spa/jiwv TrapaSiSol rd e TO) Sevrepa).HERODOTUS opwvres Be piv rrdvres ol d\\oi ravra ev rjTTia-rearo &>9 CK nrawros voov rrapea-Kevacrrat fLevoyv 7roXeyU. dyye\iri errecre\Oovcra crvve^ee ovrw axrre rous KiOCova? Kareppij1 Torch-races were They were There run at certain Athenian festivals.Va9 Hep 779. 6 Be Sevrepos T> Tpiray TO Beevdevrev Tr KCLT r d\\ov Kara irep KCLI f/ ev Ei\\r)a'i rj \a/j. &>9 /jdXicrra efjirreipov eovra T^? eice'ivov Tavrd re dfia He/o^? eVotee KOL eVe^Tre Trapeov&dv cr(f)i e? Ile/jo-a? TT d<yye\eovTa rrjv avfKpopjj^. of various kinds. the first man in each 96 . Srj Trpwrr) e? ^ouaa dyye\iij d-ni- 7 co? e^oi 'A^?. were several lines of runners .ap&6viov 8' ovSev rovrayv e\dv6ave 98.

282. It is said that as many days as there are in the whole journey. each horse and man at the interval of a day's journey.BOOK so doing VIII. the second to carried it to the goal. cp. the Persian word for a post-rider being in Greek do-ravSrjs (How and Wells). who had best experience of Xerxes' purposes. 98. This riding-post is called in Persia. Now there is nothing mortal that accomplishes a course more swiftly than do these messengers. and so on and ran with it at full it on. he sent a messenger to Persia with news of his present misfortune. 2 99. 2 ayyapos is apparently a Babylonian word. even as in the Greek torch-bearers' race 1 in honour of Hephaestus. IV. Ag. so many are the men and horses that stand along the road. so confounded them that they all rent . the second to the third. The first rider delivers his charge to the second. fryyapos passed into Greek usage . Aesch. and these are stayed neither by snow nor rain nor heat nor darkness from accomplishing their appointed course with all speed. angareion. by the Persians' skilful contrivance. telling that Xerxes had taken Athens. The line of runners which first passed its torch alight to the " goal was the winning team (How and Wells). his torch lighted at the altar had whom he passed till the last man 97 VOL. While Xerxes did thus. and thence it passes on from hand to hand. 97-99 were fully persuaded that he was in all earnestness prepared to remain there and carry on the war. coming on the heels of the first. but none of this deceived Mardonius. to the third. F . line speed to the second. it gave such delight to the Persians who were left at home that they strewed all the roads with myrtle boughs and burnt incense and gave themselves up to sacrificial feasts and jollity but the second. When the first message came to Susa.

Hep^? auro? M.. eSoaav vvv Bofceei. crv/iKpoprjv " 7rpocre(f)pe AefTTrora. eTroievv co? Trepl avTW H ep%1) Bei/Aai. Troieeiv TavTa. eVt rr)v 'EXXaSa.vovT6<. avTi/ca TreipcofJLe0a Tle\oTrovvi](rov el Be KOI Bo/ceei eTrio"%eiv. OVK OVTW Be Trepl TWV v(ov a^OofJievoi ravra ol Tlepcrai fc). /neydXriv XUTTGO fnJTe yeyovoTO? Troiev TovSe TOV ov yap %v\wv aywv o TO irav fyepwv eVrl I^IMV. Kat irepl Ilepcra? v xpovov 'yevbfievov.apB6viov ev aiTir) TiOevTes. Kal ol Kpecraov eir] avaKiv^vvevaat.HERODOTUS oj re Ka o/J.ap&6vios Be op&v e/c v avrbv rdov ou- \eveiv CK TWV 'AOyvetov. i) Karepydaacr0at ryv 'EXXa^a 7. a\\rfv e%&) Kal eK TcovBe /3ov\rjv. OVT etc ol re rjfuv riVTicoOrjcrav. CLVTOV KO\WS reXevrrjcrai TOV ftlov virep fieydXcov aloypi]6evra' irKeov /^emoi e(pepe ol r) ryvw/jirj Karepydcracrdai TrjV 'EXXa^a- \ojicrdfjLi>o^ wv ravra /JLIJTC TOP \6yov TovSe. Trjv crv . aXX' dvopwv re Kal O~0i OVT6 Tt? TOVTWV TtoV TO TCCiV fi^efjiiav eiveica Trprjy/jiaTOS. KaTepydcr0ai vewv TreipijcreTai dvTia)df]vai. e/3ov\evTai avTOv drre^avvovTa aTrdyeiv jv. ov yap ecrrt prjBe Bva0v/A' ovBe^ia e/cBvais firj ov BovTas \6yov TWV vvv TC Kal TrpoTepov elvai o~ov<? vvv rara Troee' e 5' apa TOI rjTreipov Trjcroe" el i^ev Bifcas. p<ei> r^v ravra TOV Trdvra ov fJ-e^pi eTravcre. 100.a)y} M. (frpovTicras 777309 ewwrov co? Sweet BLKTJV avaryvuxras /3acrtXea (TrpareveaOat.

considered with himself that he would be punished for overpersuading the king to march against Hellas. their former your slaves. 100. be not grieved nor greatly distressed by reason of this that has befallen us. . that will disembark from his ship and essay to withstand you. . no. that also we can do. and that it was better for him to risk the chance of either subduing Hellas or dying honourably by flying at a noble quarry yet his hope rather inclined to the subduing of Hellas wherefore taking all " this into account he made this proposal Sire. Such was the plight of the Persians for all the time until the coming of Xerxes himself ended it But Mardonius. but on men and horses and there is not one of these men. and becoming then that you should do as but if you are resolved that you will lead your army away. . If then it so please you. who think that they have now won a crowning victory.BOOK their tunics. . . and suspecting that he planned flight from Athens. holding Mardonius to blame and it was not so much in grief for their ships that they did this as because they feared for Xerxes himself. nor anyone from this mainland they that have withstood us have paid the penalty. let us straightway attack the Peloponnese or if it please you to wait. It is not on things of wood that all the issue hangs for us. : . Be not cast down for the Greeks have no way of escape from being accountable for . I have said latter deeds. even then I have another It is best . seeing that Xerxes was greatly distressed by reason of the sea-fight. VIII. and their 99 . 99-100 and cried and lamented without ceasing.

e'/u-e ravra rrjv rj ai)ro9 e0e\ei rpnJKovra /Avptdo~as aTroXe/JLOL TOV ffTparov 7rapa(T^eli> CLVTOV $ avv ' ra> /cat oiTTft) crr/oarw 69 ?.? arparov aTroXe^d/Aevov.^/ ra crewuroO aTreXau^e e/^e ' Trapa^eveLV. TaDra (^77 d/coi/o-a? ii<j9ri.evoL(Ti av . //. ovS 1 epeeis OKOV eye- e <&oivifces re KOL el dvSpes KCLKOI. <rv rf./. TpirjKovra pvpidSas rov He/o^?. fjieTaa-Tijad/Jievos re crui. eireior) ov LiepcraL rot CLLTIQI eicri.HERODOTUS . e&O% KOi *ApT/jLlCrir)V /jL6Ta7re/jL\lsa(TdaL.ouou9 ejo-eo)^ /^a TOU9 aXXof9 TOV9 rou9 " KeXe^et yite avrov \eywv W9 ftoi Tle/^crai TreipacrOai re /cat lcri. TroLrja-rjs EXX?/crr ovBe jap ev Hepcrrja-i rot ri TWV a .ea 7T6/jl ra 7^/3 T. yf J / >/ > l ireiOeo' e? ?/^ea el rot SeSo/erat yu. T% o 776^09 crr/3aTO9 aXXa wi^ ?. on Trporepov r)V.. a7r6Bej. \irjv /Aovvrj r) O)? /3oV\V6TO OL oKOTepov T[pffCOV 69 TTlK\r)TOiai. ftacn\ev. 7r/J>?7/zaTa>j'.? arpaTLi]^ TO 7roXXoi>. 101.9 vavpayiris ev crvveov- 100 . /3ov\o/n. eV /ca/cwv %dpTj re Kal crayLte^o? TT/OO? MapSowoi/ re CLfJLa vjroKpiveecr6ai ^6 TOVTWV. voeovcra rd Tronjrea 0)9 Be 'ApT/Jii(Tir). KOI ItHvirpLoi re fcal Kt'Xt/ce? rca/col ovBev Trpo? Fle/xra? rovro Trpocrtfrcei TO / f T-T ^\ ?/o?. Se crol ^/9?) T^ a>? 'EXXaSa eSovXto/jLevrjv. wv.is.

VIII. it is by no fault of the Persians. he says. When Xerxes heard that. Egyptians have so done. because he saw that she alone at the former sitting had When Artemisia discerned what was best to do. Xerxes bade all others withdraw. make the Persians a laughfor if you have suffered ing-stock to the Greeks harm. loo-ioi Do not. if Phoenicians and choose. men should and and Cyprians and . with three hundred thousand of your host whom I will Cilicians . to bid Artemisia too to the council. and the land army are nowise to blame for our disaster. . Wherefore since the Persians are nowise to blame. while I myself by his counsel march away homeward with : . came. he was as glad and joyful as a man in his evil case might be. Now therefore I ask of you 101 : . and said to Mardonius that he would answer him when he had first taken counsel which of the two and as he consulted with plans he would follow those Persians whom he summoned. and said to her " It is Mardonius' counsel that I should abide here and attack the Peloponnese for the Persians. if be guided by me you are resolved that you will not remain. do you march away homewards with but it is for me the greater part of your army to enslave and deliver Hellas to you. the rest of the host. else he offers it is his counsel that I should do this to choose out three hundred thousand men of the army and deliver Hellas to me enslaved. . O king." 101. he was fain . both Persian councillors and guards. and Wherefore of that they would willingly give proof. nor can you say that we have anywhere done less than brave . it is not the Persians who have any part in this disaster.BOOK plan.

ov$e/jit.? EA. el 0e\ei re Kal v7ro$eK6Tai. ravra rroirjcreLV. 7^09 ^v eovra Tltfiacrea. vvv ev re crv/jLJ3ov\. Bov\ov e'iveica aTroXecraz^re?' rwv ra? rov crroKov eVot^crao. rovro fjuev yap rjp Karaarpe^r^raL ra (frycrl 0e\eiv KaL ol rrpo^wpria-r) ra voewv \eyet. e/ceivcov o~eo re rrepieovros rwv yap ol crv re 7roXXa/a9 aywvas Spajueovrai rcepl f/ 7rpr]y/j. BacriXeu. r]v n o-fpecov avrwv \6yos rrdOrj. viK&vres ol crv 'Ei\\r)ve<{ Be. erraLveo'as Se rrjv 'Apreuio~irjv. " rdBe.X77^9. ravrrjv ciyovcrav avrov TratSa? e? "Ei ' IJLGV voOoi yap rives rraloes ol avvecnTOvro. ZweTre/jLTre Se rolcri iraicrl (f)v\atcov rtjAoi'. ra evavria TT)? MapSoviov yvco/ui^yev^rai. eBe\6L. "HcrOrj re Srj \eyovo~a yap eTrervy^ave rd rcep avros evoee. aov ro epyov w BeaTrora <yiverai' rovro Se r)v ol yap crol Bov\oi Karepydcravro. 104. Mapboviov 8e. aev ravra o~vvefBov\evero. rj Be \eyet.ev earl crvfjuftov- O \evojj. %a\7rbv fj. TroXXoi.ol' ovra) Karappco. efjieve av SoK6ii> ep. MapSoviov ov&e o~ov rt. (pepo/j-evov Be IO2 .evri) rv^eiv ra apicrra eiTraaav.evos" 102.a \i7T6LV carat. f yiverai.HERODOTUS TT}? yevo/jLevr)? OVK ecocra rroLieo~Oai.dra)V Trepl OLKOV rov aov rjv Trepifjs teal olitos o cro?. avrov tcara- avv rolat. rfj irvpatcras 103. be. ov&e yap el rrdvres Kal rracrai crvve(3ov\evov avru> peveiv.evcrov fV OKorepa rroiewv 7rirv%a) {3ov\evcrd/j. eVt fievroi Trpij'yfJLaa-i Toicri (76 KanJKOvai Bo/cL Jioi aiirov aTrekavveiv OTricra).

101-104 me against the counsel me as to which of these two things I shall be best advised to do. now : . for it will be your servants that have wrought it. be left here with For if he subdue all that those whom he desires. But if again the issue be contrary to Mardonius' opinion. and that Mardonius. guardian With these sons he sent Hermotimus as this man was by birth of Pedasa. though all men and women had counselled him so to do so Having then thanked Artepanic-stricken was he.BOOK as VIII. many a time and oft will the Greeks have to fight for their lives. it is no matter for that nor will any victory of the Greeks be a victory in truth. you will be marching home after the burning of Athens. and the . . you did rightly so in counselling late sea-fight. O king. Sire. for it happened that she spoke his own purpose . and prosper in the purpose wherewith he speaks. he sent her away to carry his sons to Ephesus for he had some bastard sons with him. in truth I think that he would not have remained. when they have but slain your servant but as for you. but in the present turn of affairs I think it best that you march away back." 103. 103 . it is no great misfortune so long as you and all that household of yours be safe for while you and they of your house are safe. Being thus asked for advice she replied " It is difficult. misia. if aught ill befall him. which thing was the whole purpose of your expedition. is yours. if he wills and promises to do as he says. As for Mardonius. 104. Artemisia's counsel pleased Xerxes . . . to answer your asking for advice by saying that which is best." 102. the achievement. . he offers to subdue.

I aXXou? jroieuKttl re Sr) 6 T\aviu>vios egera/jbe TroXXoi/?. o? Trjv %6rjv Karecrr^craTo air epywv dvo<riwrdrwv orco? yap KTtjaaiTo TrcuSa? el'Seo? 7ra/ijroKe/JLitov teal jrw\eo^vov /aevovs. rrpwTa /LLCP ol KaTa\eywv ocra auro? ' e/ceivov X OL a y a @ l l SevTepa Be ol > T^ 104 . 'n? 8e TO (rrpdrevaa TO HepaiKov op^ia errl ra? 'A$?..? TWV evop^iwv.yuet? iS/iev. are KO. TiapLwvio^ dvrjp Xto?.HERODOTUS ov &e TO. Tore fj tepefy TOVTO yv] ry fjLeyiCTTr) TIG is r. 'Trapa yap ftapftdpOLcn TifAicorepot elal oi evvov^oi eive/ca T?)? Tracr?.S^ dSifcr/OevTi Trdvrwv TWV ?. ^povov Se Trpolovros irdvTwv TWV eTijJ.0-r)vair)<. KOL $rj ov yap TCL iravra eSuarv^ee 6 e/c TOVTOV. evOavTa /cara Mucrt^z/. fJieVOS K TOVTOV T)]V %6r)V. 8e O-^L 8i? Y)$r) eyevero. 'E/C TOVTWV St] TWV TIl]$acre(i)V T% ' TavTrjs olfceovai. 'EyOyUori/zo?. <pvei Trayywva /neyav. 1 SevTepa TWV cvvov^wv rrapd /SacrtXtV [oi A.apBucov Trapa ftacn\ea Swpwv. rrdo-i Il^Sacree? oifceovai vrrep TOICTI du(j)l TL eWo? xpovov av-roOi A.rj0r) fJid\La"ra rrapa He/?^.\iKapvricraov' ev Se Tolffi TLijSda-oicri TOVTeoiai ToiovSe o-v/jL<peperai 7rpr)y/ua yiveadaL' ZTreav Toiai d/jicfriKTVocri. TMV ^. rr/s vroX^o? /j. S?. yvovs Be e\eye TT/OO? ainov TTO\\OV<^ teal \6yovs. KCU 6Krd/jivwv dyivewv eVcoXee e? 2apS^9 re "Ec^ecro^ xprj/jLaTatv fjLeyd\u>v. ' 105.\\y ecreodat %d\7r6v.m? ewv ev ^dpbiai. 106. r d\6vra yap CLVTOV viro u>v6Tai. TL rrp^y/jLa 6 'Ep/^oTf^o? e? yrjv Xiot yuet^ vefjiovTai 'Arayo^ew? 5e Ka\6Tai. evplcTKei TOV Tlavtcoviov evOavTa.

where they ocear more appropriately. a man that had set himself to earn a livelihood out of most wicked practices he would procure beautiful boys and castrate and take them to Sardis and Ephesus. preparing to lead his Persian armament against Athens." he said.BOOK VIII. 106. Now among the many whom Panionius had castrated in the way of trade was Hermotimus. Hermotimus. This happens among these people when aught untoward is about to befall within a certain time all those : that dwell about their city. "that I owe all this prosperity of 1 The words i. had achieved a fuller vengeance for wrong done to him than had any man within my knowledge. . Perceiving who he was. who was not in for he was brought from all things unfortunate Sardis among other gifts to the king. who came from this place Pedasa. the priestess of Athene then grows a great beard. This had already happened to them twice. . from 175. and as time went on he stood higher in Xerxes' favour than any other eunuch. The people of Pedasa dwell above Halicarnassus. in brackets are probably an interpolation. "it is to you. . 105. he held long and friendly converse with him. by reason of the full trust that they have in them. Now while the king was at Sardis and there sale. Hermotimus came for some business that he had in hand down to the part of Mysia which is inhabited by Chians and called Atarneus. 104-106 most honoured by Xerxes of all his eunuchs. and there he found Panionius. where he sold them for a great price for the foreigners value eunuchs more than perfect men. 105 . Being taken captive by enemies and exposed for he was bought by one Panionius of Chios.

S 6/0^779 i.r) Tr v air TOI eo-OfJLevrjv ravra wvei&icre. ayQzvrwv co? Be SiKr/v. air epywv dvoo-icordrayv TOV dvSpwv r/S?7 fjiakiO'Ta ae eyco KCIKOV i] avros r) ae TrpoyovcDV epyda-aro. co? Be apa TravoiKir) "'II TrepieXa/Se. rj are ?} T&V /jia)i> oil fJLG avT av^pos eVot'^cra? TO fj. yayov t e? %et^a? e/neo r9 JJLCL^. eXeye 6 'Rp/AOTi/nos raSe. TOVS TralBas 'Ap Tfjii air) aTrdyeiv VLOV etceXevcre /cal JJLLV e? "E^ecroi^. Oeovs \ijo~eiv ola e/^rj^avM rare' OL ere e'So/cee? T KTVjO'fjieve." rwv TraiSaiv e? 6- OL o Haviaivios rwv ecovrov epcov eovrcov rd alSola dTrordftveiv. vvv ovrw TrepLij^tfe ij re Ticris KCL\ Be &>? 107. rrjv rj^eprjv e? TOCTOVTO r^? Be VVKTOS ra? vea<$ ol (rrarr^yol etc TOV TOV Ej\\?jcrTrovTOV co? OTTLcrci) e? e^acrro?. ol etrel Be dy%ov rjcrav Za>crTfjpos fidpfiapoi. ware ce fj. ol fiev TratSc? dvayKa^ojuevoi aTrerafJivov. e /3ao-i\ei. co? Tavra epydcraro.HERODOTUS avri TOVTWV O<TCL /Jiiv ayaOd Troi^aei r\v /eo/ucra? TOU9 oiVera? olxerj eiceLvy. Bia(j)v\a^ov(ra^ ra? tr^eSta? Tropeveyivero. /traXecra? rrjs MapBo- crrpar^^? Gia\eyeiv TOU? Troieeiv rolcn \6yoicri rd epya ravrrjv fjuev o/jioia. dvayKaBe eTroiee ravra' avrov re.rj^v elvai . wcrre viroBe^dfAevov acrfjievov TOVS \6yovs TOV Ylavicoviov Ko^laai ra Te/cva Kal rr/v yvvai/ca. dvaTecvovcri yap dtcpai 106 . TI Tt? 1 voaia.

you that have made a livelihood out of the wickedest trade on earth what harm had I or any of my fore- you will I will make you . and brought his children and his wife. but a thing of nought ? ay. by vengeance and by Hermotimus.BOOK mine. But Hermotimus. and make his words good so far as endeavour availed." words of reproach. 107 . 106-107 bring your household and prosperous in return. Having given his sons to Artemisia's charge to be carried to Ephesus. having got the man and all his " Tell household in his power. to you or yours. now dwell here. For that day matters went thus far. between Piraeus and Sunium. if VIII. : ! fathers done to you. they thought that certain little headlands. said to him me. Thus was Panionius overtaken his him and compelled him own ." Panionius accepted his promising this and that offer gladly. your wicked deeds into my hands. and now shall be well content with the fulness of that With these justice which I will execute upon you. which done. in the night. Xerxes called Mardonius to him and bade him choose out whom he would from the army. that you made me to be no man. you thought that the gods would have no knowledge of your devices of old but their just law has brought . children this Panionius was compelled to do . to guard the bridges for the king's passage. he brought Panionius' sons before you you for to castrate all four of them. 107. the sons were compelled to castrate their father in turn. When the foreigners came near to the " Girdle" 1 in their course. the admirals by the king's command put out to sea from Phalerum and made for the Hellespont again with all speed. which here jut 1 A promontory on the west coast of Attica.

rrpoo"%(i)prjo~ai Kara rr6\i<.evovs KOL ra? 8e rrjv vea? rc\eeiv lOews errl rov \eyo)V el evavri^v ravrrj yvwfjitjv eriOero. eBo^dv re re'a? elvai Kal effrevyov eirl TroXXof ^povu) Be fjiaOovres on ov We? elev aXX* a/cpai. a>9 ayovri o rjo-v^irjv ovre ri npoywpeziv olov re ecrrai rwv rrpiiy/ndrtov ovre ri<$ KOfjuS?) ra OTTLCTG) <f)a<ydp vrjcrerai. \I/JLW re ol TJ o~rpari7j BLa(f)Bepeerai. opwvre? ol "E Kara ^copTjv fjLevovra rov (jrparov TOV veas elvai irepl t&dXrjpov. 'n? Se r}/ji<ep>J eyivero. rjroL CL\LCTKO^VWV ye rovrov ofio\oye6vra)v rpo(j)i]V re e^eiv rov errereiov alel rov rwv 'R\\ijva)v KapaXXa BoKeetv yap vtK^Oevra rfj vav/na^l) TTOV. avTLKa /jiera ravra eSo/cee em$ia)Ketv. e? Be rrjv "AvSpov arci- e/3ov\evovro.HERODOTUS \errral TT}<? r^rreipov ravTijs. fjiev vvv drreBeiKwro Bia vtjcrwv rpa7rojj. \vaovcri ra? cr^eSi'a?. e? o e\6oi tyevywv e? ewvrov' TO ev0evrev Be jrepl TT}? e/ceivov iroieecrOaL r)&r) rov 108 rj rrpo <7(/>ea? T^ . rovr av /jieyiarov rrdvrcov <7<f)L KCIKWV TTJV 'EXXa^a epydcrairo.vp(t)m]v old re ecrrai. eSo Y}\Tri^ov Kal re vavfjia^creiv cr^ea? rrapapreovro re a>? d errel Be errudovro ra? i^ea? Gofjievoi. re Kal Kara eOvea. Se/Ai(TroK\er)<. co? el dvayKaaOeir) o Hepo-rjs fjieveiv ev rfj rreupwro av riGvylriv i^rj dyeiv. rov vvv vavriKov rov Kep^ew err par ov OVK erreiSov L r9 "AvBpov. em^eipeovrt Be avrw Kal epyov e^o/iez/w rrdvra ra Kara rrjv E. crv\\e^evre^ eKo/ji 108. ov fjieveeiv ev rfj Eivpwrrr) rov Uepcnjv eareov wv elvai (j)evyeiv.

by conquest or ere that by compact and he will live on whatsoever yearly fruits of the earth Hellas But. it When army abiding where .BOOK . and having pursued after the ships should sail forthwith to the Hellespont to break the bridges but Eurybiades offered a contrary opinion. VIII. 109 . was day. remain in Europe after his defeat in the sea-fight. . as I think that the Persian will not produces. opinion that they should hold their course through the islands. . saying that to break the bridges would be the " For. it may well be that every town and nation in Europe may join itself to him severally. the Greeks saw the land it had been and supposed the and thinking that ships also to be at Phalerum there would be a sea-fight they prepared to defend But when they learnt that the ships themselves. but his army will perish of hunger but if he be adventurous and busy. " if the Persian be cut off and compelled to remain in Europe. they straightway resolved on pursuit so they pursued Xerxes' fleet as far as Andros. . and they fled for a long way but learning at last that they were no ships but headlands they drew together and went on their Avay." . . said he. were ships. seeing that if he be inactive neither can his cause prosper nor can he find any way of return home. but had no sight of it and when they came to Andros they held a council there. were gone. let us suffer him to flee. Themistocles declared his 108. he will essay not to be inactive. 107-108 out from the mainland. till he come in his flight to his own country and thereafter let it be that country and not ours that is at stake in the war." greatest harm that they could do to Hellas. .

vecfrov TOCTOVTO dv9 pwircop &ia)Ka)/jiv ai>8pas (frevyovras. f 109. e^erco. Q? Be efJiaOe on ov rreicreL TOU? ye TroXXot^ rr\eetv rov 'EjXXijdTrovrov o (y)e/u<7TO/eXe?79. 110. real " Kai auro9 7r\e(o r. 7/^tet? Be.adyd\.? KOL dvocribv re /cal 'ISia drdcrOakov ra o? rd re ipa ra ev O/JLOLM eVoieero./jiara' a-XX' ev yap eyfet e? arLycoae 7reSa9 re KarrjKe.HERODOTUS dywva Ke\eve.eKreov. Kai Tt9 olKirjv re avarc\aa'u<j&'a) arropov dvaKax. iva rjv cipa rl fjav Kara\a^/3dvrj rrpbs ^K6rfvaiwv rrd0os e%rj aTrocrrpofiy'jV' rd rrep wv Kal eyevero.\orrovvii(TLCL)v rwv d\\wv ol arparriyoi.8?7 TroAXoicrt Trapeyevofji'rjv TToXXw aKiJKoa roidSe yeveaOai. opfJLearo re TOV 'Q\\1(T7rOVTOV 7T\Ll> KOi eVt (3a\o/iievoi. efjimrrpas re Kal Kara/3d\\a>v rwv Oewv 09 Kal TYJV Od\a(j(rav drrep. aXXa TT}? Oeol re i]pwes. TO rrapeov rifMV. av&pas ? avayKairjv aTTei\7]9evTa^ veviKij/ncvovs uva^d%ecr6al re KOI dva\afji(3dveiv TTJV Trporeprjv KCIKOrrjra. e/xi(TTo. ol e(f)doi>ii(Tav dvSpa eva /cal T^? Eu^wTr-r. rdBe teal yap OUK rjjjLel^ Karepyacrd/j-eda.I^ r] 'EXXaSa. rravreXzws a7reXacra9 rov {3dp/3apov dfia Be rq> eapi Kararr\eco/Jiv errl v Kal 'Iwvbrjs" ravra e\eye drrov jjie\\wv rron'ivacrOai 9 rov Tlepcr^v.? (Ba(ri\eijcrai eovra re 'Acrt?.Xe^9 /jiev ravra \ey(ov Bie{3a\\. rat/nys Be ei%ovro rrjs Kal n. vvv /lev ev rf) 'EXXa8i vavras rj/jiecov re aurwv erci[jLe\ri9rjvai KOI oi/cerewv. el ol CT()6CL>V CIVTWV rdBe. evprj/ma <ydp evpiJKdftev 7/Atea? re Aral T>. no . 9 jjieraf3a\wv rrpos rovs 'KOrjvaiovs (OUTOL <yap fjid\icrra eKTrecfreuyoTwv rrep^fj.

and they were minded to sail to the Hellespont even by themselves. let us abide now in Hellas and take thought for ourselves and our households. When Themistocles perceived that he could not persuade the greater part of them to sail to the Hellespont. let us build our . in . and burnt and overthrew the images ot the gods. fortunate chance that we owe ourselves and Hellas." This he said with intent to put somewhat to his credit with the Persian. that scourged the sea and threw But as it is well with us for the fetters thereinto. that beaten men when they be driven to bay will rally and retrieve their former Wherefore I say to you. and have driven away so mighty a cloud of enemies. houses again and be diligent in sowing. when we have and when the driven the foreigner wholly away next spring comes let us set sail for the Hellespont and Ionia. who deemed Asia and Europe too great a realm for one man to rule. and much oftener heard. 110.BOOK VIII. Thus spoke Themistocles with intent to . as it is to a mishap. but the gods and the heroes. we that have won this victory. so that he might have a place of refuge if ever (as might chance) he should suffer aught at the hands of the Athenians and indeed it did so happen. For it is not let us not pursue after men that flee. 109. nonce. yea. if the rest would not) and thus addressed them: "This 1 have often seen with my eyes. he turned to the Athenians (for they were the angriest at the Persians' escape. 108-110 With that opinion the rest of the Peloponnesian admirals also agreed. and that a wicked man and an impious one that dealt alike with temples and homes. .

i%6o" OTTCTCO. OL fJLev ravra ar]p. rrdvrws GTOI/JLOI rjcrav Xeyozm Se ovroi ol dveyvwa-fjievoi rjaav.rji>avre<.'. eVet 'Aj/5/3tou9 76 c 112 al . rotcrt eTriareve (Tiyav e? Trdcrav (Bdaavov diriKveofJievoicri ra auro? evereLavrirca /nerd vre/XTre \aro /3aai\ei eyevero' Kr)v. 111. fypdaovrd roi OTL o TOU? /car' f/ rivaos. ev/3ov\os. ol fiev OL dcrai' T0)i> /cdl St/aiTO? o eVetre diTiKovTo Tr/309 Kare^evov eirl T&5 Trapd Kepj. vrreKplvavro 7r/oo9 ' ravra \eyovres 009 /card \oyov rjcrav dpa AOrjvai /jLeyd\ai re /cat evSaL/noves. ovrco Kapra Borea elvai ^/j?//. EXX?7Z^a9 ra9 veas fiouXo/jLevovs Sicoiceiv teal ' vvv rjav^irjv TroXX^ Ko/j.icrTOK\eos \b~yov 7rpoio"xo[ivov &)9 "iKOiev 'AOrjvaioi jrepl 9eov<$ /j.tara. (To ovofjivo<$ virovpyeeiv.\. GTpaTrjyos pev vaiwv dvrjp 8e T&V au/z/za^a)^ nrdvTwv a Aral <ro0a>raTO9.HERODOTUS > erreiOovro' eTreiSij yap Kal irporepov elvai re real Treidea-Oai. TTjv EXX?.r]v e\ye 6 Neo/fXeo?. at Oewv %P''l a"T &v ij/cotev ev.? avSpas airie^ovras vrXoto.eyd.cr7roz/To^ "AvSpov TTepiKdTeaTO TrpwroL 77/209 yap "AvSpioi vrftrLwrewv d\\d fiLcrroK\o<? ^ptj/JLara OVK /u. TretOa) re re cr(j)L CCOVTOVS e^oi/re? KOI dvayKaiijv. Ot eri TrpocrayTepco f 9 TOZ^ TMV ftapftdpwv e^eXeti/ e'^ealrrj- TrKeeiv Tropov.ov<$. fo>9 ravra 6 e/tto-ro/cXeT.

When these men came to Attica. now that they were no longer minded to pursue the foreigners' ships farther or sail to the Hellespont and break the way of passage. For the men of that place. has sent me to tell you this Themistocles the Athenian has out of his desire to do you a service stayed the them over. in a boat whom . being blest with serviceable gods as for us Andrians. we are but . and Sicinnus went up to Xerxes. But the Greeks. : Greeks when they would pursue your ships and break the bridges of the Hellespont. "Themistocles son of " who is the Athenian Neocles. the rest abode with the boat. even Persuasion and Necessity.BOOK deceive. It is then but reasonable that Athens is great and prosperous. none hindering you. 111. no-iii . 7 ** * . and the Athenians obeyed him for since he had ever been esteemed wise and now had shown himself to be both wise and prudent. general. " they answered and said. . the men returned in their boat. VIII. and now he bids you go your way." With that message. would not give it but when Themistocles gave them to understand that the Athenians had come with tw o great gods to aid them. the first islanders of whom Themistocles demanded money. beleaguered Andros that they might take it. and that therefore the Andrians must assuredly give money. Having won Themistocles straightway sent men he could trust not to reveal under any question whatsoever the message which he charged them to deliver to the king of whom one was again his servant Sicinnus." he said. they were ready to obey whatsoever he said. and of all the allies the worthiest and wisest.

112.cn. co? co? ei-rj /jLeydXa Trapa }Lapvcrriwv TrvvOavbuevoi. eVa^ei rrjv crrpariijv *}L\\r}vu)v /cal TroXiopfcewv e^aipijaei. Kairoi Kapvcrrioicrt ye ovftev rovrov eive/ca rov V7rep/3o~\. Ourot. rr)v re "AvSpov e/jLifiicre.e^o? vvv "AvBpov eKrdro Trapa vrjaLwrewv 113. eyevero" Hdpioi Be $ie$>vyov el. ep.07jvaia)V Svvafjiiv elvai Kpecrcrw.io~roK\et]<^ Se.ara re Kal Tlapiwv. \eywv co? el Scoa-ovcn TO alreo/jievov.HERODOTUS e? rd /^ey terra dvrjKOvras. ov <yap eTravero TrKeoveKr'ewv. 6/?ftcoyU. /ecu Bvo d%pij(rrovs OVK eK\eirreiv afyewv rijv vr\GQV aAA. fjiev Srj ravra vTrotcpivd/jLevoi KCLI ov S6vT<? ra xptj/juara eiro\iopiceovro. o'i ra)i> \eycov ravra crvi>6\ye ^ptj^. el ravra ^prj/jiara. rov ereo? TroXe/Jieeiv. Trevirfv re teal d ' KOI rovrwv rwv 6ewv ov Bcoaeiv ^p^ara' ' 7rr)/36\ov<. efjiicrroK\ea i\ao~d[jievoi fjiev ro arpdrev^a. rives aXkoi eSoaav vrjaiwrewVy OVK e^a> elrreli'. 7ro\LopKOiro Siori ev alvr) /JLeyLarr) errefJiTrov Kal Se $rj rwv crrparrjywv.ap&oviw d/jua ftao-i\ea. e&Tre/JLTroov e? ra? a\\a? vijcrovs aTreiX.'t] fjia.' aiel (f)i\o^a)pe6LV.tjr'rjpLovs \6yovs airee Xpij/jiara TJ Sia rwv avr&v ayyeXcov. \ddprj rwv Ol iera S' dfjifyl Hep^v emo-%ovres rrji> vavfjLaj^irjv e^r\\avvov e? Be dvcoplrj elvai rr)v avrrjv Trporre/JL^rai 6S6v. eovras ovSetcore jap TT}? e aSvva/jLLrjs rrjv A. &OKCO) Be riva<$ Kal aXXou? Sovvai Kal ov rovrovs JJLOVVOVS. %pea)/JLevos Kal Trpo? /5acriXea e^/J^craro. ^eifJLepicrai re a^eivov elvai ev 114 . eBo^e yap M.

unknown to the other generals. and deemed the time of year unseasonable for war . and that Themistocles was of all the which so affrighted generals the most esteemed . . Themistocles issued out from Andros and took monies from the islanders. . and not Neverthese alone. . and we have two unserviceable gods who never quit our island but are ever fain to dwell there. even Poverty and Impotence . and saying that if they would not give what he asked he would bring the Greek armada upon them and besiege and take their islands. we of Andros will give no money ." 112. being possessed of these gods. 111-113 blest with a plentiful lack of land. and I suppose that there were other islanders too that gave. Thereby he collected great sums for these were from the Carystians and Parians informed that Andros was besieged for taking the Persian part. They that were with Xerxes waited for a few days after the sea-fight and then marched away to Boeotia by the road whereby they had come for Mardonius was minded to give the king safe conduct. to . So for thus answering and refusing to give they were besieged. it was better. 113. them So with money and so escaped the armament. he thought. theless the Carystians got thereby no respite from misfortune but the Parians propitiated Themistocles . demanding money.BOOK VIII. but I cannot with certainty say. There was no end to Themistocles' avarice using the same agents whom he had used with the king. that they sent money . for the power of Athens can never be stronger than our inability. he sent threatening messages to the other islands.

" o Se 7eXacra? ot T6 Trape- Karacr^coi' TroXXoi' ^povov.7rov(Ti By K)jpvt<-a 09 7Ti&)] Kare\a(Be eovcrav en jraaav rrjv arpaTirjv ev 0ecro-aXt?7.Sof?' OVTOI Be TO 7r~\. pw/Ar] &e ijcrcroves. Kal rov TTC^OV Kal TTJV aXXrjv ITTTTOV. 114. ev TO) pvo/Jievov Tr]v 'EXXaSa. Kal Owp^KO(j)6pov^ real rrjv LTTTTOV TTJV re /cat 2aVa? /u Ba/fr/j/of? re ^at 'I^Sou?. re ere at 'Hja/cXetSa^ ol diro ^Trdrr^ alreovcri (frovov SiKas.HERODOTUS ecrcra\ir). eVl Se M?.of? a\\wv av^iLa^wv e^eXe^/eTO /car' ciXiyovs. OTL crfyewv TOV /3aai\ea diTe <f)6vov iTTTrevcri. ware av^Trai'Ta^ rpnJKovra yuupmSa avv re aireeiv SiKas rou AewvKal TO ^^ofjievov ej. ravra /j. e\6u>v e? o-^nv rrjv He "'II /3acriXeO cXeje TaSe. 009 Se aTri/caro e? Trjv evflavra MapSoViO? e^eX&yero irpco-ov^ fiev TGI.ev 0i>ea o\a e'lXeTO.? Ilepcra? Trdvras TOI>? 7T\r)v T&cipveos rov aTparrjjov (ouro? 7^/3 TOL/? %l\ii}V.r/0os fjiev OVK e\d(Tcrove<s fjcrav TWV Hepcrecov. avbpas (TTpeTnocfropovs re Kal -^eXio^opof?. \Lrjv. 'Ei^ Se rouTft) TO) ovw. e/ceivov 7r/j. Kal eVetra a/^a TM eapi Oecrera- T/)? IIeXo7ro/>z'?/<Tou. w? Tvy%ave 116 . re virrjp^e BiaXeyatv Kal el reolcrL TI 7re7ronmei>ov ei> Se TrXetcrro^ edvos Tlepaas aipeero. CK 8 \\epaewv M?.

vi. save only Hydarnes their general. came into Xerxes' presence and thus " The Lacedaemonians and the Heraclidae spoke of Sparta demand of you. and the Medes and Sacae and Bactrians and Indians. who said that he would not quit the king's person and next. Now while Mardonius was making choice of his army and Xerxes was in Thessaly. : ! . Two regiments of a thousand horse are mentioned a 40 and 55 cp. Thereby the whole number. VIII. and the thousand 1 horse. but not so stout fighters. 114. grew to three hundred thousand men. rest of his allies he picked out a few from each people. whom you slew while he defended Hellas. 1 vii. that they should demand justice of Xerxes for the slaying of Leonidas. alike their footmen and the rest of the He chose these nations entire of the horsemen. and next to them the Medes these indeed were as many as the Persians. and take what answer he should give them. Mardonius there chose out first all the Persians called Immortals. and then attack the Peloponnese When they were arrived in Thessaly. the goodliest men and those that he knew to have done some good service but the Persians that he chose (men that wore torques and bracelets) 2 were more in number than those of any other nation. . in H7 . the Persian cuirassiers. . . . with the horsemen. 113-114 winter in Thessaly. 83. king of the Medes that you pay the penalty for the death of their king." At and after a long while he that Xerxes laughed . The Spartans then sent a herald with all who finding the army yet undivided in speed Thessaly. there came an oracle from Delphi to the Lacedaemonians.BOOK in the spring.

X?y<77roz'TOi'. 118 . ev ecrcraXt?. BevBpewv TOV (f>\oiov TrepiXerrovTe? (j)v\\a S' TWV re KOL TWV dypiwv. aTTtcov OVK direXafte. re TIVCLS Kal ev ^ipi r^5 HaLoviiis Kal ev MaKeBovirj. MapSowo?. ore eVl TTJV 'RXX.apB6vio<. evda Kal TO Ipbv ap/Jia KaTa\nru>v TOV Aio?. crero.HERODOTUS crreax. "Rv0a Kal 6 TWV BicraXTecov /3aa-i\evs re r^? }Lpr)crTwviKris prji% epjov VTrepfives epyd(r TU> zzetrj eKa)V elvat craTO' 09 OUT6 ayro9 aXX' ot'vero dvo) 69 TO 0^09 T>JV . ' a)? Kar ov Be rrjv TOV TOVTWV KaplTOV e/c tt/37Ta^ el Be KapTrov /jirjBeva evpotev. BeiKvvs 6Be e? TOVTOV Baxret. eiTre " Toiydp M. ot TTJS ifoLr\v TrfV 7^9 ava^vofjiev^v Kal rwv Kal TO. G exdaTOTe JLVOITO e\avva)v Baiveiv re Kal Tpetyeiv.9 TOV TWV 116. Kal e\enrov ovBev raOra eTroieov VTTO \tfjiov. aXXa BovTes ol ITato^e? Tolcn diraiTeovTOS piji%L Trjcn TroXicrt." /ACV Brj He/)^5 auro? eV TT}? e MayoSoVjoy Be^d/uevos TO p^Oev aTraXXacrei> Sea-cra 'EA. GTpaTov Be e7TL\ajBu>v Be Xo^/zo? re TO Kal BvcrevTepiij KOLT 6Bbv efy Kal voaeovTa? avT&v KaTe\ei7re. VTTO ava) @prjiKa)v TWV irepl ra? 77^70. \i7T(t)i> 'V O Trpejrei. arpaTifjS ovSev OKOV Be TTOpevo/jievoi jivoiaro . Iva t He/3^ea) <f)a<rav ve/JLO^eva^ dpTTacrdrjvai. 8t/ca? roiavras ota? 115.dBa IjXavve. e? eTTopeveTO Kara ra^o? at aTriKveerai e? TO^ iropov Trevre KOL Tecrcrepd/covra /zepo? KCLL i^G elirelv.

. Zeus when he was marching to Hellas. So the herald took that utterance and departed but Xerxes left Mardonius in Thessaly. broke out among them on their way. garden and wild so starved they were for alike. charging the cities whither he came in his march to care for them and nourish them. some in Thessaly and some in Siris of Paeonia and in Macein Siris he had left the sacred chariot of donia . who shall pay those you speak of such penalty as befits them. and said. they seized and devoured its produce and if they found none. It was then that a monstrous deed was done by the Thracian king of the Bisaltae and the Crestonian country. bringing back with him as good as none (if one may so say) of his host. and when Xerxes demanded it back they said that the horses had been carried off from pasture by the Thracians of the hills who dwelt about the headwaters of the . Some that were sick Xerxes left behind. 116." 115. 114-116 pointed to Mardonius. and fled away to the 119 . . and strip the bark and pluck the leaves of the trees. leaving nothing Moreover a pestilence and a dysentery hunger. and himself journeying with all speed to the Hellespont came in forty-five days to the passage for crossing. He had refused to be of his own free will Xerxes' slave.BOOK VIII. who chanced to be standing by him. Whithersoever and to whatsoever people they came. they would take for their eating the grass of the field. . Strymon. but in his return he received it not again for the Paeonians had given it to the Thracians. whereby they died. "Then here is Mardonius.

oBoiTropiijffi <yp roi) TL 'xeifjiaveffai 76/^0^(777? T?}? veos. Kal ovdeva Kal vSaTa /ATa/3d\\ovTes rrepieovTOS 7ro\\oi. OUK GCTTL ovBe/jLia. rrjv alrirjv avrwv Tavrrjv. a>9 GTreiBrj He/)^? a. Trarrjp TOU? o^^aXyuou? $ia 117. Be Ylep&ai a>9 etc TT}? /o^t/c?.6vL. a\Xa>9 . drreflvrja-Kov TOV ol Be \oi7Tol a/jia aTpaTov TOV Hep^?. evOevTev ov/ceTi T^ Bi6%paTO. drriKveovTai e? ^dpBis. auTO? S' eVt i^eo? ^OLviaarj^ eVtySa? eVoyu-i^ero e? T^V 'Acrirjv. eTTeiJOfJieVOl TOV 'EXX?^cnrovTov rrjcTL vrjvcrl Stefirjaav e? "AftvSov ra? ol jap cr^eSta? T re ou/c evpov GTL Arar' oSoz^ VTeTap. Kal TOV " eirrai TWV AecnrcTa. "EcTTt Se /cal aXXo? oSe XOYO? \ey6/jievo<>.o-7roi/TOZ>. aXXa r^ yu. 'AOyvecov aTriKeTo eV 'Hoi/a eVt ^Tpv/j.HERODOTUS 'PoBoTTTjv. Kal OVTOL fJLev TOVTOV TOV p-iaOov e\a{3ov. Ko/jLi^o/julvcov.evas aXX* L'TTO vrXeo) 77 Kocr/jiov e/j.iv avefjiov ^Tpv/jiovirjv Kal Bij /u. drra\\aytj rt? yevtjTai T0)i' 120 el /nrj TOVTWV . 118. wa-re /caTacrrpwyuaTO? erreovTwv av^vcov Hepaecov crvv Hep^T. O-<^L &V/JLOS e<TTpaT6i>ovTO o eyevero Oz^aaaQai TOV TroXeTU> eVel Be afj.ei' GTpaTirjv "TBdpvel errLTpdrrei drrdyeiv e? TOI/ 'EXX?.7riTr\d/jivoi e^dy^avov.Tce\avvwv ej.? Tropevofievoi CLTTLKOVTO TTL TOV TTOpOV. Total re rraicrl TevecrOai eirl rrjv 77 'EXXa&a. evOavTa e? Belfia TOV (3a<Ji\ea elpeaOai fiwcravTa TOV el rt? ecrrt <r^)t (rcoT'rjpirj. drrtjyopeve firj crrpaOL Be dXoyijcravres. 7r\eovTa Be fj.d\\ov vTTo\a(3elv fjieyav Kal KVjjtaTirjv.a YlepcrTj.

BOOK VIII. 117. This was their reward. the king was affrighted and cried to the ship's pilot asking him if there were any way of deliverance whereat the man " said. the war. for they had ever a desire to see . he travelled no farther than that by land. and more food was given them than on their way and by reason of their immoderate gorging and the change of the water which they drank. and they followed the Persians' march for which cause. 121 . that lifted up the waves. But the Persians. journeying through Thrace to the passage. except there be a riddance of these many that are on board." Hearing that. when all the six of them returned back scatheless. . there is none. remained died. In which voyage he was caught by a strong wind called Strymonian. The rest came with Xerxes to But there is another tale. by a storm. Sire. their father tore out their eyes. and he forbade his mountains called Rhodope sons to go with the army to Hellas but they took no account of that. This storm 118. it . made for they haste to cross to Abydos in their ships found the bridges no longer made fast but broken . 116-118 . There their march was stayed. many of the army that yet . which is this: Xerxes came in his march from Athens to Ei'on on the Strymon. and himself embarked and set sail for Asia in a Phoenician ship. Sardis. When bearing the harder upon him by reason of the heavy lading of the ship (for the Persians of his company that were on the deck were so many). but committed his army to Hydarnes to be led to the Hellespont.

HERODOTUS ^ep^rjv Xeyercu d/covcravTa ravra ""A^S/969 \\epo-ai. irepl 119. vvv rt? BiaBe^aTQ) v^ewv ftacriXeo9 /cijBouevos' ev V/JLLV yap ol/ce elvai euol t] TOP fjiev raura \eyeiv. ou^a/^cu? ejuoiye TTLCTTOS ovTe el yap aAA. a>9 eV (pevycov e v V ^"A/OSAOrivewv ra oe Aporjpa <"/? ibpVTai Trpo? TOV 1 122 . OTL 8e aTTOTa/jLelv TTJV K(f)a\r)V avTov.a TW aXXa) T^V Be /cal 120. e? <yr\v rrjv etcjSijvat rd^iara e? TOV Troiijcrai roiov^e" on /uev co-were /3a<Ti\eo$ Kv[SepVY)Tr)v. OTTLCTW. TWV & eperewv IOVTWV Qoiv'itcwv 6 OVK av laov 77X7)^09 Oakacraav. ws /cal TrpoTepov uoi ^pew/jLevo^ 69 ci/u. . ovrco &r} a7rocra)0f)vat. TOVS Be TrpocrKV<Ta)TT)fLr]' /cal veovias K7rr}$dv e? TTJV Oakacrcrav. Meya /cal ToBe re aapTvpiov /co^LiBfj yap He/>^9 "AfiBrjpa ev Trj OTTicra) airiKo/jievo^ /cal 69 /cal ^eii'ir/v Q-$L o~vv6e[JLevo<.TI rot/? 9 fjiev OVK e^w yvca^jjcn ^lav OVK av Troirjcrai /BaaiXea ToiovSe. eVl TOV /caTaa-Tpoo/^aTOs KaTa/3i/3daai ev fJLVpirjo-i Koi\riv vea eovTas Tlepcra^ /cal Hepcrecov TrpcoTOVS. OUTO? &e aXXo? Xeyerat \6yos TOV He/jfeco VOCTTOV. dX)C 68ft) TOICTI Tleparjai e^e/3aXe 9 o uev. ^ avTovs aKivaKrj re %/oucreco /cal &>9 avTol \eyovo~i ' '5-' aoeirj ' ea)V. teal TTJV vea eTriKOVffiiaOeicrav Be &>? 'Aairjv.a>? OVTG TO \\epcrewv TOVTO 7ra$o9* Brj TavTa ovTO) elpedr) etc TOV Kv^epvrjTew Trpo? /J.

. For if indeed the had spoken to Xerxes as aforesaid. Xerxes said to the Persians. I think that there is not one in ten thousand but would say that the king would have bidden the men on deck (who were Persians and of the best blood of Persia) descend into the ship's hold. 118-120 " Now it is for is said. but for my part believe neither the story of the Persians' nor any other part of it. No sooner had Xerxes disembarked on land. 123 . the truth is that Xerxes did as I have already said. where Histiaeus swears to Darius that he will not take off his tunic till he reaches Ionia .BOOK VIII. came by these means safe to Asia. than he made the pilot a gift of a golden crown for saving the king's life. 1 cp. Nay. 106. perhaps v. but cut off his head for being the death of many . This I is the other tale of Xerxes' return . it was here that Xerxes in his flight back from Athens first loosed his girdle. you to prove yourselves careful for your king . Now Abdera . and would have taken fate. pilot of the Phoenician rowers a number equal to the Persians and cast them into the sea. and gave them a golden sword and a gilt tiara and as the people of Abdera say (but for my part I wholly disbelieve them). And that herein too lies a clear proof of to it : it is known when Xerxes came Abdera in his return he entered into bonds of friendship with its people. being thus lightened. or the reference may be to a man's being eftfavos (with his 'loins girded up ') for swift travel. 119. 120. for " it seems that my deliverance rests with you whereat they did obeisance and leapt into the sea and the ship. 1 as being here in safety. Persians. and returned to Asia with his army number of the by road.

Alyivrjrai Se 7TV06/j. Mera 8e rrjv Siaipecriv TT)? X^try? evrXeoi/ ol "EXX?/!^? 69 rov ^IcrO/jibv dpicrrrjia Scocro^Te? TO) d^Lwrdrw yevo/jievco E*\\i]i>a)V dvd rov rro\e/j.M.\d/3^K o Be Trap dtcpoOivLa. e? Kdpvcrrov /cal e? TrpwTa fj.? ev ^aXa/jLivi vav^a^lri^. Ol be" EXX^ye? erreLre OVK oloL re eyivovro rrjv "Ai'Spov. rit'yu/v/razrre? 8e d/cpodivia TCL ot TTlp(OT(t)V TOV 060V Tr\?jpa Kal apecrTa {lev cav KOlvf] el ~\. a\\a ~\ ajraiTee avrovs 'V Trapa ra \ T/".bv avaQzivai. T1]V ? 06 ^V5\^>/ 67TL 2<OVViOV.oi' a>? Se drciKOfJievoL ol crrpaniyol Stei'fjLov ra? ^r^of? eVl TOU IIocTefSe'wt'o? ry /3a)/j. 123. T% dy^oTaroy rov Kpoicrov Kprjrr/pos. auros eicacrros 124 Bo/cecov apiaros yeveardat. ecov /leyaOos earr^Ke Se euro? rfj rrep 6 6 %pucreo?./3f)vai errl ryv vta. 01 eVl icrrov ^a\Keov earacn -rpels ejrl ywv'uis.HERODOTUS ' 'Hjoz/o?. 121. ou. //. 122. Q\\r]crTr6vrov fjid\\ov rj rov ^rpv/Aovos Kal rrjs 60 ev B)'i fjLiv (fiacrl em. rparrofjievoi. 1 f 1 oe ^\ TWV a\\cov e^cre \ >-\ If 6%eiv. rov K rrdvrcov. \ ip. rj \ irep ^\ en Tt]V Ce TO) "A" e? AiCLVTl teal avrov \riir]v ^aXa^lva.ev vvv Tolai deolcn aicpodivia a\\a re KCU rpiijpeas Tpei rrjv /jiC >\T fjiev e? 'lcr@fj. rrpwrov /cal rov Bevrepov /cpivovres rovrov.evoi dveOeaav darepa^ ^pvcreovs.era 5e rovro SiebdcravTO Kal ra atcpodivia aTTeTrefJi'fyav e? rwv eyevero dvSpias e^wv ev rfj e/c piov i^eo?. evOavra rra<s rw avrcov ewvrw eridero rrjv fyrifyov. Bevrepa .

the second at Sunium. supposing himself to have done the best service. three Phoenician triremes. After the division of the spoil. 120-123 lies nearer to the Hellespont than the Strymon and Eion. After that. 122. 125 . 123. . holding in his hand the figure-head of a ship this stood in the same place as the golden statue of Alexander the Macedonian. among other firstfruits. but the greater part of them united in giving the second .BOOK VIII. one to be dedicated at the Isthmus. they divided the spoil and sent the firstfruits of it to Delphi whereof was made a man's image twelve cubits high. where they say that he took ship. nearest to Croesus' bowl. there to award the prize of excellence to him who had shown himself most worthy of it in that war. where it was till my lifetime. but not from the Aeginetans of these he demanded the victor's prize for the sea-fight of Salamis. and the third for Aias at Salamis where they were. . in the angle. the Greeks sailed to the Isthmus. . First of all they set apart for the gods. to judge who was first and who second among them. Having sent the firstfruits to Delphi the Greeks inquired in common of the god. and having laid it waste they returned to Salamis. When the Aeginetans learnt that. 121. they dedicated three golden stars that are set on a bronze mast. if the firstfruits that he had received were of full measure and if he was content therewith whereat he said that this was so as touching what he received from all other Greeks. each of them there voted for himself. not being able to take Andros they betook themselves to Carystus. But when the admirals came and gave their divers votes at the altar of Poseidon. As for the Greeks.

djriovra rpir\Ko<Jioi ^irapri^rewv XoyaSe?. aXX* ov 5t' ewvroveVetre OVK eiravero \eyo3v ravra o Tf/zoS^yuo?.CLI JJLIV Aatcecro^coraTO? ' fcaXws vrreoe^avro. rrjv e? Aa/ceoaL/nova Bid ra? 'A^/. 'Ej~\. 69 Ov re ^ov\o/jiev(i)v Be ravra oyLtco? Kpiveiv rwv aXX' TVJV ewvrwv KOL aKpirwv. e8o^a)0ij 6/3c6cr^r. '11? Se ?. /lev Brj e/jiovvovvro. rot ovr av eyw is >''A>\'VT>-\/f)' eu>v D\pivirrj<s 1 Stein supposes that something omitted before Evpv- a5j?.ravra e? Aarcea aTrifcero 6e\wv ri/uLrj0f)vai' K. ovroi OL Trep iTTTrees fcdXeovrai.V avi'iKa /zero. cro<pLr)<f Se real Se^io1 fjiev . Trapd AaKe&aip. ^XP L vp wv T&V Teyerj/JLOVVOV Sr. t f\ Ovro) e/ " e%ei. <j)9ovw Karafiapyecoi' evei- rov e/jiia-roK\ea. K rrjs AafceSac/jiovos dTri/cero e? evOavra Ti/jLo&rj/jios /jiV rwv Be/xicrro/cXeo? 'AcfriSvaios ecov.Va? ^ oi ra 7 eea Ta o Be. fieyaXa) ? &e 1 Ei)dpicrrrjia fjiev vvv eBocrav atT^? are<pavoi>. TT/TO? 6/AiaroK\i Kol re jav o rovrtt) aretyavov e'Xa''???* rq> ev crreva'avri. 0eyiu<TTO/eXe?79 Be BevrepeLOKrt v7repe/3dX\ero iroXXov. 124. rovrov rcdvrwv dv9pu>Trwv ra)V ra? ^TraprtrjraL 125. perhaps ai>8paya6lr)s.HERODOTUS Be 01 TroXXol a-vve^kiri-nrov o'l e/j. aiveaavres Se TroXXa.\ijvcov eivai avrjp Oil & ava iraaav TVJV VIKWV OVK eTlfJL1]6l] 7TpO9 TWV . rwv aXX&>? Be ou r&v eTTKpavecov dvSpwv. 126 .iaroK\a icpivovres.ovi(iJV. .

who was one of Themistocles' enemies but a man in nowise notable. that he might receive honour there and the Lacedaemonians made him welcome and paid him high honour. . 1 An islet S. was crazed with envy and spoke bitterly to Themistocles of his visit to Lacedaemon. and The Greeks were too jealous to adjudge the sailed away each to his own place. But when Themistocles returned to Athens from Lacedaemon. prize. and all Hellas glorified him for the wisest man by far of the Greeks. "This is the truth of the matter had I been of Belbina 1 I had not been thus honoured . . saying that the honours he had from the Lacedaemonians were paid him for Athens' sake and not for his own. for VIII. Themistocles was the only man of whom I have heard to whom the Spartans gave this escort. But because he had not received from them that fought at Salamis the honour due to his pre-eminence. 125.BOOK place to Themistocles. Timodemus of Aphidnae. and another such crown on Themistocles and they gave him for his wisdom and cleverness the finest chariot in Sparta and with many words of praise. of Sunium . leaving . 127 . 123-125 So they each gained but one vote. Themistocles was cried up. immediately afterwards he betook himself to Lacedaemon. They bestowed on Eurybiades a crown of olive as the reward of excellence. the matter doubtful nevertheless. they sent him on his homeward way with the three hundred picked men of Sparta who are called Knights to escort him as far as the borders of Tegea. but Themistocles far outstripped them in votes the second place. This he would continually be saying till Themistocles replied. . a typical instance of an unim- portant place. 124.

OVK eSi- Kaiov ot a)? /SacrtXei'? rrape^\ri\dKee KOL o vavrtfcos TOLGL (pavepov cnreaTadav CLTTO rwv {3ap/3dpa)i>' w? Se aXXoi ot T^ IlaXX^i'r/v e^o^re?.HERODOTUS jv ovTQ) 7T/309 ^TrapTirjrewv. 'A<7t77. 128. ovr av (TV. i vTroTTTeixras Se Aral TOL/? a?ro /3acrtXeo?. fcai Q\vv0ov Xa\Ki&ees eayov. e^wv arparov TOV MapSowo? e'^eXe^'aro. real e'/c Se rwz' 1 HXaraa- /nd\\oi> en <yevo[jivo<$. co? 8e o jmev rjv ev rfj (3acri\ea fJie^pi TOV Tropou. 127. 'Ey#auTa 5^ 'AprJ/Sa^o? eVoXtop/fee . Aral ravrrjv Tro\iopKee' /co e avrrjv Borrmtot VTTO e'/c roO Qeppaiov elXe TTokiopicewv. 'E^eXwi^ &eravTi]v 6 *A/OTa/3abs r^ Sa/27 evTTafj.6VQ)<s irpoo-el^e' Trpocrexovri Se (JLCV ol 6 TCOI> ovnva eycoye OVK e^co elirelv (ov rpoirov yap wv \eyeTai). reXo? 128 . o 3e OTTtcra) TTopeuofievos Kara rrjv YLa\\ij- vr\v eyivero. 'ApTa/3ab? Se 6 Qapvafceos dv^p eV Tlep} ? Aral TrpocrQe eu>v. are Ma/^Scmou re ^eiyuept^oi/ro? 7re/?t re /cal MaAre8o^u/^ /cat ovSev KW /carejjtceiv e? TO aXXo arparoTreBov. 126. wv0pa)7T ewv ^KOrjv ato?. Ararecr^a^e e^ayaywv e? rtjv 8e TTO\LV TrapabiSol KptTO/SouXw eiTLTpOTreveLV Kal TO) Xa\Ki8tKO) yevel." ravra n*kv vvv e? rocrovro eyevero.

127. when Artabazus came near Pallene in his return (for Mardonius was wintering in Thessaly and Macedonia and making no haste to come to the rest of his army). and delivered their city over to the charge of Critobulus of Torons and the Chalcidian people. . he laid siege to it also. escorted the king as far as the passage with sixty thousand men of the army that Mardonius had chosen. For the king having marched away past the town and the Persian fleet taken flight from Salamis. F . who agreed to betray the place to him I know not how the agreement was first made. he thought it right that he should enslave the people of Potidaea. and thus the Chalcidians gained possession of Olynthus. Xerxes being now in Asia. a notable man among . he brought these men to a lake and there cut their throats. Potidaea had openly revolted from the foreigners and so too had the rest of the people of Pallene.BOOK . for all by the Spartans you are of Athens. who was already the Persians and grew to be yet more so by the Plataean business. VIII. nothing being told thereof. Thereupon Artabazus laid siege to Potidaea. 125-128 nor had you. and suspecting that Olynthus too was plotting revolt from the king. the town being held by Bottiaeans who had been driven from the Thermaic gulf by the Macedonians. . Artabazus was and his zeal instant in dealing with Potidaea was aided by Timoxenus the general of the Scionaeans. but the end was as I 126. Having taken Olynthus. Artabazus son of Pharnaces. iv. Having besieged and taken Olynthus. sirrah." Such was the end of that business. 129 VOL. 128. whom he found in revolt.

(f)epov Trl TOL/? o"Tparrjyov<i' Traprjv Se real ro)V a\\wv T\.ei>ov %wpiov. ylveTat a/ZTrcoTi? TT}? 6a\do~crr]<s O /cal j^povov a>9 errl TroX\.6v. co? avTi/ca TO To^eu^a Xa/9oi/T6? e^aQov TO (3v(3\lov.w. T?}? 6a\do~o~r)s ^eydXrj. Ti be Tpew VTroXoiTroi ^crav. (pi\i yivecrOai eV Tro\e/j.e%aiJLevoio~i TO (3v(B\iov Oovcn TOV aiTiov TT}? TrpoSocrt'??? eBoge Ti/no^eivov eiveica.evroi TotdBe eyivero' oVco? /3v/3Xioi/ eOeXwv Trapa 'Aprdfia&v irkyJ^rai r] Trapa 'Yifjio^eivov.a- TrpoSoo-iy ec vofjaoaTO elvai ^Kiwvaloi %poi>ov alel rrpoSoTai. &>? ot eTTL^coptOL \eyovo~i. Ta? o/eX- \fv-v elvai.d 1 Probably points on each side of the notch (where the arrow lies on the string) to give the fingers better grip. yovee' ^ApTafBd^w Be eTreiBrj Tro\iopKeovTi eyeyovecrav Tpels {irjves. tN 129. 130 . Toiai Se arpar^yolai TrC\. fjirj /cal /j. eTrdi- Saiav TO^GVWV <rro9 &e eyevero 6 Ti/jio^eivos TrpoSiSovs TTJV Tiori<yap 6 'ApTajSa^os e? TO crvyieeid/j.a\\r)vaiwv cru/z/ia^tT. To^evfiaTO^ Trapa y\v<piSas Trepieiki^avres /cal TTTepuHTavTes TO \iov ero^evov e? o~vy/cei/j. TOV ^e /3\y]0evTa ola '/xtXo9.. ISovTes Be ol e? TYJV Tevayos t yevbfJievov fj^ev f / Traprficrav [jioipas f J/C^V Be Ta? Bvo BioBonro- prj/cecrav. TotovTW Tpoira) eirdiGTOs eyeyLtez^ S?.apT(i)V HoTiSanjrea) 01 rov %wpiov rovrov f3d\\i avTOV wpov. Tro\\d/ci<.HERODOTUS fj. ol [lev Brj veeiv avT&v ovtc e ovBajj. 00*77 KG).

than any one of the many that had been before and some of them that knew not how .BOOK will VIII. lest so the people of Scione should ever after be called traitors. missed it and hit the shoulder of a man of Potidaea and a throng gathering quickly round the man when he was struck (which is a thing that ever happens in war). "The parchment was rolled round the butt end of the arrow and then feathers put over it to hide it" (How and Wella). the rest of their allies of Pallene being also there present. to pass over it into Pallene. for Artabazus in shooting an arrow to the place agreed upon. 128-129 letter Whenever Timoxenus wrote a sending to Artabazus. The generals read the letter and perceived who was the traitor. . Thus was Timoxenus' treachery brought to But when Artabazus had besieged Potidaea months. But made their way over two fifths of when they had it and three yet remained to cross ere they could be in Pallene. was discovered . there came a great flood-tide. higher. 129. . lasting for a long while. as the people of the place say. there was a great ebb-tide in the and when the foreigners saw that the sea was turned to a marsh they made for three sea. light. they straightway took the arrow and found the letter and carried it to their generals. they would wrap it round the shaft of an arrow at the notches 1 and put feathers to the for now show. or Artabazus to Timoxenus. but they resolved for Scione's sake that they would not smite Timoxenus to the earth with a charge of treason. and shoot it to a place whereon they had But Timoxenus' plot to betray Potidaea agreed. letter.

ovB' eTrrji'dyKa^e ovBefa. aXX' ev rf) Sa/^a) Karij- efyv\a(TGOV rrjv ^iajvt'rjv /Jirj aTrocrTrj. ire^y Be eBoKeov vroXXw 132 . eapo? Be eTriXd/jL^lravros Trpwios crvveXeyero e? ^Ldfj. ovroi ol TrpOTrifji^rciV'Tes (Bacn\ea. 130.pravvTi]s 6 'A/JTa^atew <rvvfjp%e Be TOVTOKTI Kal dBe\(fiiBeo$ avrov 'ApTavvrea) Trpoa- Hep&ewv Be Kal are Be yueyaAo)? TT\^'I^a/ztT/o>. p^X^ r ^ ? e? rovs &e Trepijevo/jLevovs aTTijye SeaaaXitjv Trapd MapBoviov. (Tvv Trjcn 'lacrt Tfi^Koaias. KCLTCL aev vvv TTJV OdXaacrav ecr<Ta)jAvot rjcrav TW Ov^u). vea<. exeifiepi^e ev KV/JLTJ. TOW? Be e7n. ov fj.ev ovBe f/ TrpocreBeKOVTO TOU? EXX?. (frevyovTas CK SaXa/At^o? aXX' ad^evoi aTraXXacraroi'TO. ov irp^iGav dvwrepa) TO TT/JO? ecrTrepr)?.5. jaiov Kal 'A.? T6 o Baa-rparrjyol Be 0<f)i.HERODOTUS povro.7rXfc)crai>Te? \eyovcn aiTiov Be Kc^ T ^ ? 1 YlonBaiijrai TT}? re Tr^Tj/jL/jiVpiBo^ Kal TOV TlepcriKov irdOeo^ yevecrQai TO&.^a9 e\evaea9ai 6? TTJV '[(ovirjv aXX' diro"pr)G. 'O be vavTiKos 6 ovrw e ^ Trpocrefjii^e rfj Aairj (frevyc /ScriXea T6 Kal Tyv arparLrjv K Xepcrovrjcrov Si7r6p0fji6V(re e? "AfivSov. OVK eTreBLw^av creiv. OTL TOV TLo&etBewvos e? TOV vrjbv KOI TO aya\/Aa TO ev T&> npoaa"Tiw ij&eftrjcrav ovrot. ra)v Hepcrecov o'i irep KOI SiefiOdprja-av VTTO rfjs Qakdcrairiov Se rovro Xeyovres eu \eyeiv f eTTicrTa/Aevovs ol TT^OLOKTI d7rw\e<Tav.iv arfyi rrjv ecovTWV <bv\dcrOTL a<pea<.ov a'i Be TWV ve&v Kal e^eL/jLepicrap CIVTOV' MijBaiv ol TrXeOz^e? eireftd-reuov7rrj\0ov Ma/jSo^Tj. GTaO/jLev/jLevoi.

All that was left of Xerxes' fleet. 133 . Ionian and other. but they lay off Samos keeping watch against a revolt in Ionia. the Persians quit of them. being three hundred in truth did they expect that the Greeks would come to Ionia. because the Greeks had not pursued them when they fled from Salamis. who had been the king's escort. were at heart beaten men. They that escaped alive were led away by Artabazus to Mardonius in Thessaly. where some of the ships had wintered the most of their fighting men were Persians and . 129-130 swim were drowned. . . who came among them in The Potidaeans say that the cause of the high sea and flood and the Persian disaster lay herein. Then early in the first dawn of spring they mustered at Samos. Thus fared these men. but rather that they would be content to guard their own country thus they inferred. that those same Persians who now perished in the sea had profaned the temple and the image of Poseidon that was in the suburb of the city and I think that in saying that this was the cause they boats. the whole number of their nor ships.BOOK to slain VIII. and thofjc that knew were by the Potidaeans. wintered at Cyme. Medes. having in its flight from Salamis touched the coast of Asia and ferried the king and his army over from the Chersonese to Abydos. Mardontes son of Bagaeus and Artayntes son of Artachaees came to be their admirals. but had been glad to be In regard to the sea. But by reason of the heavy blow dealt them they went no further out to sea westwards. nor was any man instant that they should so do. 130. and Artayntes chose also his own nephew Ithamitres to have a share in the command. say rightly. but they supposed that .

In the present list "the first king among the 134 . aiTiKovro 'loovwv ayye\oi 9 TO crrparoC T^ 9 ireSov rwv 'EXX^a)^. from whom Leonidas was descended (vii. Adrjvaiwv Be earparrjyee ovroi rrdvres. fl9 Se Trapeyevovro 69 Aiywav Tracrcu at i^ee9.apB6viov. To 1/9 EXX7^a9 TO t re ea/o e'a>i>.? 6 Mei/a/oeo? ' ' roD 'iTTTroKpariBea) rov Kevrv^irov Ava^ikew TOV Ap%i8ijjj.HERODOTUS rov M. o? /cat ^irdpr^v oXtyw rrporepov rovrwv aTriKOfjievoi eBeovro AaKeSat/jiOrrjv ^Iwvl^v r&v /cat 'H/9oSoTO9 o Bao-^X^tSea) ^v o? dracriwrai.^ ' Ha^^67T7T09 'Api(f)pOVO<$. 132. a/Jia Bvvaiaro KCLKOV TOU? 7roXe/uou9 Be real wra/covareov orcy irecreerai ra 8e r/ MapBoviov 131. a^icri yevo/iievoi 7re/3ov\evov Odvarov ^rpdrri TOO Xt'ou rvpdvvta. ree? apiOpov $e/ca KOI e/caTOV. rjyeipe Trpijyjjiara. ol aXXot (3ao~i\ees eysvovro ^Trdprr)^. e^tvelKavros ryv em%elpri(TLV 6^09 viwv e\ev6epovv 1 The first royal house was the line of Agis.ov rov Ava^avSpiSeco rov eoTro/tTrou roO NiKavSpov rov XaptXew roO Ewoyuou TOI) IIoXLiSe^Tef/) TCV Upvrdvios rov EuyOu^wz^TO? roO II/?o:Xeo9 rov 'ApicrroBrf/jiov rov ^Ata-rojidov rov KXeo8atou rov TXXou TO{) 'H7?7crtXea) Seo) r/ T7/9 TCOI^ eirra rwv per a Aevrv%iSea Trpwrwv Ka-ra\e")(0evrwv. eoj'T9 dp^rjv eirrd' e7ri{3ov\6vovres Be a>9 (pavepol eyevovro.&> dfjia /JLGV e/3ou- \evovro el TI Troieeiv. The second was the line of Ruryphon. vrXr. eovres Be ev Sa/u. a"rpaT r)- 709 Se /cat TGI) ' vavap%os r}V Aeuri/^t^T. KOI Ma^So^to? eV e<rcraXt/7 <yivo/JLVov o yLter 8^ / vre^o? ou/ew crvve\eyero o Be VCLVTIKOS aTri/cero e? Aiyivav. 204).

Eunomus. They had not yet begun the mustering of their army. Nicandrus. the seven more immediate ancestors of L. of Ariphron. Hippocratides. Theopompus. who at first were seven. Aristodemus. Anaxandrides. one of the accomplices . tracing his lineage from son to father through Hegesilaus. 135 . 2 These. Euryphon. an hundred and ten and their general and ships. came to Aegina. Anaxilaus. admiral was Leutychides son of Menares. belonging to a younger branch. the coming of spring and Mardonius' being in Thessaly moved them to action. So the} were at Samos. When all the ships were arrived at Aegina. to Hyllus who was the son of Heracles he was of the second 1 All the aforesaid had been kings of royal house. Leutychides. which gained the throne by the deposition of Demaratus " (How and 2 Wells). 132. Archidemus. and there planned to do what harm they could to their enemies. Cleodaeus. there came to the Greek quarters messengers from the lonians. But as for the Greeks.BOOK VIII. the same who a little while before that had gone to Sparta and entreated the Laceof whom one was daemonians to free Ionia Herodotus the son of Basileides. made a faction and conspired to but when their slay Strattis. ancestors of Leutychides is Theopompus. Polydectes. and to listen the while for tidings of how it went with Mardonius. the despot of Chios conspiracy became known. Aristomachus. . Procles. save the seven named first after Leutychides. 131. Sparta. The general of the Athenians was Xanthippus son . but their fleet. 130-132 on land Mardonius would easily prevail. Prytanis. Otherwise unknown. Charilaus.

TW -\/ Xa/X6i^o9 rravra^r) /JLLV ovvofjia r)V re rjv crtyl ^prjao/^evov e\ueiv. rwv EjX\r)va>v Seo/Lievoi e'9 Kararr\a)(raL Trjv 'Iwvirjv OL Trporjyayov auroi/9 irav vov oure TWV %a)pu>v eovcri Treipoicn. '\/l'""T' evrei- eKfJiaOelv rrpos OV'K e^co (frpdcrai' eywye rrepl rwv ^p^crrripiwv ravra vere\\ero. ^prii^ovrwv XLWV.z/a9. TOU9 /JL6V /a/?/apou9 TO ?r/ao9 ecrrreprj^ dvcorepa) r)v Tolcri "tiXXiya'i VS Se f/ E\X?.ei'O$ drcorreiprjcracrOaL. ov yap wv \eyerai. TO TO 7T/?O9 rrjv Karcore cf(re a-ffre ovrw &eo<? 133. ovrw Sr) ol Xotrrol e ( eovres vrre^e- rj K T?}9 XtOf Kal 69 ^rrdpri]V T6 aTTLKOVTO KOi KOI Tore 69 rrjv Acyivav.So/ceo) rwv rrapeovrwv Trprjy/jidrcov teal OVK ' a\. ^dfjiov emerearo Bo^rj KOI (rvvemrrre ^e roiovro wcrre Icov drreeLV.\(i)i> rrepi 134.'ySa9 "As far off as the Straits of Gibraltar" a figure of distance. a"rpaTii^ re rrdvra rc\ea eSo/cee elvai. teal e'9 errl TO rtrrrLOV' Kal 6*9 ifp 1 rrpwra &>9 drri/cero. Mu9.ei'O9 errefJLire ' Kara ret %pr)(rrrjpia av&pa EupwTrea 76^09.HERODOTUS . OL/T09 o M09 69 Te Aeftd&eiav <$>aiverai rreicras Kal tiaOw r&v /cal vbpa Kara^r)vai rrapd 8rj " Tpo<f)(t)viov. rovro fJLev rq> *A7roX\o)W e^prjaaro' ean Be Kara rrep /. rwv ola 6 ri p.ev /3ov\6/u. 136 . Ol Be rrepi rrjv e<T(ra\Lr)v e'^e/yu-a^e. ev- Oevrev Se o/3/za)yu.

. and that alone. entreating the Greeks to sail to Ionia. for a full description of the also on method of consulting this subterranean deity " Amphiaraus and "Ptoan Apollo. The Greeks brought them as far as Delos. sailed to Delos. and Mardonius wintered in Thessaly. 133. and that not readily for they feared all that lay beyond. but I suppose that 1 cannot say. Having here his headquarters he sent thence a man of Europus . inquired of Ismenian Apollo (sacrifice is there the 2 See How and Wells ad loc. This man Mys is known to have gone to Lebadea and to have bribed a man of the country to go down into the cave of Trophonius. . whence they went to Sparta and now to Aegina. for none tells of it he sent to inquire concerning his present business.BOOK having revealed VIII. the home of early Greek superstitions. The Greeks. their the six that remained got them privily out of Chios. 132-134 enterprise. charging him to inquire of all the oracles whereof he could make trial. All these shrines are in Boeotia. . : 137 . and thinking that armed men were everywhere and they supposed that Samos was no nearer to them than the Pillars of Heracles. then. called Mys to visit the places of divination. where he . What it was that he desired to learn from the oracles when he gave this charge. 134. while at the same time the Greeks dared go at the Chians' request thus fear kept the no farther east than Delos middle space between them. having no knowledge of those parts. 2 and to have gone to the place of divination at Abac in Phocis to Thebes too he first went. 1 So it fell out that the foreigners were too disheartened to dare to sail farther west than Samos.

HERODOTUS ev 'O\v/ji7rir) ipolcn avrodi Xprjo-Trjpid^ecrOai. *AKpai(f)ir)s e? aio)v ev Ow/jiaTL e%ecr#eu dicovovTas (Bapftdpov dvTL 'EXXa&o?.evo? o TI Brj \ejovTa Ta xpyo-Tijpia yaera raOra eire^e dyye\ov e? 138 .vr)<. MapBovtos Be eVtXe^a/i. 136. 7repi(TTpa)(f)a}/iivov iravra rd xprjcmjpia. fcal TrpofcaTe TOV Trpo/jiavTiv /cat TOV? /JLCV eTrojjievovs TCOV %/?ai/. e/ceA. real TWOV 9 TOV 7roft)VO9 TO TyLt^O5. TOVTO TO ipov Ka\66Tai fjiev HTMOV. Tryoo? opei TOVTO TO Ipov Trape\6elv TOV KaXeo/aevov TOVTOV M. Be ol TCOV do'Tcov alpCTOvs dvBpas airo TOV KOLVOV co? dTroypatyo/jievovs TCL fi\\e.TOV. TOV erepov aTre^ool $e (TVfJLfJLaj^ov /juv ei\ovTO elvai. ewvry 77 are xpdcrOai r) are cru/x/i. Tore Be Owfjid /xot fieyicrTOV <yeveaOai \eyeTai VTTO Srjj3aia)V e\8elv dpa TOV Eupa)7rea Mvv. ovBe e%eiv 6 TI TrapeovTi Trpijj/iLaTi. ravTa -nap aviwv Trjv TU \ejo/^eva VTTO TOV Tcpo^rfTew <f)dvai Be Kapir) JJLLV <y\coao-y Xpdv.VV. \[/j. ecrTi Be Qrj Trep T% KcoTrai'So? TroXto?.ei/cre e%eo~Ti fjiavTeveaOai avToOi Bid robe' <j(ea? o KjJifyidpews Bia xprjcrTrjpicov Troiev/jievos ' ' oKorepa /SovXovrcu eKecrOai TOVTCOV. <ypd(peiv e? avT)jv. pevov Be oi^ecrOai diriovTa e? (H)ecr<ja?u?7i>.' TOVro Be %elvov riva KCU ov tyijfialov \prffjiacn TretVa? r}/3aia)v Be ovBevl KaTeKOifjbyae e? 'A/^mpea).' TOV Be Qvpwirea ecfrepovTO Be\.a^ft). Sid TOVTO jLV OVK e(TTt r/5ata)i/ ovSevl avroOi 135.

Thebans say.BOOK way of VIII. straightway the diviner prophesied in a foreign tongue. and knew not what this present matter might be but Mys of Europus snatched from them the tablet that they carried and wrote on it that which was spoken by the prophet. away back . 135. was localised in Boeotia as well as Achaea. this temple. 134-136 divination. 1 and belongs to the Thebans . as the . and his plot with Ino their stepmother against his children's lives. son of Athamas. saying that the words of the oracle were Carian and having written all down he went . very near to the town When the man called Mys entered into Acraephia. and moreover bribed one that was no Theban but a stranger to lie down to sleep in the shrine of Araphiaraus. to Thessaly. would seem that this man Mys of Europus came It in his wanderings among the places of divination to the precinct of Ptoan Apollo. above the lake Copai's. 136. cp. Apollodorus. a thing at which I marvel greatly. The story 139 . even as at Olympia). and take him either for their prophet or for their ally and they chose that he should be their ally wherefore no Theban may lay him down to sleep in that place. Mardonius read whatever was said in the oracles and presently he sent a messenger to Athens. . according to of Athamas. The Thebans that followed him stood astonied to hear a strange language instead of Greek. vii. 197. . No Theban may seek a prophecy there for Amphiaraus bade them by an oracle to choose which of the two they would and forgo the other. . three men of the town following him that were chosen on the state's behalf to write down the oracles that should be given. This temple is called Ptoum. But at this time there happened. after 1 Called Ptous. it lies by a hill.

avBpov TOV 'A/xwrea) avBpa Ma/ceBova. a town which Herodotus.. re iroXXov T-t-jV cipa d/covwv elvou Kal a\Kt/jLOi>. ire^fj re eSoK6 TTO\\U) elvai /cpecrawv. 140 . "Apyeos TWV Trj/aevov aTToyovwv (f)oi. .0i)vaCov$ OVTCO eboKee ^cCkiaTa TrpocrKTrj\ecov <recr0ai. ol 7rpo\eyot. avp. AfjLvvTew Be afJLa /JLCV * ot eyeyovee 'A/zui'T?..X\. Vavdvrjs re Kal 'Aepovro? Kal e? TV avw evOavTa Be aTTLKovTo 1 e? AeftaLijv TTO\IV. Alabanda was not in Phrygia but in Caria (cp. fd^a & av Kal Ta i]\7ri%e r TavTa TOV 137. o~(f)i Ta T6 KdTa QaXaGcrav o~WTW%ovTa TraO'/. vii. according to Stephanus of Byzantium.^ov\evovTa ^AOrfvalov 7roieecr0ai' Tolcn Brj ToO Be lepCLKKiis eVrl 6 KTrjcrd/Jievos Trjv 'A\%dvBpov TOVTOV e/38oyLto? yeveTWV MaKe&ovwv (f)vyov e? 'JXXfp/ot'v e TvpavviSa Tpoirw Toiyoe.? o ev rfj 'Acrt?. Be 6 teal Tu> $}) etc Mapbovios Trvdo/nevos OTL Trpo^eLvos re yap TOVS evepyeTTjs 6 'AA-e^a^&^o? eVe/xTre. 195) Stein prefers to read Alabastra. TO.r)viKcov. rrep V7rTew$ TT}? ^a-Xacrcr?. places in Phrygia. OTI ol TTyOOcr/c^See? oi TLepaai rjaav 'AXe^dvBpov yap dSe\(j)6^v Fvyairjv. OVTO) re e\oyi%ero KaTinrepOe ol ra TrpijyfiaTa TWV E. /xara KaTtpyauafJLevov^ /xa\<rra 'AOrjTOVTWV Se Trpo&yevo/nevtov KCITvaiovs eVtcTTaro. e%wv TO rov fjLrjToTrcLTOos. av Kal T)V.? KpaTr)<reiv.HERODOTUS ' A\J. * A.

If he gained their friendship he Persians at sea. who got for himself the despotism of Macedonia in the way that I will show. Peradventure this was the prediction of the oracles. 136-137 . 137. had taken to wife Gygaea Alexander's sister and Amyntas' daughter. and it was in obedience to this that he sent his messenger. and to whom the king gave Alabanda 1 a great city in Phrygia and partly he sent him because he for his dwelling learnt that Alexander was a protector and benefactor to the Athenians. 141 . . and knew that they had been the chief authors of the calamities which had befallen the sent. counselling him to make the Athenian his ally. It rests probably on the similarity of the name Argeadae. . the tribe to which the dynasty belonged. Three brothers of the lineage of Temenus came as banished men from Argos 2 to Illyria. of whom he heard that they were a numerous and valiant people. 2 The story of an Argive origin of the Macedonian dynasty appears to be mythical. Gauanes and Aeropus and Perdiccas and from Illyria they crossed over into the highlands of Macedonia till they came to the town Lebaea. as truly he would have been. and on land he supposed himself to be by much the stronger so he reckoned that thus he would have the upper hand of the Greeks. a Persian. partly because the Persians . This Alexander was seventh in descent from Perdiccas. looked to be easily master of the seas. a Macedonian. There they served for wages as . him he Alexander. who had borne to him that Amyntas of Asia who was called by the name of his mother's father.BOOK VIII. It was thus that he supposed he could best gain the Athenians for his allies. son of Amyntas were akin to him for Bubares.

Be 710*7) TOV /3a<7iXeo9 avrrj ra <rma crcfri evrecrcre' rjaav yap TO Trd\aL KCU at TVpavvl8e<. Ot yLtei^ aTT^Lcrav. Te Aral 6 'Af/?O7T09 o/ TrpecrftvTepoi. TO) BVOVCTL oi TOVTCOV 142 . Ka\ecras Be TOL/? OfJTas Trporjyopeve afyi aTra\\do~o~eo~6ai. e'/c 77)9 TTJ<. HepBiKK^s TCL XeTrra TWV B /3acri\i. Tepa9 real (frepoi /j. ewvTOV. 6*7^7- w TO Ae/coyLte^a e^cov /jLci^aipav. Trepiypd'^ras al Of ST. eiTras TaSe fiacrLXev TCL 5t8ot9. o p. TWfTO TOVTO 6JLV6TO. o'i Se TOV fjiia6ov efyaaav SLKCIIOI elvai CLTTOevdavTa 6 /3a<rtXei>9 TOV \a/36vTes OVTM e^ievai. /jLia0ov Trepi axovcras. eaTaaav e/cv ' ^ v a>9 ijfcovcrav raura- o ^e 7ra?9. eiTre 00/3\a@r}<. 138. e'9 TOI^ KO\TTOV rt9 dvaajLvos TOV Lt6r' (T6TO atT09 T6 KLVOV. O $6 j3oV$. o Vci)Ta.HERODOTUS eVl ITTTTOU? fjno~6w irapa 6 TU> vefJLWV.TOS CiVTWV 77 TrpoftaTwv." Trepiypu^ei Trj /jia^ai prj e'9 e'8a(/)09 TOI) " OLKOV TOV rj\iov.ev orj 1 avavrj^ uTrociow/jLi.e<ya TL. TTOTa/jibs Be eV TT} ^copy TavTrj. 6 apros TOV TraiSo? TOV #77x09 eVel oe alel e<yivero atTo? ewvTov. TW Se /3ao~i\i arvjfJLai- vi Tt9 TWI^ irapeBpcov olov TL ^pr/pa Troirfcreie 6 o 7'6coraTO9 Xa3ot ra o Be 7r TavTa d/covcra? KOL e'crrt auroL/9 fTTTrea? d7To\eovTas. fyev6/uLVo<$ t *? > <? " Mfcr^o^ Be vfMV 6*70) V/JLGWV a^iov Tovoe " f 'J' "A ? IT oe^a9 TOZ^ I)^LOV. ov JJLOVVOV o S^/ao?' o/c&)9 Se tor]. 64776 TT^O? TOV CtvSpa TOV ea)UT^9' TOV & aKovaavTa earj\0 avTi/ca &)9 ea. rjv jap /caTa TTJV KcnrvoS6/crjv e'9 TOV olfcov ecre^wv 6 tfXios. TOJV avOpanrwv aaOevees ^pr^dcri. Se.

the loaf of the thrall Perdiccas grew double in bigness. The action is said to symbolise claiming possession of house and land. whereupon the king. and . had a similar custom. " That is the wage you merit." and with that he took a knife that he had upon him and drew a line with it on the floor of the house round the sunlight 1 . when they spoke and another oxen. and it is that I give you. he thrice gathered up the sunlight into the fold of his garment. the king's household. which done. but one of them that sat 138." pointing to the sunlight that shone down the smokevent into the house. signifying some great matter. Seeing that this ever happened. 137-138 of wages. who was the Now the king's wife youngest. But there is in that land a river. So they departed by declared to the king what this was that the boy had done.BOOK thralls in VIII. he was angered. whereto the descendants from . . . and sent riders after them to slay them. stood astonied when they heard that but the boy said. Gauanes and Aeropus. and how it was of set purpose that the youngest of them had accepted the gift offered which when the king heard. cooked their food for them for in old times the ruling houses among men. They said it was but just that they should have their wages ere they departed . and went his way with his companions. one tending horses Perdiccas. was moved to foolishness. apparently. who were the elder. . and whenever she baked bread. and said. were lacking in wealth . and also to call the sun to witness the claim. Ancient Germany. '43 1 . " We accept what you give. and not the commonalty alone. the lesser flocks. she told her husband and it seemed to him when he heard it that this was a portent. O king. So he sent for his thralls and bade them depart out of his territory.

i(f)@el<> <W9 Be aTTt^ero e? ra? 'AOrfvas CLTTO- VTTO MapSoviov.avSpo<. ^yeyovee 6 'A\ei. TOVTO Be ravrrj e\. 'ATTO rovrov e TOV ?rat? rjv eyevero' ^Afivvrea) . evOevrev Be 6preal ravrijv ea^oi'. TOVTO /jiev rrjv yfjv cr<t a7ro8o?. 6 Afivvrw 7T/. rfvrtva av e6e eovres avrovo/uLOL' ipd re Trdvra atyi. ev e/cacrrov e^ov e^iJKovra <>v\\a. e/Veye rdSe. rjv Brj /3ou777309 1 This was the fertile and beautiful valley in which stood Aegae or Etlessa (modern Vodena).. aj3arov viro Co? ^et/Aco^o?. /jLeTiiifM. ev roicri (frverai avro/nara oSa. eVetVe Siefirjcrav ol T^/jLeviBai.a? TCOJ^ K^TTWV TWV ^eyo/jievcov elvai roD ropBico). TOV fiev &rj TOU ' e epSLKKijs 6 KrrjcrdfjLevos rrjv a)Se 140. KOi 6 Tolcn KiJTTOicri TJXo). the ancient home of the Macedonian kings. OL $e aTTLKOjjLevoi 69 a\\7]v yrjv TT}? Ma/ceSo^/ry? 7reA. VTTep $ ovvo/na. 1/09 V TOVTOICTI. cu? \6yTai V7TO Ma/ce^oTWV Kl'-jTTWV OjOO? KTai Be'p/LUOZ> VWV. yu. oBfArj re TCOV a. Kare(TTp6<povTO &rj 139. ' * Ma/oSowo? rd&e Trapa /3acriXeo9 \eyovcra ovrw.ecr0u)v avroi.eya9 OVTCD eppvrj wcrre roi>9 (Vvrea? /ZT) oJou? re yeveadai Biaftfjvai. 144 .HERODOTUS dvBpwv air* "Apyeos aTroyovoi crcaTr/pr ovros. ra? d/naprdSas T? e? e/ie e^ erceivwv vvv re c58e MapSo Trdcra<.O)l>.

145 . which none can ascend Thence they issued forth for the wintry cold. and his Philippus again was Perdiccas. Silenus was taken captive mountain called Bermius. . One may compare the story of Proteus captured by Menelaus. " This. Give them back Mardonius. . and dwell under their own laws and rebuild all their temples ' saying. Such was the lineage of Alexander son of who. by the Macedonian fragrance 2 above it rises the story. who was the son of Alcetes' father was Aeropus. . who won that lordship. wheresoever they will. he was fabled in the Greek version vegetation of the myth to give wise counsel to his captor. transferred to Macedonia. 138-140 . : I forgive the Athenians all the offences which they have committed against me and now. 139. . as their deliverer this river. is what Mardonius says to you There is a message come to me from the king. 1 wherein roses grow of themselves. and his was Alcetes Philippus' father was Argaeus. when the sons of Temenus had crossed it. From that Perdiccas Alexander was descended. . : . spoke on this wise. a Phrygian tale. being the son of Amyntas. when they had won that country. Silenus was a "nature-deity. and let them choose more for themselves besides. when he came to Athens from Amyntas Mardonius who had sent him. 1 bid you do this their territory.BOOK Argos of these men VIII. and presently subdued also the rest of Macedonia. 140. offer sacrifice." inhabiting places of rich if captured. Athenians. So the brothers came to another part of Macedonia and settled near the place called the garden of Midas son of Gordias. in the is : 2 This Odyssey. each bearing sixty blossoms and of surpassing in which garden. . rose in such flood that the riders could not cross..

evopw ydp vjjuv OVK T ecro/jievoKTi.HERODOTUS o/moXoyeeiv. fieyd\a TrpOTetvov- T0)v eV olcri. i}v /j. B6\ov real aTrarr. dvopduxrov. epya. %povov 7To\/jLeeiv JEle el ydp evaipcov TOVTO ev V/JLLV.iv Be alel Trepl vjjLewv avTwv.9ov 1 M. yevrjTai. TrvvOdveaOe Be /cal vvv Trap" e/jiol eovcrav Bvvajuv wcrre teal TJV V7rep/3d\^crde eX-TTt? el vrep /cal vi/cijaijTe. TTpoa^prji^w Be v/uea)V TreideaOai MapBovia). OVK av /core e? rf\.oyeeiv eOeXovai. a\\r) TrapecrTat. d\\a /caTa\vaacr0e' Tcapeyei Ka\~kL(JTa Be KaTa\vaacr9ai. ocra TOVTCOV Be air ty jaevcov dvay/caicos TavTa.?. YIV wv fjirj avTiKa 6/JLO\oyrj(T'r)T. 6uo\. Bet/^aiva) v ev Tpifty re yLtaXtcrra oiKrjfjLevcov TWV 7rdvT(i)v alei re (frdeipo/jLevcov fjbovvwv. fj/MV o/^ai^- avvOefJievoL dvev re Bovio? elirelv 7T/90? fiev TT/OO? TavTa w v/meas' u^ea? eoucr^.ape^eretXaro pot eyu> Be Trepl pev evvoiris 7/79 e/^ev ovBev Xe^&). pot TTOieeiv el'Sere fiev yap T?}? Hep^eco arpar7j\aTO 7rXr}^o? /cal TO. Tc6\e^ov (3acri\ei aeipofJLevoi .? e vvv TrpwTOV efc/JidOoLTe. TOV TrdvTO. wv ftovXecrOe Trapicrov/jievoi f^rj /3acri\i crrepeaOaL fiev r^9 ^06/3775. peTov /JieTai^^LLov re 146 TIJV yijv e/CTJj/^evwv. Qke. ecrre eXevOepoL. TOV rrep vfuv ev typoveeTe. ov ydp av 'AOrjvatoi. ovre yap av virepoloi re e'crre dvre^eiv TOV iravra (3d\oio-6e OVT e/Jiol \covTaL ye y eveTrpri(Ta.r) TO v/^erepov CLITLOV vvv TI fxaiveaOe \eyco Be V/MV TaBe. aXXa . /3acr/Xeo? vjjuv opfjLrjfjLevov. &\wv \6yov$ TOVO~Be' /cal ydp Bvva/jit<$ virep dvOpwTrov rj /3acriXeo? ecrrt /cal J^elp VTrep/juJKr) ?.

needs must that I obey it (says Mardonius). follow his counsel . 140 to give you. and what ever. is the message which Mardonius charges if will : . me that make a covenant with me. marked out for never escape destruction. straightway agree with them. nor can you resist him for For the multitude of Xerxes' host. And this I say to you Why are you so mad as to wage war against the king ? you cannot overcome him. . so that even if you overcome and conquer us (whereof. Well I see that you will not have power to wage war against Xerxes for ever . when the conditions which they offer . if you be in your right minds. did I see such power in you. are so great. yet there will come another host many times as great as this. for of all the allies you dwell most in the very path of the war. and his arm is If therefore you will not long. they This being the message. your country being a battlefield. the king being that way inclined keep your freedom." burnt. and agree to be our brothers in arms in all faith and honesty. For my own part I will say nothing of the goodwill that I have towards you. I fear what may befall you . and you have heard of the power that I now have with me .This. and thereby lose your land and ever be yourselves in jeopardy. but make peace . Be not then minded to match yourselves against the king. unless you take it upon you to hinder me. I had . whereon they are ready to agree. for it would not be the first that you have learnt of that but I entreat you to follow Mardonius' counsel. which you can most honourably do. and you alone will never come to you with such language as this for the king's might is greater than human. you can have no hope).BOOK I VIII. Nay. you. Athenians.. you have seen. they did.

' ITleXo- Kapra re eBeHrav re /AT) ojjio\o<y^(jw(ji TO) IlepcrT. < el ftacn- Xeu? ye /HOVVOKTI \L\\i]V(DV ra? dmels e'$eXet </>t\o<? yevecrOai. rjyeipUTe yap rovbe rov TroXeyucw u/zei? ovoev rjfiewv y8ovXo/xe^a)^.<TTd/jLVOl QTl /A\\OV AcLKeBdl /JLOVIOL eV Trevcreadai ij/covra Trapd rov fiapftdpov ayy\ov 6/jLO\oyir). 6? ' o/AoXoylrjV ^A\^ai'SpOV a^ovra TW fiapftdpw ivria'Otv'Te'S TWV Xoyitov w? cr^ea? 7TV06/jiVOl rj/ClV Totcrt aXXoicrt %/oeo^ e< VTTO M^Swv eKTriTrreiv /c Aa)/?iei)cr re /cat \\6r)vaict)v. AOrjvaloL. a$i eSo^e Tre/^Treiv d<yye\ovs. 'AXe^ayS/oo? e? ravra eXee. /cat 7re/3i T/}? vvv &e cfrepei v/juereprjs apxfjOev 6 dytov eyevero.ivav 'A-Orfvaioi Siarpi- U 7Tl. irvOo/jievoi re ire/ji^reLv Kara cot' ewoevv. Tolan Aa/ceSai/jLOvioio'i TIJV ewvrwv 142. Kal e? rraaav r^v EXXa8a* aXX&>? re rovrcov arrdvrwv amou? yeve&dai Sov\ocrvvrj<s 148 . Xd'/oi'? evBe/cecr^ai irapa ovre yap Si/caiou ov$a/jL<M<$ ovre KocrfMov (frepov ovre ye d\\OL(TL 'EXX?^ft)z^ ovba/jioicri. VJJLLV oe Srj Kal Bid Tcdvrwv iJKicrra TroXXcoz^ etvetca. Serjcro/jiei'ovs v/xewv va)Tpov TToieeiv /jLij&ev Kara T^V 'EXXa^a rov fiapftdpov. Bia" CLTTO ' 6voL eXeyov ol STrayor?.? ayyeXoi HyLtea? e eirefJi^rav Aa/ceSai/jiovioi. '0? Se eVaucraTo \eycov 'A\eai>Bpos.HERODOTUS ' TroXXoO yap 6 /jieyas V^JLLV aia vfuv ravra." yuei> 141. teal Brj axrre O/JLOV <T<$>WV yivecrdat rrjv /card<ydp ol eiraveiJLf.

But the LacedaeAlexander was come to Athenians to an agreement with Alexander. wherein all Hellas is now engaged setting that apart. and said. . and they straightway resolved that they would send envoys. . that remembering the oracles." 141. how that they themselves with the rest of the Dorians must be driven out of the Peloponnese by the Medes and the Athenians. Thus spoke monians had heard Athens to bring the the foreigner and . the envoys from Sparta took up the tale. but for you most of all. that they made their entry at one and the same time for the Athenians delayed. that they might make their will known to the Lacedaemonians. they were greatly afraid lest the Athenians should agree with the Persian. 142. Moreover it so fell out for both. by no desire of ours. That were a thing unjust and dishonourable for any Greek.BOOK for it is VI 11. . and tarried for them. it is a thing not to be borne that not all this alone but slavery too should be brought . So when Alexander had made an end ot speaking. 140-142 are not to be lightly regarded by you that you the only men in Hellas whose offences the great king is ready to forgive and whose friend he would be. . and your territory was first the stake of that and battle. being well assured that the Lacedaemonians were like to hear that the messenger was come from the Persians for an agreement and they had heard that the Lacedaemonians would send their envoys with all speed therefore it was of set purpose that they did it. " We on our part are sent by the Lacedaemonians to entreat you to do nought hurtful to Hellas and accept no offer from the foreigner. on many counts it was you who stirred up this war. 149 .

TTayye\\ovrai yvvalKa^ re Kal ra e? a^prjara OLKerewv e%o/z.ft>9 av Kal 8vvo!)/J. ei irep ev u/i/ea? rvyxdvere (ppoveovres.r)vaovs ova/juws vaa^erov. on V/JLLV A. on. s "Sep^rj" erre^LfJLev d\\d deolai re o-v/jijiid'%oio~i rricrvvoi d/jLVvo/Jievoi Kal rolai rjprixn. roiov(T$e fir) em^aiveo 'A0i]vaioi(Ti. ojuoXoyrjcrai Be rw fiap- ftdpw firjre (7V rj^eas rrei. ' 143.e^a rcavra emearr av 6 7roXe/iO9 oSe avvecmjfcr). rrj vvv re rrep Ka vvv ep^erai. eirLara^evoLO'L co? fiapftdpoicn ecrrl ovre marov ovre aX^^e? ouSeV. crvva%06fjLe0a. rwv re ovSejjiiav omv e%a>v eveTrprjcre ' rovs OIKOVS Kal ra \6yovs e%(0v e SOKCWV ^prjara vrrovpyeeiv dOefJuara epbeiv o~v re rov \OLTTOV dyd\uara. nd\ai (aiveaOe Tro\\ov<$ e\ev- dvOpwirwv. rrd\Xarr\rj<jiri earl rw MtjSw 8vi>a/j.a)i.e0a. Kal ij&i] Kal or i dvrl rovrwv Be me^ev^evoicn /Jievroi VJMV Kaprrwv earepr^O^re Sij.HERODOTUS roai ?7crt alel Kal TO . OLKo<f)d6pr}cr0e %pbvov tjSrj 7ro\\6v. /jurjSe 'AXe^a^S/509 o Ma/ceSobi/ dvayvwa-r]." ravra eXe^av ol ayye\oi.is rj rrep .' V/JLIV 8e ov Trot^rea. . ovrw o.pS) dvajreiOeiv ovre rjaeis drrdyye\\e MapBovito o>9 ^AOrfvaloi \eyovcn.ev hXe%avt*pov vrre(( Kal avrol rovro ye imard^Qa Kpivavro rdBe. re Kal ol crv/u- .aKSai/j. ?'^5 ware ovoev oeei rovro ye f/ 5 / / > '** oveioi^eiv. ear av 6 ij\ios rrjv avrrji> 6Bov 7reicr6/uie0a. Xe^ya? rov MapSonoL' \6jov. rovrw fiev yap ravra Tronjrea eVrt* rvpavvos yap ecov rvpdvvw cvyKarepyd^erat. 'AOyvaloi ^>6 TT/JO? fj.6vioi.

. trusting in the aid of the gods and the heroes whom he has set at nought and burnt their houses and their adornments. do not you essay to persuade us thereto. for that now you have lost two harvests and your substance has been for a long time wasted . that in foreigners there is no faith nor truth. Nevertheless in our zeal for freedom we will defend ourselves to the best of our But as touching agreements with the ability. 142-143 upon the Greeks by you Athenians. But to Alexander the Athenians thus replied " We know of ourselves that the power of the Mede is many times greater than ours there is no need to taunt us with that. nor will we consent and now carry this answer back to Mardonius from the Athenians. foreigner. who have ever of old been known for givers of freedom to many. that as long as the sun holds the course whereby he now but goes. 143. if you be men rightly minded know. we will make no agreement with Xerxes we will fight against him without ceasing. in requital allies all wherefor the Lacedaemonians and their declare that they will nourish your women and of your households that are unserviceable for war. . . follow that counsel. But let not Alexander the Macedonian win you with his smooth-tongued It is his business to praise of Mardonius' counsel. nor under the semblance of rendering us a service counsel as to do wickedly . so long as this war shall last. Nevertheless we grieve with you in your afflictions. ." Thus spoke the envoys. for as he is a despot so must he but it is not your be the despot's fellow-worker for you business. 15* . : . come no more to Athenians with such a plea. To you we say.BOOK VIII.

rj& ecrrl rd &iaK(o\vovra ravra rrpwra /JLCV TToieeiv i]v eOeXw/jiev. ^rrdprrjS dyyekovs ftr/ Aa/ceSai/io/'tou? 6{J. \vrreovres uyaea?.a <ye OLKare e^TriaTa/jLevoi TO appw^rjcrai. on TrpoeiSere r]fJLewv OLKO^>Ooprjfievwv ovrco cocrre errLOpe^rai ede\eiv rjuecov TOU? Kal vfjuv fiev rj fjievroi \i7rap>]cro/j. ?.lv ovBev eovra Trpo^eivov re teal 144.o\oyija-(jL>/jiev TO* ftapfBdpw. roicri f)/JLea<s rifnuipeeiv e? rd fieyiara /jidXXov rcep 6/mo\oyeeiv rw ravra epyacra/jih'w. ort oure ^pucro? eari 7?}? o TOCTOVTO? ovre X^P^l fcd\\L /col dperfj ' TO. a>? ydp ?/yaets OVK e/ca? %povov Trapeerai 6 (3dp/3apos .Xa8a. fjLtjBafMa o/jLoXoy/jcrovras r]^ea^ /Aevroi dyd/jieOa rrjv irpovolrjv rr)v eovcrav.HERODOTUS Trapaivee' 7T/JO? ov 'yap ae ^ov\o^e9a ^KOifvaicov ira6f. avris Be TO QXXrjvi/cbv eov o^aifjiov re KOI o^oy\waaov Kal Bewv iSpv/mard re Koivd Kal Ovcriat ijded re O/JLOrporca.ev %a/?t? eKrrerr\i]p(i)rai> ovrco o/tco? dv e^w/xe^. iro\\d re yap real /jieyd\a /j.av$pov ravra vireKpivavro.Qrjvaiovs OVK dv ev e%oi. vvv Be. /cdpra di>9pw7rt'')iov r^v drap aicr%pa)s \6rjvaiwv (f>povij/j. KOI rwv Oewv rd dyd\/jiara Kal rd olfcij/jiara ?'./zet9 Be^d/nevoi e@\oi/jiv av ( ovXwcrai. re Kal avyKe^cocri^eva. ear dv Kal el? rrepiy 'AOijvaicov. " To rdBe. eTricrraaOe re ovrw. rwv Tr/ooSoTa? ytveaOai. *A. flpo? Be TOL>? fjiV Betcrat /jiev ttTTo *A\ej. el /^rj rrporepov rvy%di>ere emardiJLevoL. co? . rd^iara eKTre/Jurere. rr/v EX. w? ovrco e^ovrcov.

we will make shift to endure as best we may. in that you have so provided for our wasted state that you offer to nourish our households. seeing that this is so. knowing the Athenian temper to be such that there is nowhere on earth such store of gold or such territory of surpassing fairness and excellence that the gift of it should win us to take the Persian part and enslave Hellas. if you knew gods. Nevertheless we thank you for your forethought concerning us. . you have given us full measure of kindness yet for ourselves. it alive not before. whom we are constrained to avenge to the uttermost rather than make covenants with the doer of these things. For your part. and not be burdensome to But now. and next the kinship of all Greeks in blood and speech. that as long as one Athenian is left we will make no agreement with Xerxes. even first and chiefest. the burning and if we so desired destruction of the adornments and temples of our . but we think you do basely to be afraid. 143-144 are our friend we would not that you who and protector should suffer any harm at Athenian hands. For there are many great reasons why we should not do this. Such was their answer to Alexander. " It was most that the Lacedaemonians should fear our human making an agreement with the foreigner. the foreigner .BOOK for VIII. to all which it would ill beseem Athenians to be false. Know this now. and the shrines of gods and the sacrifices that we have in common. . but to the Spartan envoys they said." 144. army with all speed for as we guess. send your you. and the likeness of our way of life.

rj/JLea? KCilpQS ot fLtv ravra VTTOe? T^V BoKorirjv." r TTJV KIVOV IS4 .HERODOTUS ajjeXirjv on. Trpiv wv Trapelvai <TTl 7T/0069 T7/V 'ATTLKIJV. ovbev noir]O'0^v rwv rjfiecov TrpoaeSeero.

but as soon as ever the message comes to him that we will do nothing that he requires of us." the Athenians the envoys returned back to Sparta. now is the time At this reply of for us to march first into Boeotia. wherefore. 144 be upon us and invading our country in no long time.BOOK will VIII. '55 . ere he comes into Attica.



'ETret 2. ^e Kare\djL^avov rov MapSoviov Kal avvefiovXevov avra> \eyovres a>? OVK eirj ^aiyoo? eTriryjSeorepo^ zvcrTparoTreSeveatfai e/ceivov.? 'A$?. 7rl ryv 'EXXaSa. Tolcn be e<r<raXt7.(3av. to? ol drrovoarrrjcra^ O? TO. TOVTOVS Trap\d/ji.rai o (rrparos Kara /jbev o Trep yap TO Icr^vpov "EXKal rrdpos ravra o elvai irepiyivecrOai Kal arracn Troirja-eis ra rj^el^ rrapaivi" \eyovres.i^a?." "el Be efyacrav 1 158 .I * 1. teal crvpre (oprji. aXX' avrov TTOieeiv OKO)<S d/jia^rjrl rrjv rraaav EXXa8a ev }$oia)roi(Ti. e^eis drrovMs rrdvra ra KLva)V Icr^vpa ySofXeuyLtara vre/ATre e? TOU9 SwaGTevovTas av&pas ev rfia TreaTTutv Se rj]V 'EXXa8a Siaa-r/ycret?* evOevrev Be dv6p(i)TTOi(Ti' oyuei'. ovBe ewv levcu eKacrrepw.? rjyeofievoicri Trpb rov rreTrpr]'y^Leva /zere/zeXe ovSev Te /na\\ov eTrfjyov TOV Hepcrr/p. c Tropevofjievos ol r)/3a1oi <ylve. op/jirjdels CK ra<? 'A^?. Ma/o(Wo? rfye Be. 6 A^picrato? ^ep^rjv (f>evyovra Kal Tore GK rov fyavepov TrapfJKe Mapboviov oure TO. rrapa ecrcraXt?.iWa>i> rr^v ea^^ve. oou 8e r crrparirjv e/cdcrrore cnrovofj eVt JLVOLTO.

For as long as the Greeks who before had been of the same way of thinking remained in accord. but rather halt there and so act as to subdue all Hellas without fighting.BOOK IX 1. Mardonius occupied Athens in July. (they pleaded) go further. Mardonius. people along with him. and thereby you will divide Hellas against . took disguise open a passage for Mardonius into Hellas. and were but readier than before to further his march and Thorax of Larissa. the Thebans sought to stay Mardonius. when Alexander returned and told him what he had heard from the Athenians. did now without its . Send money to the men that have power in their cities. 1 In the summer of 479. "you will without trouble be master of all their counsels of battle. The rulers of Thessaly repented no whit of what they had already done. 2. advising him that he could find no country better fitted than theirs for encampment he should not . who had aided to give Xerxes safe-conduct in his flight. set forth from Thessaly and led his army with all zeal against Athens 1 and to whatsoever country he came he ." said the Thebans as they spoke. But when the army in its march was come into Boeotia. 159 . it would be a hard matter even for the whole world to overcome them by force of arms " but if you do as we advise.

HERODOTUS T0i>9 (Jirj rd ad fypoveovras prjiBiws perd rwv 3. d/ma fjiev vrr dyvct)uoo~vvr)s.o'rparr)L'r)v Be/cdfjLtjvo^ eyevero. o JJLCV Brj ravrrjv rrjv 9 TOZ^ Srjfiov. etVe Br) BeBeyjAevos ^prj/JLara yvw^v T / / ff/r\ v \ rrapa Mapoovuov.e'o9 alpecns e'9 rrjv vareprfv rrjv M. rov crdx Mouy9uytS^9 rrpocbepei.Va9* 09 ovBe rore 69 rrjv 'ATTIKTJV evpe TOU9 'A-Oyvaiovs. rrepi- 160 . d\\d Bevrepa ravra crvve{3oi>\6vov. f ^a\a/j. aipeei re prj/j. re ^a\ap. eire KCLI ravra 01 eavbave' Be avri/ca Beivbv rromcrdaevoi ol re etc e^eveitcai r^ j/ f\ fcal ol e^wOev a>9 errvOovro. drre^auvero. ei've/ca drrerre/jL'fre Mou pv%iBr)v Be drriKo/jievos errl rrjv /3ov\ijv e\eye rd rrapd MapBoviov. o rov \oyov. Tovrcov /jLev 9 SaXayu-i^a. o Be OVK e ol Beii'bs evecrrarcro tyuepo? Ta9 'A$? e\eiv.La>v ov Be <T(^)ea9 vmj&eiv rrjS BopLa\a)rov eovaris VTT' ecovrw.dr)va. Be /3acriA. Oi 0ero.ap77 Boviov TTi.cr- rrovriov tyepovra TOU9 avrovs \oyovs TOU9 KOL 6 Ma/ceSa)^ rolai *Adr]vaioio-i Bieravra Be TO Bevrepov drrecrre\\ rwv 'A.apB6vios. dua Be /v rrvpaolcn Bid vi)<jwv eBoKee ftaa-ikei Brj\a)criv e%oi 'A^?. 'Evrel Be ev ? rre/nrrei e 9 'Ad^vyai eyevero 6 M.ov TO darv. pBtai on 4. rwv Be ftovkevrewv elrre yvtofArjv 009 eBo/cee dfjieivov elvai Be- 5.lva Movpw%iBr)v dvBpa EAAr.lvi roi)<$ rc\eicrrov<$ ercvvOdvero elvai ev re rrjcn viyvcri.

a man of the Hellespont.BOOK itself. This was the opinion which he declared. . G . Yet on his coming to Attica he found the Athenians no more there than before. and partly because he thought to signify to the king at Sardis by a line of beacons across the islands that he held Athens. 161 VOL. but no men therein. one of the 5. and invasion of Mardonius. and so too when they heard of it were they that were outside and they made a ring . between the king's taking of the place and the later will easily . the most of them were on shipboard at Salamis and he took the There were ten months city. but he would not rather he was imbued with a wondrous follow it desire to take Athens once more this was partly of mere perversity. IX. who came he sent Murychides to Salamis. Such was their counsel." 3. . 4. albeit he knew already the Athenians' unfriendly purpose. When Mardonius came to Athens. you subdue those who are your adversaries. either because he had been bribed by Mardonius. council and told them Mardonius' message. bearing the same offer as Alexander the Macedonian had ferried across to the Athenians. 2-5 after that. he sent to Salamis one Murychides. gave it for his opinion that it seemed to him best to receive the offer brought to them by Murychides and lay it before the people. IV. he expected that they would abate their stiff-neckedness now that Attica was the captive of his spear and lay at his mercy. as he learnt. He sent this the second time because. Then Lycidas. For this reason before the councillors. but. . or because the plan pleased him but the Athenians in the council were very wroth. with your partisans to aid.

dyyeXous a/xa /*v e? e? Aa/ce&ai- rol(Ti Aa/ceSai/novioicri. oura) vire^eKOfJiicrav'To re Trdvra avrol re Sie/Srjcrav eirefjiTTOv ^a\a^lva.$r)v aTreire/JLtyav daivea. re/cva. yevopevov Be Oopvftov ev ry ]aXa/uw rcepl rov AvKiBrjv. re on el /JLTJ afjivvevaL 7. co? Be arr'iKovro e? rr)V ol ayyeXoi. e\dfji/3ave. KOI Kara yiiez> yvvaiKa Kara $e ra 6. ecu? fjiv TrpocreSe/covTO eV r?}? Yle\o7rovvtfcrov cnparov rf) ijgeiv ri^ajprjaovrd <r(f)i.HERODOTUS v Kare\evcrav /SaXXozrre?. Ot jap Br] Aa/ceBai/AOvioi opra^ov re rovrov co? rov %povov Kai <T$I rjv *Ta/civdLa. KOI avrol riva a\copr)v euprjcrovrai. irepl TrXetcrrou 8' rjyov ra rov Oeou Tropcrvvew a/jia Be TO teal i]Brj a(f>i. e? rrjv em irepielBov TOV /Bdpftapov 'ArTi/crjv aXX' ov rjVTiacrav e? rrjv BoicoTirjv. OL Be epevov ev ^ArTi/cf}' 7rel Tepa KOI /jiovd eiroieov. ayyehovs Kal e/c TL\araiea)v.a dyofjLevot. ol Meydpwv 162 an* 'AOrjvewv. a/j. Siefttjcrav ol 'AOrjvaioi 'E? Se Tr)v ^a\aiMva wBe. rov Be M. afj. K re . rcvvQavovrai TO ryLvbfAevov al yvvai/ces rwv 'AOrjvaiwv.ovpv%i. Be ol fjiv fjiaKpoTepa KOL o 8e einwv KOL &rj eV rfj BJJ e'Xeyero elvai. TO ev rq> ^laO^u) erefyeov.a Be cro^ra? oaa crfyi UTrecr^ero o H-epcrrj <rcf)(i)v TrpoelTrau . BiaKe\evcrafJLevrj Be yvvrj yvvai/cl KOI 7rapa\aftovcra eVl rrjv AvKiSeo) oltcivjv rjicrav \evaav avrov TYJV avTOtceXees.

so long But when the Peloponthey abode in Attica. the wall that they were building on the Isthmus was by now even getting its battlements. .BOOK IX. keeping the festival of Hyacinthus. But they suffered Murychides the Hellespontiari to depart unharmed. who should upbraid the Lacedaemonians for suffering the foreigner to invade Attica and not meeting him in Boeotia with the and should bid the LacedaeAthenians to aid monians withal remember what promises the Persian had made to Athens if she would change sides. When the Athenian envoys were arrived at Lacedaemon. they went of their own motion to the house of Lycidas. nesians were ever longer and slower in action. commemorating the killing of Hyacinthus by Apollo.ycidas and stoned him to death. 5-7 round l. . and his children. and warn them that the Athenians would devise some succour for themselves if the Lacedaemonians sent them no help. holiday-making. 7. For the Lacedaemonians were at this time this Now over to Salamis. they did then convey all their goods out of harm's way and themselves crossed over to Salamis and they sent envoys to Lacedaemon. 163 . women learnt what was afoot. 1 1 A festival said to be of pre-Dorian origin. his wife 6. and stoned to death . and their chiefest care was to give the god his due moreover. and the invader was said to be already in Boeotia. bringing with them envoys from Megara . was how the Athenians had passed As long as they expected that the Peloponnesian army would come to their aid. There was much noise at Salamis over the business of Lycidas and when the Athenian one calling to another and bidding her follow.

HERODOTUS eVt TOVS e(f)6povs. Tr)9 76 rj fJia^eaacrOai TO typtdaiov ir O. Kal &LOTL Te?%o? VJMV TW Heparj. ' "" 'AOrjvaloi XeycwTe? on r^jCiv /3ac7*Xu? 6 MrjBtoV TOVTO /Jiev TTJV %(*)pr)v aTroSiBoi. a>9 dv TOV ftdpffapov &KO)/jLeda To/jiev 77)9 ecrrl . 8t 119 x-v v Trj ^ATTIK^' eVetSr^ jap BoftTt^?.?. Trj Be . JJLV vvv TO irapeov 'AOyvaloi vfjuv fJLrjvlovffi* ov <ydp iiroir)craTe eTTLTrjSefi)?. e6e\ei Se KOL a\\r)v 77/z. TrepieiSeTe re irpoea^a\ovTa e? Trjv 'ATTIKTJV TOV ftdpftapov.^ <t avvOee? Trjv 7rpoSeBa)KaT. TOVTO Be eOe\ei eV t'crr. avee'? j > /3d\\ovTO 164 Trjv vcrTepai'rjv viroKpivao-dai.V >/ >/ f J/ 06 a/oa rjKovaav 01 ecpopoi TavTa. re /cal 6/jLoirj Troir)craa-6ai crv/jifjid'^ov^ dvev T SoXou Aral aTrar?.et earl.ea? re l TTJV 'EXXaSa Seivbv Troiev/jiei'OL TrpoSovvai ov dbi/ceo- aXX' arrenrd/neOa. KOI eirl TO /jLei> dir ovrco e aKirov veerat e? Trdaav appeoMijv rore a e^e/JidOere TO aa^ea)?..ea<? eKirefiTreiv. eVetre TI/V TOV 'laQ/jLOv eXavvofJievov ev reA. e re ori KepSaXeoorepov earl of 6/jLO\oyi]a-o/jiV eKovres eivai. T6 rjfjiiv TOV Tlepaijv avTiwaea-Qai t?. Kaiirep /cal L KaTcnrpo&iS6/jLei>oi. vvv Be OTL ra^o? GTOCLTUIV a/Aa rjfjilv eKeXevcrav v/j. Kal ovbeva TWV *KQi]vaiu>v -Troieecrde. OTL ovSa/^a Trpooa)'EXXaSa.

but have deserted us for all your promises that you would withstand the Persian in Boeotia. and have For suffered the foreigner to march into Attica. the nonce. not sin against Zeus the god of Hellas. and think it shame to betray Hellas. then.BOOK IX. who once were in great dread lest we should make terms with the Persian ? Because now you have clear knowledge of our temper and are sure that we will never betray Hellas. . and because the wall that you are building across the Isthmus is well-nigh finished. and again 165 . it till they delayed answering would seem. and this though the Greeks are dealing with us wrongfully and betraying us to our hurt. 7-8 : and Plataeae. and to give us withal whatever land we ourselves may But we. plain. for that we would choose besides our own. and though we know that it is rather for our O advantage to make terms with the Persian than to wage war with him yet we will not make terms . the next day. to-day you take no account of the Athenians. of our own free will. . but refused. with him. When the ephors. Thus for our part we act honestly by the Greeks but what of you. equal in right and standing. in our own land the fittest battle-ground is the Thriasian . have not consented. the Athenians are angry with you But for that which you have done beseems you ill. they came before the ephors and said "The Athenians have sent us with this message: The king of the Medes is ready to give us back our country. in all honour and honesty. and to make us his confederates. now they pray you to send with us an army with all speed." 8. heard that. that we may await the foreigner's onset in Attica for since we have lost Boeotia.

K^cridBes avaTreTTTeaTai 9 TI-JV IleXoaXX' eaaKovaaTe. OVKW aire- TeXo9 Be rfjs re VTTOKPIGIOS KOI e6Bov rfj ^TraprtrjrecDv eyevero rpoTro? roiocrBe. epyd^ovro Be 9. rwv <p6pcov eirvOero ol 'Adqi'diOL e\eyov arcov" OVTW cra9 Be 6 XtXeo9 e\ey apa crcfri TaBe. . aTnVero 69 rrjv ATTLKI'^V.evoi.evov 'AXe^dvSpov TOV MaAre^oz^09 vSrjv /jL6jd\^v eTroiijaavro iovs. /ceBai/jLovi /jieyicrTov Trdvra \6yov TOV Brj TW /jieyd\ai Be fiapfidpw *\o~6fjLov Bia TOV e\Tj\a/j. TavTa GvveftovXevG' o'i \a/36vT<$ TOV \6yov ovBev Tolcri dyye\oi<ri TOLCTI aTriy/jLevotcri drro 'V 10. a\\o <ye eSoxeov Tore Se wpr/v eTroirjcravro ov on 6 'Icr^o9 o~(f)i e 'AOrjvaLwv eri SelcrOai ovSev ore rj ' Be 'A\et. Swdfjievos ev Aa- %elvwv. irpo- rfjs vardr^ Karacrrdo-to^ /teXXoucrr/9 repairj (Tecr6aL XtXeo9 avr)p TeyeiJTrjs." <$>pev\ O fjiev cr(j)i. aXXo 'AOrjvaiota'i B6%ai o^aX/za (frepov Trj 'EXXdBi.HERODOTUS vcrTepair) 9 Trjv ereprjv TOVTO teal eVl Betfa fjfjie 9 ij/neprjv dva/3d\\6/j.7riKo/j. e 77/^6^)779 ev Be TOVTW ?rpo9 Tfo xpoi'w TOV ^\cr9 fjiov erefyeov (nrovBrjv } KCLI rjv T\eL fjiev ov& e^co elirelv TO aiTiov SLOTL e? a. eiroieov. Trpiv TI Tr6vvr)crov TW Hepcry.evov tcapTepov. Be 6Ti real 1 K7Te/Ji7T OVCTL eiTTa rrepl eicaaTov 66 .avSpo<.

167 . Nay. arid they were working thereat in great fear of the Persians. 135. yet now made no account of that except it was that now they had the Isthmus fortified and thought they had no more need of the Athenians. who straightway took it to heart . as the tale goes. IX. hearken to them. till the day after In the meantime all putting off from day to day. Chileiis.BOOK . : resolve that will bring calamity to Hellas. ere the Athenians take some new . they bade march before dawn of day five thousand Spartans. saying no word to the envoys who were come from the cities. 8-10 and this they did for ten days. then though you drive a strong wall across the Isthmus the Persian has an effectual door opened for passage into the Peloponnese. But the manner of their answering at last and sending the Spartan army was this On the day before that hearing which should have been the had more last. " Sirs. learnt from the ephors all that the . whereas when Alexander came to Attica their wall was not yet built." 10. and they had the work well-nigh Nor can I say why it was that when Alexdone. a man of Tegea. the Peloponnesians were fortifying the Isthmus with might and main. ander the Macedonian came to Athens l the Lacedaemonians were urgent that the Athenians should not take the Persian part. : Athenians had said and having heard it he said. cp. this is how the matter stands if the Athenians be our enemies and the foreigner's allies. This was the counsel he gave the ephors. 9. who authority with the Lacedaemonians than any other of their guests. to the ephors. viii. with seven helots appointed to attend each of them 1 .

avBpa eovTd 11.e6a eV Be TO evOevTev vjbiels e^ijyewvTai. aXX' aTrayaywi' TOV 'I(T0/JLOV TrjV CTTpClTirjV Tl^V TO T6t^O /jLera ravra ov TTO\\OV ^povov Tiva /3iov$ aireOave. Qi fjLi> Brj CTVV < Tlav&aviy e ^TrdpTrjs' ol Be a yye\oi. X avTol eTrl Tr)V eoovTOv eAracrro?' 7re\@6vT<s Be "'T/iet? /zez^. \ 'V >C-' >^v '>-'? '^-v/3 ovoev etoore? irept r>. TOU? cru/tyLta^oL'?' 'AOrjvaioi Be a>? VTTO vjLecoi> T6t re OVTCD Be. TrpocraipeeTai Be o?. ftacrt- Xeo9 yivo[JL6a.HERODOTUS TWV ei\a)T(ov. Ylavcrai'LT) ry KXeo/z/9/)OTou G %avT6s 6%dyeiv. who was a 1 68 .ovirj XX' o /nei> rjv eri a-Tap^ov TOV AeomSear o Be TOVTOV eVtTyOOTro? re KOI avetyios. . 6 TW ovpavw. brother of Pausanias' father Cleombrotus. (iTrrjye Be rrjv aTpa-n^v o KXeoyLt/3/)OTO? e'/c TOV ' ^\(jdfJLOV Bl(i TO&6' ev dvO^VW Oi 67U TO) IIe/?(T7. KXeoyii/3/JOTo? yap 6 Tlavaaviea) fj. w AatceBaifjiovtoL avTov eXeyov ra^e. o"v<7TpaTevcr6^. co? rjjjAfyr] eyeyovee. ol efyopoi eiTrav eV optcov Kai Bij Borceeiv elvai ev ^QpeaOeia) crT6t^o^ra9 eVi 1 His cousin Euryanax was son of Dorieus." ^ ai^ eicelvoi fjiaO^creffde raOra Xe- yoi'Twv TWV ayyeXwv.ev irar^p Seo) Se Trat? ovKeri Trepifjv. OKolov civ TI vfjilv e avTov e/cftaivr). TrjBe nevovTes 'TaKivdid re ayeTe teal irai^eTe.? e^ooov eTDjXuov CTTL TOU? eV z^ow Or) e^o^re? aTraXXacrcrecr^at /cat (/)o/30U?. eylveTO JJLGV rj r)yefj. Bf>\a yap OTI crv^iLayoi.

Pausanias chose as his 1 colleague a man of the same family. Pausanias' father and Anaxandrides' after he led away from son. lo-n to and they gave the command Pausanias son of The leader's place belonged of right Cleornbrotus. . keeping your Hyacinthia and disporting yourselves. 169 . Cleombrotus. and thereafter. . will make their peace with the Persian as best they can. seeing that plainly we shall be the king's allies. leaving your allies deserted the Athenians. of Sparta.W.BOOK IX. 11. Euryanax son of Dorieus. was no longer living ." they said. the envoys came before the ephors." Thus spoke the envoys and the ephors swore to them that they believed . the Isthmus the army which had built the wall. for the wrong that you do them and for lack of allies. and being minded themselves too to . depart each one to his . So Pausanias' army had marched away from Sparta but as soon as it was day. marching 2 fore hardly Other references place Orestheum N. but he was yet a to Pleistarchus son of Leonidas For boy. own place and when they were come. matter shall be for you. " You Lacedaemonians. "abide still where you are. reason of Cleombrotus' leading his army away from the Isthmus was that while he was offering sacrifice for victory over the Persian the sun was darkened in the heavens. The he lived but a little while ere his death. we will march with him against whatever land his men Then will you learn what the issue of this lead us. and Pausanias his guardian and cousin. having no knowledge of the expedition. their 1 army to be even now at Orestheum. thereon the direct route to the Isthmus.

fV ivave O jiev ev TOV ^TrapTiiJTrjv fir) ejfievai' 09 evretTe " 9 Ta9 'A^^a9 e\<ye rdSe. OKOIOV 7roirj(rovo~i. Kal ovre rj n ovre ecrlvero yfjv T^V 'Arn/crfv.o\oy?jcr6iv cr0ea9' errel Be OVK erretOe.HERODOTUS 'Lvov? yap KaXeov TOVS povs. irpv fj. apKTTOV 6? Trporepov avrol M. 7Ty009 ev $T etVa? en r) TrpbdvjjLOS rjv rn/f^ &>9 tcovae ravra. Te Ta9 'AOrfvas. MapSovie. 12. eV OL Se o>9 OVK fjuevov. 170 . 6e\wv ei&evai TO t\6rjvaiwv. Kal el KOV einj/jiaive TL bpdov rjv TWV Tei^ewv rj TWV OLKrjfjidTwv r) ipwv. irplv rj TOV9 fjL6Ta Tlavcravieu) 9 TO^ ^lad/juov ecrjSakelv. Oi/jLi> $rj e? TOZ^ ^IcrOfjiov rjTreiyovro' 'Apyeoii Be eTreure rd^icrra eirvOovro TOU? /ueTa Tlavaaviea) etc ^Trdprr)^. rrdi'Ta KaTa/3a\a)v Kal 1 Inhabitants of the country districts of Laconia.ev vvv Trap Trvdecr&ai dve/cco^eve.r) OVK e^ievai. 'Apyeloi fypdcrovrd TOI on ex Aa/ee\vOe rj veoTTf^. wcrTe OwjjiaTi yevo/uLevoi erropevovTO TTJV crvv Se o-fyi TWV TrepioiKwv viwv Xo'yaSe9 TrevTaKia"yi\ioL oTrXrrcu TWVTO TOVTO eTroieov. KOL a>9 ov Bvvarol elcrl 'Apyeioi fj. TrvOofJLevos TrdvTa \oyov. eTTeipb/jievot. not enjoying the full privileges of Spartans. ire^irovdi icrjpVKa TOV IV.ap8ovicp v7roBe%d/Ai>oi ravra 13. e\7ri^(ov Sid TTCLVTOS TOV %povov 6fjt. iSoTe$ CTreipcoTcov TO \jo$e e^e^aOov Trav TO eov.

from before Pausanias' army ere it entered the Isthmus but first he burnt Athens. But the Argives had already promised Mardonius that they would hinder the Spartan from going out to war and as soon as they were informed that Pausanias and his army had departed from Sparta. for he still ever supposed that they would make terms with him but when he could not move them." 13. he had held his hand. and departed back again and when Mardonius heard that. may fortune grant you good . against the no knowledge of this. when he came to Athens. counsel. So spoke the herald. : doing . whereat they mar- and took the road with all speed after the and with them went likewise five thousand chosen men-at-arms of the Lacedaemonian countrymen. wherefore. 171 . army . he was no longer desirous of remaining in Attica. and that the Argives cannot stay them from so . and utterly overthrew and demolished whatever wall or house or temple was left standing. he drew off .BOOK IX. 11-13 " strangers/' as they called the foreigners. desiring to know the Athenians' plan and what they would do. 1 12. and thereby learnt the whole truth . the envoys questioned Having them further as to what the tale might mean. they sent as their herald to Attica the swiftest runner of long distances that they could find who. spoke on this wise to Mardonius " I am sent by the Argives to tell you that the young men have gone out from Lacedaemon to war. Before he had word of it. and neither harmed nor harried the land of Attica. . and learnt all the truth of the matter. velled. So they made haste to reach the Isthmus. The reason of his .

evOevrev Be 6*5 Tdvaypav ev Tavdyprj Be VVKTO. arparLrjV 7)76 eirl ra ^leyapa' rj Se 1777705 irpoeXdova'a KarLTTTrda-aro %cop)]v T^V MeyapLBa. aiare 65 ra? B7. ijBrj Se ev rj\0e 5 dyye^i?) a\\. (TVfjLJ3a\tv 777205 TTO\L re <f)i\tr) /cal TJ o&q) Ma/>8oi'O5 y^fc^ eovTL avra) Se &?) vTre^e^copee. Traprj/ce Be avrov TO GTparoTreBov dp^dfievov dwo 'RpvOpecov 172 .r)v arpaTirjv rjtceiv hlzyapa. ri/3aicov Kaiirep ^Bi^ovrcov re T&> jj. etvetcev. el re on ovre [ir'na<Ji^r] TJ VLKWTO cru/^/3a\a)v. teal TpaTrofJLevos TTJ vareevOavra r)(Baiwv rjv. rrjv 65 ravrrjv 15.rj efceipe OUTL Kara e^#o5 avrwv a\V o^evo^ epv/nd ^77' cnparw e/cfiaivrj . Kpr)<r(f)vyTov TOVTO eTroieero. . /cal r^v (rv/ji/3a\6vTi ol OKOLOV TI e6e\oi.HERODOTUS Be rwvBe . evav~\./3a? 14. diraXKa^i^ OVK 6\iyov<i OTI fir) Kara (rreivov. Brj eKacrrdra) f) r?}? Ei)pa>7r^5 TO 77/305 /ou &VVOVTOS TLepcriKr) avTrj cnparLrj diri Mera 5e raura 01 a>5 aXe65 eirjaav ol eiropevero Bid AeKeXe?75' rou5 Trpocr^aypov^ rwv jiereTTe/jL^fa^TO OVTOL Be avra) rrjv oSov ^yeomo e'5 . pair) e'5 %KW\OV ev yfj rfj Be rwv . %I\LOVS' el /ea>5 TrvOofjievos ravra eftovXevero 9e\wv virocnpetyas Se TOVTOVS irpwrov eXoi.i(rd/Aevo<?.

173 . There he laid waste the lands of the Thebans. . armament 15. and these guided him to Sphendalae and thence to Tanagra. and to have this for a refuge if the fortune of battle were other than he desired. Thereupon he marched back again through Decelea for the rulers of Boeotia sent for those of the Asopus country that dwelt near. that Attica was no country for horsemen's work. and when he had now set forth on his road there came a message that over and above the rest an advance guard of a thousand Lacedaemonians was arrived at Megara at which hearing he took counsel how he might first make an end of these and he turned about and led his army against Megara. but part because sheer necessity drove him to make a strong . . his horse going first and overrunning the lands of that city. and if" he should be worsted in a battle there was no way of retreat save one so narrow that a few men could stay his passage. place for his army. His army covered the ground from Erythrae past 1 He would have to retreat into Boeotia by way of the pass over Cithaercn. . attained. 14. 1 Wherefore it was his plan to retreat to Thebes and do battle where he had a friendly city at his back and ground fitted for horsemen. 13-15 marching away was. So Mardonius drew his men off. though they took the Persian not for any ill-will that he bore them. That was the most westerly place in Europe to which this Persian . Presently there came a message to Mardonius that the Greeks were gathered together on the Isthmus. where he was in Theban territory.BOOK IX. where he camped for the night and on the next day he turned thence to Scolus.

a Te TIep(rr)v \eyeiv teal ^eTievat.bv TGTay^evov.OTpd'iva 7reo? Te TOI TO. yv(DfJLri<. fjievTOL TO ye Ti%os TOCTOVTO erroLeeTo. ov irapa TOV 'Aawjrbv 7TOTa/j. d\\a Tlepa-rjv ev K\ivr) eKaarrj. K\tidevT^ Be OVTOL 3e CLTTOVTO' TO belirvov iroiev/JLevov eV ra eVtXoiTra ij/covov QepcrdvBpov d 'Op^ofjieviov. /xot al o/iocrTro^So? eyeveo. SiaTTLVOl'TCOir TOV Tlep&IJV TOV OfJLOK\LVOV 'EXXaSa y\a)(ro-av levra elpeaOai CLVTOV ecrTi. opa? TOVTOVS TOL/? crTpaTov TOV e\iTrofJiev eVt. teal ITt/ocra? TOV * * i< r\ UVKWV > " I 174 . 16. KCLI Karepovs K\lvai.HERODOTUS jrapd 'Tcrta?. ai^To? 6 Se vTroKpivacrdai I^l)^ cb? et^ TW e^?}? Tr eljTCLV "'Evrel 6/J. 'Et^ovTcov Be TOV TTOVOV TOVTOV TWV '. aXX* w? eVl Befca (TTa&LOvs /^aXicrTa icy f^eTwrrov KacrTOV. auTO? Be OtoLLaGas TOV \6yov eiTrelv TTOO? avTov o-v^epovTa. KctTeTeive Be e<? Trjv Tl\aTatiBa yrjv. \OJL/JLOV Se e? ra vrpwra eV e 6 (77 QepaavSpos K~\. TO> TOVTCOV TrdvTcov aTpaTOTreBevouevov b\iyov TIVOS ^povov Bie\06vTC TOU? Trepiyevo/Aevovs" TavTa afj. TroXXa TWV Batpvcov. ?. TT}? KaTakiTTtoQai Oekw. a>? Se avro &i7TVOV TjCraV. /c\r)' Se /cal tyriftaiwv ov %a)pis T6 at r)/3aiov avSpas TrevTijKovra. KTTaylvos o t&pvvwvos dvrjp i avTOv Te MapBovtov teal TrevTrfKOVTa TOVS Xo7ma)TaTOu?.tjOrjvai KOI atTo? UTTO Arrayivov eVt TO belirvov rovro.

Then said " Since now the Persian you have eaten at the board with me and drunk with me thereafter. it lay ranked by the Asopus river. which was told me by Thersandrus of Orchomenus. a Theban. made great preparation and invited Mardonius with fifty who were the most notable of the Persians to be his guests at a banquet. was bidden to this dinner. Attaginus son of Phrynon. Persians at the banquet. the Marvelling at this saying.BOOK where IX. Now after dinner while they drank one with another. not each : you yourself may have such knowledge as to take See you these fitting counsel for your safety. I say not that the walled camp which he made was so great each side of it was of a length of about ten . the Persian that sat with him asked Thersandrus in the Greek tongue of what country he was. While the foreigners were employed about this work. Now Thebans besides and Attaginus made them sit. and that host which we left encamped by the . and fifty were bidden . man by himself. Thersandrus answered : " Must you not then tell this to Mardonius alive bitterly. while you shall see but a " little and remnant left Persian wept 175 . but on each couch a Persian and a Theban together. river side ? of all these in a little as he said this. 16. that . I would fain leave some record of my thought. here follows the end of that matter. one of the most notable men of that place. and Thersandrus answered that he was of Orchomenus. !5-i6 Hysiae and reached unto the lands of Plataeae. They came as they the dinner was given at Thebes. Thersandrus too (he said). furlongs.

fter' etc yap rov deov djjirfyavov drrorpetyai dvOpcoTry ovBe Tricrrd \eyovcn e6e\ei rreiOecrOai TCLVTCL &e Hepaecov av^vol eVicrra/xe^oi avayicair} eVSeS epevoi.HERODOTUS ' eicelvov ev aivrj e'oOcri Tlepaewv . perd Be ravra ( Bi6%?)\0e fj.ev Bid rov o-TparoTreBov rov ^\\r]VLKOv rov /jierd MrjBwv eovros <f>rffJ<ri a>5 /cara/covriel crcfreas. ev avOp&TTOicn.terd rrjv CLTTI^IV rrjv e? v&Tepov i]\6ov av'Twv oTrXirai %i\ioi. OCTOL irep ov ravrrj oK?i/j.' VTT dvayKair]^. KOI rae TT/OO? 7ro\\a (fipoveovra uri 'Op%ofj. Se ov 7ro\\f)cri /. /JLCV ^Oi(Trr) Se o&vvrj ecrrl Jjrcovov. BiafieftXrj/jLevovs el/cd^a)' w? 176 eyu> . rco TreSiw i^eadai. " rov Be jjuerd ravraelrrelv . rovro.eive. o Tt Set yevecrdai teal roicn. Ma^So^toL' e eV rfj fjievov OL pev a\\oi Trapei^ovTO avraz^Te? KCLI crvveaeftaXov 9 ^A. eTrel avrifca iraprfv ITTTTOS rj aTracra.6rjvas. avrr). avve(je(Ba\ov (e/Jirf8i%ov yap JJLOVVOL Srj <T(f)6Bpa KOI OUTOL] OVK e/coz/res" tiXA.eva)v. co? auro? \e<yoi ravra TT/JO? dvdpcoTrovs ev HXaraifjai irjv fjid^v. Biefj\6e Be BL avrwv QwKewv ra)vro ev9a Br) cr^)t 6 crrparriybs ol rrapaivee \eya>v roidBe. TreA-vra? 6 MapBovios iTTTrea? e/ceXevcre o-^ea? eV ewvrwv ev Se eiroirfaav ravra. wporepov fj 17. rjy ' Be aurou? ApfjiOKvBrjs dvrjp rwv darwv eVet Be d^i'tcaro xal OVTOI e? ^/3a?. ydp on r^ea? ovroi Oavdru) dvOpwrroi /^e\\ovcri rrpovirb @e<rvvv dvBpa irdvra riva Bu>creiv.eviov QepcrdvSpov TOVTOKTI.

and those honourable Persians that are with him ? "Sir/' said the Persian. that they did in good sooth.BOOK IX. his encampment in Boeotia all the Greeks of that region who took the Persian part furnished fighting men. and they joined with him in his attack upon Athens. seeing it is plain that death at these fellows' hands stares us in the face (we being. straightway appeared the whole of the Persian cavalry and presently it was bruited about through all the Greek army that was with Mardonius." This tale 1 heard from Thersandrus of Orchomenus who said to me. "that which heaven wills for even truth finds to send no man can turn aside none to believe it. led by Harmocydes. . the most notable of their countrymen. Mardonius sent horsemen and bade the Phocians take their station on the plain by themselves. except only the Phocians as to taking the Persian part. Then their general " Men of Phocis. maligned by the Thessalians) now it is meet for : . and likewise among the Phocians themselves. These also being arrived at Thebes. that he had straightway told it to others before the fight of Plataeae. What I have said is known to many of us Persians but we follow. in the bonds . 177 . moreover. as I surmise." he Harmocydes exhorted them " said. 16-17 " of necessity. So Mardonius was making . albeit not willingly but of But when a few days were past after the necessity. Persians' coming to Thebes. 17. And it is the hatefulest of all human sorrows to have much knowledge and no power. that Mardonius would shoot them to death. When they had so done. there came a thousand Phocian men-at-arms. : . .

Trep f/ Trape^ovra^ Bia^daprjvaL aicr%tcrT<0 dXXa (Bapoi 1 o lo. AaKe&ai/jiOVioi Be cJ? e? TOV ^\o~9/Jiov rj\0ov.'- Xeoi/re?. S^ SieTeivovro rd /SeXea Ti? /cat w? /cal 01 dvrioi ecTT^crav Trdvrr) o-vcrrpe^avTe^ ewurou? /trat evOavra ol lirTrvKvcixravres fJ? /jid\icrra. y eTrrjXavvov aTrfjKe. TrvvOavofjievoi Be TavTa OVK ol XotTrot TLe\o7rovvtfo~ioi TOLO~L ra d/^eiva) edvBave. OVK rpeKews eiTreiv ovre el rj\6ov /JLev OLTTQTOU? <&(i)Ka<$ SerjOevrcov ecr<raXco^. e7T6t eV <^f\ U /jLaOerco rt9 avrwv on eovTes (3dpEXX?7<Tt " dv&pdai <>ovov eppa. eBitcaievv Be /cal opw^re? etjiovTas ^TrapTnjTas. a) Ma/oSowo? K^pv/ca e\eye Td&e.^eX?. Trorat. apOco/eee?' avSpes yap etydvrjre eoz^re? aya- " OVK ftJ? 670) I'JTVvOaVQ^V. eVel /eat cr<j)icri yevTjTdL rpw/jLara. Be OTTIGW dir^aaar ol tTrvrorat. XetVecr^ai T?}? e^oBov AafceBai- fjiovicov. Tre/rv^a? aeere 001. CK By wv TOV 'IcrOfAov Ka\\iepy]o~dvTa)v 178 . ?. co? tt?roavr?. KOi VVV TTpoOvfJLWS TOV iroKe^ov TOVTOV evepyeaiycri. 19.evTr/aai al&va /jLOpw.PI\ r ^ ' ravra Trapaivee" 01 be /aev cr<ea? /cat /tat KVK\uxTavro KOI." Ta Trepl iev e? TO&OVTO eyeveTO. TOVTO) o'l ev eo~TpaTO7reBevovTo. crot'Te?. TI d\/cfj<. fjLeT%ovcri. yap ov OVT o)V e/jie oi>T /3a<TtXea.cre avra)V ro? TreiprjOr/vai. v7recrTp<pov /cal airr]\avvov oirlaw. <ydp crfyi ovrw ell Srj \avvov oTricrw w? ovr el eVeretXaro Ma/j 7.HERODOTUS veo-0ac TI teal dyaObv /cpecrcrov yap TOV djjLvvofievovs T\.

they deemed it was not for them to be behind the Lacedaemonians in so doing. serve us and we will serve you. and drew their bows to shoot. and so rode away back (for such was Mardonius' command). As for the Lacedaemonians. you have shown yourselves to be valiant men. every one of you to play the man for it is better to end our lives in action and fighting than tamely to suffer a shameful death. But when the horsemen had encircled the Phocians they rode at them as it were to slay them. came but. and 'tis The Phocians like that some did even shoot. Now I cannot with exactness say if they . come to the Isthmus. or if Mardonius desired to But when the horsemen test the Phocians' mettle. with this " Men of Phocis. And now push this war zealously forward for you will outdo neither 1 myself nor the king in the rendering of service. 18. had ridden away. when they were . when they saw the men preparing at the Thessalians' desire to slay the Phocians. to defend themselves." Thus far went the Phocian business. drawing in together and closing their ranks to the best of their power whereat the horsemen wheeled about and rode back and away. fronted them every way. When the rest of the Peloponnesians who chose the better cause heard that. they encamped there. but we will teach them that they whose slaying they have devised are men of Hellas." Thus he exhorted them. seeing the Spartans setting forth to war. 19. Nay. and not as it was reported to me. 179 . be of good courage for message : . feared lest they themselves should suffer some hurt. Wherefore they all marched from the Isthmus (the omens of 1 That is.BOOK IX. 17-19 . Mardonius sent a herald.

iv" o (j.i' ear^jiev re Ara re el ra^io?. per yu. evOavra W9 TT/oocr^Xacray iTnrorai ?rpo9 TO 1*9 "EXX^i/c^. 'AOijvaloi avTOicri. i.? e? 'Epvdpds. w? Be dfJLa e/caXXiepee.? Se dpa aTTi BoicoTt?. vvv nvas aXXoi/9 n e [jL-^rer e 3ta8o^of? T% avre^o/JLev ijjLieas v fcrre K\i.iriijLevov AraXw9.HERODOTUS '\L\evcrlva* ar(f)i rwv ipwv eiropevovro rravres xal drrLKveovrai e? rroir'jvavTes Be KOI evOavra ipd. M. TO TreSiov.ev Btj (T(j)i ravra aTrrjyyeXXe. ov Bvvaroi elpev TTJV Ylepcrecov " ^vo^ Be 6 K?ipv% 7T/309 BeK0-0ai p-OVVOl. crvvTv^irjv 8e Meyapee? erv%ov ra?}i^ re eVt/a-a^ooraroi' TOW ^copiou KOL jivTO T7/ 7T/30(To8o9 /LtaXiCTTa raVTTj &v rfc ITTTTOV ol M.eyapee$ \eyovai' 77/^669. Tre/jLTrei avTOvs TrdcTav T//9 iTnrdpxee Mao"tcrTiO9 euSoKi/^eojv Trapd Tlep" rbv Fj\\rjve$ ^AaKiaTLOV Kokzovcri.i>ov /cal aXXa>9 ^e/coot 0-f. Bi. Be rovro avrerddaovTo rov KiOaipwvos.-^roira^ rrjv rdt. dvBpes ITTTTOV ffVfjLfJLa^oi. TLavaaviijs Be a?re- 180 . 69 eVl rfjs Map8ozuo? Se. a. TrpocrefiaXXov Kara reXea. 20.a/3dvres /nev etc Be ev 'Ei\ev(Tivi. Kara Trj . 'ITTTTOV . a rat 69 Kairep meofJLevoi.?. efiadov re Srj roi/? ftapftdpov ? 7rl T<W 'A<ra)7rw crrpaTOTreSevo/Aevovs. a>? OL 9 KaT&ftaivov ol "EXX^i/e? rrjv ITTTTOV. TO irpoaw ercopevovro. 21.eyaGirepLirov eVt roi/9 o-rpaniyovs TWV auroL'9 e\eye rdBe. 9 rr. 7T/30cr/3aXXo^T69 &e Ka/cd fieydXa epyd^ovro /cal yvvaiKas afyeas aTre/cdXeov.

The Greeks not coming down into the plain. in Boeotia. who had crossed over from Salamis and joined with them when they had at they came (as it is said) to they learnt that the foreigners Erythrae were encamped by the Asopus. except you send others to take our place therein. they held on their march further. 181 . charges. and : : .BOOK sacrifice IX. having now the Athenians with them. When them by squadrons. 19-21 . 21. being favourable) and came to Eleusis and offered sacrifice there also and the omens were favourable. . Thereupon the horsemen rode up to the Greeks and charged Eleusis. whose commander was Masistius (whom the Greeks call Macistius). and here the horsemen found the readiest Wherefore. doing them much hurt thereby and calling them women. being hard pressed by the approach." Thus the herald reported. a man much honoured among the Persians he rode a Nesaean horse that had a golden bit and was at all points gaily adorned. Mardonius sent against them all his horse. who came to them and thus spoke " From the men of Megara to their allies We cannot alone withstand the Persian horse (albeit we have till now held our ground with patience and valour. 20. and taking note of that they arrayed themselves over against the enemy on the lower hills of Cithaeron. the Megarians sent a herald to the generals of the Greeks. Now it chanced that the Megarians were posted in that part of the field which was openest to attack. though hard pressed) in this post whereunto we were and now be well assured that we first appointed will leave our post.

ravra Be KWS yivo^eva e\e\^0ee rou? Oave. rriv 182 . Meyapevcri. dva%wpr)o~ios re vTroarpocf)^ OVK e/uaQov ro ytvo- ovBels * N erreLre Be earrjaav.i/&)i/ e? rou? erri Be 6 or(f)ea>v ^povov reXo? roiovBe eyevero f^^Od^' 7T/9O(7/3aXXoucr?79 TT}? LTTTTOV Kara re\ea. KarvrrepOe Be rov QWD^KOS Kiffwva (froivirceov rvrrrovre? Be e? rov 0copr)Ka errolevv Brj jjia6d>v rts ro iroiev/Aevov rraiet. ij\avvov rovs LTTTTOVS rrdvres. ovBev. aXXoi. W9 rjv 6 rdcrawv paOovres Be ro yeyovos. evecrfcevaaro yap ovrw eVro? OoopifKa el%e ^pvcreov \em$a>rov.6r}vaioi avri/ca erre/tearo. / -v a>9 23. rrpiv <ye rov LTTTTOV /cal ovre drroOvi'iGKOvra. ov/ceri Kara reXea 7rpocre\avvovras rovs Irrrreas aXXa rrdvras. rjcrav OL re viro^e^a^evoL KCU ol rrpo ra)v a\\wv rwv rrapeovrwv . Kar ap^a? ov Bvvd^evoi. e9e\ovra\ re e? rov ol rpirjKoo-ioiXoydBes. oi V > av rov veKpov aveKoiaro. aX^/cra? Be Lararai re opdos /eal arrocrelerat.9 i7T7Ta9' ovre jap rreaovra /JLLV elBov drro eveBeBvxee. Maaicrrlov rrpoe^wv rwv ci\\wv 'irrrros /3aXXerat ro^evfjian ra rr\evpd. 'IBovres Be ol *A0r]vaiot. *EXXr. ovrw Br) erreae re /cal aTreJJLLV 69 rov o(f)0aX/ji6v. rov MacrLcrriov' rreabvrL Be avrw ol 'A. ov f3ov\oiJievwv Be rcov a\\wv 'Aflrjvaioi vjreBe^avro KOL 'Adrjvaiwv el rives r&v ^E^Xrjvwv ievat.HERODOTUS rreiparo ede\oiev a\\oi rovrov fcal rdo~%wpov a(T0ai BidBo^oi. rov re Brj LTTTTOV avrov \a[jL/3dvov(Ti teal avrov d/jLvvo/nevov KreivovcTi. rcov e 6 22. Ovroi. avri/ca eTroOecrav.

. and were posted at Erythrae in advance of the whole Greek army and they took with them the archers also. since there was none to order them and when they perceived what had chanced. When the Athenians saw the horsemen riding at them. . was smitten in the side by an arrow. . but all together. But as soon as they halted they saw what they lacked. whose captain was Olympiodorus son of Lampon. None other would but the Athenians took it upon themselves. .BOOK offer IX. go even three hundred picked men of Athens. . though at first they could not kill him for the fashion of his armour was such. 21-23 Pausanias inquired among the Greeks if any would themselves to go to that place and relieve the Megarians by holding the post. His horse they took then and there. . and he himself was slain fighting. being at the head of the rest. But as chance would have it the rest of the horsemen knew nought of this for they had not seen him fail from his horse. 22. . and all rode together to recover the dead body. so that he fell dead. The . and rearing up in its pain who when he fell was straightit threw Masistius way set upon by the Athenians. . For a long time they fought and the end of the battle was as I shall show. . riot by squadrons as before. or die and they wheeled about and rode back without perceiving what was done. 23. they gave each other the word. These were they who took it upon themselves. that he wore a purple tunic over a cuirass of golden scales that was within it and it was all in vain that they smote at the cuirass. 183 . till someone saw what they did and stabbed him in the eye. horsemen charged by squadrons and Masistius' horse.

Troieeiv eboxee Be atyi avapyiifi eovar)<$ drre\avviv rrapa ^. ev rovrw /Jid^r} o|e'a ire pi rov ve/cpov yiverai.[ap&oviov.. Oi fiev vvv ftdpfiapoi. teal Kd\\eo<. KOCTLOL. 60dpa"r)(rdv re TroXXa) /naXXov teal Trpwra {JLGV e? a/jLa^av eadevres rov veicpov rrapd ra? ra^i? e/co/jLi^ov' 6 Be ve/epos rjv Oe^ a^o? /AeydOeos ewe/co.j. 25. yiaaLcrriov. rriv Kprjvrjv ri]v FapyatyLijv rrjv ev ra> 184 . /xera Be eBoe cr</u em/carafifjvai 6? TL\ar aids' 6 yap ^copo? etyaivero Tro\\y eu>v eTririjBeorepos afyi evGrparoTreBeveadai 6 TlXaraiiKos rov 'EpvOpauov rd re aAAa /cat e? rovrov Br) rov 'x&pov Kal evvBporepos. A7rt/co/ieV^9 Se r^? YTTTTOV e? TO arparoTreSov Trevdos erfOLrjaavro Mao-tcrTtou vracra re ?. 24.HERODOTUS eftoijQee. rwv Brj ewerta /cal ravra erroievv etcXeiirovres ra? ra^i? e^oirmv Be-rjcrofievot. ecrcrovvro re \eiirov &r) &>? ovtceTi oi vvv /JLOVVOI r^aav ol rpnirro\\ov KOI rov veKpov drreBe <r<f)i TO Tf\7j0o<i eireftotjOtja-e. OVTCD iTnroTai vire^evov ovBe cr<j>i e^eyevero e&>? JJLGV TOV ve/cpov aveXte&Oai. rporcw ru> crcfrerepw drcoOavovra erifJLwv HAacrua'Tiov ol Be EX.ap86viov rrapd re Tlepayo'i Kal ftacriXei. d\\a TT/JO? ettetvtp aXXof? aTrocrT^cra^Te? wv Trpoa-aTrw^eaav T&V 'nnrewv.e? f/ a>? rrjv LTTTTOV fjLevoi eBe^avro 7rpocr/3d\\ova-av /ecu Be^dwcravro. arpanr) KCU MapSo^o? fieyLcrrov.\7. ocrov re Svo a-rdSia e/3ov\evovro 6 ri ^peov e?'?. ev w Be 6 7reo<? a-rparirjv eTreftwa-avro. cr^ea? re avrovs tceipovres ' KOi TOU? jjievoi I}X(<L> tTTTTOL'? KOI ra VTTO^VJia ol/JLCOJT) T XP (*) ~ djrXera)' airacrav <ydp rr)V Boicoritjv /carel^e co? \oyijjLCiyrdrov dvSpos drroX-OfJievov yu-era 76 M.

25. When the cavalry returned to the camp. but they lost others of their comrades too besides Masistius. inasmuch as a man was dead who was . cutting their own hair and the hair of their horses and beasts of burden. and to the Gargaphian spring that was there. Mardonius and all the army made very great mourning for Masistius.BOOK all IX. they had the worst of the battle by far. then it was the horsemen that could no longer hold their ground. 23-25 they cried to the rest of the array for help. next to Mardonius most esteemed by all Persia and the king. 24. . because it was better watered. . fitter by much and chiefly 185 . where they consulted what they should do and resolved. So the foreigners honoured Masistius' death after their manner but the Greeks were much heartened by their withstanding and repelling of And first they laid the dead man the horsemen. for stature and goodliness wherefore they would even leave their ranks and come to view Masistius. there While waxed a sharp fight over the dead body. . and were nigh leaving the dead man but when the main body came to their aid. They drew off therefore and halted about two furlongs off. to ride away to Mardonius. their foot was rallying to aid. and lamenting loud and long for the sound of it was heard over all Boeotia. As long as the three hundred stood alone. nor avail to recover the dead man. Presently they . as there was none to lead them. on a cart and carried him about their ranks and the body was worth the viewing. To this place. for encampment than at Erythrae. resolved that they would march down to Plataeae for they saw that the ground there was in all ways . .

Tore &v ^0709 "T\\ov dyopevaao-Qai co? xpeov ei'^ TOV fjLcv aTpaTov TO) crTpaTW fj. % efceivov TOV xpbvov eVetre 'Hpa/cXetSat erreipwvTO /j. ^RvBavTa dia/jLO^ ev Tr) Siard^i eyevero \6<ya)V Teyerjrecav re teal 'AOtjvaiwv <yap .i6aip(t)vo$ -x Trapd "Term? e? TTJV Tl^araiiBa yrjv. TJV Be viKr)0fj.ftd\\ovTa. TCL 186 . TOVTO /JiV oi TeyerjTat. eoe r/ t8a9 t 7rt ? TCL Trarpcoia. "'H/zet? alei KOT diev/A60a TavTtjs r^? ro^to? e/c T&V aTrvTwv.e\oiTovvr)(JW 6K/3or)0ij(ravTes e? TOV 'IcrO/uLov L^6/jL0a dvTioi Tolai KaTiovcri. Kal KCLIVCL avrol efcdrepoi e^eiv TO erepov KOI 7ra\aia TrapafyepovTes epja. oaaL ij&rj e^oSoi. KOLVCU eyevovro Tle\o7rovvr](Tiot. /jLovvo/jLa^rjo-ai et Tolcri Tle^oTrovv^o'LOLO'L TavTa etvai TroirjTea Kai opKiov 7rl \OJM TOiwSe. 6K Se TOV YleXoTrovvrjaiov aTpaTOTre&ov TOV av crfyewv avT&v Kpivwcn elvai apicrTov.rj dvaKivSvveveiv crv/j.HERODOTUS eovcrav Se TO.? re TOV 'AvSpoTT}? Tapya(f)Lr]s KOL TOV refjieveo^ TOV TJpCOOS. SlCL 6^9(DV T OVK V^rfkwV / <- %copov. <N eSn^e crtyi XP OV elvai airiKkaQai 6V Aa ' iJLo~av $ia TTJS vTrcoperjs TOV K.Xo? TOV TieXoTTOvvijcriaiv rjye/AOva. 26. \ \ >//) oe eraaaovro tccna euvea 7TM]cnoi' T?. KaTievat.o-i KCU TO TraXaiov KOL TO veov.6Ta TOV l^vpvcrdeos Odvarov KaTiovTes e? IleXoTore eupojueOa TOVTO 8ia Tore eovTwv ev T\. TOVTOV T o iaKei/jLevoiai. rjv /juev TA. e\eyov TciSe.

ever since that time when the Heraclidae after Eurystheus' death essayed to return into the Peloponnese that right we then gained. There. ians themselves. in the ordering of their battle. that this should be so. for the achievement which we will relate. and when they were there they arrayed themselves nation by nation near the Gargaphian spring and the precinct of the hero Androcrates. the wing which was not held by the Lacedaemon8 Son of Heracles. but that that champion in the host of the Peloponnesians whom they chose for their best should fight with him in single combat on o o 26. in all campaigns ancient and late of the united Peloponnesian armies. among low . they swore a compact that if Hyllus should vanquish the Peloponnesian champion. The Peloponnesians resolving agreed conditions. but if he were himself vanquished. the Heraclidae should return to the land of their fathers. : . then 1 That is. justifying themselves by tales of deeds new and old. arose much dispute between the Tegeans and the Athenians for each of them claimed that they should hold the second 1 wing of the army. along with the Achaeans and lonians who then dwelt in the Peloponnese. First said the " Of all the allies we have ever had the Tegeans right to hold this post.BOOK encamp IX. then (it is said) Hyllus 2 proclaimed his counsel that army should not be risked against army in battle. hills and in a level country. and encamped over against the returning exiles. . 187 . When we mustered at the Isthmus for war. 25-26 they resolved that they must betake themselves and in their several battalions and they took up their arms and marched along the lower slopes of Cithaeron past Hysiae to the lands of Plataeae.

^pr^ard.HERODOTUS 6jJi7ra\iv 'H^a/cXeiSa? drra\\dcrcrecrOai. alel p.ev ravTa e\cyov.ev ^/e/jLoveveiv KOIVI}? e^oSov JIVO/ACV^S. epyov re rovrov rov ' aTrtiyrj/Aevov el/mev rro\\ol A. rrarp(t)Lov earl rj eovcri ^prjaroLcri.QyvaLcov ravrrfv ri]V rd^iv e^eiv. Oi fj. KOI rov Kepeos rov erepov re exou^ouacre "T\\ov. /nrj real drrdyeiv rrfv crrpaTiTjv e/carov re erecav ^ijTrjcrat KaroSov TleXorrovvrjcrov. ovrw wv Sifcaiov '' rroXX^ol ?//zea? 8e /cal ^iv crept erepov /cepas tf rcep K0r]vaiovs' ov ydp epya old rrep ^IJAV KaTepyaa^eva. rwv ovrot: aTOKTeivai rov ijyeuova ev 'Ia0/AU).? rrpoeO^Ke 7ra\aid Kal Kaivd \eyeiv rd eKarepoicri ev TW Travrl XP V(P Karepyaarai. our' ovre TO earl 5>v Kaiva 27. Trpo? aXXou?. aVS/oe? i. rrpo^KpiOrj re o~rj etc rcdvrwv ra)v crv^L/^d^MV edeXovTrjs "E^e/^o? 6 'Heporrov e? TOV 4)777609 crrpaTrjyos teal re eaiv real KOL K TOVTOV Tov epyov eupofjieOa eV IleXoTTOvvriaiotal <ye roltrt Tore KOLI a\\a yepea /j. rd ^LareXeofJiev e%ovTes. alel Trpcoroicri elvai /JLa\\ov <j)a<rl 'Hpa/cXetSa?.a%>. rrpos TOV aXX' ov \oywv eirel Se 6. "^Triard/xeOa fjiev crvvyu. ov/c vfuv avnev/JieOa. 'Kdrjvaloi Be TT/?O? ravra vrreKpivavro TaSe.eyd\a. StSovre? aipecriv OKorepov (Bov\ea-9e Aafcebai/jLoi'ioi vvv w d\\d 7rapL6/iiV rjyefiioveveiv rov $e erepov Kara rrep ev rw rrpoade ^povw. dvayKaiws rjfjiiv e^ei S^Xcocrat TT/OO? u/tea? odev r^jlv o$ov rijvSe /3dp/3apoi>. ydp Kal ev e^o^re? rrpos uyu-ea? r)[Juv. TOUTO 'ApKacri. 188 .? e'lvexa <rv\\eyf)vai.Teye^r?. dywves dyooviSarai.

Now with you. needs must that we prove to you how we. therefore. . that in all united campaigns we should ever lead the army's second wing. and not seek to return to the Peloponnese till a hundred years were past. which either of our nations has at any time achieved. that we and not the Athenians should hold the second wing for never early or late have they achieved such feats of arms as we. men of Lacedaemon. . that our place is at the head of the other. we are worthier than the Athenians to hold that post for many are the fields on which we have fought with happy event in regard to you. offered himself and was chosen out of all the allied host. we have no rivalry. Then our general and king Echemus. It is just. and he fought that duel and slew For that feat of arms the Peloponnesians Hyllus. Thus they spoke and thus the Athenians " It is our belief that we are here gathered replied in concourse for battle with the foreigner. rather than Arcadians. and not for discourses but since the man of Tegea has made it his business to speak of all the valorous deeds." 27. men of Lacedaemon. : . . son of Phegeus' son Eeropus. old and new. as ever aforetime. 189 . And setting aside that feat which we have rented. have in virtue of our valour an hereditary right to the place of honour.BOOK their JX. of that day granted us this also among other great privileges which we have never ceased to possess. but forbear and bid you choose the command of whichever wing you will but this we say. . These Tegeans say that they slew the leader of the Heraclidae at the Isthmus now when those same Hera. 26-27 contrariwise the Heraclidae should depart and lead army away. and others besides.

>f f^^\? \ > > e%ovra el reolat.HERODOTUS TOUTOUS. re^evTrjaavTas rbv alwva drd(j)ov<f Keifjiivovs. rrjv rd^iv drro rovrov JJLOVVOV rov epyov aA. J epyov ev e-^ov teal e? A/uiaovi&a<> ra? OLTTO SepTrora^ov e'cr/3aXou<ja9 /core e? crrpaTeva'd/jievot. &e rj/jiiv rjfjLereprjs ev ^\evalvL. 'iva SoKeei Kar flea's elvai eardvai.ijvwv Br] fjiovvofjia^cravre^ rq> Tlepcrr] epyqy rocrovrw emxeipijcravres rrepieyevo^eOa eviKtjo-ajjLev e9vea ej. V "-y-v epya>v a\i9 ecrrw rifjiiv be ei fji^bev a\\o ecrri earl rro\\d re /ecu ev aTTofteSey/jtevov. Kal rrdvry yap reray/jievoi 190 .ios elveKa el/jiev rreiOecrOai V/JLLV errLrrjSeorarov crraatd^eiv rrpeTrei. viKijaavres rovs rore e^oyra? rovro Be "'Apyeiovs rovs yttera IloXu^etveo? ?^a? eXdaavTas. eirl real ev rolcn TpcoiKolcri TTOVOLGL dX)C ov yap TI 7rpoe%ei rovrcov i' KOL yap av ^ptjarol rore eoz^re? wvrol vvv av elev $\avp6repoi. oirives povvoi 'EtXh. \LOVVQI vrroBe^dfievoi rrjv Rv- pvcrOeos vfipiv KareiXofjiev. aprioi a) AaKeSai^oviOL. KOI rore eovres rra\aiwv fjiev vvv <f)~\. KOI a\\oicri 'E^\\7Jvcov. re Kal reaaepaKovra. d\\a teal drro rov ev NlapaOcovi epyov a^ioi el/nev rovro ro 76/oa? e^eiv Kal d\\a rrpbs rovry. KCLL rovs ave\ecr8ai re row? ve/cpovs (fra/uev KOI can. ap ov BiKatoi elfjiev e^eiv ravrrfv .avpoi vvv civ elev dpe'ivoves. o~vv eKeivotai. warrep tf*.X' ov yap ev rw roifpSe rdj. rrporepov e^eKavvo/^evov^ vrrb irdvrwv e? TGI/? drriKoiaro (pevyovres SOV\OO~VVTJV TT/JO? MvKrjvai&v.

the Persian single-handed. we are ready to obey you. and more beside seeing that alone of all Greeks for . . men of Lacedaemon and take whatso ! we met place and face whatso wheresoever you set 1 enemy you deem most fitting us. But since it is idle to for they that were erstwhile recall these matters valiant may now be of lesser mettle. . 27 had till then been rejected by every Greek people to whom they resorted to escape the tyranny of the Mycenaeans. if we are known . yet from our feat of arms at Marathon we deserve to have this honour. and they that lacked mettle then may be better men now enough of these doings of old time and we. no achievement (as we are. 8 When Polynices tried to recover Thebes from his brother Eteocles see Aeschylus' "Seven against Thebes. and with their aid defeated and killed Eurystheus and his sons. . Furthermore. Hyllus. pursued by his enemy Eurystheus. and we broke the pride of Eurystheus. for nought but that one feat ? Yet seeing that this is no time for wrangling about our place in the battle. we and none other received them 1 and with them we vanouished those that then dwelt in the Peloponnese.BOOK clidae IX. . took refuge with the Athenians. we will strive to be valiant . know that we sent our army against the Cadmeans and recovered the dead and buried them in Eleusis and we have 011 record our great victory against the Amazons who once came from the river Thermodon and broke into Attica and in the hard days of Troy we were second to none. but overcame six and forty nations. nor failed in that high enterprise. for more and greater than are any men in Hellas). Is it not our right to hold this post. when the Argives who had marched with Polynices 2 against Thebes had there made an end of their lives and lay unburied." . yea.

vpioi' TOVTWV TtljTClS Be rou? TrevTaKKT'^iXiov^ tyl\ol eoi^ra? "^TrapTTeVTCL- (f)l>\acr(TOV TWV irepl l\d)TO)V Ki<jyi\ioi eTTTCL Kol Tpia^vpLOL. Kal dpeTi}^' TOVTWV 8' rjaav OTrXtrat yfaioi //era Be TOVTOVS 'icfravro Kopiv- Qlwv TrevTaKL<T'%i\ioi. avBpa efcacrTov TeTay/JLevoi. TOVTWV Be Trapa Be TOUTOU? %L\IOI. icrravTO TOVTWV Be TOVTCOV B *lKV<MVlOi TplCT^L\lOt. TOVT03V Be 'EtTTiBavpicov OKTatcoaioi. Mera Be raura Tacr(Toi>TO c5Se oi (boiTwvTes re Kol ol dp%r)v e\66vTe<s 'EtXX TO fjiev oe^iov Kepas el%ov AaKeBaijjiovLtov fj. Trapa Be TOVT?poi%rjv(ov eTCLcrcrovTO %L\ioi. irapd Be crfyicn evpovTO Trapa TLavaaviea) eaTtivai TLoTLBatrjTewv TWV CK IlaX- TrapeovTas TpLtj/coaiov^. AaKeBai/jLOvicov Be dve- /3ft>cre TO o~TpaToTreBov 'AOijvaiovs d^iovie^eiv TO /cepa? 77 rrep 'ApKaBas. TOVBe yu-era ^AfjiirpaKi^Tewv TrevTaKoaioi. irpocre^ea^ Be a^Lcn ei\ovTo evrdvai ol ^TrapTifJTai TOI)? Teye^ra? /cat TI/JLTJ? real e'lveKa TrevTdKoaioi. ecrTr)aav.eL/3ovTO. TOVTWV Be Mv/crjKal TipvvOiwv TTparc6o~ioi.HERODOTUS eivai. '^pfjuovewv Be TU>V Be 'EpeTpiecov re Kal ^Tvpewv TOVTWV Be XaXi8ee? T6TpaKO(Tioi. 01 'A0r)vaioi KOI VTrepe/3d\ovTO 28. icrTavTO . TpitjKO(rioi. Tourof? AevKaBuwv Kal 'AvaKToplwv OKraKocriot. OL %pr)crToL e^rijeeaOe Be o)<? Treicro/JLevwv" /lev ravra airav dfj. TOVTWV Be e^ofjievoi TTaXee? ol eK Ke<a\192 . Tpoityvia)v Be vaiwv AeTrpeijTewv BL^KOCTIOL.

there were of these fifteen hundred men-atarms. and next to them two hundred from . IV. After these stood eight hundred Leucadians and Anactorians. both to do them honour. Next to the men of Hermione were six hundred Eretrians and Styreans next to them. seven appointed for each man. IX. and after them two hundred men of Lepreum." . both the later and the earliest comers. The . . Presently the whole Greek army was arrayed as I shall show. 28. . Thus Command obey. 193 VOL. By these stood three hundred men of Hermione. Spartans chose the Tegeans for their neighbours in the battle. had a guard of thirty-five thousand lighta/med helots. Next to these were six hundred Arcadians from Orchomenus. four hundred Chalcidians next again. five hundred Ampraciots. On the right wing were ten thousand Lacedaemonians five thousand of these.BOOK men. at whose desire Pausanias suffered the three hundred Potidaeans from Pallene then present by them. the Athenians were preferred to the men of Tegea. and next to them a thousand from Phlius. 27-28 us then. then four hundred from Mycenae to stand and Tiryns. who were Spartans. as knowing that we will Thus the Athenians answered and the whole army shouted aloud that the Athenians were worthier to hold the wing than the Arcadians. and after them three thousand men of Sicyon. Next to these in the line were five thousand Corinthians. and for their valour. and gained that place. By these a thousand Troezenians were posted.

OVTOI ^ev vv 7rl TO) ol 31. TT/DO? Be OKTaKOcrlwv dvBpwv KaTaBeovaai. ' irapd Be TOVTOVS eVacr(TOVTO ^/leyapecov Tpio~%l\ioi.ov 65 OKTa/coa-Lovs /cal QTr\a Be ouS' OVTOL el%ov. dpi0/j. crav crvv Be tyeaTriecov Tolai Trapeovat e^eTT\r]povvTO at evBe/ca /j. roBe. KOI Tpia^vpioi avBpes.upiaSe? /cal o/cro) /JIGV KOI e/taro^ra^e? errrd. a>? 7rrd irepl e'/cacrrov avBpa. tyiXwv /juev Brj rwv cnrdvTWv rwv j.drjvaloi erdacrovTO.HERODOTUS Birj/cocrioi. Ol 'AaajTTco ecrTpaTOTreBevovTO. oTrXtrat TOV (Sdpftapov Be 7r\r)&os ifv ol r\<jav TOO-OVTOI. dpiO/ibv rpels re //. crvfjiTravTos TOV IlXaraia? crvv re OTrXiTrjcn lolai /^a^ifjioio-i.r)TiK7]<f eovrwv 7revraKicr%L\ioi. 7T\r)V TO)V eTTTCL TTCpl 6KCLCTTOV ^TrapTiijryo'L.ea>v ev TW crTpaTOTreBa) <ydp /cal TtepieovTes.d^ov. ^n\olort.vpidBe<f Traprjecnri.apB6viov ftdpfSapoi a>5 194 .(f)l M. TrevraKOdLoi /cal /cal Tpi(T/ji. ei%ovTO Be TOVTCOV Te\evTaloi Be KOI irpwTOt. 30. ea'Tpartj'yee 8' 6 A. avrv 29. T?}? /JLCV ^7raprt. QvTOl. &>? el? dvSpa. TOV Be e'? 'Ei\\r)vt. A. TlA-aratee? e^aKocrioi. Be d/j. /ur}5 ^Lkidoos.vidBe$ /cal TO 7r\r0o<$ e KOL e/caro^raSe? /cal T evvea irkvre. fiera Be TOVTOVS Trevratcoo'ioi eTa^Orjarav.vpioi fjaav.vai/j. /cepas e^ovre^ TO evowv/jiov.. /cal TOVTWV vra? ft)? Ti9 iraptjpT7]TO 6? 7r6\/JLOV Ol Be TWV \O17TWV Aa/ceBai/AOviwv Gfcacrrov ewv /cal 'EtXXijvcov tyCkoi.Kov TOV o~vve\QbvTo<. evBe/ca [ivpidBes rjaav. rjcrav oTr\lrai.

28-31 after them in the array. eight thousand men their general was Aristides son of Lysimachus. who had not fallen at Thermopylae. at-arms. . lacking eighteen hundred. When Mardonius' foreigners had finished their five 1 and That is. that is. and of the whole Greek army mustered at Plataeae. thirty-five thousand. and next to these six hundred At the end. These then were arrayed. '95 . were Plataeans. . eighteen hundred in number. were men-at-arms. save the seven appointed to attend each Spartan. and the whole sum of them was thirty-eight thousand and seven hundred.BOOK Pale in Cephallenia . there were in the Spartan array seven for each man-at-arms. 31. and their number was thirty-four thousand hundred. 30. and first in the line. . the Athenians. as regarding the number of the light-armed men. five hundred Aeginetans by them stood three thousand men of Megara. eleven times ten thousand. IX. and every one of these was equipped for war the light-armed from the rest of Lacedaemon and Hellas were as one to every man29. So the sum of all the light-armed men that were fighters was sixty-nine thousand and five hundred. on the left wing. for the survivors l of the Thespians were also present with the army. But the Thespians who were there present made up the full tale of an hundred and ten thousand . This was the number of men-at-arms that mustered for war against the foreigner . All these. menat-arms and light-armed fighting men together. and encamped by the Asopus.

eVt re KKocrfjiaro KOL errel^ov TOU? fjiev TJV avr&v Svvarcoraruv era^e 8e ovrw o irav aTroXe^a? earrjcre avnov A.HERODOTUS M-aaicrnov. aXXa Tt^e? avrwv Kal ra 'EXXf/Vcoz/ TJU^OV rrepl rbv Hapwrjcrcrbv /carei\rj/Avoi. o'l errea'^ov *E*perpiea<. ^a/<:a9 erae. Tiep&ewv $e e^o^ez^ou? era^e ovroi be enecr^ov Y^opLv6iovs re real TLortSanjras /cal 'Op^o/zei'toL'? re KOI ^LKVWVIOVS.? 1 ovroi Be errea")ov 'E^to^ea? re ^rvpeas re /cal Xa\tciSea<$.07jvaia>v re /cal BO&)TOU? re /cal Ao/cpovs /cal M^Xtea? re /cal ecraaXoi'? /cal Qwicewv TOU? ^iXtou?' ov yap &v arravres ol Qco/cees e/jLijBio-av.7rparciijras re /cal 'Ava/cropiovs /cal Aeuica&iov$ /cal IlaXea? /cal ^a/cewv &e e^o^evov^ era^e avria Alyiv)jras. Tlepcras. /cal evOevrev bpjJLWfJLevoi efyepov re Kal r)<yov rr)v re MapSoviov arparirjv /cal TOL? avrov ebvras 'EXX^Va)^. rcvOo/xevoi elvai ev il\araif)<7i. Kara /Jiev Aa/ce&ai/jioi'iovs ear^ae /cal ST) 7ro\\ev TrXeO^a? 7r\^6el ol Hepcrat. era^e e /cal Ma/ce- 196 . M. ' TlXaraiecov Kal Meyapecov A. Trapr/crav. Se arrLKof^evoL a)Se 'A<7co7roz' dvrerdaaovro >yap vrro MapBoviov. KOI avrol eVt rbv rbv ravrjj peovra.ijSa)v be era^e Ba/cr/)tou?' ovroi Se eVecr^o^ re /cal TpoifyvLOVs /cal Aeirperjras re Kal TipwOiovs /cal Mf/c^^atou? re /col OXet- acrtOL'?. rb rrepifjaav n &e acrOevecrrepov rrapera^e Kara TOL><? T ravra & eVotee fypa^ovrwv re /cal ri(3ai(i)V.atce^aifjioviwv. /cal 'I^Swt' 8e e^o/^evov^ 'A/j. fjiera Se Ba/cr/otOL'? earrjae real 'Ii^Soi.

After the Bactrians he set the Indians. fronting the men of Corinth and Potidaea and Orchomenus and Sicyon next to the Medes. part. and issued out from thence to harry Mardonius' army and the Greeks that were with him. they were arrayed in deeper ranks and their line ran fronting In his arraying of them he chose the Tegeans also. men of Hermione and Next to . Troezen. and posted the weaker by them facing the Tegeans this he did being so . Anactorians. Tiryns.BOOK . He . 31 mourning for Masistius. posted the Persians facing the Lacedaemonians and seeing that the Persians by far outnumbered the Lacedaemonians. Mycenae. and Aeginetans and over against the Athenians and Plataeans and Megarians. fronting the and Eretria and Styra the Indians he posted the Sacae. dians. and heard that the Greeks were at Plataeae they also came to the part of the Asopus river nearest to them. Besides these. the Boeotians and Locrians and Malians Chalcis. fronting the Ampraciots. the Bactrians. Next to the Persians he posted the Medes. Leucanext to the Sacae. fronting the men . Paleans. and Thessalians and the thousand that came from for not all the Phocians took the Persian but some of them gave their aid to the Greek cause these had been beleaguered on Parnassus. out the strongest part of the Persians to set it over against the Lacedaemonians. Phlius. Phocis . Lepreum. and of Epidaurus. 197 . When they were there they were arrayed for battle by Mardonius as 1 shall show. IX. . informed and taught by the Thebans.

164. Ticrafjievw ev AeX^oicri rrepl yovov dvel\e /jLeyio-rov? 1 yap pav Hvdirj rj o fiev dvaiprjcreaOai rrevre.HERODOTUS Sovas re Kal rovs irepl ecr(Ta\ir)v ol:rj/j. /jbd^i/jLOi.6vioi erroirjcravro \*w(T<$>erepov.. e? irevre co? etVaa). Kara rot/? 'AOyvaiovs.evos' ovros yap Srj eiVero ra> err par evfiari rovrw fjidvrw rov eovra 'HXetoy KOI yeveos rov 'Ia/jU$ea)v [KXimaS?^] AaKeSat. 2 The Egyptian military classes mentioned in Bk. IT. rwv /xev 8ij j3ap/3dpa)v rjaav rpirjKOvra fivpidBes. 77 ovroi ol 33. evOavra rfi Sevrepy rjpepr) eOvovro Kal dfji(j)6repot. "EXX^cri fjuev Ti(ra/Jii>bs 'Avrio'xpv rjv o 0v6/j./j. co? Kal TTporepov SeSi]\a)rai' rwv 8e 'EXX^Vcoi' rwv Mapftoviov olSe jjiev ovSels dpiOpov ov yap wv e eTreiK&ai.<&pvy(t)v aX\wv eOvewv avSpes prjiicayv Kal Mvcrwv re Kal TLaiovwv Kal rwv a\\wv. o'i irep elal AlyvTrruwv [JLOVVOL Tourof? Se eri ev OaXr. the members of 198 . rd irep Kal \6yov TrXeiarov evrjcrav dva/jL6fjLi'y[jievoi. Tavra fjiev rwv eOvewv rd fieyLara tovo- rwv be Kal VTTO re re Kal r\v Mapboviov ra^Oevrwv. II? Se apa rrdvres ol ererd^aro Kara eOvea Kal Kara re\ea. 32.evov<. 8e tTTTTO? %copl<. The lamidae were a priestly family. ereraKro. ev Se Kal AWioTrwv re KOL AlyvTrricov di re 'JZp/jiOTv /3ies Kal ol Ka\acripie<> KaXeopevoi /jLa%aipo<p6poi. rjcrav./3w ea>v diro rcov vewv aire^L^da-aro eovras eTTifidras' ov yap e? rov iretpv rov a/ua PZep^y tnri- e? 'A#^W? AlyvTrnoi.

none knows the number of them. both armies offered menus it was that army as a diviner For the Greeks.\vTid8r)v. Not undersacrifice. and the rest. there were three hundred thousand. which were found in all parts of Hellas. on the second day thereafter . These were the footmen that were set in array the cavalry were separately ordered. Mysians. Thracians. Tisafor he was with their he was an Elean by birth.BOOK IX. For when gave Tisamenus was inquiring of the oracle at Delphi concerning issue. The Clytiadae were also Elean priests. These had been fighters on shipboard. and the Lacedaemonians him the freedom of their city. 1 who are the only fighting men in Egypt. for they were not counted but as far as guessing may serve. Paeonians. . 32. besides Ethiopians and the Egyptian swordsmen called Hermotybies and Calasiries. Of the foreigners. When they had all been arrayed in their nations and their battalions. 33. so Stein is probably right in bracketing K. sacrificed . . as I have already shown as for the Greek allies of Mardonius. 199 . I suppose them to have been mustered to the number of fifty thousand. then. till Mardonius while yet at Phalerum disembarked them from their ships for the Egyptians were not appointed to serve in the land army which Xerxes led to Athens. These that I have named were the greatest of the nations set in array by Mardonius that were of most note and account but there was also in the army a mixed multitude of Phrygians. the priestess prophesied to him that he should win five great victories. a 2 Clytiad of the lamid clan. . . but quite separate from the lamidae . . 31-33 he arrayed against the Athenians Macedonians also and the dwellers about Thessaly.

34. Aa/ceSai/jiovioi 8e yu. aatcewv Be TrevrdedXov Trapd Trd\aLo-fJia eSpa/ie viicav 'OXv/jLTTidSa. TeXo? B Sei/^iaTo^ [jLe yd\. [jLaveicrewv.ai {iTLcrav T^? xptio'ijioavvi'is TO TrapaTTdv. dpKeecrOai TOVTOKJL {JLOVVOIGL. o be yvovs TerpafjifJLevovs cr^ea? oi)S' OVTCO en e'</. and throwing of the spear Pentathlum were running. and the discus. [jLicrOov Trpoereivaro Tr/9 ^aai^iij^ TO OVK avaayjoiLZVwv Se TMV 'Apyeiwv aXX' . 200 .HERODOTUS TOV ft>9 '^prjcrT'rjpLOV irpodel^e dvaipriaofjievos yvfjivitcous dywvas.a(96We9 OVK e? JV/JLVIKOVS a 9 ev dprjiovs dywvas <ppov TO Tiaa/jievov fjLL<j0S) 7reipa)VTo Tre'icravTes Tiaap^evov * dfia paK\ei$ea)v rolcn /ScKTiXevcri ijye/jLova o Se opewv 7Tpl TTO\\OV 7ro\e/jiwv. 009 efiaivovTO of the TT\evves TWV yvvai/cwv. '\epwvvfJLw TO) 'AvBpLw e\0a)v e? epiv. jumping. d\\d elv en TOV d$e\(f)ov ewwrov 'Hyirjv yiveaOai ^TraprLrjiriv eirl TolaL avrolcn \6yoi(Ti Tolai KOI auT09 yivercti.va erroievvTo r\ ' \ K. ft>9 eltcdcrai fBao-ikrfirjv re KCU 7ro\Lrr}irjv alreo/^eKOI yap 8r) Kal MeXayu/TTOL^ TWV ev "Apyti vov<$. P>\5 ^ oei. \ eV aXXw 1 fJLLaOw / oe rrpfora [lev i aKova-avres ou. H avrov TOVTO adterepov Troi^Gwvrai TWV irdvrwv TTOi^crei C^\ Tavra. W9 [ALV ol 'Apyeioi e/ vovcrov. 1 The five events wrestling.6vov TOV HepcriKov rovrov o"rpaTVjAaTOs Karaiveov neTiovres.ov 7riKpe/jia[j. TauTa Se \eya)i> ovros ejJLtfjieeTO MeXa/ATroSa.

But the Lacedaemonians perceived that the oracle given to Tisamenus spake of the lists not of sport but of war and they essayed to bribe Tisamenus to be a leader in their wars. he betook himself to bodily exercises. and the Argives would fain hire him to come from Pylos and heal them of that madness. his brother Hegias too must be made a Spartan on the same terms as himself. and cured by Melampus. he said that not even so and with that only would he be content. According to the legend. But when he saw that the Spartans set great store by his friendship. and made it known to them that for no reward would he do their will save for the gift of full citizenship and all a citizen's rights. . . in a match with Hieronymus of Andros. the Spartans at first were angry and ceased wholly from their but when the dreadful menace of this request Persian host overhung them they consented and . demanded half of their kingship for his wages which the Argives could not suffer. thinking so to win in such-like sports and having trained himself for the Five Contests. pose changed.BOOK IX. 2 mad by Dionysus 201 . . Many Greek authors refer to it. as By so saying he imitated Melampus. . with varying details. 33-34 standing that oracle. But when he saw their purgranted his demand. mad. and so departed but when the madness spread among their women. Hearing that. 2 Melampus 34. in so far one may compare demands for kingship and for For when the women of Argos had gone citizenship. with this knowledge he set his price higher. 1 he came within one wrestling bout of winning the Olympic prize. the Argive women were driven for refusing to take part in his orgies. jointly with their kings of Heracles' line.

ov Troirfa-eiv ra (3ov\ovrai. rrdvrws avve^capeov ol. erri Be 6 lAecrGriviwv 6 77/309 'I^ai/ZT. ovrw irevre a(f)i fAavrevofievos dycovas rovs 6 'HXeto?. dfjivvo/JLevw Be KOL rovrw Ka\d. 36. advTwv Be Kal ravra rwv ^rraprir)rewv. yovrwv rwv TI\araiiBi. MapBoviw Be TTpoQv/JLeo/nevfp OVK emrrj^ea eyivero ra Ipd. Kal ydp ouro? 'RXkyviKoicri Ipolcn ' e%pdro. ol Be Apyeloi dTreiXrjQevTes e? (neivov Karaiveova-t.HERODOTUS ovra> Brj ijicrav vTroardvres ra 6 MeXa/ATrou? rcpoereivaro o Be evOavra Brj erroBoo&ovres ol ravra. (f)ds. {idvriv e%a>v 'Hyrjo-icrrparov avBpa 202 . yuera Be 6 ev AtTraieDcrt 7T/309 'A^OAraSa? rrdvras rr\r)v ^/[avrivewv. KCU ravra.. eSeovro yap rov Ti(ra/jLvov. OL^TO? Brj rore rolcn ^\\rjaL o ff ^Traprirjrewv. yevo/jievo^ Ticra/jievos (JLOVVOL Be Br) rrdvrwv avyKaraipeei. peyerai opewv avrovs rerpa/Ji^evov^. 37. ucrraro? Be 6 ev Tavdyprj Trpo? K9r]vaiov<. 35. Be rov Kal fjLaj(ri^ ap^ova-i ov. re Kal 'Apyeiovs yevo/uevos' OUTO? Be i/crraro? ' Karepydcrdrj r&v rrevre dyoovwv. Biafidai. e^avrevero ev r rolai /JLCV vvv "l&XX. ol Be eyevovro ovroi ^rrapri^rr)cri Tro^iijrai. rjv fjirj Kal TO) dBe\(f)6(p Rlavri fAeraBwat TO rpirrffjLopiov T^? /3ao-i\r)ii]<$. rrevre dycove? oi'Be eyevovro. *n? & /cal ^Trapnfjrai.'rja-i Ka~ka eylvero ra Ipa d/uLWO/Aevoicri. eVl Be 6 ev Teyey Teyeijras re Kal 'A/Qyetof? yevo/jievos. el? /iei> Kal OUTO? 6 ev Tl\araif)(Ti.

to the Greeks if they should but defend themselves. over all the Arcadians save the Mantineans at Dipaea next. 1 36. driven thus into a strait. five victories were these one. . When they had granted him this also. which was : . consented to that also. .BOOK IX. and said that he would not do their will except they gave a third of their kingship to his brother Bias and the . now become a Spartan. Argives. the last won of the five victories. then did Tisamenus of Elis. This Tisamenus had now been brought by the Spartans and was the diviner of the Greeks in the Now the sacrifices boded good lands of Plataeae. this victory at Plataeae next that which was won at Tegea over the Tegeans and Argives after that. (Thucyd. that at Tanagra. for he too used the Greek manner of sacrifice Hegesistratus 37. But Mardonius' his liking if . 35. Now the his brother ever became citizens of Sparta. . and good if he should but defend himself. in 457 B. 34-37 thereat they promised what Melampus demanded and were ready to give it to him. the first. over the Messenians at Ithome lastly. he asked yet more. Thus the Spartans too were so eagerly desirous of winning Tisamenus that they granted all his de- mand. sacrifices also boded nought to he should be zealous to attack first. seeing their purpose changed. 1 The battle at Ithome was apparently 203 . 107). the victory at Tanagra over the Athenians and Argives. but evil if they should cross the Asopus and be the first to attack. ply his divination for them and aid them to win five very None on earth save Tisamenus and great victories. i. in the third Messeiiian war. Thereupon.C. Nothing is known of the battles at Tegea and Dipaea.

KCIK6LVOV OV Bv~ rore fj. e? 76 reXo9 ol crvv^veiKe TO TO 69 Aa/ceSaifjiovLovs avyfce/cvprj^vov ij\co uavTevo/jievos ev Zta/cvvOw VTT* avToov Kal cnreQave. vyirjs Be yevo/ievos teal TrpocrTroiijcrd/Aevos iroBa yap %v\ivov KaT(TTi]Ke e/c Trjs I6ei]<^ AaK(!:ai/j. TT}? TOU? Be ev Oco/maTi /jLeyd\. Biopv^a^ TOV Toi%ov VVKTCLS aTreSp'Tj e? Teyeijv. wcrre 7pe%(i)V Trepl rr}? ^^%^9 TT/^O T TOV davdrov 7Ticr6fj.i>os TroXXa re KCU \vypd.HERODOTUS KOI TWV T6\\iaBeCOV OVTO. OVTCO a>9 AaxeBai/jtovLayv TravBrj/jiel Bi^rj/jLevayv TpiTy ev(j)povrj yevecrfiai ev Teyey. VTTO TavTa ra? fjiev Be Tro^cra?. Be OL oo? yap avrifca fjLr)%avdTO avSprjiorarov epyov Trdvrwv rwv ridels cB/nev aTaO^icrd^evo^ yap OKW<$ e%\evaeTaL TO \OL7TOV TOV 7To86?.ev OVTCO Siatfivyoov Aa/ceeovaav OVK Bai/Jioviovs KaTatyevyei 69 Teyeijv TOVTOV TOV %povov AaKeBaifjiOvioicri dp0/jLirjv va/Jievovs evpeiv. \OijLO)TaTOV. d7TTafl6 TOV Tap<TOV ecovTov.?.. ra? Be r)/nepas KaTCtBvvcov e? v\rjv KCLL av\t^6^evo<?. opwvras TO TOV 7To8o9 Kei/J. epyov T Brj \6yov. a>? (/>fXa<rc7OyLtez/o? <pv\dKO)v. Tore Be eVl TM ^AcrcoTTfo fjLeuLa-0(t)/jiei>os OVK o\lyov edveTO Te /cal Kara Te TO 6^6^09 TO AarceBaL/JLoviwv 204 . 38.ovLoia'i ov {jievTOi.?.'O /juevTOi OdvaTOs 6 'HyrjcricrTpaTov v&Tepov eyeveTO TCOV Y[\aTaiiKwv.VOV.(p rjfjLLTO/LLOV eve-^ecrOai re roXyu. TOV TrpoTepov TOVTWV %7rapTif)Tai Xa/3oi'T69 eBr/aav eVl 6avaTw 009 TrejrovdoTes TroXXa re fcal dvdpcria UTT' avTOV. Tropevbfjievos. o Be ev rovry TW KCUCM %6jjievo<.

the death of Hegesistratus happened after the Plataean business at the present he was by the Asopus. sought him seeing the half of his foot cut off and lying there. 205 . Howbeit. both for the hatred he bore the Lacedaemonians. and so : . Yet the enmity that he bore them brought him no good at the last for they caught him at his divinations in Zacynthus.BOOK IX. inasmuch as he was in peril of his life and like to be very grievously maltreated ere his death. . hired by Mardonius for no small . This done. he cut off his own foot at the instep. 38. where he sacrificed and wrought zealously. but not being able to find the man himself. which at that time was unand after he was healed friendly to Lacedaemon and had made himself a foot of wood. and straightway conceived a plan of such hardihood as we have never known reckoning how best the rest of it might get free. . . and they were greatly amazed. he declared himself an open enemy of the Lacedaemonians. 37-38 of Elis was his diviner. Thus did he then escape from the Lacedaemonians and take refuge in Tegea. he did a deed well nigh past believing being made fast in iron-bound stocks. the most notable of the sons of Tellias. This man had been put in prison and doomed to die by the Spartans for the much harm that he had done them. till on the third night he came to Tegea. he got an iron weapon that was brought in some wise into his prison. and slew him. escaped to Tegea all night he journeyed and all day he hid and lay close in the woods. mon wage. while all the people of Lacedae. he burrowed through the wall out of the way of the guards that kept ward over him. Being in this evil case.

Tas Boicorol /jiev Tpeis tcetyaXas Ka\eov<Ti.apooviov KOL 69 TO crrparoireSov.a9* ol yap fJLeyd\a)^. Tt^yez/t'^? 6 77^ato? crvveftovXevcre dvrjp eirippeovcri ol "EAA^z/e? alel TOV K. 'H/ie/?at Se <r<^)t dvTiKarri/jLevoia-i 77877 eyeyoveaav OKTCO. are tyepov rbv TroXe- 206 . ore ravra eKelvos <7W6/3ov\ve o &e fjLaO(ov rrjv Trapaiveffiv ev e^ovcrav.. a< efyovevov. \eycov ava Ttaaav Kal ft)? aTToXayu-^otro avyvovs* 39. 40. o>9 Be aBrjv el'xpv Kreivovres. Sieftaivov Be ovBerepoi.HERODOTUS Kara rb KepSos. 7T6{j. Tre/jLTrei rrjv ITTTTOV 69 ra9 at <})povcri.evoi ovre vTro^vyiov ov&evbs ovre dv0pa)7rov. ayovra airo Tle\o7rovvij(Tov 9 TO arpa/jidrijv ou Kal dv6 MTTOVS ot eiirovro rolcn e Tavrtjv rrjv ayprjv ol Tlepcrai. r&v rj fjievroi iinros 'EXX?.(f)06VTS e Be Apyo9 K(pa\d<. evtypovrj eyeveTo. GO? Be OVK eVaXXtepee u>a-rejn.dai.d^ar0ai ovre avrolcri Hepcrrjcri ovre TOLCTI per* e/ceivcov covert (el^ov yap teal OVTOL eV ecovrwv pdvriv i' AevKaBiov dvBpa). rrpoOvjjLw %r)[3aloi.t0aip)vo<. MeTa Se rovro rb epyov erepas Bvo ovoerepou /SouXo/u-e^ot /z. 77 MapSo^tou alel Trpocre/ceiro re f/ teal e'XuTree TOi/9 EXX77i.Vct)^.a^779 77/^6/0019 a/)ar pep yap rov 'AawTrov em]icrav ol ftdpftapoi. ra XoiTra avrwv r\\avvov irepi^aXofjievoi irapd re M.. (f)v\. ot airiKOVTO' eV/3aXXoz^ra 7ayo 9 TO TreSiov \afjLftdvovcri VTrotyyid re TrevTa/cocria. emppeovrwv Be rwv KOI yivopevtov 7r\evvwv. ov (>i86/j.

38-40 But when no favourable omens for won either by the Persians themselves or by the Greeks that were with them (for they too had a diviner of their own. counselled Mardonius to guard the outlet of the pass over Cithaeron. When they had their fill of slaughter. and of the . a Theban. The armies had now lain over against each other for eight days when he gave this counsel. they set what remained in their midst and drove . and the Greeks the while were ever flocking in and their army grew. Hippomachus of Leucas). in their troubling the Greeks zeal for the Persian part. Timagenides son of Herpys.BOOK and for gain. battle could be IX. Howbeit Mardonius' horse was ever besetting and O for the Thebans. 207 . telling him that the Greeks were ever flocking in daily and that he would thereby cut off many of them. and the Athenians the Oaks' Heads. 39. deed they waited two days more. After this . sparing neither man nor beast. bringing provision from the Peloponnese for the army. despatch of the horsemen was no fruitless one for they caught five hundred beasts of burden issuing into the low country. This . them Greeks' purpose. waged war heartily. which pass the Boeotians call the Three Heads. and men that came with the waggons having taken which quarry the Persians slew without mercy. neither side desiring to begin the battle for though the foreigners came to the Asopus to make trial to Mardonius 40. neither army crossed it. and his camp. Mardonius perceived that the advice was good and when night had fallen he sent his horsemen to the . outlet of the pass over Cithaeron that leads towards Plataeae.

eyeyoveaav KOI Ma/3evOavra e? \6yov<$ Tj\0ov 6 MapSowo? 09 re 6 Toftpveay Kal 'A/3Ta/3ab<? ev 6\lyoiai Hepcrewv fy dvrjp /3ou\vo/jiev(t)v Se alBe rjcrav al yvwfiai. crv/^/3d\\iv re ri]v ra- ^Lcrrrjv fji^e Trepiopav crv\\eyofjievov^ en 7r\evvas rwv av\\e\ey[jievtov. ecrevrivel'^dai TTO\\OV Kal ^oprov rotai vTro <I>a/3^a/ceo9./Sat&)i/. rovrov /j. MapBoviov Se Icr^vporeprj re Kal Kal ouSayuw? ffvyyLvaxTKOfjiei'ri' dyvay/Aovecrrepr) SoKeeiv re yap TroXXw K peer cr ova elvai rrjv crtyereprjv crrparirjv TT}? EXX?.evoicn ? TroXXco TrXeOi^e? evSeKarrj eyeyovee ev ITXar at fieri.avTas rrjv ra^icrr'rjv Trdvra rov arparov evQa crlrov re e? TO rei^o? TO ?.HERODOTUS /JLOV Kal alel Karrjyeovro f^eypi o'l /jidyrj^. Kar r rjcrv-^irjv re l^o/JLevov^ SiaTrprfacTea-flai.e^eiv yap %pvcrov TTO\\OV /nev GTricri]jro\\ov Be Kal acrrjfjLov.ev r) avrrj rj/3aicdv yvtofirj. a>9 Trpoei&oros 7r\evv eyivero Kal ri Kal rovrov. OL re Srj cu? 8e Trepitj^ieKree rfj e'Sprj. i] fiev "'Apraftd&v to? %/oeo^ e'lrj ava%evi. JJLCV vvv rwv Setca rj/jLepewv ovSev eVl TT\evv lyivero TOVTWV avTi/caTr)fj.evovs /Jir/Sevos r \iara e yttaBiaTrejuTreiv e? TOL/? 'Ei\\rjvas. rd re crcfrdyia ra '\r{yrjo-io~- 208 . TTOL- evvras rdSe. TO Be drro rovrov TrapaSeKo/jievoL Tlepaai re Kal Mr}&M //-aXa ecrKOv 41. 'EXX^a)^ e? TOL. TTO\\OV Se apyvpov jjiov re Kal eKTrw^ara' rovrwv (f)i&o/j.? Trpoea-rewras ev rfjai TroXiai. Kal Ta^ew? cr(/)ea? TrapaSuxreiv rrjv eXevOepiyv /mj&e avaKiv&vveveiv crf^ySaXXoi'Ta?.i'i/<:?}?. &6/ci/jios Trapa Hep^rj. Me^pt aTreoeiKvvvro dperds.

and all silver and drinking-cups. there was a debate held between Mardonius son of Gobryas and Artabazus son of Pharnaces. were ever guiding the horsemen to the encounter thereafter it was the turn of the Persians and Medes. nor . and they and none other would do deeds of valour. let them pay no heed to these. 209 . This opinion of his was the same as the Thebans'. Artabazus held it best that they should strike their camp with all speed and lead the whole army within the walls of Thebes. and that they should give battle with all speed.BOOK IX. but let not the stint this without Persians risk the event of a battle. Until the ten days were past no this . nowise leaning to moderation deemed . and other. for (said he) he that their army was by much stronger than the Greeks'. where they had much provision stored and fodder for their beasts of burden. and not suffer yet more Greeks to muster than were mustered already as for the sacrifices of Hegesistratus. inasmuch as he too had especial foreknowledge but Mardonius' counsel was more vehement and intemperate and . encampment over against each the Greeks growing greatly in number and Mardonius being sore vexed by the delay. who stood as high as but few others in Xerxes' esteem and their opinions in council were as I will show. to all places in Hellas. minted . 40-41 . and sending . and where they could sit at their ease and despatch the business by taking the great store they had of gold. but on the eleventh day more was from their other. done than first 41. but especially to the chief men in the cities of Hellas let them do this (said he) and the Greeks would quickly surrender their liberty.

. WCTTG v/^ewv OCTOL Tvy^dvovai evvooi e6vT<s Tleparja-i. TOVTOV &e OVTW SiKdievvTOs dvTe\eye ou ware etcpdree rfj yvco/jLy TO jap KpaTOS el^e ouro? K ftacriKeos. TWV /jLV /j.eyeiv. aXA. TOUTO^ S' 670)76 TOI/ ^prfa-fjiov. elVa? SevTepa KOI evKpivea TTOieeaOai 43. in Latin.HERODOTUS rpdrov edv ^aipav yu^Se jSid^eaOcu.ev > OVK elBoTWV TOU? " ^pT]<J fJLOV<. TOV eLTfe e? ITepcra? e^eiv. 1 Lit. ^ftet? TOLVVV avTO TOVTO ovTe i/Jiev ejrl TO Ipov TOVTO ovre re eiveica Tr)<. auro? aa d7ro\e6/ii0a.' OVK TWV i TWV \ / V -\ TT vs eipooTa ec TL cLoeiev \oyiov Trepi Lieptrewv OepiovTaiev Trj 'EXXdSi. eyw epew ev eViCTTayae^o?' ecrrt \6yiov a>? xpebv CC lairaai TO e? T TO ev AeX(^ot(Ti. TWV *>/ r) Be elSoTwv >\ ev dSeirj be ov Troieu/jievwv TO -V MapSo^^o? e\eye eTrel TOLVVV t'yuet? " ' >^V \ J-y-v'JSi/ LGTe ovoev rj ov roA/xare X.^ct)i/. compel the gods. d\\a TW Tlpo~ewv %pew[ievovs o-v/ji/3d\\iv. TrdvTas. aA. alriys OVK \eyeiv.evov. like "superos votis 2IO .apre aTpaTov oloa TreTroitj/j. O-IJCOVTCOV Se TWV ) ' >/ /zer' ecovTOv ZOVTWV '}L\\r]Vwv TOL/? ' ' (jOV.a rj/meprj TrdvTO. /lera Se r^z/ SiapTrayrjv diroIpov \ea~6ai." ravra acfri TrapapTeeadai re a>? a//. e? 'iXXuptou? M. 42. to " fatigare do violence.A. ri^eade TovSe eivefca 009 Trepieo-o/jief vov<$ T^/zea? ecrtjfjLaive EXX?.

that I have. 42. and in same may rejoice for that. Wherefore as many of you as wish the Persians well oracle. 41-43 seek to wring good from them. to have all knowing that we shall overHaving thus spoken he gave prepared and set in fair order for the battle that should be joined at the next day's was 'spoken of the Persians. made prophecy. for it was he and not Artabazus who was generalissimo of the army by the king's He sent therefore for the leaders of commission. 1 but rather give battle after Persian custom. They that were summoned said nought. so that his opinion prevailed . therefore. We. which Mardonius said I know it to have been not them but the Illyrians and the concerning for this Now 211 . and some knowing them but deeming it perilous to speak then said Mardonius himself: "Since. knowing this approach that temple nor so far as destruction hangs on that. the battalions and the generals of those Greeks that were with him. some not knowing the prophecies. None withstood this argument. 43. will neither essay to plunder it . as come the Greeks. There is fated to come to Hellas an oracle that Persians are and there all perish after they have plundered the temple at Delphi. hear what I tell you out of the full knowledge ." command dawn. and asked them if they knew any oracle which prophesied that the Persians should perish in Hellas. you either have no knowledge or are afraid to declare it. none awaits us.BOOK IX. therefore.

drroppy^ra rroiev1 Referring to a legendary expedition of these northwestern tribes. e\66vre<? Be eXeyov co? av9pwrros i'rrrrov K rov o-rparorreBov rov ovBev rrapayv/^voi eVo?. Mera e T^ lrfip(jorr\ rrapaiveffiv rrjv etc TT Map^ow'of ^v^ re eyivero a>? e? (j)u\aKa<. tft) fiev Kal TrapaTrX. 45. rrjviKavra Tr/oocreXacra? tTTTro) TT/OO? ra? ra? 'AOrjvaiwv 'AXe^azvS/jo? o re eoov Kal /3acri\evs MaKeSovcov. e&ityjTO rolcn ol r*v Be <pv\aKO)v arparrjyolcri e? \6yov<. 5e irpocrw TT}? poe\r)\aro Kal i]avyii] e&oKee elvat dva ra crrparojreSa Kal /xaXicrra ol avQpwrcoi elvat ev vm>w. rrapa@>]Kr]V ra errea rdBe rLOe^ai. jj. d\\a TO. orav aicripov 97 /zap 7re\0rj. of Thebes. e\0elv. directed against Hellas and Delphi in particular. avriKa ei'rrovro e? ra? ^)uXa:a?* drriKO/uievoio'i. O? Se eVet ravra ^Kovcrav. 212 . OL (rrparij'yovs. Be e\eye 'AXeTJKOL err 09 aXXo ^Liez/ rdBe. 6 8e o? peet /aera^v 'YavdypTjs re KOI aAAa Mou- 44. S' e6eov ercl TOU? jJiev TrXeO^e? rcape^evov.HERODOTUS OVK e? Tlepcras. ""AvSpes *A0)]valoi. Be ovofjid^wv e6e\eiv (frrjcrl e? Xoyov? ekOelv.W.ev ~BaKiBt c? ravrrjv rrjv fij^riv ear ep^icooz'Tt KCU rrjv 7r z/ EXX 771/0) rf) crvvoBov Kal /3ap/3apo<pa)vov Iwytjv. 2 A little to the N. TroXXol rreaeovrat.ijo'ia TOVTOKTL e^ovra oi&a e? Tlepcra?. erdcraovro. VTrep Xa^ecrtV re popov re roo(j)6p(i)v M^Seofl.


IX. 43-45

1 But there army of the Enchelees. made by Bacis concerning this battle

a prophecy

By Thermodon's stream and the grassgrown banks
of Asopus Muster of Greeks

and the ring of a

foreigner's war-cry,



Median archer by death untimely

in the battle shall fall

when the day

of his


upon him ;
and others




made by Musaeus, I know to have been spoken of As for the river Thermodon, it flows the Persians.
between Tanagra and
Glisas. 2

concerning oracles, and Mardonius' exhortation, night came on and the Now when the night armies posted their sentries. was far spent and it seemed that all was still in the camps and the men wrapt in deepest slumber, at that hour Alexander son of Amyntas, the general and king of the Macedonians, rode up to the Athenian outposts and sought to have speech of The greater part of the sentries their generals. abiding where they were, the rest ran to their generals, and told them that a horseman had ridden in from the Persian camp, imparting no other word save that he would have speech of the generals and called them by their names. 45. Hearing that, the generals straightway went with the men to the outposts and when they were come Alexander said to them " Men of Athens, I
44. After this questioning

give you this


message in trust

as a secret that





'EXXao9. rwp^alov Kal dvr

O\\OV Tf VfieaS firjeva \JIV ae KOI Bia^Qeiprjre' ov jap av fir) fieydXcos efcrjBofir/v (rvvaTrdar)^ rrj<; atT09 re yap "ILXXrjv yevo<$ elfil

eXevOeprjs BeBov\a)fievr)v OVK av eOe\OLfiL opav rrjv 'EXXaSa. \eyco be wv on M.ap&ovi(p re KOI Trj (TTpartfj TO, a~(j)dyia ov bvvarai /caradv/jiia yev^Bai' irakai yap av fjLd%a0. vvv Be ol SeSotcTai TO, fiev (T<f)dyia eav yaipeiv, ajJL rjueprj Be Siafywa-Kovcrr) crv/jLJ3o\r)v




vrXeO^e? cruX-





eroLfidVTrepftdXrjTai rrjv avfiftoXrjv



\i7rapeere fievovres*

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okiyewv ydp

cr^i r/aepewv




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ftdpftapoi, 6







Trpoa-BeKOfievoHri KM. o fiev ravra

6i7ra9 dTrr)\avve

TO (TrparoTreBov



Ol Be crrparrjyol ruv A.0r}valwv e\0ovre^ Beibv tcepas e\eyov TLava-avLr) rd rrep o Be TOVTW T&> rjKOvaav 'A\edvBpov.

eVl TO

KarappcoBrjaa^ TOL9 rieyocra9 eXeye rdBe. roivvv 9 rjS) rj crvfi/SoXij yiverai, vfieas fiev ecm TOU9 'AOrjvalovs arrival Kara TOU9 Be Kara TO vs Boi&>Tov9 T Kal TOU9 r) fie
Terayfievovs 'EXX^i/a)^, rwvBe e'iveKa- v



IX. 45-46

you must reveal to none but Pausanias, lest you even be my undoing in truth I would not tell it to you were it not by reason of my great care for all Hellas
myself am by ancient descent a Greek, and I would not willingly see Hellas change her freedom
for I


for slavery. I tell you, then, that Mardonius and his army cannot get from the sacrifices omens to his

had you fought long ere this. But now purpose to pay no heed to the sacrifices, and join battle at the first glimmer of dawn for he is in dread, as I surmise, lest you should muster to a greater host. Therefore I bid you make ready ; and if (as may be) Mardonius should delay and not join battle, wait patiently where you are for he has but a few


it is




But if this war end as you would wish, then must you take thought how to save me too from slavery, who of my zeal have done so desperate a deed as this for the cause of Hellas,
days' provision

you Mardonius' intent, that fall upon you suddenly ere you yet expect them. I that speak am Alexander the Macedonian." With that he rode away back to the camp and his own place therein. 46. The Athenian generals went to the right wing and told Pausanias what they had heard from Alexander. At the message Pausanias was struck with " fear of the Persians, and said Since, therefore,
so the foreigners


my desire to declare



it is best that you Athenians should take your stand fronting the Persians, and we fronting the Boeotians and the Greeks

the battle

to begin at dawn,

that are posted over against you, by reason that you

avrwv eV TOVS M;/3ou? teal rrjv /na^ead/jievoi,, r/yuet? Be aireipol re el/jLev


KOI dBaees TOVTCOV rwv dvBpwv ^Traprirj-rewv jap ls 7re7reip)]Tai M.ijB(ov ///net? Be BOICOTWV teal dX)C dvdKaftovras 7 a eaTreipoi eijj,ev. (TTt levai v/j,ea$ p,ev e? roSe TO #epa9, e? TO evwvv/nov" TTyoo? Se TauTa elirav " Kal av-rolcri r)/j,iv ird\ai air 01 A.6 rival 01 rdSe.







eyevero elirelv ravra rd Trep <f)0dvTS 7TpO(f)epT' d\\d dppCt)00/jiV (JbYj OVK ?;See? <ykvu>vTai ol Xoyot. eVei, 8' wi^ avrol e/j,ij(r(}rjTe, /cal rj^ofjievoicn ^Iv ol \6yoi ovaai Kal GTOI/JLOL elfJLev Troieeiv ravra"
TOI)? Ile/ocra?, eV i^oo)





d^oTepoLai ravra,

Be ol BoiWTol TO 7TOievp,evov ei^ayopevovai o 8' eVetVe Ij/covcre, avrifca [JLeriardvai Kal

7TipdTO, TTapaycov TOU? rie/3cra9 Kara TOU? Aa/ceSaiyaowof?. a>? Se eaade TOVTO roiovro yivoaevov 6 Yiavaravl^, yvovs on ov \avOdvei, OTTtcra) ^76 TOU? ^TrapTDjTas eVt TO S^LOI> w? Se OI^TW? rat o Ma/?8o^i09 eVt TOU evcovvaov. 48. 'Evrel e Kareffrrja-av e? T



Br} \eyeo~6e dvbpes dpiaToi, VTTO TWP rfjBe dvOpwTrwv, co? OUTC (pevyere etc TTO\/JLOU ovre ttTToX-XuTe TOU? K\ei7TT6, /UL6VOVT6S T 17 / > J /-v * V /) 5.J>/f >C- V evavnovs ij avTOi a7ro\\vaue. rwv o ap rjv ovoev


tcrfpvfca e? TOU? "'II AaKeBai/jLovioi, v^els





Trplv yap rj o-v/JL/^i^at r;/aea9 e? ^ipayv dTTiKeatfai, /cal Brj (f)6vyovra<; /cal




them and

IX. 46-48

have fought with the Medes at Marathon and know their manner of fighting, but we have no

experience or knowledge of those men we Spartans have experience of the Boeotians and Thessalians, but not one of us has put the Medes to the test. Nay, let us take up our equipment and remove, you " to this wing and we to the left." We, too," the Athenians answered, " even from the moment when we saw the Persians posted over against you, had it in mind to make that proffer that now has first come from you but we feared lest we should displease you by making it. But since you have spoken the wish yourselves, we too hear your words very gladly

and are ready to do as you say." 47. Both being satisfied with this, they exchanged their places in the ranks at the first light of dawn. The Boeotians marked that and made it known to Mardonius who, when he heard, forthwith essayed

a change for himself also, by moving the Persians along to front the Lacedaemonians. But when Pausanias perceived what was this that was being done, he saw that his act was known, and led the Spartans back to the right wing and Mardonius did in like manner on the left of his army. 48. When all were at their former posts again, Mardonius sent a herald to the Lacedaemonians with this message " Men of Lacedaemon, you are said by the people of these parts to be very brave men ; it is their boast of you that you neither flee from the field nor leave your post, but abide there and either slay your enemies or are yourselves slain. But it would seem that in all this there is no truth for ere we can join battle and fight hand to hand,



we have seen you even now


and leaving your

v/meas el^o^ev, eV 'Adrjvaioicrt, re rrjv


avrovs re dvria Bov\wv ravra rwv rj/jierepwv raaao/Aevovs. dvBp&v dyadwv epya, aXXa 7r\eicrrov Brj ev V rrpoaBeKofJ-evoi yap Kara /cXeo? oo? e-^reiKT0r]fiev.

7ryCf|r6Te e? rj/jieas Ktjpvica TrpoKa\evfJbevoL /cal

fiovKo/jLevoi iiovvoiai Hepa-ycri /J,d')(ea0ai, ebvres Troieeiv ravra ovSev TOLOVTO Xeyozmi?


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station, using

IX. 48-49

Athenians for the

assay of your

enemy, and arraying yourselves over against those This is no brave men's that are but our slaves. work nay, we have been grievously mistaken in you for by what we heard of you, we looked that you should send us a herald challenging the Persians and none other to fight with you and that we were ready to do but we find you making no such proffer,




but rather quailing before us. Now, therefore, since the challenge comes not from you, take it from us instead. What hinders that we should fight with equal numbers on both sides, you for the Greeks (since you have the name of being their best), and we for the foreigners? and if it be willed that the others fight also, let them fight later after us ; but if contrariwise it be willed that we alone suffice, then let us fight it out, and which side soever wins, let that serve as a victory for the whole


and when he had 49. Thus proclaimed the herald waited awhile and none made him any answer, he departed back again, and at his return told Mardonius what had befallen him. Mardonius was overjoyed thereat and proud of this semblance of victory, and The horsesent his cavalry to attack the Greeks. men rode at them and shot arrows and javelins among the whole Greek army to its great hurt,

inasmuch as they were mounted archers and ill to with and they troubled and choked the Gargaphian spring, whence all the army of the Greeks drew its water. None indeed but the Lacedaemonians were posted near the spring, and it was far from the several stations of the other Greeks,


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1 Several streams flow N. or N.W. from Cithaeron, and unite eventually to form the small river Oeroe. Between two of these there is a long strip of land, which is perhaps


because they were barred from the Asopus. see the Introduction to this volume. who (say the people of the country) was the daughter of Asopus. 50. To that place then they planned to remove. 221 . whereas the Asopus was near but they would ever go to the spring. For some notice of controversy about the battlefield of . not being able to draw water from that river by reason of the horsemen and the arrows. vriffos Herodotus describes it. 51. by reason that the river in its course down from Cithaeron into the plain is parted into two channels. In this turn of off affairs. the generals of the Greeks betook themselves to Pausanias on the right wing. seeing that their army from water and disordered by the horsemen. and debated concernfor there were other ing this and other matters causes that troubled them more than what I have told they had no food left. and not be harmed by the . Persians delayed through that day to give battle. of Plataeae.BOOK IX. and their followers whom they had sent into the Peloponnese to bring provision thence had been cut off by the horsemenj and could not make their way to the army. 1 This is ten furlongs they would go to the Island. the as but it is not now actually surrounded by water. Plataeae. and in front of the town It is like to an island on dry land. distant from the Asopus and the Gargaphian spring. So they resolved in their council that if the was cut . that they might have water in plenty for their use. and there is about three furlongs' space between till presently the two channels unite again and the name of that river is Oeroe. . whereby their army then lay. 49-51 .

ovioi(ri dva\aj36vra$ rd O7r\a levai /card aX. rov Sr. TrepLcr^L^erat. ecrrl T?)9 rf)$ icprjvrjs rijs H\araiea)v.HERODOTUS axnrep KariQv eovrwv (JLeraKiveeaOai re Tore eiredv TT}? vvrcrbs rj Sevreprj <f)v\aKrj. AaK6$aifj. rov %wpov levai e'9 TOI^ avveO^/cavro. TLav(ravLr)<$ Se opwv crfyeas drra\\aa-ao/X6^OL>9 K rov o~rparoTre8ov 7rapijyy\\ Kal rolcrt. peovaa etc rov e? V7TO rrjv VVKTCL ravrTjv eSo/cee roi>9 fj/jitcreas arrocrre\\eiv rov arparorceSov rrpos rov KtQaipwva. 'Ayu-OyU0apT09 &6 o 222 roi>9 . o)9 <7(ea9 rapd&aoiev ol irnrorai. 7rpo(TK6i/j. Kal o't /J. vv/cros T/79 a>/??79 69 rr.6vr)<s T% rrovov arpvrov &>9 Se ?j ircrrees zrcercavvro. rj/jLeprjv Tavra rracrav (3ov\eucrdjjievoi. evOavra ol fjiev d\\OL dpnoi rjaav rwv ra^idp^cov \\avo-avly.^ T) 7^1/0^61/779 Kal eovarjs 69 avveKeiro crtyi drca\~\. favyovres Se dm/cveovTCU ercl ro"]:{patov ro $e rrpo 7/79 TTO\IO<. 777309 rr)v Se 0)9 GKivtfdria-av etyevyov acr/jievoi rrjv LTTTTOV Yl\araiewv rro\iv.Xov9 TOU9 rrpoiovras. vo/ALcras avrovs e<.da-creo-6ai. TOV %wpov 6*9 TOJ/ crvvefceiro ovtc ev vow e^ovre^f. elKocn araoiovs drco Fapya(f)ir)s drre^ov dmKOfjLei'Oi ^e eOevro rrpo rov Ipov rd 6rr\a.ev rrepl ro "Hpaiov e<rrparo7reBevovro. evOavra depOevres /ie^ 01 ol TroXXot dTra\\do~crovro. 77 vwv Be 'fie/0077 rov %wpov rovrov. a>9 ava\dBoiev TOU9 O7rew^a9 ' row eVl ra Girta rjcrav yap ev rw Keivrjv /nev rrjv LTTTTOV el^ov re rj/jieprj e\r)j KOL ol 52. 53. dv fjLrj ISoiaro ol Tlepcrai H^opfAWftevovs real cTro/^evot.

as now when they were face to face and they resolved to make their removal in the second watch of the night. 53. Having formed this design. then at that hour of the night whereat it was agreed that they should depart the most of them arose and took their departure. place whither they had agreed to go. all the rest of the captains being ready to obey .BOOK IX. they resolved that when they were come to that place. and piled their arms before the temple. seeing their departure from the camp. lest the Persians should see them setting forth and the horsemen press after them and disorder their array. twenty furlongs distant from the Gargaphian spring thither they came. and escaped to the town of Plataeae. 52. Amompharetus son of Poliades. and came in their flight to the temple of Here which is without that town. 51-53 . go to the place whereon they had agreed instead of that. . which is encircled by the divided channels of Asopus' daughter Oe'roe as she flows from Cithaeron. they would in that night send half of their army to Cithaeron. supposing that these were making for the Thereupon. gave orders to the Lacedaemonians to take up their arms likewise and follow after the others that went before. horsemen. Further. Pausanias. the leader 223 . all that day they suffered unending hardship from the cavalry that but when the day ended continually beset them . So they encamped about the temple of Here. to fetch away their followers who were gone to get the for these were cut off from them on provision Cithaeron. But Pausanias. not with intent to . and the horsemen ceased from troubling. once they were afoot they got quit to their great content of the horsemen.

peoiev ol ^TrapTiiJTai. Kal 01 fjiev Trapiyyopeov ^A/jLo^dpeTov teal TeyerjTecoi' /JLOV- vov AaKeSai/biovLwv re 'iva \e\ei p. ov 224 eireiBov. eiri%ei. wpa T a(f)ea<. TO Aa/cwviKov.0r)i>aioi Be eiroievv TOtdBe- eTa^O^a-av. 7re/ji- TTOV afyewv iTTTrea o-^ro^evov re el TropevecrQai. H? Be aTrirceTO 6 Krjpvt. KCLTCI xcoprjv T6Tay/jivovs e? veiKea BJJ dTTiyevov^ CLVTWV TOL/? TrcoTOf?. e? o . Beivov /J. *A. fj. C 55.r/ BiavoevvTai d7ra\\dcrcrcr@ai. el're KOL TO Tcapdirav p.fjievov. icelvov rai>T avaivofjievov.oviwv. ft><? yap TraprjyopeovTO TOP 'A{io/m<f)dpeTOV 6 re l^vpvdva^ Kal 6 TlavaavLij^ JJLTI KivBvveveiv ytteVoi//rco? ra? fiovvow? AaKe^aip.ii> &)? ov Tavra iroieetv. KOI o l&vpvdvaj.HERODOTUS yewv TOV TIiTavijTeayv \o%ou OVK 6(f)rj TOU? <$>ev%ea9ai ovBe CKWV elvai alcr'xyvieiv T^V %7rdprrjv. SeivoTepov Be eTi. edco/jia^e re opewv TO Tcoiev^evov are ov Trapa6 Se TlavaavLrjs re yevo/JLevos TOO Trporepay \6yw. e? TOI)? AafceBai/mo.?/o"t. Kal eTTeipwvTo TteiOovTes 54. /jirj rjv aTroXtVcocri TroieO^re? TCL a-vveQij- KCLVTO Tola i a\\oiori r/ EXX.6V eTroievvro TO fjurj TreL- 9ea6ai etcelvov <jivi. tiTro\riTai VTTO\GL//er' auro? re 'AyLtOya^apeTO? /cat ol TO avTov. a7ro\i7relv TOV \o^ov TOP IIiTavr)Tr]v. erricrTd/jievoi el%ov aTpefia^ cr<ea? ra AarceBai- to? Be eKivrfQrj TO aTpctTOTreBov. eTreipecfdaL re IIai>- aaviriv TO XP eoi> e ^7 Troieeiv.

For Fitana v. . the whole business seemed strange to him. Pausanias and Euryanax liked little enough that Amompharetus should disobey them but they misliked yet more that his refusing should compel them to abandon the Pitanate battalion for they feared that if they fulfilled their agreement with the rest of the Greeks and abandoned him. 20) denies the existence of a as a formal part of the Spartan army. 53-55 of the Pitanate 1 battalion. But when the army removed from its place. VOL. they held the Laconian army unmoved. they sent a horseman of their own who should see if the Spartans were essaying to march or if they were wholly without any purpose of departure. refused to flee from the strangers or (save by compulsion) bring shame on Sparta. and their chief men by now in hot dispute. As for the Athenians. it is not clear what Herodotus means. and should ask Pausanias withal what the Athenians must 55. in. 55. they could in no 1 Thucydides (1. they stood unmoved at their post.BOOK IX. and strove to persuade Amompharetus that he did not aright. IV. well knowing that the purposes and the promises of Lacedaemonians were not alike. For though Euryanax and Pausanias reasoned with Amompharetus. arid his men would be left behind to perish. . When the messenger was come to the Lacedaemonians. he being the only man left behind of all the Lacedaemonians and Tegeans.125 i . do. Thus considering. for he had not been present in the council lately held. So they reasoned with Amompharetus. he saw them arrayed where they had been. Amompharetus . that the Lacedaemonians should not be imperilled by abiding there alone. 54.

ar/fji'tjvas dirrpye 3ta rwv KO\(JL>VWV TOW? XO^TTOU? Traz^ra?' eiVoz/TO Be xal 'Adrjvaloi Be 70.TW TpafyOevTes e? TO 57. <$>pevr)pea Kakewv etcelvov. 6 l KOL 6 /crjpu^ veutewv Be KOI Tt$ei9 Trpo rroBcov TWV Ylava-aview o Be fiaivo^evov KOI ov \eycov TOU? fiapjSdpovs.ev jap rwv re o^Owv dvTei%ovro TOV KiQaipwvos '' (frofBeo}JLvoi rrjv ITTTTOV. *A. KQj]valoi Be KO.0r)vai(i)V Trpocr^coprjaai. ev ii^. ra Srj real eyevero. re Trpo? rji^e. dva\a{36vra TOV 226 ^ . re eayvrovs KOL nroieeiv Trepl TJ}? djroBov rd Trep av KOI 56. Kal &e ' o /nev a7raXXao~o~eTO e? rou? 67rel KaT6\dfjL/3ave.o/z</)apeTO? Be dp^rjv ye ovBafia Borcewv ToK^creLV (Kpeas aTroXiTrelv. /caraSo^a? avTOvs Werj T%vrj aTToXeiTretv avTov.HERODOTUS e? veifced 9 re o-v/jbirecrovTes cnr'ucaTo Kdrjvaiwv TrapicrraTo a$i d-myfjievo^. Trepiei- avTov fievovTas etcKnrelv TTJV Ta^iv TrpoBe TWV GVV Havcravir). dvaKpivo^vov^ TTyoo? ecovrovs TOVTW T&> %povq> ' ov So/cewv TOV A/jio/ji<f)dpTov rwv d\\a)V AafceSai/jLOviwv dTTocrTei^ovrwv. TMV 'A. 77/309 re TOV 'K6r)vaiov eTreipcoTwvTa ra evreTaXfieva \eyeiv 6 K6\eve ra irapeovra o~<f)i TrpijyjuLara.^(6 evre<s rjicrav TCL efjiTraXw 77 o'i /J.

BOOK IX. but not by the same way as the Lacedaemonians. Now Amompharetus at first supposed that Pausanias would never have the heart to leave him and his men. 57. wise prevail with him. But when dawn found the dispute still continuing. when the Athenian messenger came among them. and prayed them to join themselves to the Lacedaemonians and do as they did in respect . the Tegeans following. of departure. The Athenians set themselves in array and marched. Pausanias called him a madman and distraught then the Athenian messenger putting the question wherewith he was charged. who clung close to the broken ground and the lower slopes of Cithaeron. but the Athenians marched down into the all Pausanias having this now gave the word and . earnest. and so bidding his battalion take up its 227 . crying that it was his pebble wherewith he voted against fleeing from the strangers (meaning thereby the foreigners). plain instead. So the messenger went back to the Athenians. he bade the man tell the Athenians of his present condition. he deemed that they had left him in good . led all the rest away between the hillocks. and at the . for he supposed that Amompharetus would not stay behind when the rest of the Lacedaemonians left him and indeed such was the event. to escape from the Persian horse. 55-57 last. time held his army halted. and he was instant that they should remain where they were and not quit their post but when Pausanias' men went forward on their way. hot words began to pass and in this wrangling Amompharetus took up a stone with both hands and cast it down before Pausanias' feet. 56.

eirei cr^ea? e'See Trpo? TOL/? dplcrrovs dv0pa)7ra)v /^d^y oiaKpiOr/vai.' ererd^aro o 'A^Oyu^a/aeTO? T6 KOI avrov jmevcocri. u/zet? 70-^ ot 7rX7?crio%ft)/30t \eyeT Aa/ceeivai &ai[JLOviov<. TO.epr]cn.HERODOTUS TO. ov (frevyeiv e'/c fid^i]^. r\\avvov TOU? ITTTTOU? aid TO irpoaw KOI 58. TOVTOVS Tolai TL /cal ffvvySeare' 'Apra/Sd^ou QwfjLa Kal /jiuXXov eTTOievfJLTjv TO real 228 TroXXrj . iSovres 8e TOV %wpov K&LVOV eV rw ererd^aro ol "EXA/^e? rfjcn. pov o G V TO) aAA. oTrXa r)ye ftdSrjv TT/OO? TO aXXo <7Tt</>o? TO Be aTT\0bv ooov re $Ka (TTciSia dvefjLeve TOV Xo^oi'. e tycoprj/ca KOI TOL? a avTov ^vpvjrvXov KOI QpacrvSijiov eprj/^a .V a iv it] 8e Tov&e e'lveKd. /cal t/yat^ yu-ei^ eouat Tlepcrecov 6/c ye efjiev eyiveTo avyyvcio/jL'rj. Trporeprjcri. UTTO vvrcra elBe re TOV %a)pov TOV Aiypicratov 'AXei. i]p. i^u^ Te UTTO vvKTa KOI ol irdvTes opwp^ev re. /3or)0eoi OTTLCTW Trap* 1 KOL 01 re dfji(f)l rbv Afj. 7ro\e/jna rrpcoTovs' TOL>? irpoTepov etc aXXa avSpas T/)I^ re fieTiaraTrapoi T^? Ta^o? et^eTe. irepl Trora/jibv MoXoe^Ta rfj KOL A?/yU7^Tyoo9 &\.ect).cri KVVCLTO. OTL f/ a/?a eovres ev ovSa/Aoiffi 6oOcri EXX?. 'iva r]\> /z^ <$ 'ApyioTTiov ' re %Mpov I Ka\6o/jii>ov. TWV ftap/Sdpwv Trpocrefceiro ol yap /TTTTOTat eiroievv olov teal ea)0crav aleL.o/ji(j)dperoi> TrapeywovTo KOI r) TTTTTO? 7.

and all other Greeks likewise. and said . who were in some velled much more sort known to you at Artabazus. sons of Aleuas deserted ? for you. halting by the stream MoloTs and the place called Argiopium. if Amompharetus and his battalion should not leave the place where it was posted but abide there still. where is set a shrine of Eleusinian Demeter. that but I marhe should be . than they plainly showed that they are men of no Now you account. ever told say. 229 . and I could readily pardon you for praising these fellows. IX. The reason of their waiting was that. 57-58 arms he led it at a foot's pace after the rest of the column which having gone as far as ten furlongs away was waiting for Amompharetus. they rode ever forward and attacked the Greeks as soon as they overtook them.BOOK . and now you and all of us see that they have fled away in the night that is past no sooner must they measure themselves in battle with those that are in very truth the bravest on earth. see this place neighbours. he called to him Thorax of Larissa and his brothers Eurypylus and Thrasydei'us. and when they saw no enemy on the ground where the Greek array had been on the days before this. they might return and succour him. who ! when you me . yet these same men you lately saw changing from their post. When Mardonius learnt that the Greeks had departed under cover of night. : " What will you now are their that Lacedaemonians fled from no battlefield and were surpassing masters of war . No sooner had Amompharetus' men come up than the foreigners' cavalry attacked the army for the horsemen did according as they had ever been wont. and saw the ground deserted. 58. for your part were strangers to the Persians.

67T6i^ T viov<$ T6 teal Teyer^Ta? /JLOVVOVS' e? TO ireSiov VTTO TMV o^Ocov ov Vlepaas Se o/jco^Te? opytt^/xe^ou? Sico/ceiv ot \OL7Tol TWV ftapfiapitc&v re\ea)v avrifca Trdvres i]eipav ra crrjfjL^ia. erepaiOi tcrrai \6yos.e0a e? dpiara Trepi- (TT\\tv aXX^Xou?. TroLr](Tav 59. TTeyUTra? 7T30? TOU? 'nnrea Xe^/ei TaSe.a/A(f)0evT6<. co? %peov etrj dva^ev^avras TO ov levai e? TO r>]V r)/3aiwv d&rv TroXioprcr)- eri. Swaovai yfuv S/.lv vvv Be. TT poSefto p." 7)76 TOU? Tle^cra? Spof^w SiaKCLTO..HERODOTUS ^ Ka-rappoy^ijcravrd re a SetXoTaT/7i>. KOI e/cacrTot el^ov. ""A^Syoe? 'AOrjvatoi. ovre ovev vSevl 60. TO evOevTev TO Troi^reov IIIMV d/JLvvo/JLevovs <ydp 7rj Svvd[j. a\\a SiwKreoi elal e? 6 KaTa\. a>9 CO? Koa-fjLfievTes ovre /3ofj Kal OVTOL jJLev re Kal 6/uLi\a) 7TpO(T6KiTO ?} tTTTTO?.ei'Tjv vvKTa SiaSpdvTWV. et yuez^ I^L^ vp.e6'a t/Tro TCOZ/ T o/ Aa/ceSai/jiovioi /cal u/iet? o/ A07]valoL VTTO rrjv TrapoL^o/^. vvv Se e/cei- TavTa TTOievcn OUK eiTLrpemea earl.evov e\ev6eprjv elvai rrjv 77 'EXXac^a. 7rpoKi/j. 777)0? efjiev KOI TOVTWV VOKJL fjiev ftaaiXevs Trevaerai. e? 7/yaea? 7ap avracra 230 . vvv wv SeSoKrai. TaOra etVa? Tlep&as TTCLVTWV St/ca?. TOV 'AcrtoTrov ari^ov rwv < CO? Bl] d7TO$l$pr)(Tfc6l>T(i)V.

we Lacedaemonians and you Athenians have been betrayed by the flight Now thereof our allies in the night that is past. sent a horseman to the Athenians. . of which advice the king shall yet learn from me. as though they would utterly make an end of the Greeks but Pausanias. With that. no battalion having order in its ranks nor place assigned in the line. If the cavalry had attacked you first. : "Men of Athens. and were out of his sight. and march away to be beleaguered in Thebes . with this message . when the cavalry attacked him. So they ran pell-mell and shouting. 58-60 so sore affrighted by the Lacedaemonians as to give us a craven's advice to strike our camp. we must not suffer our enemies to do as they desire they must be pursued till they be overtaken and pay the penalty for all the harm they have wrought the . seeing that the whole to succour you .BOOK IX. supposing that they were in flight it was the army of Lacedaemon and Tegea alone that was his goal for the Athenians marched another way over the broken ground. it had been for us and the Tegeans with us. but now. This shall be matter for speech elsewhere but now. . 60. he led the Persians at speed across the Asopus in pursuit of the Greeks. who are faithful to Hellas. 231 . ." 59. . Persians. fore I am resolved what we must forthwith do we must protect each other by fighting as best we can. Seeing the Persians setting forth in pursuit of the Greeks. each at the top of his speed. the rest of the foreign battalions straightway raised their standards and pursued likewise. in this great issue which must give freedom or slavery to Hellas.

StKaioi e<TT u/xet? 77/909 rrjv el ad\iaTa TWV fioipewv d/Avveovres levai> & apa vs u/^ea? KaTa\e\d/3r)Ke dSvvarov vrro TI fto OeaOe. wcrre BuvacrOat. Taura KOA. ra <JL'yu/9aX. 01 ^AOrjvaloi.eo^T69 MapSoz'ttt) /cal ou yap <ji eyivero ra a(j)dyia xprja-rd. eTrnrrov Be avrwv ev rovrw 7ro\\ol teal TToXXo) 'jT\evve^ erpwiJia yap vdnv TO." 61. avvoi^ajjiev 8e V/JLLV TOV Trapeoina 7TOX\01> TTO\e^JLOV eOVCTl real ravra eaatcoveiv. e a)? yap rj irapeovur]. yeppa ol Ylepcrau aTTiecrav TWV d<j)ei$ea>s. op/iearo teal crcfri ?/ ra ^aXiaia ewr ai eirajjivveiv' ol avrira^Oevr^ vwv TWV \V7T6. /JL6TCL /5acriXeo? ryevojjievwv. TauTa . (Bo^dijcraL' TO 761/3 TrpocrKeifJievov OVTW $7} Teye/jrat. OVTCO ware 2^TTapTL7]Te(i)v teal rwv crfyayiwv ov TroXAa yivo- d7roj3\e\}ravTa TOV TO H\aTaiewi> irpos TO 7riKa\ecraa-8ai TTJV 6ebv. ^\avaavi^v T7/9 62. dpiO/jiov o? /iei> pioi TejefJTai Be Tpia"%i\ioi (ovroi CITTO AaKeSai/jLovicov).HERODOTUS pt]Ke. a>9 eirvdovro. e'o^re? jJLOVVwO eVT<S AaK&aifjLOVlOl KOI cru^ tyiXolcn. 8' eVt TOUTOU e7riKa\eo/Aevov irpoTepoi ol TeyeiJTai e^aypeov 9 TOU9 Kal Tolcri Aa/ce^ai/movioiai avri/ca 232 .

. While he yet prayed. When the Athenians heard that. and shot showers of arrows innumerable). as may be. wherefore they could now send no aid. befallen you whereby it is impossible that you should aid us. three thousand and they offered sacrifice. as knowing that you have been by far more zealous than all others in this present war. the better to join battle with Mardonius and the army that was with him." 61. yet do us the service of sending us your We are assured that you will hearken to us. 60-62 brunt of their assault falls on us. aught has hardest pressed. who had joined themselves to the king. archers. Pausanias lifted up his eyes to the temple of Here at Plataeae and called on the goddess. they essayed to succour the Lacedaemonians and defend them but when their march was with all their might already begun they were set upon by the Greeks posted over against them. it is right that you should come to the aid of that division which is But if. . praying that they might nowise be disappointed of their hope. and in the meanwhile many of them were slain and by far more wounded (for the Persians set up their shields for a fence. who had never been parted from the Lacedaemonians. 62. . that. being troubled by the foe that was closest. there were of the Lacedaemonians fifty thousand and of the Tegeans. it was so. the Spartans being hard pressed and their sacrifices of no avail. the men of Tegea leapt out before the rest and charged the foreigners and immediately after Pausanias' prayer the sacrifices of .BOOK IX. Thus it was that the Lacedaemonians and Tegeans stood alone men-at-arms and light-armed together. 233 . But as they could get no favourable omen from their sacrifices.

Kal 7r\evve<$ re Kal eXdaaoves avo~rp6(j)6- ecreTrnrTOV TOV? STrart^ra? Kal 63. eyivero be Trpwrov ra yeppa /Jid^rj. eyivero r] /^d^(rj la-^vpr) Trap" avro TO teal TO.V HaVGaVir)? 6 K. ovra) Srj ol aXXoi erpajrovTo Kal el^av roicri AaKe 7T\elcrrov yap o-0ea? eBq\eero rj eovcra OTT\WV irpos yap oTrXtTa? eovres es dycova eTTOLevvro. r] Xp-t-jcrT/jpiov re BLKT) rov AecovlBeco Kara TO ^TraprnJTya-i IK MapBoviOv 7T6T6Xe6To. KOI ol Hepcrai irepl ra ro^a /terevTes. jrpoe%at(ja-ov'TS e? Be KCLT* eva Kal 8eKa. ravrrj Be Kal fjid\LcrTa TOU? evavTiovs eirLeaav.evov eov Icr^vporarov eVeo-e. a LTTTTOV re ytta^o/xe^o? \GVKOV e^cov re irepl ewvTov \oyd8as Tlepcrecov rov9 dpicrTOVs %i\lov<$. 'EvQavra Tolcru (TeCdV TWV l}/jLLS l8/J. Kal OVTOL etrl TOI>? Tlepcras. ocrov vvv %povov MapBovios TrepLrjv. ol Tlepcrai. rolau evavr .\O/jL/3pOTOV rov 'Ava^avBpiBew 2 34 rcov Be KarvrrepOe ol Trpoyo- . w? Be ravra eVeTrraj/cee.HERODOTUS TO. fJiiv vvv Kal pcofirj OVK rjcreoves fldpftapoi. Kal vLKrjv dvaipcerai Ka\\iar'r]v aTra64. Tfj Se GTvy^ave auro? ecbv Ma/oSowo?. rrjv ev^rjv Trjv Tlavcraviecs) eyivero a(f)dyia ^prjarrd' o>? Be %p6v(d Kore eyevero. y xpovov 7rl iro\\ov e? o airiKovTO e? a yap Sopara eiri\afji^avofJLevoi /careK\cov ol \ijpaTt. avo7r\OL Se e'oi/re? KOI TT/?O? rjcrav Kal OVK Ofioiot. o'l Be avTetyov d/uivvo/^evoL Kare{3a\\ov vroXXou? rcoy Aa/ce viwv w? Be MapBovios cnreOave Kal TO nrepl eKelvov Tray/j.

there they pressed their adversaries hardest. therewaxed fierce and long about the temple of Demeter itself. For what chiefly wrought them harm was that they wore no armour over their raiment. Where Mardonius was himself. they too charged the Persians. themselves. they would rush out singly and in tens or in groups great or small. the Lacedaemonians grew to be favourable which being at last vouchsafed to them. 62-64 . hurling themselves on the Spartans and so perishing. but they had no armour. overthrowing many Lacedaemonians but when Mardonius was slain and his guards. So long as Mardonius was alive the Persians stood their and broke them for the foreigners short. Now laid hold of the spears ground and defended . and moreover they were unskilled and no match for their adversaries in craft. and the most glorious of victories ever known to men was won by Pausanias. and the Persians met them. then the rest too yielded and gave ground before the men of Lacedaemon. 63.BOOK IX. and fought as it were naked against men fully armed. (I have named the . fallen likewise. . riding a white horse in the battle and surrounded by a thousand picked men who were the flower of the Persians. till they grappled and fence of shields . the son of Cleombrotus. throwing away their bows. who was the son of Anaxandrides. according to the oracle. who were the strongest part of the army. And first they fought for the after the battle and when that was down. thrust the Persians were neither the less valorous nor the weaker . 64. On that day the Spartans gained from Mardonius their full measure of vengeance for the slaying of Leonidas.

'Ei> Be ITXarai^cri ol Ilepaai w? erpaTrovro VTTO TWV AaKeBai/jLovicDv.evo<..HERODOTUS <r<f)i ovi'6/Jiara etprjrai e? AewviBijv wvrol jap drroOvi'iaKei be Ma/36rvy%dvovcri eovres.a Be fjioi OKOH.acri rolai eK NLap- BOVLOV rroievfjievouji. OKWS irdvras rfj av auTO? e^rjye'rjrai. 65. ?} ^609 avrri afyeas OVK eBe/cero efjurpricravra^ TO ipov TO ev 'EXev&ivi dvdtcropov. ei n rrepl rwv 6eLu>v rrprf'yfjidrwv SoKeetv Bel.^Tpo? TO ovSe et? etyavt] TWV TIepa-ecov ovre eae\0wv e? TO re/Jievos ovre evaTroOavwv. e/ieXXe d7ro/3i]crea0ai drro T^9 /jLa^r}^. irapa Tr}? A?^ a. 66. y Be. l OVK dpeaKo^evos jrp^j/j.6 ev *TWK\r)p(p TTO\/JLOV Trdai. TO.Xw errecrov. TOU9. ravra 236 . 'A/OT'/3ab9 Be 6 Qapvdfceos avritca re OVK r)p<TKero Kar dp^a^ 1 \eirr o/nevov MapBoviov diro (3ao~i\eos. Avrrj /jiev vvv rj /J*d%r) eVl rovovro eyevero. i>409 vrro 'Aei/JLVijcrrov dvBpo? ev ^Trdprrj \oyifiov. rovTI crv/jifto'kr) eyuvero. r^ye KanjprijjuievtoS. Trapayyefaas Kara ra>vro lev at. OVK ewv' eiroi'Tjae re avros roidBe a>? rolat. 09 XP V(P varepov fierd rd Mf/oWa e^wv dvBpas va)v rd avve/3a\. rwv earrparSyyee 6 Aprd/3a- OVK [ivpidBas dv0pa)Trwv Trepi ewvrov). e<pevyov ovBeva KOO-/ULOV e? TO (TTpaTOTre&ov TO eaivTwv KOI e? TO Tet^o? TO %v\ivov TO CTroitfaavTO ev ^oiprj ry fj. OKCOS av avrov opwcri Q-TrovBrjs e%ovra. Trepi re BoKeo) TO ipbv ol ir\el(rroi ev rw /Se/3. ev e^7rt<Trdjj. Kal rore <rvfjL(3d\\eiv rro\\a drrayopevwv ovBev ijvve. teal auro? re djredave KOI o Tpirjrcocrioi.

for that they had burnt her temple. and now all his counselling not to join battle had been of no and in his displeasure at what Mardonius was avail doing he himself did as I will show. . 237 . IX. 65. 64-66 of Pausanias' ancestors in the lineage of Leonidas for they are the same for both. even as many as forty thousand men knowing well what would be the event of the battle. And herein is a marvellous thing. no sooner had the Greeks and Persians met than he led these with purpose fixed. He had with O him a great army. he and his three hundred. Thus far then went this battle. . the shrine at Eleusis. according to whatsoever they should see to be his intent and with that command he made pretence . . But at Plataeae. he was slain by Aeimnestus. But Arta66. the Persians being routed by the Lacedaemonians fled in disorder to their own camp and within the wooden walls that they had made in the lands of Thebes. and was there slain. . . a Spartan of note who long after the Persian business did in time of war lead three hundred men to battle at Stenyclerus against the whole army of Messenia. bidding them follow him all together whither he should lead them.BOOK rest . or entered into it most of them fell near the temple in unconif it be not a sin to secrated ground and I judge judge of the ways of heaven that the goddess herself denied them entry. bazus son of Pharnaces had from the very first misliked the king's leaving Mardonius.) As for Mardonius. that though the battle was hard by the grove of Demeter there was no sign that any Persian had been slain in the precinct.

67./jLioi(TL e<f>6wyov. efyewyov ^/3a5. avrwv 65 A0r)vai(0v. el KOI Tore OVTOI Trplv rj KOI avfjLfjiL^ai Tolcn 7ro\. ovTO) re Traz/re? ef pav tjprrjTO Be alei T6 TT? T d\\rs KOL ToaavTa TTyOOcrax^eXee TOV<$ ?rpo5 T&V TroXeyu-tcoz/ dy^LUTa eovaa d TG TOV<. OL viK&VTes C'ITTOVTO TOU5 S Tto T Ka ()OVei>OVTS. ' /JLGV ravrrj erpaTrovro' Kebvrwv BoiWTol ol ovrot. yap /jLr]$i%ovTes TWV Qrjfiaioov. T5 irpwroi KOI dpiaroi evOavra eirevov VTTO w? Be erpdirovTO KOI OVTOI. OVTW WCTTC Tpirj/cocrioi. Brj Trporepewv Be oSoO OVTCO Br) Mpa Kal <pevyoi>Tas rot/? Hepcra^' TTJV Ta^tcrT?. V Be TOVTfp TeTayfJLtvoio-L Tr}5 Trepl /Lta^5. Kat Bi] ovroi. Ar.Xoi re /AOL ort irdvra Ylepa-ewv. OTL KCU TOL/5 IIe/0(7a5 wpwv. KCLI ' 'A0T)vaioicri.HERODOTUS 7776 Sfjdev TOV crrparov.iov<$ (frevyovTas avro TWV ITTTTOV pel' brj 69. OT* TO "Hpaiov Kal dirofj^d^rj re yeyove 238 . d\\d eV/9o^ae <pevya)v ovre e? TO %v\ivov i](3ai(i)V Tet^o? aX. <f)C\./' ovre e? TO OVK6TL TOV aVTOV KOa/JLOV KaT7jyTO. el"ov TroOvjLiv OVK OL o<rv iaoievo T6 OVK eQeXoKa/ceovres.X' TOI> e'? <J>co/<:ea5. teal rwv ov&evl ovre n rd /c 68. ov rfj Trep ol Hepcrai.

and had no will to fight slackly. achieved any feat of arms. For those Thebans that took the Persian part showed no small zeal in the battle. proves to me that it was on the Persians that all the fortune of the foreigners hung. not by the way that the Persians had fled and all the multitude of the allies. . because they saw the Persians flee. who lay at the temple of Here and had kept away from the fight. . pursuing and slaying. 69. 68. and shielded its friends from the Greeks in their flight. that so he might make his way with all despatch to the Hellespont. But as he came farther on his way he saw the Persians already fleeing whereat he led his men no longer in the same array. So Artabazus and his army turned that way. 239 . In this rout that grew apace there came a message to the rest of the Greeks.BOOK of leading IX. 67. that there had been a . Thus they all fled. save only the cavalry. but took to his heels and fled with all speed not to the wooden fort nor to the walled city of Thebes. But at last the Boeotians too yielded and they fled to Thebes. Boeotian and other which did in so far advantage the fleeing men as it kept ever between them and their enemies. All the rest of the Greeks that were on the king's but not so the side fought of set purpose ill Boeotians they fought for a long time against the Athenians. a multitude that had fought 110 fight to the end nor . So the Greeks followed in victory after Xerxes' men. . This flight of theirs ere they had even closed. insomuch that three hundred of their first and best were there slain by the Athenians. 66-69 them to battle. but to Phocis.

OL T)[JLVVOVTO AaKeBaiftoi'icov wcrre OVK eTricrTa/. reA. Te auTJ^s Kal TI^V (fcdTvrjv TWV LTTTTOJV eovcrav JJLGV vvv 240 . ovBeva Ta%0ei>Tes. OVTO) Bij lo")(ypri eyivero w Tr\eov el^ov TWV Kal xpovov \LTrapirj I'lpiTTOv errl TroXX-ov. T&v LTTirdp^ 6 TifJudvSpov. ol Bid T/}? vTrwperjs K. Kal TTJV aKi]vr]v ol SiapTcdcravTes. ol Be dfJL^l Meyapeas re Kal Ipov T>}? Wv TOV KOI BLCL Be ^tordr^v TWV oBwv. a>9 Be Hepa-ai Kal 6 aXXo? KaTe^vyov e? TO %V\LVOV ret^o?.i/6?. OVTOL fjiev Brj ev ov&evl \6yay dTT(D\ovTO' ol o/itX-o?. TO. ^e efypd^avTO ' a)? rjBvveaTO dpicrTa TO Trpoo~e\6ovT(t)v Be TWV S* yap <JLTCY](JCLV o ijvaoi. e^Qiqaav errl rovs rrvpyovs Trplv TJ TOU? AaKeBai/AOviovs drriKeaOai.iva)v Teixojna%eeiv' &>? Be Trpo(Tr)\6ov. rovs Be XoiTroi/? KaT)jpa$. ecTTrecro^re? Be /carecrropeo'av e^aKoa-'iovs. 70.HERODOTUS ol fjLGTa TlavaavLew' Kocrfjiov o'l Be ravra.av Biw/covres e? rov Li9aipwva.0ov Tr]v MapBoviov OVTOL rjaav e a\\a TeyefjTat e? TO Tet^o?. ay^ov TWV iro^ep-iMv EJLVOVTO ol Meyapee? real ol TWV r](3ai(i)v cr<^ea? TOV TreBiov rrjv ovBeva KOG/JLOV ijXavvov CTT' aurou? TOU? ITTTTOV?.opiv0Lov<s erpaTTOVTO TTJV tyepovcrav avw . ret^eo? Trp&TOi Be ecrri\.o? Be dpeTrj re eTrefiijaav TT) Brj 'Adrjvaloi r/ TOV eae^eovTo ol EXX7.

by the road that led upward straight to the temple of Demeter. and they that were with the Megariaris and Phliasians following the levelest way over the But when the Megarians and Phliasians plain. by which onfall they laid six hundred of them low. they set forth in no ordered array.BOOK IX. But at the last the Athenians did by valour and steadfast endeavour scale the wall and breach it. by which breach the Creeks poured in . the first to enter were the Tegeans. were come near to the enemy. So these perished. The Tegeans dedicated . thev having no skill in the assault of walls but when the Athenians came up. that was all of bronze and a thing worth the beholding. and rode at them . they made a shift to get them up on the towers before the coming of the Lacedaemonians. taking from it beside all else the manger of his horses. they that were with the Corinthians keeping to the spurs of the mountain and the hill country. For as long as the Athenians were not there. the fight for the wall waxed hot and continued long. when the Persians and the rest of the multitude had fled within the wooden wall. . battle and that Pausanias' men were victorious which when they heard. and pursued and swept the rest to Cithaeron. the Theban horsemen (whose captain was Asopodorus son of Timander) espied them approaching in haste and disorder. the foreigners defended themselves. which done they strengthened the wall as best they could and when the Athenians were now arrived there began a stiff battle for the wall. and it was they who plundered the tent of Mardonius. none regarding them. 69-70 . and had greatly the advantage of the Lacedaemonians. But 70. 241 .

ITTTTOS Se rj ^afcecov. eyvwaav 1 of These figures must refer to the 6ir\1rai alone. * Xecr^. 6? f/ rwvro. Teyerjrewv Be eKtcai&eKa.7rdprr)<.? o? yevotro avrwv apicrros.X?. l dyadwv <y6VOfj.Be rpet? ^tXtaSa? TrepiAaKeSai/JLOi'Loov Se rwv GK ^L.f) el? teal djredavov ol rrdvres evein']Kovra. Kal apicrros eyevero paicpw 'AptcrToS?/yao? Kara yvw/jLas ra? 09 eK epfJLOTrv\ewv ^JLOVVO^ r&v rpirjel%e oveiSos KOL ari^-l^v. ecnjveitcav rol<n ovBev eri <rrl(j)0^ Trecro^ro? rov ret%eo?.vcov teal *Adrivaiwv. leaving out account the Lacouiau irfpiontoi and the rest of the light- 242 .ovroi TOUS KOT ewvrovs rb Ia"%vp6repov Trpoa- rjveixQrjcrav Kal rovrwv eKpdrrjcrav. (ajravres yap ori Be Kara V7repej3d\ovro apery p. 'HptcTTeucre Be rwv fiapftdpwv Tre^o? fjiev 6 Tlepo-ecov. rwv reacrepcov ra? ^X wv 'A/oraySa^o? \oi7recov yu-r. 71. ev rf) (rv[*/3o'\. ovbe rt? CLVTWV a\vKra^6i> re ola ev 0X170) re Kal iro\\ai Be {3dp/3apoi pevai.crt. (f)ov6veiv OVTCI) ware rpn']Kovra . Kairoi yevo. nrep MapSoviov dveOeaav e? rbv ra Se d\\a e\a^ov. a\\w eviKwv). avOpwTTwv' Trapr^v re /jivpidScov crrparov. fjuera $e rovrov rjpicrrevcrav TLocreiBoovios re Kal <$>I\OKVU>V Kal A/uLO[jL(f)dperos 6 ^Traprnjn^. dvijp 8e \ejerau r)vwv Se. 'AQrjvaiwv $e Svo Kal rrevrt]Kovra. ova ol EA.ev ovSevl e^a> avrocr?.HERODOTUS ravrrjv vr]bv TT}? 'AXe?7<? rrjv ' AOrjvalrjS Teyerjrai.

and question who had borne himself . According to my judgment. for the foreigners.BOOK this IX. 231. as men hunted down in a narrow space where many myriads were herded together and such a slaughter were the Greeks able to make. is (for all was Aristodemus.300 Greeks fell at 243 . he that bore himself by far the best celled all in valour. fifty-two. Among the foreigners they that fought best were the Persian foot and the horse of the Sacae. Plataea. and of men. armed Plutarch troops. 1 Cp. seventeen and of the Athenians. that remained after Artabazus had fled with his forty thousand. it is said. who had been reviled and dishonoured for being the only man of the three hundred that came alive from Thermopylae a and the next after him in valour were Posidonius and Nevertheless when Philocyon and Amompharetus. the bravest was Mardonius among the Greeks. says that 60. but the Lacedaemonians ex. as did the rest of the Greeks. but they were crazed with panic fear. that of two hundred and sixty thousand. . and overcame it. Of the Lacedaemonians from Sparta there were slain in the battle ninety-one in all . the Tegeans and Athenians bore themselves gallantly. there was talk. Of this my only clear proof these vanquished the foes opposed to them) that the Lacedaemonians met the strongest part of the army. temple of Athene Alea all common else that they took they brought into the As stock. they drew no more to a head once the wall was down. . 1 71. of the Tegeans. vii. scarce three thousand were left alive. 70-71 in the manger of Mardonius .

OL /jLi> efjid^ovro. ru>v diroOavovrwv ev ri/uot eyevovro' 'ApicrToBrj/iios Be diroOavelv Bid rr]v /3ofXoyuei/o? ravrrj rfj /xa%f7 OVK eTlfJL1]07}. Ae/ceXea)i> Be rwv /core epyacra/Jievoyv epyov %PI'](TI/JLOV e? rov rrdvra ^povov. 72. evBoKL/jirjcrai S K Brjfjiov AefceXeijdev. o 8' ' KOI Brj e^evrjveiy/Aevos eBvcrOavaree re KOI e\eye TT/DO? Apifjbvrjtrrov dvBpa lilXaraiea ov /j.? yap e^co T/}? direOave. OVTOL {lev T&V ev YlXaraifjori. tcaTrjfjievos ev rfj aXXa KOI r&v d\\wv rj w^aTiaOr] ro^v/j. /xeydXa. o eyevovro. aXX' on OVK e^pr/aaro rfj X ei P^ Ka ^ Tl/ o^Bev earl ol diroBeBey/jievov epyov ecovrov d^iov AQijvai&v Be \eyerat. ekOcov dvrjp :aXXtcrro9 e? TO cnpa Tore 'EXX?^^)^. ov JJLOVVOV avrfov AafceBai'EXX?. yap 244 Brj TO TraXat Kara 'EXe^? KOjmiBrjvTvvBapiBai . (T(j)ayideTO Havcraviijs.HERODOTUS ol Trapayevo/Jievoi ^rraprirjrewv 'ApicrroBrj/uiov fjie ol alrirjs.e\iv ol orL rrpo r?y? 'EXXaSo? drroOvi'icrKei. d\\a ravra KOL <f>Q6v(p av eiiroiev OVTOL Be rovs Trdvres. a>? 73.^*)^' 09.ov.arL rd ir\evpd. \vcro~wvrd re KOI eK\eirrovra rrjv epya drroBe^acrOai. KaXXi/^yoar?. w? avrol ^AOrjvaloi Xeyovai. 6 ' EuTu^tSew. Tr\i-)V 'ApiaToBij/j. TIoaeiBcoviov Be ov /3ov\6/jL6VOV drro6vi](TKeiv dvBpa yevecr&at dya&ov TOGOVTW TOVTOV eli'di dfjieivw.

1 sister 45 . when Pausanias was offering sacrifice. at Plataeae. 73. save only Aristodemus he. for all his eager desire so to do. These won the most renown of Callicrates is all that fought . who had been carried off to Aphidnae in Attica by Theseus and Pirithous. or Greek. none. He. saying to Arimnestus. 71-73 most bravely. . a man of the township of Decelea that Decelea whose people once did a deed that was for all time serviceable. because he desired death by reason of the reproach afore-mentioned. received . he was carried out of the battle and died a lingering death. those Spartans that were there judged that Aristodemus had achieved great feats because by reason of the reproach under which he lay he plainly wished to die. Of the Athenians. that it was no grief to him to die for Hellas' sake his sorrow was rather that he had struck no blow and achieved no deed worthy of his merit. 72. to the army. when he came . . a Plataean. and so pressed forward in frenzy from his post. Sophanes son of Eutychides is said to have won renown. aye. was wounded in the side by an arrow where he sat in his place and while his comrades were fighting. not died away from the battle. According to legend. For of old when as the Athenians themselves say. was the goodliest Lacedaemonian. but all the aforesaid who said of mere jealousy were slain in that fight received honour. the sons of Tyndarus strove to win Helen l back and . in the Hellas of that day. the Dioscuri came to recover their Helen. and must in so This they may have far be held the better man. among them for he he that. whereas Posidonius had borne himself well with no desire to die.BOOK IX.

aivovTa nrepl <r(f)i irdar) rfj e^Tjyrjardfjievov TO TTCLV KarrjjTJcracrdai. OVK v7re^eK6LTo // 'EXez^. ayfcvpav rrjv 6Va)9 TreXacre^e dTrLKve6[Aevo<$ roLat 7ro\e/jLioi(ri /BaXXecrKero. O\\TIV 'AmKrjv TOU ' Aa/ceSai/jLovicdv. erepos rwi> \Gya)v oo? r<w irporepov Xe^$ezm d/jL^io-fiareaji' Xe^erat. ra? r TVra/co? ea>^ avro^Owv KaTa7rpo$i$ol Fvr$a Tolai Be Ae/ceXeOcrt eV "^Trdprr) CLTTO TOVTOV rov epjov aTeKeirj re tcai TrpoeSpur] SiareXeet e? roSe alel GTI eovaa. ovra) ware KOI e? rov TOV varepov TroXXotcrt erecri TOVTWV A. 74.. eV acTTTt^o? a/el TrepLOeovar]^ KOI ovSafjid drpe/J<iova~'r)<> epopee dy/cupav. iva Sij fjiiv ol 7ro\efjLioi ll/Y] eKTTLTTTOVTeS K T?}? Ta^tO? IJuZTaKLV^GCil Su- vaicno' rrjv /^ei' yivo/jievrjs djKvpav oi/ro) Se ^L^yr}? TWZ/ evawriwv SeSo/cro dva\a(3ovTa OVTCO SICOKCIV.0i]vaiot(TL TTJV ' re real Tl.e\OTTovvri(Tioi<Ti.TTifcr}V (jvv o-rparov et'Sore? itKrjOei KOI aviGTaaav TOVS ST^UOU?. l Sei/j. TOUTOU ^rf/jiov a)v 6 2< rore KO^vaiwv Bi^ovs Xoyou? \eyociXucrt Se$e/Avrjv epopee ^aX/ce?? .HERODOTUS (Te/3d\ov iva 69 77}^ rrjv 'A. Tore \eyovcri rovs ot Se avrbv Ae/ceXoi^ aftOo/JLevov re T^ . eVt ra? 'A^tSz^a?. OVTO? 6 8* \eyerat. Kdl OVK 6K 246 TOi) 0<jL>pr)KO<$ .

he bore an anchor of iron made fast to the girdle of his cuirass which anchor he would with a chain of bronze ever cast whenever he drew nigh to his enemies in onset. Of that township was Sophanes. had on it an anchor for device. was his plan that 1 But in the later part of the PelopGnnesian war the Lacedaemonians established themselves at Decelea and held it as a menace to Athens (413 B. and he would weigh his anchor and so pursue them. that so the enemies as they left their ranks . which he ever whirled round and never kept still. but that his shield.C. 247 . two tales are told. it his place . insomuch that even as late as in the war that was waged many years after this time between the Athenians and Peloponnesians. who now was the best Athenian fighter in the battle concerning which. . might not avail to move him from to flight.). By the first. 1 74. as some say. For that deed the Deceleans have ever had and still have at Sparta freedom from all dues and chief places at feasts. because he was angered by the pride of Theseus and feared for the whole land of Attica) revealed the whole matter to the sons of Tyndarus. the Lacedaemonians laid no hand on Decelea when they harried the rest of Attica. and guided them to Aphidnae. one of the country's oldest stock. So runs this tale but the second that is told is at variance with the first.BOOK IX. 73-74 broke with a great host into Attica. when they were put . which Titacus. and were turning the townships upside down because they knew not where Helen had been hidden. betrayed to the Tyndaridae. Decelus himself. then (it is said) the Deceleans (and. and relates that he bore no anchor of iron made fast to his cuirass.

(t)Tov . KOrjvalwv crrparrjyeovra d/j. av yap Kal e? TOuaBe aTroXecra? rou? oine Saif ovTe 0ewv OTCIV e^ovTas. pvaai /j. avTOfjio\os' r) 67rfj\0 yuvr) 7Ti$r] e/jiaOe ttTroXwXora? f/ TOU? Ilepcra? rj KOI viKayvras QapavBdreos ^o'a/^ei'tj Teao-TTto? dvbpos ^pvcrw TroXXw Kal avrrj rfj TOU? TOV EXX77^a?.HERODOTUS 75. eovaa KOI d/jL(f)i7ro\oi Kal eadijTi 6/c AraXXtcrr^ TWV Trapeovaetov.. diroOavelv VTTO 'H.?. f Aiyivav RvpvfidTrjv TOV 'Apyeiov avBpa avTov Be K TrpoK\i]crio^ e^oveuae. Odpaee Kal a>? tTi$ Kal el Brj Tvy%dveis d\^6ea \eyovcra Kal 248 el? .6 TTJV &ov\ocrvi>r)<. "Ecrrt Be KOL erepov ^wtydvel \a/j.^ o Be dueifteTai Yvvai.e^^ TWV yovvaTwv e\eye T !l ftacrikev ^TrayOT?.a Aedypw TO) Y\avK(DVOs. jrpov epyov OTL 'Adrjvauwv irepLKaT^fjievwv e^epyaa/Aevov. evOavrd.&a)vwv ev Trepl TWV fierd\\ci)v TWV ^pvaewv 76. 'H? Be TOICTL "EXX^o-t eV a~(f)i arpwv-ro ol fidpfiapoi. ypovto vcrrepov TOVTOJV KarekafSe avSpa <yev6}JLvov * dyadov. 9 Kara/Bdaa TT)? dp/^a^d^^ escapee TOU? Aa/ceSai/jLOviovs ETL ev rfjcn opw&a &e Trdvra Ketva BieTrovr Trporepov re TO ovvojua e^eTucrTa/jievij TraTpriv KOLI wcTTC TToXXa/ti? dtcoixjaaa. eyvco re TOV Tlavcravirjv Kal Xa/5oyu. elfjl be yevos JJLZV e 'HyijTopiSea) TOV 'AvTayopew /Sir} Be dvyaTrjp ae \a(3u>v ev Kw et%e o TLepcnj^.

came by his death Athenians with Leagrus. in Cos the Persian laid torides. 102). deserting from the enemy." Pausanias answered. who had borne himself thus being general of the gallantly. Immediately after the Greeks had laid low the foreigners at Plataeae. son of Glaucon. son of Antagoras " Be of violent hands on me and held me prisoner. for that good cheer. she knew that it was he. after this Sophanes.BOOK 75. O king of Sparta from captive slavery for you have done me good . i. Datus was on the Thracian seaboard opposite Thasos. you are my suppliant. clasping his knees " Save me. and so lighting from her carriage came to the Lacedaemonians while they were yet at the slaughtering and seeing Pausanias ordering all that business. who was the concubine of Pharandates. . a Persian. v. your suppliant. ' : . a victor in the Five Contests. if 1 In the attempt to establish an Athenian settlement at Amphipolis in 465 (Thucyd. 100. gold-mines. 76. She. lady. and thus besought him. that regard not aught that is divine in heaven Coan am I by birth. he was slain at Datus 1 by the Edonians in a battle for the Aegina. son of Teaspis. IX. " 249 . and for your tale withal. he . whose name and country she knew from her often hearing of it. decked herself (as did also her attendants) with many gold ornaments and the fairest raiment that she had. 75-76 feat Another : famous of arms Sophanes achieved when the Athenians were beleaguering challenged and slew Eurybates the But long Argive." service till this hour. daughter to Hegeor earth. there came to them a woman. by making an end of yonder men. learning that the Persians were destroyed and the Greeks victorious.

crv Be Kal rd XotTra rd eVl rovroiat. Mera ravra Se rr)V airifyv Tijs <yvvaiKos.rjv. V(TTpOV errerpetye rtoV (j)6p(i>l> Be aTreTre/A^e e? Aiyivav. TTO'L^O'OV. ra Kara Mai/Tf^ea9 i^ev Kai 'HXetou? rocravra.HERODOTUS Ovydrrjp 'HyTjropiBeay rov Kwo^. cocrai. y OecrOai /jieyicrrov 'EXX^/Vo)^ rwv rj/Jiels iB/Jiev. e? rrjv avrrj i']6e\e 77. olieriiJievayv" ewv r&v ire pi ^a>pou9 ravra Be eKeivovs TO 1/9 elrras rore JJLGV TOlGi TTapeOVCTl. 09 fjbd\i(jra e/j.09 dvocntararov e^wv \oyov "ero 777)09 aTrovBfj e\eye rdBe. drciKofJievo^ Be "'1 rral KXeo/iyS/ooTOU. 01 Be cravres 69 T^V eayvrwv rou9 rjye/novas etc . orccos Xo709 re ore exy en. 'Ey Se nXara/^o-t ev TW arparoTreBw TWV Alyiv^Tewv rjv AdjATrwv HvOew. TrvvOavo/uLevoi. Se ajuevoicn' TOU? Be OVK ecop (pevyovras SiwKeiv. Be teal ovroi rou9 rjye/uLovas eSiwj-av.Ta>9 ot 'HXetoi Ma rolai Mavrivevai.ol rvy^dvet. 78. AlyivijTewv ecav ra Trpwra. fjie^cov Kal fjirj Ti9 ij)v\da-crr)rai rwv drdaOa\a Troiecov 6ap/3dpa)v 9 VTrdp^eiv varepov epya 250 . T?}9 KOI /uera 8e 7779. epyov epyacrrai 101 Kai rot $609 V7rep(f)ves ^eyaOo^ re KCU Ka\\o<s TrapeBcofce pvcrd^evov rr]V 'EXXaSa /eXeo9 icara- TLavaavirjv. a^toL re efyacrav elvcu cr^ea? ^yLttwcrat. avritca airiKovro Maz^r^ee? eV ^epya/naOovres Se ort varepot iJKovai TT}? ffVfJLfldhfjSt GVfjLf^oprjV eTToievvTo /jie'yaX.

when all was over who. Mantineans and Eleans. and thereafter sent her to Aegina. When Leonidas . 77.'' desired to go. and having made haste to come " Son of said to him Cleombrotus. were greatly distressed. came the men of Mantinea. Now there was at Plataeae in the army of the Aeginetans one Lampon. and thereby won greater renown than any Greek known to men. whither she herself lands. you have done a deed of surpassing greatness and glory by heaven's favour you have saved Hellas. they would have pursued after them as far as Thessaly but the Lacedaemonians would not suffer them to pursue fleeing men and returning to their own land the Mantineans banished the leaders of their army from the country. . Hearing that the Medes with Artabazus were fleeing. 78. of all that dwell in those Thus saying. a leading man of Aegina he sought Pausanias with most unrighteous counsel. son of Pytheas. . 25* .BOOK is IX. and that no foreigner may hereafter make bold unprovoked to wreak his mad and wicked will on the Greeks. and after their departure banished Such were the doings of the their leaders likewise. : . and said that they deserved to punish themselves therefor. . who also went away sorrowful in like manner as the Mantineans. After the Mantineans came the men of Elis. learning that they were come too late for the battle. Immediately after the coming of this woman. But now you must finish what remains to do. 76-78 for you be verily daughter to Hegetorides of Cos. he gave her for the nonce in charge to those of the ephors who were present. he my closest friend. that your fame may be yet the greater.

vercpw \v^a'iv&aQai fj. /c\iva<. rrjcri dpecrKonevov ocria \eyeiv. en e^cov \6yov roiovBe o~vfjil3ov\evo'rjs. drro^pa Be JJLOL 2 1 . rerijJLWpy}cr6ai. 80. TO ayafiai. evpicrKov %pva-) Kal dpyvpra. o'l Be dvd TO et^XwTa? rd %pr)/uLara. fJbijrG /nrfre %dpiv re avraXXacrcreTO. crrparoTreBov arcrjvds Karecr/cevacr/iievas a-KiBvdjiievoi. ( AewviBy yaX&)9 Be. re e7ri%pv<Tovs fcal arrreaOai /jLrjBeva rroirjGdfievos crvyrcofjiL^eiv efceXeve TO L>? 252 .^?. juev rroieetv. O fjiev ravra a/covcra? TlavcravLrjs Be Kijpvyfjia Tr}? XT. e? TO ^aXe? ravra rrapaivewv rroiea).r)Bev ) v^ Kal ri*)v Trdrprfv Kal TO epyov.HERODOTUS p/jL07rv\r}cri MapBovios re yap drroflavovros ev real Ht'p^? dirorafJiovre^ ri^v K(^a\^v dvearavpwcrav ra) av rrjv ofjioi^v drroBiBov^ ercaivov e^eis rrpwra Kal fxev VTTO rrdirwv ^Traprnjrewv. fjievroi rj/JLaprrfKas ^T^CTTT}?' etfaeipas ydp jjie fj. reri/Jirjrai auT09 T6 Kal ol av ol ev epiAOTTv\ri<TL re\evrrfcravres. avn<$ Be TTyoo? rcov aXXcov 'EXX^i/o)^' e? MapBoviov ydp rrdrpwv rov <rov <X 79. o evvoeeiv re KCLI rrpoopav aev. oaia Be Kal TO> jjie Ke\evet$ ri/ACoprjcrai.e KareKal rjv (09 ajjieivov dicovcrecrdai' Troteeiv ij rd rrep fBapftdpoLai fcal 8' wv rovrov elveica /LtryVe hlyiviiTycri dBoi/ui rolcn ravra dpea~Kerai.l yLte rwvBe d\\ot jjievroi e/jioiye <X '^rv^rjcrL re rfjai dvapiOjULtjroKTi. O fjiev So/cecov ^apL^edOai e\je rdSe. (f)T]/j.

and golden bowls 253 . . With that answer Lampon departed. and bade the helots gather all the stuff together. I would fain in this business find no favour either with the people of Aegina or whoso else is pleased by such acts it is enough for me if I please the Spartans by righteous deed and righteous speech. and one that we deem matter of blame even in foreigners. 78-80 Thermopylae. and the rest of Hellas besides for if you impale Mardonius you will be avenged for your father's cut off his head and set . brother Leonidas. Mardonius and Xerxes make them a it on a pole like return. and couches gilded and silver-plated. Nay. thinking to please. . Pausanias answered him thus " Sir Aeginetan. mere nothingness when you counsel me to insult the dead. I hold that he has had the uncounted souls of full measure of vengeance these that you see have done honour to him and the But to you rest of those who died at Thermopylae. my with words like these nor give me such counsel and be thankful now that you go unpunished. So said Lampon. yet next you cast me down to . I thank you for your goodwill and forethought but you have missed the mark of right judgment for first you exalt me on high and my fatherland and : . . that no man should touch the spoil. this is my warning. Pausanias made a proclamation. . found there tents adorned with gold and silver. for myself. and you will win praise from all Spartans. and say that I shall win more praise if I so do but that were an act more proper for foreigners than for Greeks.BOOK was slain at IX. scattering all about the camp. They. deeds withal." But 79. As for Leonidas. that you come not again to me . whom you would have me avenge." Then 80.

oi 7T\ovroi ap)(r]v evBevrev eyevovro. 7T(t)\eOV 7T/00? TOU? AiyiVIJTaS 01 fJLV K\7TTOVTS etXwre?. ev TOicri XeftrjTes e^aivovTo XpvcreoL re KOI dpyvpeoL' drro re ra>v ve/cpcov ecr/cv\evov ^reXid re /cal arpeTrrov^ /cal aKivdicas eoz^ra? xpvaeovs. avr' ?^? 6 rptTrou? o avereQv) 6 eirl TOV rpt/cap^vov o<f)ios TOV eVecrTe609 dy^iaTa TOV fiat/nov. avT&v ev TlXaTaifjcri eo'oO)'). TToXXa Be KOI aTre&eiicvvaav. The serpent pedestal still exists.a. SefcaTrrj^vv v At'a aveQrjtcav. eVel ecrdrjros ye evOavra TroXXa eyivero ouSet?. ^ew e'^eXo^re?. ocra m T /cal eB60r}. dpicTTevcracri. Xf/^o/^Vaz'Te? Be ra %pij/j.ea)i> evpicr/cov. rjcrav. icp^rr/pas re ^pvaeovs /cal ^>taXa? re /col aXXa e/cTTw/jiaTa' ad/c/covs re eV a/j. /cal ra> TT' ^? 'OXf/xTT/?. TciXai'ra Be aurw9 /cal raXXa 1 The bronze three-headed serpent supporting the cauldron was intended apparently to commemorate the whole Greek alliance against Persia. /cal TW ev '1(70/4(0 6ew.HERODOTUS eirapyvpovs.Ta KOI BeKarrjv TO> eV AeX0oi<ri ^ew. ov \ey6Tai Trpos ovSa/Awv. y waives 'ITTTTOI. 254 . ocra avrwv f / 9 ? / ou/t oia re ?^ Kpvyar cccrre AtyivrjTga't OL L\i]S Xo^/o? I A'' ' fjLeya\. e'^eXoi/re? ra \oi7ra SiaipeovTO. /cal /cal /cal e\a[Bov e/caaTOi TMV /ral a%ioi ra9 ?raXXa/ca9 TWI^ ror ^pvcrbv dpyvpov fjiev /cal aXXa vvv e^aipera Tolcrt. So/ceo) 5' eycoye /cal TOV Toicn So0f)vai Tlavaavir} Be Tcdvra Be/ca e^a T /cal vTro^vyia. ot TOV are eovra %CL\KOV SfjOev Trapa TWV ei\a>Tu>v 81.af.

and another for the god of the Isthmus. . wherein were seen cauldrons of gold and silver and they stripped from the dead that lay there their armlets and torques. and daggers of gold as for many-coloured raiment. and the beasts of burden. by buying gold from the helots as though it were bronze. and the gold and silver. cubits high all which having set apart they divided the remnant. . Having brought all the stuff together they set apart a tithe for the god of Delphi. and all the rest of the stuff. The names of thirty-one Greek states are incised on eleven spirals. For a fuller account see How and Wells' note ad loc. was set apart and given to Pausanias. insomuch that the Aeginetans thereby laid the foundation of their great fortunes. from the third to the thirteenth. . whereof was made and dedicated that tripod that rests upon the bronze three-headed serpent. it was nothing Much of all this the helots showed. talents. women. and cups and other drinking-vessels and sacks they found on wains. 81. much stole and sold as they could not conceal . How much was set apart and given to those who had fought best at Plataeae. ten cubits high . and each received according to his desert of the concubines of the Persians. Atmeirlan (formerly Hippodrome) at Constantinople. whereof was made and dedicated a bronze figure of Zeus. whereof came a bronze Poseidon seven .BOOK IX. as regarded. 80-81 . 255 . 1 nearest to the altar another they set apart for the god of Olympia. . whither it was transported by Constantine it has been fully exposed and its inscription deciphered since 1856. . camels. horses. no man says but I think that they also received gifts but tenfold of every kind. but much they to the Aeginetans . in the . and all other things likewise.

KardXiTTOi.' 256 .eaov.6vo<$ Ti]i> roOSe TOV M^Sft)^ . SeixvvvTa e? e/caTeprjv TOV beirrvov Trapacr/cevijv. e'lverca eya) u//.ao9 M. ewvrov' O^OTTOIOVS Kara ravra fca@oi)s OVTOI ravra. eK7T\ayevra rd dyadd KeXevcrai eVl ye\cori TOW? eaivrov co? TrapacrKevdcrai AaKoovtKov belirvov./xea9 ev e^ovTas airaipriao^vo^^ \\avcjavirjv \eyeTai eljrelv Trpbs TOV$ 6ivpr]i> raura 701/9 TM evpov 83. df^poavvrjv 9 09 TOirfvSe Si'aiTav %o)v rfkOe ?.lvas re vpva-eas /cat apyvpeas ev eVr/owyLtt/'a? teal rpaTTetas re ^pvaeas Ka\ dpyvpeas Kal iraparjv /jL6ja\o7rp67Tea TOV SeLTrvov.ea? crvvijyayov. e(f)di>r] Be Kal roSe vcrTepov TOVTWV eVl TMV vetcpwv irepi" orvv(f)opeov ydp TCL n\aTa/ee9 OVK 6%ovaa f>a$i]V 01 e9 eva eg eVo? eovaa ovoefjilav aAA.HERODOTUS 82.ap&oviw TTJV TTJV Kara- crKvi]v TLavaavitjv wv opwvTa TIJV MapSoi'iou KaracrKevijv ^pvaw re KOL dpyvpy teal TrapaTrerdo'fJLacn TroLKiXoicn KareKe\vaai TOU? re dproKOTrovs KCU . 009 He/3(: f <f)vya>v CK T?}9 EAA. ""AvSpe? "EXX. j3ov\6/j. evOavra rbv Havcra^irjv l^ovra K\.r}ves. TOV Tlavcravirjv yeXdcravTa [JLTcnre[Ji'fya<j6ai TMV *\L\\r)vwv TOU? (TTpaTrjyovs.vos r}yfj. <rvve\6ovTwv 8e rouTWV eiTrelv TOV Havo-avirjv. Se TT)? OGIVES Tro^^etcrTy? rjv iro\\ov TO p. Aeyerai Se Kal rdSe yeveaOai. dpyvpov KOI TMV aXXcov ^ptj/^aTWv.

Pausanias. Pausanias spoke to the generals of the Greeks. Moreover there were sights to see among these when their bones (which the Plataeans gathered into one place) were laid bare of flesh there was found a skull whereof the bone was all : VOL. it is said.BOOK 82. with such provision for life as you see. and all the magnificent service of the banquet. bade the bakers and the cooks to prepare a dinner in such wise as they were wont to do for Mardonius. IV. They being assembled. was amazed at the splendour before him. of gold and silver and all else." Thus. having establishment. whereat when he saw golden and silvern couches and tables of gold and silver. When that meal was ready and was far different from the other. richly covered. and sent for the generals of the Greeks. This other story flight IX is 82-83 Xerxes in his Mardonius his own a/so told. 83. seeing Mardonius' establishment with its display of gold and silver and gaily- coloured tapestry. that is so pitiful. K . came hither to take away from us ours. left to from Hellas. and for a jest bade his own servants prepare a dinner after Laconian fashion. : . They did his bidding. But in later days full many of the Plataeans also found chests dead. Pausanias pointed to the fashion after which " Men of either dinner was served. I have brought you hither because I desired to show you the foolishness of the leader of the Medes who. Pausanias. Pausanias fell a-laughing. and said Hellas.

Stein suggests Kara. ov %et Se Tiva Svva/iat. Kal Meyapee? re Kal <&~\. TroXXou? ^e Tivas Kal TravTo^aTTOvs ijrcovcra Odtyai MapSoviov.ev Tpotrw TOLOVTW erd f/ 85. ecfrdvtj Be l ei>o<? e' ^lapBoviov BevTepy r)^prj 6 oreu [lev dv6p(*)iru>v TO veKpos r)fydvi<TTO. oareov./)ee? a\\wv 1 eyevovTO ol TUC^OL' TWV Be Kal (paivovTat. d\\oi ^TrapTiiJTai. ev H\aTaif)cri eoz^re? . 7* 5^ ( = for as has no to Mardonius. arpe/ce? OVK e%(0 eiTrelv. 2 e-rreire introducing a protasis which eiref apodosis etc. IloaeiScovios Kal rjcrav Kal <&i\OKva>v re Kal KaXfiev STJ TWV Kal ev . Kal TGI/? ewvT&v ofjiov. evl TWV TCL^WV rjaav ' ol ev Be TW eTepy ol Be TO) Tpirq) ol et^Xwre?. 258 . Ot &e Siei\ovTO. ar/oe/cew? M. 'Evretre Be 2 epyov dd-fyas ocrri? fjievTOi TJV avTwv o UTreXoyue^o? re /cal TOV veKpov TOV TrvdeaOai.eyd\.ap$oviov. MS. EXXr. ) Stein's suggested seems preferable. which is here adopted. T& &va Se.z^e9 a>9 ev k eOaiTTOv TOL/? ev9a ev TOU? Ipevas eOa^rav. ev ouroi pev OVTW TeyerJTai Be %w/3i? Tra'yra? aXea?.id(rioi TOVTCOV uev rou? VTTO TT}? ITTTTOL' &La$9apevTas. MS.ap$oi>iov TraiSo? Sia TOVTO TO VTTO 84. Aiovv&ocfrdvrjs dvrjp 'E(/>e<rto9 Odtyai aXX' o fji. .HERODOTUS real <yvd6o<$ Kara TO avw yvdOov e^ovcra oSovras fjiovvo^veas ocTTeov Travras TOVS re TrpoaOiovs /cal Kal TrevTainfyeos dvBpos ocTTea (j)dvi].a oiSa \a]36vTa$ TroXXoi/? Trapd 'ApTovTea) TOV M. Brj Trdinwv ocroi Kal 7rX?. Swpa /j.

1 . a single and there were bone. {: . peoples were filled with dead but as for the rest of the states whose tombs are to be seen at Plataeae. Thus the Lacedaemonians buried their dead the Tegeans buried all theirs together in a place apart. stature. But the Greeks. burial. Such was the manner of Mardonius' cannot with exactness say . were the Callicrates. 84. . and a jawbone wherein the teeth of the upper jaw were one whole. it was made away with on the day after the battle by whom. 85. and the Athenians did likewise with their own dead and so did the Megarians and Phliasians with those who had been All the tombs of these slain by the horsemen. then." 1 among whom were Posidonius and Amompharetus and Philocyon and In one of the tombs. 1 Spartan young men between the ages of twenty and thirty. The Lacedaemonians made three vaults there they buried their "irens. and in the third the helots. irens. an Ephesian.BOOK IX. 259 . spoil at Plataeae." in the second the rest of the Spartans. have heard of very many of all countries that buried Mardonius. front teeth and grinders to be seen the bones of a man of five cubits' . and I know of many that were richly rewarded for that act by Mardonius' son Artontes but which of them it was that stole away and buried the body of Mardonius I cannot learn for a certainty. albeit some report that it was buried by Dionysophanes. but I . . when they had divided the buried their dead each severally in their place. . 83-85 one without suture. As for the body of Mardonius.

HERODOTUS rd<f)oi. Tifirjye TT/JO? TO 87. KCU 'Array LVOV. el Be TroX. TOUTOU? rf) 8e. fl? 3' ftpa f/ Wa^rav T0i9 vexpovs errl ev II Xaacfri ol EXX?. eiveKa yrj Boicort^ vrXeco aXX' yLtei^ xprj/jLcirtoyv %pr)iovres Sw/jiev etc rjueas e^atreovrai. avri. OZ^ 670) a/troi^w /trat Se/ca ereai vcrrepov /j^era ravra $r)devra)v TWV A. Trporepov &rj ravra ovrw e K6\vovre$ exSiSovai rovs avSpas' era/JLVov ov re yf)i> avrwv KOI 7rpocre^a\\ov atvouevot.iopKeovcn. ^^uet? rjfjLeas avrous e? dvri\oyiriv 260 .Ka (BouXevofievoiai arpareveiv Ti/j.r)yei>iSr]v ra? ai)Twv TOI)? /Arj&LcravTas./3a? r) rj ^ea? avroicri Trapaowre. i]<jav' Y]V ^al e^aireew V TrpcoToicri & avruiv O'L @^a? dp^yerai dva rj TTyOcoTOf? be fJLrf efcSiSfo <jra<rQai UTTO Se <T0t airo . Trpo^eivov eovra l avrwv. f 86. rjfiepr) Kal ov yap erravovro e'Xe^e rolai i]/3aiOLai ovru> BeBo/crat rolai Trporepov aTravacrrvai f e^e\a>a"i et ?. KCU Alyivrjrecov earl avroOi /caXeo/zez'o? ra<jf)o?. &)? eyo> aTrecrrol rrjs //.a^? etcdcrrovs KLva TMV eTTiyivo/JLevcov ei've/cev dv9pu)rrwv. T/)? TroX^o? eSo^e.lyiprjrewv ^waai KXeaSiyv rot^ AvroBtKOV aVSyoa DXaTait'a..i/e?. xpij/j-ard &<pi rou KOLVOV (auv yap ru> KOIVW Kal e/jLtjBiaa/^ev ovBe rjuewv aX^^eco? Beo/^evoi IJLOVVOL r/^ct?).

was built as late as ten years after. Seeing that the Greeks would not cease from their harrying. their foremost who were men and . : . then we will give . they laid their lands waste and assaulted the walls. 86. . when nineteen days were past. 87. " Men of Timagenidas thus spoke to the Thebans Thebes. they resolved in council that they would march against Thebes and demand surrender of those who had taken the Persian part. Being thus resolved. 85-87 built tombs are but empty barrows that they that should come after. as I have been told. at the the sake of men Aegipetans' desire. they came with this intent on the eleventh day after the battle and laid siege to the Thebans. by their patron and protector Cleades son of Autodicus. a Plataean. if it is money they desire and their demand for our surrender is but a pretext. which. 261 . As soon as the Greeks had buried their dead at Plataeae. let us give them money out of our common treasury (for it was by the common will and not ours alone that we took the Persian part) but if they be besieging the town for no other cause save to have us. since the Greeks have so resolved that they will not raise the siege till Thebes be taken or we be delivered to them. the tomb of the Aeginetans. demanding the surrender of the men and the Thebans refusing this surrender. but specially of Timagenidasand Attaginus. chief among that. because they were ashamed to have been absent from the In truth there is one there that is called battle. now let not the land of Boeotia increase the measure of its ills for our sake nay.BOOK their for IX. they would not withdraw from before the city till they should have taken it. if these men were not delivered to them.

etc 89. .7ri\vcre rr ovSev elvdi <^>a9 roO /jit^icrjjiov TralSas TO 1)9 &e aX. CLVTOV a7ra%^eVra? Havcravhys a. 7reiyo/j.6^<jea'6ai TWV dycovcov enreiv. 'A-rra- 7^09 K TOV a fjbV eKBlBprfaKl.ai. /cal 6 re KivBvvevcrei. e\eye rdSe. /card n ^IlLKt-jV e'/c KOL 262 . ovre ?Ty009 TOU9 $a)/cea9 e^ijyopeve ovBev ?rpo9 re rou9 ecrcraXoL^ ecrcraXot. re /card 69 TOI) arparoTreSov /nerd rwvSe' Trprjy/Lia auT09 Se v/iti/ Ma/oSo^to9 ^at o crrparos avrov. $e fiLv ol e<JcraXot Trapa atyeas eVt re ercakeov KOL dveipcorcov nrepl rrjs arparirj^ ov$V eTTLard/jievoi TWV ev HXarcufjcrt yevo6 Be 'A/3Ta/Sa^09 yvovs on el eOekei . per avTov o-rpaTLVCL yap ol Trdvra oiero TTVV- Oavo^evov rd yeyovoTa. 'ApTay8a^o9 Se 6 Qapva/ceos (frevywv H\araiecov teal 6?) Trpoaa) eyivero. Trdcrav rrjv d\7]0eirjv T09' eTTi. ol >i/3aioi. r dekovres e/cBiBovai rov<? dvBpas. 88. &>9 "'70) yuej' a> opdre. KOL ?. n? Be a)uo\6yr)(Tav eVt rouroicn." rcdpra re eBo^e ev \eyeiv teal e*9 avritca re eTreKtjpvKevovro TT/JO? TlavcravLrjv tcaipov.ravra K\oyi6/jLevo<. avra ravra vTrovoewv ryv ffrparirjv rrjv rv/ji/uid^a)v aTraaav aTrr\K./?77crt ravra fjuev ra ev <yev6/jieva.Xoi'9 avSpas TOU9 e^eSo&av ol 01 {lev eSotceov avTiXoyLvjs re /cvprfcreiv real SiwOeecrOai' 6 Se 609 irape%pij/jLa(Ti eTTeiTOiOea'av \aj3e. OUT09 /cara 7roSa9 C/JLCV eXavvcov Trpoo-BoKiuos ecrri. aTroXeadai.e KOI eieeivovs d<ya~ 69 Kopivdov Sie<f)0ip.HERODOTUS .

: speed and diligence to march into Thrace. Artabazus understood that if he told them the whole truth about the fighting. am pressing on with all . 88. men of Thessaly. . As for the rest of the men whom the Thebans surrendered. the Thebans immediately sent a herald to Pausanias. he would imperil his own life and the lives of all that were with him for he thought that every man would set upon him if they heard the story wherefore. 87-89 ourselves up to be tried by them. .BOOK IX. . knowing nothing of what had been done at Plataeae. but Pausanias held them free of guilt. . being despatched from the army for a certain purpose with these whom you see and you may look to see Mardonius and that host of his yonder. where he put them to death. The Thessalians. and were confident that they would defeat the impeachment by bribery but Pausanias had that very suspicion of them. when he came among them. thus reasoning. 89. Artabazus the son of Pharnaces was by now far on his way in his flight from Plataeae. marching ." This seeming to be very well and seasonably said. entertained him hospitably and inquired of him concerning the rest of the army. even as he had revealed nothing to the Phocians so he spoke thus to the Thessalians "I myself. On these terms they made an agreement but Attaginus escaped out of the town his sons were seized. they supposed that they would be put on their trial. and carried the men to Corinth. Such were the doings at Plataeae and Thebes. offering to surrender the men. and when they were put into his hands he sent away the whole allied army. saying that the sons were nowise accessory to the treason. 263 .

? Ka Ka/JirM' . &>? r/ aVS/)a? EXX?^a? CK Bov^ocrvviis Kal drra/jLvvai rov fidpftapov evrreres re avrotcn (f>rj ravra yireaOat' ra9 re yap veas avrwv KaKws rrXeeiv Kal OVK VTrorrrevovcri Kevoiai elvai..? re Kal MaKeBovirj? 16 v crrpanrjv Bia a>? aXrjOews 7Ti<yo[j. el 264 n .HERODOTUS rovrov Kal ^eivi^ere Kal ev rroievvrcs <paiveo~Qe' ov jap v/jilv e*9 %povov ravra rrotevcn /Jierafj. KOI TTJV TT}? .ev e/c euro? OUTCO 90.crTopo? rov Kareanjcrav rvpavvov erre\9uvT(dV Be a(f)eu)v TOL ? ffrpar^yov<y e'Xeye Irlyrjo'iO'rparo^ TroXXa KOL i]v ^ovvov tBcovrai avrovs ol "Ja)i>9 aTToar^dovrai arro Tlepo~ecov. Kal a>? ol /3dp/3apoi OVK vTro/jLeveovtJi' TJV Be Kal dpa vrro/JLelvwcri. T?. eire\ yap Brj ev TTJ A^Xw Karearo ol Ei\J\.9 ^e avTT)S rj^epri^ rr}9 Trep ev TO rpwfJLa eyevero. 6Bov.evos. rov 1 Tre/ji<p0evTes VTTO ^.. avveKvprjcre 'yeveaOcti KOI f/ ev MvKaXrj rr}9 '\wviri<s. OVK ereprjv dyprjv roiavrrjv evpeiv av avrovs' Oeovs re KOIVOVS dvaKa\ea)V rrpoerparre avrovs pvo-aadai rravrola.eravra Be eirras am'i\avve crrrovBr) r^v Xr. ol Hepaat.a/jLLWv \d0prj TMV re Tlepcrewv Kal TOV rvpavvov 'Ai'SpoBd/iavros. rj\6ov G$I ayye\oi arro ^d/jiov Ad/Airwv re Kal pacri'/cXeo? KOL Apia-ray 6 pea).7. avroi re.rjve<f 01 ev rfjat vTjval a^a AeurvXiBy TW AaKeBai/uiOVLw aTTLKOfievoi. (j)eoyu.cre." ecnraXt?. KCU amKveerai ? Kara\i7Tcc>v TOV o-rparov rov ewvrov VTTO tyritcwv KdTaKOTTevTas Kar 6$bv crfcrra^Ta? Be Bie/STj TrXoioiai.

he left behind many of his army. cut down by the Thracians or overcome by hunger and weariness and from Byzantium he crossed over in boats. said he. and if you 265 ." So saying. brooking in good sooth no delay and following the shortest inland road. and he prayed them in the name of the gods of their common worship to deliver Greeks from slavery and drive the foreigner away. unseaworthy and no match for yours . keeping their despatch secret from the Persians and the despot Theomestor son of Androdamas. Hegesistratus spoke long and vehemently "If the lonians but see you. and close after me. Lampon son of Thrasycles. . So he came to Byzantium. 90. it so fell out that they For the suffered a like fate at Mycale in Ionia. but . would be an easy matter for them " for the Persian ships are not stand . show that you do him good service for if you so do. In such case Artabazus returned into Asia. you will have such a prey as never again". When they came before the . whom the Persians had made despot of Samos." said he. . Now on the selfsame day when the Persians were so stricken at Plataeae. and Hegesistratus son of Aristagoras these the Samians had sent. you will not afterwards repent of it. but if perchance they do stand. Athenagoras son of Archestratides. he used all diligence to lead his army away straight towards Thrace through Thessaly and Macedonia. generals. to wit. That. there came to them certain messengers from Samos. 89-90 It is for you to entertain him. Greeks who had come in their ships with Leutychides the Lacedaemonian being then in quarters at Delos. "they will revolt from the Persians and the foreigners will : .BOOK IX.

93. (TTpdrov. GLTTe " AeKO/jLCti TOV olwvov Tov av Be rj/nlv Trotee o/cco? a/ue. TOV Eivrjviov dv$ TOV TraTepa TO. Se TT}? eV TO) 'loi^'w Ko\7T(p. el TLVO. a) %elve auro? re Sou? TTLGTIV a. &IO. > ' / A 5>\ r i\r>\ ? \ ll t \^ o oe vTrapiraaa^ TOP o oe eiire ny^cncrTpaTO^. fl? Be TToXXo? rjv Xicrcro/jievos 6 %ivos 6 el'pero AevTW%iSr)<. Rvrfviov KCLTe\a(3e TTpf/ypa TOVTOV ecrTL ev Trj 'A7roXXft)^t?7 ra? fC /jLi> rjfJLepas TavTrj ipd f]\iov T (BocnceTaL vrapd Xcoi^a ' O? Ad/CfJLOVO<$ O/36O9 {)(.CLI TO f/ \r]va$.9 266 . OIWVOV TO OVVOjAd TTOieV fJLeVO?. ra? 8e VVKTCLS dpaip^fjievoi av&pes ol TrXourw re yevei ^>OKifjiOL>TaTOi TMV daTcov. op^ro \eyeiv 6 / " Tn Kara (Twrv^ji^v 0eov ' crTyoaro?. OVTOL eviavTov e/tacrro?' rrepl vroXXoi) ^<wy97.avTL/ca yap ol "^dfiioi TTICTTLV re Kal op/cia erroievvTo <jv ya/za^t?/? irepi TT/JO? TOU? EX. //-era TavTa Se iTOU]cravTe^ OL [lev ' atyewv yap eVeXeue TT\eeiv TOV GTpCLTOV.7ro7rXeu<jeafc KOL ol crvv a~ol oliSe. %6LV ^djjil.. W lawra / / \ re ay^. GTOL^OL elvai ev VY)va\ Trial excivwv dyo/mevoi 6/jLrfpoL eivai. erre /cX^SoVo? eivetctv irvQkcrQai etre KOL 7T016VVTOS. c 91. ' 7ri\oi7rov \6yov. Ti TOL TO OVVO/JLCL . r> r] /jiev Sa/A/oL'? JIJMV irpoOvfjiovs r/ 5 eaeaOai \ / t epyov 7rpO(7f)y. T?}? eV 6d\acr(jav Trap" "klpi/cov Xi/^eVa.HERODOTUS CLVTOVS Trpodyoiev.a ijyopeve K. Ot' <5e ''EXX^^e? eVicr^o^Te? TavTifv rr/v va-repairj efca\\iepiovTO.

" 91. Thus he spoke. the rest sailed away. " 1 is your name?' Hegesistratus. 267 . The Greeks waited through that day. 90-93 have any suspicion that we may be tempting you guilefully. Sir Samian now do you see to it that ere you sail hence you and these that are with you pledge yourselves that the Samians will be our zealous allies. what said he. This man's father Evenius had once fared as I will now relate. There is at the aforesaid Apollonia a certain flock sacred to the Sun.BOOK IX. for straightway the Samians bound themselves by pledge and oath to alliance with the Greeks. each man serving for a year for the people of : . " Sir Samian. 93. " I Hegesistratus had begun to say. and then and there added the deed thereto. . for the good omen of his name." Then Leutychides cut short whatever else ." 92. but Leutychides bade Hegesistratus take ship with the Greeks. and cried accept the omen of your name. a man of that Apollonia which is in the Ionian gulf. Leutychides asked him (whether it was that he desired to know for the sake of a presage. . and on the next they sought and won favourable augury their diviner was Deiphonus son of Evenius. those townsmen who are most notable for wealth or lineage are chosen to watch it. This done. or that heaven happily prompted him thereto). 1 Hegesistratus = Army-leader. This Samian stranger being so earnest in entreaty. which in the daytime is pastured beside the river Chon. we are ready to be carried in your ships as hostages. which flows from the mountain called Lacmon through the lands of Apollonia and issues into the sea by the haven of Oricum by night.

real ov <ydp e\ade rou? a>5 ravra 6ovro. evOa Brj rore 6 EiVijvios ovros dpaiprj^evos (f)v\auae. real /core avrov KaraKoiuijcravros <pv\aKrjv rrape\9ovre<$ \VKOL 6? TO avTpov biifyOeLpciv 005 e^ijteovra. 268 . tea vb e<)pa6 ovev. o'l Be avrolcn efypa^ov Be (T(f)i. crreprjOrjvai. eTreire on rov fyv\aKOv r&v Ipwv rrpofBdrwv ^uijviov T^9 0-^/05 etTTeprjaav' avrol yap en o p yu-r/cr ai TOU5 \VKOVS. ol Ta5 av auTO? e\. o Se 005 eTrrjicre. VTTO errv- /JLIV ^tKaar^piov /care- Kpivav. Ta pep xpiicmjpta ravrd crtyi expijaOij. irpo rrjv (f)v\a/<.r]V &)5 KaraKotfjirfcravTa.Tro\\wviT}rai ra Trpofiara Be ravra e/c rLv6<$' ev avrpw av\i^ovrai CLTTO rr/<$ OeoTrporriov TroXio? e/ta?. vTrayayovres <evoJLeva. O'L Be wBe' rcarrj/jievov RVTJVLOV ev 6wtcw o-(f)i BieTrpij^av e\0ovre<$ ol Trapi^ovro ical \6yov<$ aXXoi/5 eVotevvro. eireipcoruiv TOL>5 TTpo^ijras TO CLLTIOV rov rrapeovros Ka/cov.r)rai KOL Bi/caior ' Be A7ro\\a>vifjrai diropp^ra rcoiriad^voi rcpoeOeaav rwv d&Twv dvopdo~L BiaTrprj^ai. erreire Be ev re AwBcoi'Tj KCLI ev AeX^otcrt ejuvero.HERODOTUS 1* h. T^5 rov Evrjviov e'^eruavTi/ca yaera ravra ovre Trpo/BaTa ovre 7/7 efyepe Oyu-otco5 Kapirov. ev vow a\\a irpidfjievos. ov irporepov re rravo'caOai rLfJiwpeovres dBifca)<$ e/ceivo) irplv i] Bi/cas Baxri rwv eTroirjcrav ravras rovrcov Be re\eofjLevwv avrol Bwcreiv Eu^i/tft) Boaiv roiavrrjv rrjv ?roX\ou5 fuv paKapielv dvdpcoTrwv e%ovra. 65 o KarefBawov av\\vTrevfjiei>oi rw irddel' ravrrj Be VTrdyovres elpwrwv riva Bixrjv av e\otro. 94.

till at last they fell to commiserating his misfortune and thus guiding the discourse they asked him what requital he would 94. When Evenius was aware of it. to lose his eyesight for sleeping at . he held his peace and told no man. I speak. the guardian of the sacred flock. Now at the time whereof far distant from the town. killing about sixty of the flock. they spoke of other matters. This . condemned him his watch. 93-94 Apollonia set great store by this flock. They kept it secret. being so It is folded in a cave taught by a certain oracle. nor did their land yield her fruits as aforetime and a declaration was given to them at Dodona and . from the people of Apollonia and when it came to their knowledge they haled him to judgment and . when they inquired of the prophets what might be the cause of their present ill the gods told them by their prophets that they had done : unjustly in blinding Evenius. and wolves came past his guard into the cave.BOOK IX. So they blinded Evenius but from the day of their so doing their flocks bore no offspring. " for we ourselves" (said they) "sent those wolves. Delphi." was the oracle given to the people of Apollonia. when that is fully done. make many men 269 . But one night he fell asleep. . being minded to restore what was But this matter was not hid lost by buying others. Evenius was the chosen watchman. and charged certain of their townsmen to carry the business through who did so as I will now show. Coming and sitting down by Evenius at the place where he sat. and we will not cease from avenging him ere you make him such restitution for what you did as he himself chooses and approves. we will ourselves give Evenius such a gift as will to deem him happy.

Tovrov &rj 6 Ar.evoi /caTa To KaXayu-tcroto't. OL o? 'Hpaiov TO Tavry .TTO\\fj3Vir) . Si/ca? vTrocrrrjvai.avTeveTO TTJ crTpaT Be teal roSe vjKOVffa. ydp ov <ydp 270 ./3oXo? ryevoiJievos TOV \OLTTOV CLTTO^POLV yevo/jLevTjv. KOI ?}'See Trpo? TOVTOKTi Tijv Ka\\icr'TT]V eovcrav ol ra)v ev TTO\L' e(j)ij e7T?. /3ov\vo/j.opLV0ia>v TOV EivrjvLov ovvojUidTos e%e\dfji(3ave \dBa epja. 7T/905 Kara 9eo-irpoTria ra ryevo/Jieva.a^iijv ra? z^ea? Be 7rpoa-7T~\. /uuera ravra avriKa teal 6i>o/aao~Tos /cal e^vrov (jLavTiK^v elj^e.evoL(ri." ravra Seiva eVotee. dvfjyov A?. co? o A^/^o^o? 7ri(3aTevcov dyovTwv K.rjirLcnaro elvai KO\V TTj A. ^ovTO <T(/)ea? e? vav ^. Bcocreiv TWV o Be el' OVK TO 6eoTrpo7riov et'Xero elVa? rt? ol ' ' Bocrj dypovs. Tolo~L be EX\7.tc/)o^O9 ecov Trai? TOV /j. /cat o KOI ^i/crjv ravrrjv OL ^ev ravra 6\eye. & TrdpeopOL eiTrav L' ajjbrjVLTOS eivai. a>? e^aTrar^^et?' OL & Trapa TWV etcTTifjLevwv SL^OIXTL OL ra elXero. d/crjtcooi)*.'A<oi> ra? z^ea? etc T^? TT/JO? T^V f ^dfjuov. r/ C eirl TTJV EX- 96.crt &>? eKa\\iepr]cr. OVK eo)V ^vrjviov ?rat?.eeLV dvrjyov real Hepcrat avTol rjTretpov ra? aXXa?. i' r9 Se dirrjKav aTroTrXeeiv.HERODOTUS el e6e\oiev 'ATroXXam^rat 7roit]crav. eirel Be e<yevovTO TT}? ^a/Jtirjs TT/JO? e^ avTov 6pjJLio~djj. TWV aarwv \t(7TOU5 OL/crjcnv BlIO 6vo/udcra<$ K\tfpOVS TWV TOVTCOV Be Toiai. ware 95. TO evdevrev o fiev 'jrvOo/ji TOV TrdvTa \6yov.

He. with all their ships save the Phoenicians." At that he was very angry. so that he won fame thereby. r up and down Hellas. for he learnt thereby the whole story and saw but they bought from that they had cheated him the possessors and gave him what he had chosen and from that day he had a natural gift of divination. the son of this Evenius. that they would not do battle by sea. : . and practised divination But I have heard it said ere now. for they . knowing nought of the oracle. stood likewise out to sea and made for the mainland. they anchored there hard by the temple of Here that is in those parts. that Deiphonus was no son of Evenius. and a house besides which he knew to be the fairest in the town let him (he said) have possession of these. When they stood out to sea from Delos for Samos. and he would forgo his wrath. whom they sent It w as determined by them in council sailing away. learning of their approach. 94-96 the people of Apollonia should promise to for what they had done. obeying the oracle given to them. and said "Evenius. 95. 96. if IX. They that sat by him waited for no further word than that. had been brought by the Corinthians. and wrought for wages requite him . Deiphonus. and prepared for a sea-fight the Persians. but made a wrongful use of that name.BOOK choose. were now near Calamisa in the Samian territory. said he would choose for a gift the lands of certain named townsmen whom he deemed to have the two fairest estates in Apollonia. and be satisfied with that by way of restitution. . Having won favourable omens. the Greeks 271 . the people of Apollonia hereby make you that restitution for the loss of your sight. for the army.

Kal cr/coXoTra? rrepl TO epKos Kal rrapeaKevaSaro a>? TroXioptcrjKal Co? viKijaovres. errXeov eVt / 272 . TO ^tXicrro? o T\ao~iK\eo<} iSpvcraro NetXew TO> KoSpof e'TUcjTro/zei'o? eVl MiX^roi. Be eBo^e rovrcov p. 98. SevSpea rifJLepa.' KTicrrvv. /3ov\6vcravTO Karafywyovres ol rov vavntcov crrparri<yol aveipvcrai ra? i^ea? Kal 7repi/3a\o-6ai KOI atyecov avr&v epA:o? epvfJid re rcoy vewv 97. d7ra\\do-o~a>vrat OTTiaco eire Kararc\eu>o~i < Ei\X rjo~7rovrov. vrro rov rre^ov err par ov rov crfyerepov eovra ev rfj ^IvKaXrj.HERODOTUS OKCOS $6fceov ojjioioi elvai. arriKo- rrapa TO rcof HoTi'iewv ipov rr}? e? Taiacovd re /cal 2^KO\o7roei>ra. TOU? fBapftdpovs eire ol^coKora^ rj^Oovro 0)9 eKTTe^evyorcov drroplr) re el^ovro o rt rfoikwai.ev err $e eVl rrjv ijireipov. err d^orepa em\e(r6/jL6L'Oi. e? Be rrjv ijrreLpov arrerr\eov. ryo/jievoi. ecocrt. re\o<. . rfj 'EXeucr^^tT. f/ Se EXXr7^e? co? eirvOovro e? Tr)v rjrreipov. Ol <yap rrapeo~K6vdovro. wv 69 vav/jia^Lrjv Kal arroKal d\\a oacov eSee.evo-avro$ 5e Xacrcre' TOV rov 8e avTov Tiypdvrjs tcdXXei real VTTO TOVTOV pev Srj rov arparov fyepwv Hepaetav. 09 Ke\. evOavra ra? re Wa? uveipvcrav /cal rrepieprcos Kal \i6a)v Kal %v\wv.? Ipov. emrrkeeLV 7rapacrK6vao~d/jLevoi. Tavra fiov\evo-d/uievoi dvijyovro. /ji'rjBerepa Troieeiv.

2 73 . The Gaeson was probably a stream running south of the Mycale Scolopois. they were illpleased to think that their enemy had escaped them. a place on its east bank (How . and there to beach their ships and build a fence round them which should be a protection for the ships and a refuge for themselves. 96-98 . there they beached their ships and fenced them round with stones and trunks of orchard trees that they cut down . men man in in and Tigranes. l they came past the temple of the Goddesses at to the Gaeson and Scolopois. and Wells). they 1 * hill called Demeter and Persephone. the goodliest and tallest It was the design Persia. which had been left by Xerxes' command behind the rest of his host to hold Ionia there were sixty thousand . At the last they resolved that they would do neither. was their general. it. that they might lie under the shelter of their army at Mycale. So when 97. and prepared for siege or victory. With this design they put to sea. 2 where is a Mycale temple of Eleusinian Demeter (which was built by Philistus son of Pasicles. and doubted whether to return back or make sail for the Hellespont. but sail to the mainland . and they drove in stakes round the fence.BOOK IX. when he went with Nileus son of Codrus to the founding of Miletus). deemed themselves overmatched and the reason of their making for the mainland was. When the Greeks learnt that the foreigners were off and away to the mainland. of the Persian admirals to flee to the shelter of that army. making ready of deliberate purpose for either event. and equipping themselves therefore with gangways and all else needful for a sea-fight. 98.

TOVS e\a(Bov > 'ATTi/crjv \e\ei fjifjievov^ ol B<ep%ew.%r)v /ca TOI(TIWGI rra- ra fiev vTrovoricravTes TOU? Sa^tt'oi'? ol 'EXXryVcov (ppoveeLv drraipeovTai TO.HERODOTUS eVet Be TorreBov /cal ovBels dy%ov re eyivovTO TOV crrpacr<f)i tyaivero TOV 7roX\bv Be rre^bv Trapafce/cpi/Jievov rrapd TOV alyia\6v. TOVTO yap wv dva TrjV ^dfJiioL drrLKOfiivwv 'AQt-jvaiow al^fJioKto- Ttov ev Trjcri vrjvcrl TMV ftapftdpwv. o'i v/jieo)i> TV<y%dvovai eTra/covovres. 99. crvvijcr overt. aXX' wpa)v veas dveX/cvcrfjievas ecra> eyXpLjuityas rw al<yia\<p TO. Aevrv%iBr)<.\\e TOU? "Icoi^a? Treicreiv. e/j. Hepcrai. oVXa. AevTW%iBea) Be Brj r/ TavTa virodejjLevov BevTepa EXX?. ejreav f/ fjLe/uLvf)<rdai TLVCL xprj e\ev6epi irdvrwv TTpwrov.ev ev TTJ vr]i 7rapa7r\ea>v. oi Be Hepcrai a>? elBov roi)? ot '' . (TTOVS Tolai Ei\\r)(Tl. prjfjiaTa rou? /3ap/3dpov<.^6?' TT/oocrcr^o^Te? ra? /cal OVTOL veas dTreffrjcrav e? TOV alyiaXov. TOV- \vardfJLevoi TrdvTas o~avT<i \lrirjv 9 vas' TV dTTOTre/jLTrovcri eivexev OVK iJKio~Ta vrro- 274 . IvOavTa rrpcoTov /j. ra \eyw Trdvrws ycup ovBev TWV eya> v^uv eVreXXo/tat. fjidXtara. TaBe eiroievv f/ e? fj. /cal TaBe terra) /cal 6 fjirj drcovcras vfjuewv rrpbs TOV 00^x09 Be ouro? ecov aKOvaavTos" Tvy^dvei vbos TOV Trptfy/jiaTos /cal 6 Sefj. /jiera Be TOV crvvOrjfjiaTO^ H/9^?. 77 eTrena dvevei^OevTa e? TOW? ftapftdpovs Troirjoreiv drri- fAio-yco/Aev.icrTO/c\eos 6 err' 'ApTe/jLKTiW' i] ydp By \a9bvTa TO. "Icoai VTTO \e<ya)v KrjpvKOS Trpotjyopeve rolcn ^e?.

and next the battle-cry Hebe and let him that hears me not be told of this by him that hears. When they came near to the camp and found none putting out to meet them. viii. Xerxes' enemies. let a man remember first his e freedom. or if it were thereafter reported to the foreigners it would make them to : ! : ' : . After this counsel of Leutychides'. take heed of what I say Persians understand aught of my charge to you when we join battle. Leutychides thereupon first coasted along in his ship. 275 . But the Persians.BOOK IX. suspecting that they favoured the Greeks for indeed when the foreigners' ships brought certain Athenian captives. souls of 22. mistrust their Greek allies. the Samians had set them all free and sent them away for which to Athens with provision for the way cause in especial they were held suspect." The purpose of this act was the same as Themis* either the message tocles' purpose at Artemisium would be unknown to the foreigners and would prevail with the lonians. and made this proclamation to the lonians by the voice of a herald " Men of Ionia. where they put themselves in array. seeing the Greeks prepare for battle and exhort the lonians. 99. you that hear for in no case will the us. set free five hundred Cp. the Greeks next brought their ships to land and disembarked on the beach. who had been left in Attica and taken by Xerxes' army. as having . first of all took away the Samians' armour. and saw the ships beached within the wall and a great host of men drawn up in array along the strand. . keeping as near to the shore as he could. 98-99 held their course for Mycale.

iO)v \vcrdjnevoi. <yeppa epKos elvat a (frier i. earl ra fievoi. Totovroicri.HERODOTUS Tro\/J.. fcal r)fjiepr]<. 0ela TMV Trprjy/jLdrwv.voio-i.r] e'y yejovevat. TO ev TlXaraifjcrt. TOLdL KOI av TI TTOieeiv ^wdfjuo^ e7ri\afio/j. rolcn.rja'ioio'i (f)v\dcr(T6iv Be TOVTO Brj0V fJid\L(JTa %copr)v. '11? 5e apa TrapecrKevaScno rolcn "EjXXrjcri. 101.VKa\jj 17/16/3779 Bei\ijv on Be T^? ire pi crvvefiaive . f ^i\\r)crL Tolcri ravrrj e'craTTtVero. 005 ol E\Xr. ar7rpo? re/jievea 'EXeucrf^?. a>9 /cal Trporepov ra? cruyu^oXa? eiprjrai. Be ev M. O-V/JLTTLTTTOVO'^ rov ev Mv/cd\r) /jbeXXovros ecrecrOai Tpci>/iaro<. 100.^e? rrjv Trpocrrjiaav TT/JO? f/ MapBoviov crrpaTirjV viK&ev ev JSoKoroiffi fJ>a%6Brj\a Brj TroXXotcrt TetcfJiripioicri. elvai' rj /jid^rj.? y Trapa KOI yap Br) ev Trj Tl\araiiBi irap avro TO ^jju^rpiov eyivero. Kat ToBe erepov a-vveirea-e re TTJV A?. rovBe e'ivefcev. /cal ev Mv/cd\. Be VLKIJV rcov crvve- ffaive e\6ovaa' TO rj/jieptj^ fiev yap at'T?}? en 276 TT}? eyivero. TT}? avTrjs rov re ev TL\aratfj(Ti. ware aTparir)v iro\\w pd\\ov KOI Trpodu/jLorepov KivBvveveiv. TOUTO Be ra? BioBovs ra9 e? iroaTcrcrovai 009 e MiX. TTpoetyvXaa-aovTO ol Tlepcrai. 'Lva e'/cro? rov crrpaTOTreBov ecocri. TOUTOU? JJL6V a)V(DV. TOU? fiapftdpovs' lovcn Be crcfri Te eVeTrraro e? TO arparoTreBov 'Trap xal (f>?1fj>y KripvKi^LOV efydvrf eVt TT}? KU /zar coy^79 icei^evov t] Be tyrf/AT] Biri\6e <T$I wBe. eaecrOat. el KOI Tore. avrol Se TIJV eiroievv (Tvve$opr](iav TO.

277 . Now there are many clear proofs battle in Boeotia. they set their shields close to make a barricade. Moreover there was this other coincidence. and a herald's wand was seen lying by the water-line and the rumour that ran was to the effect that the Greeks were victors over Mardonius' army at a . the rumour came to the Greeks at that place. In such manner did the Persians safeguard themselves from those lonians who (they supposed) might turn against them if opportunity were given . 100. for at Plataeae the fight was hard by the temple of Demeter.BOOK IX. of the divine ordering of things seeing that at this time. that the Milesians should be away from the rest of their army. 101. .-m Demeter on both battlefields. the Persians' disaster at Plataeae falling on the same day as that other which was to befall them at Mycale. they appointed the Milesians to guard the passes leading to the heights of Mycale. that there were precincts of Eleusini. a rumour sped all about the army. 99-101 Furthermore. As they went. alleging that they were best acquainted with the country but their true reason for so doing was. advanced their line against the foreigners. It so fell out that the rumour of victory won by the Greeks with Pausanias spoke truth for the defeat 01 Plataeae happened while it was yet early in the day. and the defeat of Mycale in the afternoon. whereby their army was greatly heartened and the readier to face danger. having made all preparation. and so it was to be at Mycale likewise. as I have already said. for themselves. That the two fell on the same day of the same . The Greeks. .

eVeTTTaro. Tolcri Be NaKe^aifJiovioicn KOI rolai TOVTOKTI Teray/jLevoio'i. /JLoXXov &>? n fjievTOi r/ 77 Tepov Trjv TTpocrobov 7roievj'TO. KOL rolan rrpocrL KOV TOVTOtGL TeTdjLeVOHri. xfipov.d%?)v. OL Be Be^d/nevoi Kal d/jivvouevoi reXo9 ecfrevyov 9 TO Be Kal }Loplv6ioi Kal ^IKVQIVLOL Kal 7rapaKe\evcrd/jLevoi evdevrev rjBrj (ovra) /jLevoi ydp rjaav 67T^9 reraypevoi) crvveo~emrrrov 9 TO Te%09.iyov<. rj rj/jiicrecov. ovroi oi 7rt rw erepw Kepel en Kal Brj eud%ovro. ro epyov Kal {JLTJ epyov efyovro rrpoOvfjLorepov. irpbs d\Krjv erpdrrovro ol ftdpftapoirrpos ^vyrjv re op^earo ol aXXot rrKr/v Tlepcrecov ovroi Be Kar* 6~\. K\rj&a)v aim. OVri TTCpl Trepl O~(f)eC0V aitrWV OVrCO O>9 rWV < 'Ei\\1jV(tiV ) fJLTJ M. cr(f)i. W9 (T(pi t real ai vrjaoi Kai o EXX?. 0)9 Be Kal TO T6t^o9 dpaiprjro.ap$oviq) Trraicrrj rj 'EXXa?. 102. 60)9 /Jiev vvv TOLGL Hepaycri op9a rjv ra yep pa. opea. ol /jiev KOI ol ftdpfBapoi eaTrev&ov 9 fryv jj. Bi.HERODOTUS ylvecrOai ya^z/o? o~<j)i re rov avrov. %povw ov ava^avQdvovai eyivero. 0^09 eyivero KCLT alyia\6v re KCU.evoi erepoiovro ro Trprjy/uia. Toicri fjiev vvv AOrjvaioicri. O ecovrcov yevrjrai. vcrrepov Brj\a O~(f)l. Kara re %apd&pav ' KOI ra^v8^ EXX?7Z'e9 l ev a> Be ol AarceBaLfjiovioi irepnfjicrav. TJ/JLVVOVTO re Kal ovBev eXaa-aov el^ov rfj fJid^y eirei Be r&v 'AOrivaiwv Kal rwv Trpoae-^ewv o crrparos. (frtf fJtrjV TJV Be dppCi)Bl7] rrplv rrjV O~a7TlKe(T0ai. yap ra yeppa ovroi (frepo/nevoi ecreireo-ov a\ee9 e? TOU9 IIepcra9.cr7ro^ro9 ae6\a TrpoefceiTO.c0o~d/J. ovr en. yivofJievoi e/id- 278 .

who received the onset and stood their ground for a long time.BOOK month was proved IX. that they and not the Lacedaemonians might win the victory. So Greeks and foreigners alike battle. . 101-102 to the Greeks when they examined Now before this the matter not long afterwards. Breaking down the shields they charged all together into the midst of the Persians. but at the last fled within and the Athenians and Corinthians and their wall Sicyonians and Troezenians. that is. . followed hard after and rushed in together likewise. . all save the Persians. their way lay over the beach and level ground for the Lacedaemonians and those that were next to them. seeing that the islands were eager for and the Hellespont were the prizes of victory. But when the walled place was won. the foreigners made no further defence. lest Mardonius should be the stumblingblock of Hellas but when the report sped among them they grew stronger and swifter in their onset. While the Persians' shields stood upright. 102. . those others on the other wing were already fighting. they defended themselves and held their own in the but when the Athenians and their neighbattle bours in the line passed the word and went more zealously to work. through a ravine and among hills and while the Lacedaemonians were making a circuit. who gathered themselves into bands of a few men and fought 279 . fearing less for themselves than for the Greeks with Pausanias. for about half of the line. immediately the face of the fight was changed. took to flight. rumour came they had been faint-hearted. who were next to each other in the line. As for the Athenians and those whose place was nearest them. but .

a>5 el&ov avruKa Kar ap^a? <yivofj.<7fOf rovrov re e'wcxev Kal 'iva /J. (j)6vyovo~i. ]a/uou? Se IBovres ol a\\oi ovrw Brj Kal avrol a7roo~rdvr<> ap%avra<$ e CLTTO Tleptfecov eireOevro rolo-t (Bapftapoicri. epSov ocrov eBvvearo 7rpoa-axj)\eeiv 0e\ovres 'Ei\\r)ai. 104. Bevrepov 'Iwvir] UTTO Tlepo~ecov dnecrrrj. Brj 280 . 103.rj /jioi'as Trapeovres ev rw crrparoTre&w ri veo^fjibv Troteoiev' o't Be Trav rovvavriov rov TrpocrrerayfjLevov ewoieov.HERODOTUS roivt alel e? TO ret^o? teal rwv arparriywv rwv TlepaiKtov Bvo fjiev CLTTOBvo Be re\evrwcri' 'Apravvrys pev Kal .ev vvv ol MiX?. "Ert Se /jLa^o/jLevwv TWV Tlepcrewv CLTTLKOVTO /cal ol //. aXXa? re Kar^yeofievoL crfyi oSou? favyovai.evrjv erepa\Ka rtjv yu-a. MtXijo-Loicri. rov vavriKOV arparrfyeovres CLTTOMapSoz/TT. Gw^wvrai e? ra? Kopvffrds T/}<? rovro rb 7rl erd^rjaai' /J. at efapov e? TOU? TToXe/ttou?. & TrpoaertraKro fiv K rwv Il6/)cre&)^ ra? Siobovs rrjpeeiv a-corijpirjs eiveicd o~<f)i.er' avrcov.? Be Kal 6 rov Tre^ov arpaTiypavrjs /JLa^o/nevot T\VTWcri. /cal teal ra \onra eirecrov Se KOI avrwv rwv \ijvwv Gvyyoi evdavra a\\oi re crTpaTijybs TlepiXea)^' eoi^re? re ev TWV re ^afjiLwv ol rw arparoTre&w ra> & Kal aTrapatptifj-evoi ra oVXa. a)? rjv dpa <j<^ea? Kara\a/jLj3dvr) old Trep KareXafie. Kal re\o? avroi a$i ovrco Brj rb eyivovro Krelvovres TroKe/jLiwraroL.

crjs here probably means "doubtful. . 11 in Homer it means "decisive. they. they also thereupon deserted the Persians and attacked the foreigners. The Greeks too lost many men there. Of the Persian leaders two escaped by flight and two were admirals Artayntes and Ithamitres. cp. they might have guides to bring them safe to the heights of Mycale. This was the task to which the Milesians were appointed." giving victory to one as opposed to the other. vii. . for the aforesaid reason. 102-104 with whatever Greeks came rushing within the walls. so that if haply aught should befall the Persian army such as did befall it. The Persians had for their own safety appointed the Milesians to watch the passes. still fought. Thus did Ionia for the second time revolt from the Persians. 281 . fighting. notably the men of Sicyon and As for the Samians who their general Perilaus." giving victory to one side or other. the general of the land army.BOOK IX. were slain slain . 104. 103. and had been disarmed. seeing from the first that victory hung in the 1 balance. While the Persians . . and at last themselves became their worst enemies and slew them. charge laid upon them they misguided the fleeing Persians by ways that led them among their enemies. did what they could in their desire to aid the Greeks and when the other lonians saw the Samians set the example. served in the Median army. who were of the fleet. escaped Mardontes and Tigranes. and finished what was left of the business. the Lacedaemonians and their comrades came up. and that they might not be present with the army and so turn But they did wholly contrariwise to the against it.

e/jLTroXala ^ojprjv "Icoai. e Be TOV E. * teal (} Oycravpovs Tivas ^prj/^dTCOv evpov ^r f) 7* f* / / \f D o \ if ft / ^r fj c / TJf* ft c* 5 / fi *frf- ^r /^ (* Be 69 ^dfjiov 01 "EXXrjves ef3ov\evovTO KaTQitclcrai r/)9 avrol ey/epaTees rjaav. ?rpo9 raOra ITeXoTTovvrjaicov /uev TOLCTI ev reXet eovcn eBo/eee TWV eOvewv T&V 'EiXXijviK&v Bovvai Trjv TO.0r}vaia)v 'Rpf^o^vteos 6 TOVTOV Eivdoivov. 106. Be 'Iwvirjv direlvai Tolcn ftapfidpoiai' dBvvaTOV elvai WVTOVS re ydp TOV irdvTa ^povov.p/-Lo\v/eov teaTeXafte vcrTepov TOVTWV.9 KapvcrTit^ %(t)pr)s cnroOavovTa ev K.vpvy rr. 7T/?09 TOJV teal ewvTwv ^ irpo- Hepaecov aTra\\d%eiv. 'A. elav ol 282 Trepl . 'Evretre Be teaTepydcravTO o/ EX\77^e9 TOU9 TOL/9 /nev /jta^ofjievovs TOVS Be teal (frevyovr/ ]dpu>v. evoi- yevecr0ai dvaGTaTOV ovBe He\O7rovvt}O'LOi(Ti TWV &(pTpe(i)v drroiKiewv /3ov\eviv TWI> Be TOVTWV 7rpo0v/jiQ)s. dvrjp Tray/epaTiov eTraar/eijo-as.l(T0ai eVl TepaicrTy.HERODOTUS 105. TTJV fx \ \ \i*il7)v rrpoe^ayayovTes \ alyia\6v. 'E^ Be TavTrj teal TTJ /J^d^rj *E*\\r)va)V rjpla- Teuaav *A0r)valoi. fJ<d%rj ev K. /z-era ^e 'AOrjvaiovs KopivOioi teal Tpoityvioi teal ^i/eucovLot rjpiarTevcrav. * Tro\e/iLov eovTOS AO^vaioLcrl Te teal 'Kapvo'Ttoia-i. I T9 /s < vea<$ eveTrpvaav w /eal 9 TO TOV r\ if atrav.

and in what Greek lands under thendominion it were best to plant the lonians. This Hermolycus on a later day met his death in battle at Cyrnus in Carystus during a war between the Athenians and Carystians. 283 . 106. which having burnt they sailed away. they brought out their booty on to the beach. leaving the country itself to the foreigners. they debated in council whether they should dispeople Ionia. yet if they should not so stand. When the Greeks had made an end of most of the foreigners. 1 The " pancratium " was a mixture of boxing and wrestling. Those that fought best next after the Athenians were the men of Corinth and Troezen and Sicyon. When they were arrived at . or suffering the Peloponnesians to determine the lot of Athenian colonies. Hermolycus son of Euthoenus. Samos. either in battle or in flight. and found certain stores of wealth then they burnt the ships and the whole of the wall. the Peloponnesians . and as they resisted hotly. In this matter the Peloponnesians that were in authority were for removing the people from the marts of those Greek nations that had sided with the Persians. In that battle those of the Greeks that fought best were the Athenians. and the Athenian that fought best was one who practised the pancra1 tium. for it seemed to them impossible to stand on guard between the lonians and their enemies for ever.BOOK IX. and lay dead on Geraestus. they had no hope that the Persians would suffer the lonians to go unpunished. 105-106 105. and giving their land to the lonians to dwell in but the Athenians misliked the whole design of dispeopling Ionia.

Seiva rroievfLevo^ arrarai errl rov Maa-i(Trr]v rov dfCLi-aKTjv. Trpoearrjcrav. o Be eVet iJKovae. /AW eTTiOeovra fypaaOels ^etvayopr]^ 6 Tlprj dvrjp K\iKapvri(j(Tevs omcrOe ecrrea)? avrou 'Apravvrew apird^ei /Acaov Kal e^aelpas rralei e? rrjv yfjv Kal ev rovrw oi &opv(>6poi ol MacricrreM ' 6 Be Keivayopt')^ ravra epydcraro %dpira avrw re Macrtcrr^ ndefjievos Kal Hep^rj.cr7ro^TOU erc\eov. eK<Tcf)a)v rov dSe\(peov rov eKeivov Kal Bid rovro tE. bevvos /jLeyiaros ean. e? rfjcrt. KfXt/ft?. yvvaucos aKOvaat. O'L erw^ov avarparevo/jLevoi rolai EXX?7cr. eiiprjcreiv- Se dTrofivyovrMV (Bapfidpwv e? Ta Mf/caA. 7rl TO epyov irXeov rovrcov eyevero. eovru>v ov 7ro~\Xa)V.eivay6pr]<. aXX' drciKveovTai. Twt' yap eV f eBotceov evrerafjLevas EX-X?. drroKrelvai OeKwv.^? KareL\r]6evrwv. d\\a re Kal yvvaircbs aKpa TT}? avrov elvai roiavra arparriyri<javia.? rrdar]^ rjpl. rovrovs 5e fjieveeiv Kara\a(B6vre<$ opKLOiai eir\eov ra? y<pvpas \vf/ aovres' en ovroi /nev $r) 107. 'Ey Be ^dpBiai ervy^ave eoov 284 . e? TO a-v/j.a%iKov erroir)aavro. elvai rravros KCIKOV rov y5acrtXeo9 OLKOV rrapa Se rol<jL Ylepurjai./j. rclfjri re Kara\a/36vres Kal opKioLcn eare real fir} drroa-r^aeaOai.9 6 kapelov rraparv^cDv rw rrdOel ru> yeyovon rov arparrjyov 'Apravvrrjv e\eye rro\\d re teal /ca/cd. iropevofievwv Be Kar o&ov Ma<rt(7T?. eyivero KO/jii8r) e? Sa/o^i?.HERODOTUS KOI ovrco real Sr) Sa/uou9 re fcal Xiou? Kal Ae TOU? aXXou? vrjaid)ra<f. Bovros rwv Be tear* 6Bov Tropevo/jiei'wv ovSev /9acriXeo?. 108.

Artayntes himself. to their alliance the Samians. reviled the admiral Artayntes very bitterly. They went then on their way without any outcome of the matter. and came to Sardis. Masistes son of Darius. telling him (with much beside) that such generalship as his proved him worse than a woman. Now it is the greatest of all taunts in Persia to be called worse than a woman.and made their way thence to Sardis. 107. angered Artayntes. for saving the king's brother. The few foreigners who escaped were driven to the heights of Mycale. Chians.BOOK IX. Lesbians. ruler of all Cilicia by the king's gift. who stood behind Halicarnassus. they laid their course for the Hellespont. the Greeks set sail to break the So bridges. While they were journeying on the road. who had chanced to be present at the Persian disaster. and bound them by pledge and oaths to remain faithful and not desert their allies who being thus sworn. and Praxilaus of caught him round the middle and lifted and hurled him to the ground meanwhile Masistes' guards came between them. that he drew his sword upon Masistes to kill him but Xenagoras son of insults so . supposing that these still held fast. 108. for which deed he was . These many . and that no punishment was too bad for the hurt he had wrought to the kinsr's cj ^5 house. and all other islanders who had served with their armaments. 106-108 Thus it came about that they admitted yielded. By so doing Xenagoras won the gratitude of Masistes himself and Xerxes. Now it chanced that the king had been at made 285 . saw him run at Masistes.

HERODOTUS exelvov rov %p6vov. 109. ovSe irjv 7rpoa(f)epeTO Trpo/jLijOeo/iievos TOV aSe\(f)eov M. r) ev rfjcri ^dpBicri ewv apa ijpa TT)? M. Trpos crei? fJLOL n TO av ere ravra alr^aw .cra? aTnjXavve e? eVet 8e etcei re aTritceTO KOI rjydyero 69 ecovrou yvvaircbs Aa^oeto) Trjv yvvai/ca. r) Be co? Mfjiocre a^eco? alreei TO ^>apo?.a\\ov \dfjbtyecr6ai TJV ravra Troujcrrj. ' elrre " aep^rj Aco- o Be rrav /JLa\\ov Keivrjv alrTjaai vmer'xyeeTO Kal wyu-ocre.acncrrr)v' rutvro &e TOVTO el%e KOI irjv yvvai/ca' ev yap 7riararo fBi^s ou revo/ji6vr)' evOavra Srj He/3^? epyo/jievos TWV a\\'jov Trptjcrcrei TOV TOVTOV TOJ TratBl TO) ecovrov Aa/oetro. $OK(i)V avrrjv fj. i^pa re Kal ervy^ave TT}? Aapeiov pev yvvatKos Macrtcrrea) Se Ovyarp6<$' OVVO/JLO. rfj Be /ca/cw? yap eSee TravoiKurj yevecrBai.a(7Lare(o s. ev(f)rjvaa'a "A^ija-rpi^ rj He/ yvvrj (frdpos jxeya re Kal TroiKiXov Kal 6er)<s a BiBoi He/9 # o Be rj<T0el<. tear a BoKewv 286 . errelre rare rrpocrrrraiaras rfj vavfJia^Lr) fyvyciw arfiKero. Be rfj yvi>aiK\ ravrrj f)v 'ApravvTTj. He/o^9 Be rravrolos eyivero ov ftovXofJievos Bovvai.va 7roi>. Xpovov Be TrpolovTOS dvaTTvara ytverai rpoTro) Toi&Be. Be /cal ra vojju%op. 7repi^d\\eraL re Kal ep^erai rrapa rrjv 'Apravvriyv fjcrQels Be Kal /3ov\erau ol ravrrj eKeXevae avri]v alrrjaai o yeveadai avrl raw avrw vTrovpyrjjuievwv rrdvra yap rev^eadat alrijcraaav. ovrco 8/) rfjs MatrtcrTew pti> TT7ravTO. o Be Sia/Aeiifrd/jLvo<. eWcr/?9 KOL ravrrj? ev9avra. ov/c &)? 8e ol e^vvaro /caTepyaaQrjvai. Ovyarepa yvvaiKos Tavrris Kal Ma(JtcrT6&).

" Will you give me whatever I ask " of you ? and he promised and swore it. for but changed about. for he would deny nothing at her asking. Xerxes' wife. she asked boldly for his mantle. Xerxes strove hard to refuse her. But as time went on the truth came to light. and wooed and won this girl Artaynte. and he would not force her to his will. messages could not bring her to yield to him. and went wearing it to Artaynte and being pleased with her too. and rode away to Susa. wondrous to behold. supposing that she would ask anything but that but when he had sworn. he bade her ask for what she would have in return for her favours. Darius' wife and Masistes' daughter. for he thought that by so doing he would be likeliest to get her. his brother the woman also. for no cause save . out of regard for Masistes (which indeed wrought with she knew well that no force would be used with her). and in such manner as I will show. who was also at that place. Xerxes was pleased with it. Thereat for she and all her house were doomed to evil she said to Xerxes. But when he was come thither and had taken Darius' bride into his house. . Being then at Sardis he became enamoured of Masistes' But as all his wife. Amestris. wove and gave to him a great gailycoloured mantle. Xerxes found no other way to his purpose than that he should make a marriage between his own son Darius and the daughter of this woman and Masistes . 108-109 in flight came thither from Athens after his overthrow in the sea-fight. he thought no more of Masistes' wife. 287 . 109. So he betrothed them with all due ceremony.BOOK Sardis ever since he IX.

Kapra BTJ deKwv Karavevei. TeXo? vrro /Jievroi eKeivrjs rov VO^JLOV e^epyo/j-evos. o Be Beivov re Kal dvdpo-Lov irroieero rovro /J.GV dBe\(j)ov <yvi>aiKa TrapaBovvai.evov. re \irrapeovarrj^ ori drv^fjaai rov %prii%ovra ov a$L Bvvarov ecm fiacriXrjiov BCLTTVOV irpoKiu.HERODOTUS ovBev. Kat "A/jiTjcrTpLS TTVvOdveTai JJLLV e -)] /jLaOovaa Se rb Troiev/j-evov rfj /ULCV yvvai/cl ravrrj OVK et% ejKOTOV. BiBol rb <fiapos. rovro Be dvairirfv eouaav rov rovrov avvfJKe jap rov eiveKev eBeero. rj Se Trepi^a eovaa TM $u>pw efyopee re KOL dyd\\6TO. oe rut Seiirvq) rovrw Trepcriarl %aaa Be rov avSpa rov rvfcrd. Kal e'yU. ecovrfj? Hep^y /3aai\r)iov SCLTTVOV 7rport0e[AVov rovro Se rb belrrvov rrapacr/cevd^erai airat. TT/JO? S* eri rovroiai 288 . rov TIepcriKov e'yueXXe ovBels 6 dp^eiv aAA. aXX' ov jap eireiOe. <o/3eo/zez'o<? Be "AfiTjarpLV.' 77 Be Kapra arparbs Swpov. r) Se e\7ri^ouora aur?}? elvai alTLrjv /cat ravra /ceivr)V rfj MacrtcrTect) yvvaiKl eftovXeve oKeOpov. rov eviavrov rj/nepiJ r V ^jevero ovvofjio. Kara e Be ryv E\\^vcov ryXaxTcrav re\6L- ov Tore KOL rrjv K(j)a\r)V a-parai fjiovvov fiacriXeu? Kal Tlepa-as Bcopeerai* ravryv Bi] rrjv ^(JLepi]V <$>v\d%acra rj "Afirjo'rpis ^prii^eL rov Hep^ea) So- 6r)vai ol rrjv Macrto-rea) ryvvaiKa. 110. 111. crv ei9 Aapeiov re Trat? \eyet rdBe. eirevpeOfj Trpijo~7ToXi9 T6 eBiBoV KOI ^pVO'OV drr\erOl> <yiv6fiei>a rd ovrw arparov. o Be ^erarreix^rd^jLevo^ rov dBeXcfrebv " Mao-Lara.0? aSeX^eo?. Kal TrapaBovs Troieei a)Be' rijv fjiev Ke\i>ei Troieeiv rd /3ov\erai. o-T} fir) real irpiv 0~WV d\\d Kal KLvr).

L 289 . and he offered her cities instead. . . Amestris then desired of Xerxes that Masistes' wife should be O ffiven to her. and a right good man hear me then . But as he could not move her. you are Darius' son and my brother. 109-111 that he feared lest Amestris might have plain proof of his doing what she already guessed . . IV. Amestris being instant. and she. went flaunting her finery. She waited therefore till Xerxes her husband should be giving his royal feast. 111. and makes gifts to the Persians. and so it was Masistes' wife that she plotted to destroy. he sent for his brother and thus spoke: "Masistes. and delivered the woman to Amestris then. . Armies are the properest of gifts in Persia. on the king's birthday. the Persian name for " it is tukta. rejoicing greatly in the gift. he did very unwillingly consent. and the law constraining him (for at this royal banquet in Persia every boon asked must of necessity be granted). and an army for none but herself to command. .BOOK IX. Waiting for that day. and that too when she was guiltless of the deed supposed for he knew the purpose of the request. Nevertheless. Xerxes held it a terrible and wicked act to give up his brother's wife. Amestris heard that she had the mantle but when she learnt the truth her anger was not with the girl she supposed rather that the girl's mother was guilty and that this was her doing. yea. This banquet is served once a year. bidding her do what she would. 110. VOL." which is in the Greek language " " on that day (and none other) the king perfect anoints his head. . he gave her the mantle . and gold in abundance.

e\7r6/Jievo<f Be rL ol fca/cov elvat. He/)??? Se Ov^wOel^ \e<yet " rdSe.iv drroTre/^Trei. T? Trate? re verjvai ea /ca Liav ro5 irai&l TO) rjyyeo yvvai/ca.^.ev re ea yvvaiKi rfj e/jifj avvoiKeeiv. TreTrprjKrai' ovre av TOL Soirjv Ovyarepa TTJV efirjv yfj/uai. 113. aurtf re (JLOI Kara voov /cdpra eovcra' ravT^v ytte AreXeuet? yuere^ra 0vyarepa rrjv cr>jv yrj/Aai . TOLOV&6 Beo/jievos' (fravijcreTai TT}? o"?}?.rijv Be vvv e^et?.? ovBev KW d/cr)Koa)<$ rovrwv. co? /JudOr)^ rd BeKe&dai." o Be co? Tavra rjKOv&e. 'O Be Macrtcrrr. ov &ij KM e^oopee e%w 112. yvvaLKa.Sa/uco9 /5iw d\\d e'yiieO yarpl dvrjp aXXo? e/ji re arj 6vovSev rfj o /j. rlva e/c JJLOI \6yov \eyeis /HOL a^ptjcrrov. OUT&) TOL. eyoo be /3acri\ev fiyd\a jjuev /cal crv TWV Ovyarpos crv TOVTWV ovBerepa. 'Ez> Be Tovro) He/? 77 5 TW Bid /JLeaov %p6v(0. ea-irirrrei Bp6/jL<p e? 290 . TTOUJO-CO Be yu-7." roiovToicn a/aet/Serai. ov yap Bofceei e/jioi. ovre ydp Kivrj 7T\evva 'xpovov avvoLK^crei. Mao-terra. /u. "A/jLTja-rpis /jLera- TOU? Bopvfiopovs rov He/o^ew Bia\vrrjv yvvai/ca TOV Ma<rtcrTew roy? re u? dTTora^Lovcra Kvcrl rrpoe(3a\. " AecrTrora. ev rco rj TO) dBe\<pea) rj Bie\eyero." 6 Se Macrtra dvrjp .aa-/jL6vrjv. Bia\e\v/j.e teal plva /cal a)ra /cal ^eiXea teal y\a)arcrav efcra/novaa e? OIKOV fj. ravrrj avvoLfcee.HERODOTUS /AT) dya06$' yvvaifcl Brj ravrrj rfj vvv arvvoi/ceeis (7VVOLK.r) e^e <yvvaiKa. d\\d TOL CLVT CLVTY)? eyO) BiB(j)/ill dvjarepa rrjv efju'^v.

O king. Masistes ." " Hearing that. 291 . 1 13. . Knowing nought as yet of this. . Seeing the . yet do you bid me put her away and wed your daughter ? Truly. I deem it a high honour to be accounted worthy of your daughter but I will do neither the one nor the other. no longer with her who is now your my daughter in her place take her for your own but put away the wife that you have. for it is not my will that you should have her. 112. : you learn to accept that which is offered you. bidding me deal thus with my wife ? I have by her young sons and daughters. and so sire. and " To this said pass you are come. but fearing evil. ." " At that Masistes was amazed Sire/' he said. . . I IX. Amestris sent for Xerxes' guards and used Masistes' wife very cruelly she cut off the woman's breasts and threw them to dogs. and sent her home thus cruelly used. Nay. Masistes ran speedily to his house. and cut out her tongue. I will give you no daughter of mine to wife." Thus answered Masistes but Xerxes was very angry. will find .BOOK you must wife. nor shall you longer live with her that you now have . "what is this evil command that you lay upon me. But in the meantime. of whom you have taken a wife for your own son and I am exceeding well content with herself. live give you . thus shall constrain . and her nose and ears and lips likewise. while Xerxes talked with his brother. you have not destroyed me yet : ' ! departed. Masistes said nought but this Nay. 111-113 me not to consent to such a desire you another husband for your daughter as good as I but suffer me to keep my own wife.

'E? 8e rrjv ^^crrbv ravryv. 114.? Trvtfouevos ravra eKelvov Trpijcrcrovra. Kal Sij Kal eK KapSt?. avvtj\0ov. aev rov eputra rbv Eep^ea) Kal rov Ma(7t<TTea) Odvarov rocravra eyevero. el%ov . 'A0rjvaloi Be e'/c r?}? 'AfiuSov e? rrjv Xepcrovrfa-ov ^ijcrrbv 7ro\iopKoj>.?. ev6evrev Se e? "A/3fSor Kal ra? ye<pvpas evpov &iara? ISoKeov evpi'icreiv en evrera^eva^. co? eovros lcrx v ~ pordrov ret^eo? rwv ravry.?. iBwv Be Bie^dapjuev^v rrjv yvvaiKa. co? JjKovcrav f/ rrapelvai TOU? Ej\\r)vas e? rbv 'EXX^crTro^ro^.? o/o/i^eVre? EXXr/w? eV 'EjXkijcrTrovrov Trpwrov uev irepl AeKrbv vrro dveuwv drro\a^0evre^. el Trep ^)6rj avafias e? rou? BaArr^tou? KOI TOU? Kal yap ecrrepyov (JLLV Kal TJV virap^os TWV a\\a yap Sep^*. Ol &e K Mu/caX. r/ c i e$oe ' drrorc\eeLV e? rrjv Se Kal KavOiTTTTM rw arparr/yy avrov o'i vrrofieivavras Treipaadai T?}? XepGovtjcrov. rre^-^ra^ eV aurbv crrparivv ev rfj 6Sw Kareicreive aurov re eKelvov Kal TOU? Kara vratSa? avrov Kal rrjv crrpanrjv rrjv etceivov.? TroXfo? O/o/8a^o9 di>rjp rjv ITeyQo-?. o? Ta e'/c rwv yefyvpewv orr\a evOavra 292 KeKOjjuKw^. K re ra)V d\\e(av rwv rrepLotKi^wv. 115. Brj aTTeirKeov. co? e/nol Sorceeiv. aerd ravra ava/Sov^evaduevos rolcru rrai<7i eTropevero e? BaKTpa avv re rolcn ewvrov vlolcn Kal 8tj KOV ricrl Kal aXXoicrt o>9 aTToarrjawv voubv avTL/ca rbv RaKrpiov Kal TTOirjcrwv TCL fjieyicrra KCLKMV /3a(TL\ea' rd irep av Kal eyevero.HERODOTUS ra olrcia. Kal rovrcov OVK rjKicrra elveKev e? rbv E\X?/crrolat aev vvv dutyl Trovrov aTriKOvro.

. The Greeks that had set out from Mycale for the Hellespont first lay to off Lectum 1 under stress of weather. and his sons and his army withal. the story of Xerxes' love and Masistes' death. where they found the bridges broken which they thought would be still holding fast. had he escaped up into the country of the Bactrians and Sacae for they loved him well.BOOK IX. but the Athenians. 293 . but the Athenians crossed over to the Chersonesus and laid siege to Sestus. straightway he took counsel with his children and set forth to journey to Bactra with his own sons (and others too. So the rest sailed away. with Xanthippus their general. The Peloponnesians then who were with Leutychides thus resolved that they would sail away to Hellas. . 113-115 havoc made of his wife. seeing that it was the strongest walled place in that region among them there was come from Cardia a Persian named Oeobazus. Now when the Persians heard that the Greeks were at the Hellespont. Such is way. Sestus was held 1 At the western end of the bay of Adramyttium. and he had carried thither the tackle of the bridges. and sent against him an army that slew him on his . purposing to raise the province of Bactra in revolt and work the king the greatest of harm which he would have done. 114. and thence came to Abydos. they had come in from the neighbouring towns and assembled at . But it was of no avail for Xerxes learnt his intent. to my thinking. and he was viceroy over the Bactrians. 115. that they would remain there and attack the Chersonesus. and indeed these were the chief cause of their coming to the Hellespont. this same Sestus. belike).

d<pvKTO)<i /rv\i~ f/ Be KM? avTy eTTCTrecrov. " Xe^/coz/ crv\7](re /3acrtXeo? ^OJ^TO?. 'EiTVpdl'VV6 & TOVTOV TOV VOfJLOV He/oe&) V7rap%o<? 'ApravKTrjs. ecr07)<. Ta ^p/LiaTa Kal TO e afou^ro? e? Te/uLevos eajreipe Kal T6 OKWS CLTflKOlTO 9 'Et^aiOVVTa CV TO) JP-/ / . Be v ^e/3aXero. V0a %pn] fJidT CL ^pvaeai Kal dp<yvpeai Kal Kal a'XXa dvaOijfJLa'ra. 117. e/jucryeTO. ovbev eVt J1JV Be aTpaTevecrOai [IpwrecriXeayv e\eje Sovvai dvBpos KIVOS (f)p6l'e. iva KCLI et o"rparev/not. Kvprjcras direOave' TOVTOV ravra TO)V \e<y(i>v euTrerew? O!KOV. Beivos Be Kal aracr#aXo?. Kal ^cr%aXXov ot 'AOrjvaloi avro re 294 .!. voewv roidBe' rrjv 'AcriTjv iraaav vofjii^ovcri. ecrr^ 771. Tore oe eiroXiopKeeTO V7TO 'AOrvaLwv OVTB Trapeo-Kevao-jjievo^ e? 7ro\iopKLTJV ovTe TrpoaBeKo/JLevos TOj)9 EXX77^a?. GWVTWV eVet Be elvai TIepcrai Kal TOV alel /3acn\evovTOs. dvrjp fj. 'Evret ^e TroXiopxeofjievoicri <T^>L $>6ivoTrwpov eireyiveTO.HERODOTUS Be ravrrjv eirv)(<opioi AtoXee?. o? Kal /3acri\a eXavvovra eV ra wrecreay TOV V7r\6/jievo$. <r o? OLKOV. TO.ev Tlepa-qs. (rvvrjcrav Be YIep&ai re Kal TWV aX\cov cru/bL/^d^wv (TUJ/VOS o/uXo?. Aeo-TTora. ev jap ^Lepaov^aov T Kal TroXXa Kal Kal (j)La\at.\>/ aovTO) yvvaij. 116. earl TipcoTeaiXea) TjV T6/JL6VOS TTepl CLVTOV.

the Athenians grew weary of their absence . raiment. and a precinct about it. how he stole away from Elaeus the treasure This was the way of of Protesilaus l son of Iphiclus. bronze. and other dedicated offerings all of which Artaj'ctes carried off. "Sire. he had made no preparation for it. who met a just death for invading your territory with an army give me this man's house. whereby all may be taught not to invade your territory." he said deceitfully to Xerxes. but with him were Persians and a great multitude of their allies withal. "there is here the house of a certain Greek. when the Athenians laid siege to him. : . nor thought that the Greeks would come. a cunning man and a wicked witness the deceit that he practised on the king in his march to Athens. and he had no way of escape from their attack. with vessels of gold and silver. there is at Elaeus in the Chersonesus the tomb it of Protesilaus. But the siege continuing into the late autumn.BOOK IX. . by the king's gift. fall in the Trojan war. 115-117 by the Aeolians of the country. j/ijbs a (Horn. Greek to 701). 116. that the Persians believe all Asia to belong to themselves and whosoever is their king. 295 . where was much treasure. 1 The first ii. 11. This province was ruled by Xerxes' viceroy Artayctes. 117. So when the treasure was given him. he carried it away from Elaeus to Sestus. meaning had whose reason for saying that Protesilaus invaded the king's territory was." It was to be thought that this plea would easily persuade Xerxes to give him a man's house. having no suspicion of Artayctes' . and planted and farmed the precinct and he would come from Elaeus and have intercourse with women in the shrine. Now. .

Kal a>? Kare\a/j.Br) OL Be OUA: OVTW 118. exeivov a\\u> rpoiray efyovevaav. e^acrav irpiv r] TO *A. anrkQavov OL Be ^wvres crc^ea? ol 7770^ e? Be Kal 'ApravKTTjv BeBe/j-evov avrov re Kal rbv TralBa avrov. 296 . o 6t>9 Troefjiwv. priLKr)v Qlofia^ov SpijiKe? fj./3dvovTO o\iyov eovres vjrep Alybs 01 fJiev ' TTOTafJi&v. OL be rrjv TTO\LV el'xpv. eV TW reL^el e? Tray 77^77 /ca/cov i]aav.6r)vaLG)v KOLVOV a^ea? yaeTaTre//. eoeovTo re rcoi/ o-Tparyywv OKCOS aira5 C^ / / t* r/ >/ yoiev cr(ea? >} OTT'KTW. ol <j>ev- TOV 'ApTavKTijv varepoi op/XT^eWe? d\eJ. ovra) cocrre TOU? TOVOVS K\Lvewv ecriTeovTO. e^ ^ \ TO Tet^o?. 119. rfj rjv e Or} ' VTTO VVKTCL 6 \ / >/ 5C/ o e rj/JLeprj eyeveTo.HERODOTUS ewvriov dTToBrj/jieovTes Kal ov Bvvd[j. Ot Se eaTepyov ra Trapeovra.? vruXa? avoi^av. "EXA/^e? avT&v 120. alrai CLTTO rwv Trvpycov eaTJ/j/qvav roicn 'AQrjvaioicri TO yeyovos Kal TO.6/Lii>oi. OUTO) 5>A f re Tlepaai Kal T0)i> OI^OVTO aTrobpavres OL ApravKTrj^ Kal 6 rov Tet^eo? Kara/Bdvres. ra)v S ol JJLV 7r\evve<$ e&i&tcov.ev vvv e/c^evyovra e? TTJV TL~kei(TTc*)pu> TOU? Se 8e d/ji(f)l ^ter* 'AtywOioi Xa/So^T? edvcrav eTTij^copiw Bey rpoTry TO> er^ere/oft).vot. eVetTe Se ou&e t/ . yeiv. ^povov eVt e\diJi<fc0ricrav. Kat Tew rwv ^vKaaaovrwv \ey6rai VTTO OTTTWVTI repas yevecrOat.

119. and opened their gates and the greater part of the Athenians going in pursuit. and Wells). Thereat the men endured their . rest stayed to hold the town. Thrace. When morning came. but the Apsinthians of that country caught and sacrificed him after their fashion to Plistorus the god of their land as for his companions.BOOK IX. the at the last . away again till they should take the place or be recalled by the Athenian state. the people of the Chersonesus signified from their towers to the Athenians what had happened. It is told by the people of the Chersonesus that a marvellous thing befell one of them that 1 A roadstead opposite Lampsacus the rivers were probably two small streams that flow into the sea there (How . and Artayctes and Oeobazus and all the Persians made their way down from the back part of the fortress. 117-120 from home and their ill success at taking the fortress. The Greeks bound . where their enemies were scarcest. they slew them in another manner. and fled away at nightfall. plight patiently. 118. insomuch that they boiled the thongs of their beds for food but . Artayctes and his company had begun their flight later. 297 . and entreated their generals to lead them but the generals refused to do that. But they that were within the walls were by now brought to the last extremity. 120. Oeobazus made to escape into and carried them to Sestus. and were overtaken a little way beyond the Goat's Rivers. 1 where after they had defended themselves a long time some of them were slain and the rest taken alive. and Artayctes and son likewise with his them in bonds. even these failed them.

aXA.OL(TL Tavra Be Troitjcravre^ d7reTT\eov 69 rrjr 'EXXaSa.. 121. drrajayovres )\ v v <t\ C? ' f"^ Joe avrov e? rrjv attrrfv e? rrjv Kep!.yitatveu o eV 'EXatou^Ti IT/jcoTecrtXect)? ort /tat redveut^ efyr) " J 'Helve ? e'wz' SvvafjLiv vvv TivecrOac. /xef azm raura 'AdrjvaioKn. TT/JO? ^ewt' u>v airoivd e^t ro^ JJLOI raSe xprj^dTayv ra)v e\a/3ov CK rov ipov kfcarov rd\avra Karadetvat ra> Be&. Kal o'l jjiev IT epi^v Sevres e0 pa^ov 6 Be 'ApravKrr)<s co? eiBe TO Te/?a?. jur/bev fyofteo TO T6/?a? TOVTO' ov jap (Tol Trecfrrive. rapfyovs A0^vate.' efioi cr?. /eaXecra? rov orrrwvra TOU? (i) . Tovrov Be rov ^Apravxrew rov dvaKpejjiacrOevros rrporrdrwp ^Aprejji^dpt^ earl 6 Tle^cr^crt \6jov rov eKelvoi. dvrl 5' e/jiewvrov Kal rov TraiSo? aTroScocra) rd\avra eTTiGelvai.. ol Se \e yova'i eVt rov KO\WVOV rov vrrep > v > > '- aavres dvKpe/jLaaav rov Be Tralo'a ev rov 'ApravKreco Karekevcrav. Kal avrov rov crrparr^yov ravrr) voo<$ e<ppe. rovrayv ejevero. 122. vrro\aftovres 298 . jrepi yevofjievo s" rov 'B^dvOimrov OVK o'rparrj'yov VTricr^o/jLevo^ BnjKoaia erretOe' r r i ol jap 'EiXaiovcrioi ra> Tlpwreaikew TI/JLO)- peovres eSeovro [JLIV Kara^prjadtji^ai.r)S e^ev^e rov f rropov. rd re aXXa ^prj/jiara ayovres Kal Brj Kal ra ojr\a rwv jefyvpewv co? dvaOijaovres e? rd Kal Kara ro ero? rovro ovSev eVl rr\eov Ipd. o(pOa\/j.HERODOTUS roiovBe' ol rdpiyjai eVt rut irvpl Kei^evoL eVaX\ovro re KOI tfcriraipov o/e&>? Trep tyOves veodkwroi.

299 . and the general himself likewise was so minded.BOOK : IX. . but he is a Mede. . and I will pay to the Athenians two hundred talents for myself and my son. it is to me that Protesilaus of Elaeus would signify that though he be dead and dry he has power given him by heaven to take vengeance on me Now therefore I offer a ransom. 122. carrying with them the tackle of the bridges to be dedicated in their temples. and these as they lay over the fire began to leap and writhe as though they were fishes newly caught. This done. This Artayctes who was crucified was grandson to that Artembares 1 who instructed the Persians in a design which they took from him and laid 1 There is an Artembares in i. father's eyes. and so can hardly be meant here. amazed at the sight . withal. to the hill above the town of Madytus). they sailed away to Hellas. So they carried Artayctes away to the headland where Xerxes had bridged the strait (or. by another story. The rest gathered round. 114 . but when Artayctes saw the strange thing. if they spare us. he called him that was frying the fishes and said to him " Sir Athenian." But Xanthippus the for the general was unmoved by this promise people of Elaeus entreated that Artayctes should be put to death in justice to Protesilaus. be not afraid of this portent it is not to you that it is sent . payment of a hundred talents to the god for the treasure that I took from his temple . to wit. and there nailed him to boards and hanged him aloft and as for his son. that wronged him. they stoned him to death before his : . 121. and the rest of the stuff And in that year nothing further was done. 120-122 guarded Artayctes he was frying dried fishes.

ware crvyyvovres Ylepaat. ytjv Kcnvdyrjv. r)ye/jLOVii]i> Si&oi. ev dffTV<yLTOV6$ TroXXal TWV yap ap^ovTas Toiavra Troieeiv KOTG Kal Trape&L KCL\\LOV 1} ore ye uvOpcoirwv re TroXXw^ apxo/jiev 7racr?." K0/. OI%OVTO aTTOcrra^re?. yap elcrl eKTyjf eic TOLVT^V rprj^eav. "'Evret Zei/9 avBpcov $e crol KO/oe. v tca (frepc.o? Se Tavra dicovcrai KOI ov ^co/zacra? rov \6yov otVo? be avSpas Brj Ke\ve Troieeiv ravra. ovrw 8e avroiat. ecrcrco^ez^Te? T^ yv(*y/jLr} Kvpov. ap'Xeiv re eiXovro \vjrpr)v otVeoi'Te? ireBtdBa cnreipovres a\\oicn r) 300 . neravaa-Tavres $e 3e Kal efcaarepco.HERODOTUS pw rrpoor)jviKav \eyovra rdSe. \aKov^ yivecrOai' ov ydp ri rT/? J)T/}? Kapirov re OwfJiacTTOV (fiveiv Kal V8pa? dyaOovs ra 7roXe'/ua.9 re T>)9 'Acri?.? .a\atcwv 77}? elvai. Trapa'ivee co? Trapaa-Kevd^eaOai jievovs' ovKeri e/c api~ovTas <pL\eeiv yap TWV p.

"Do so. choosing rather to be rulers on a barren mountain side than slaves dwelling in tilled r . by bringing Astyages low. Cyrus. let us now remove out of the little and rugged land that we possess and take to ourselves one that is better. . make ready to be no longer rulers. There be many such on our if w e take one borders. and found nought to marvel at in their design. but Soft lands breed soft men wondrous subjects fruits of the earth and valiant warriors grow not from the same soil. 122 : " before Cyrus this was its purport Seeing that Zeus grants lordship to the Persian people.BOOK ." said he "but if you do. IX. among them. and to you. . . 301 . valleys. It is but reasonable that a ruling people should act thus for when shall we have a fairer occasion than now." Thereat the Persians saw that Cyrus reasoned better than they. and many further distant of these we shall have more reasons for renown. and they departed from before him. when we are lords of so many men and of all Asia?" Cyrus heard them.


vm. Nile. vm. vm. 124 Acarnania. a town of Thrace on the Nestus. vi. 236. i. Abrocomas. governor of Egypt under Xerxes. I. killed at Thermopylae. Abydos. a river of N. 21. 145. a Delphian prophet. vm. son of Darius. m. 65 Achaeus. Greece. 174. a legendary Hyperborean. ix. 11 Achaemenid. dynasty in Persia. vm. 121. m. vn. 12. 146 Abaris. 147. n. 168. an Athenian. the only stock which has never left the Peloponnese. vi. an oracular shrine in Phocis. 36 son of Darius. 120. 33. a river alleged to be E. vn. 27. 126. 75. vm. 44. a town on the Hellespont. v.INDEX (" Xerxes inarch" and "Xerxes' army" refer ahcays invasion of Greece in 480 B. 94. 36 Abdera. 10. Achaemenes. vm. (1) vii. one of Xerxes' chief halting-places on his march. 126 Aceratus. i. (2) Farthest ancestor of Cyrus. its glen supposed to be a passage to the world of the dead. 98 Acheloiis. vn. 115-1J7. vm. vii. 10 Acheron. 11. 73. i. Xerxes' bridge there. a legendary eponymous hero. vn. 95. vn. Athos. a river of N. 117. vn. vin. his death. 130. 7 one of Xerxes' admirals.W. 120. compared with the . 47. vn. 126. in Chalcidice. 173. vn. in. 47.W.C. their expulsion of lonians from Greece. 92 303 . iv. in N.W. Phthiotis. 117 Achaeans. on the isthmus of Mt. 185-197. 46. 117. 11. Achaeans of Achaea in the Peloponnese. n. 37 Aces. 134 Abantes. an Euboean tribe. 43. 109. 97 his advice to Xerxes to keep the fleet together. 46. 125.) to the Abae. 114 Acanthus. 45. m. 132. vn. Greece. Xerxes' first halt in his flight. of the Caspian. Greece. v.. i. 33 foil. vn. in the Trojan war. 120. . 224 Abronichus. 44. at Croton.

son of Adrastus of Sicyon. iv. vi. a Acragas (Agrigentum). (2) Son of Pandion. 144. in. vm. a Phrygian refugee at Croesus' court. vn. vn. iv. of Samos. v. 159 Adrastus. vii. vi. Adriatic sea. v. a town in Pallene. v. 94 Adicran. iv. vi. i. Corinthian admiral at Salamis. Adyrmachidae. Achilles. 59. v. 9 tribe.INDEX town in Asia Minor near the mouth of the Scamander. 149 Aegilea. 101 Aegina. vi. vi. 90 Aege. 78. 55 13. 84-89. n. 80 Aegira. a Spartan clan. 170 Acrisius. 68 people. 83 Aegae. in Argolis. 35. u. Cleomenes in Aegina. 197 father of Polycrates. vn. legendary daughter of Asopus. i. a town near the Copai'c lake in Boeotia. vi. 113. 122. 91-93. son of Ion. vm. 85 60. IV. in. local heroes worshipped in Aegina. 145 304 . vn. i. Fleet. a Pelasgian Aegialeus. iv. in Argolis. vm. 61. 50. i. (1) son of Gordias. island in the Saronic gulf. a district of Euboea. Aegaleos. (1) son of Oeolycus. 25 Aeacus and Aeacidae. 182. v. 193. 53 Acrothoum. 39. 66 Aegicores. 85. Aeginetan hostages. 163. Vn. feuds with Athens. v. 89. 80. a Libyan king. vi. Aeolian town in Achaea. viu. 88-92. in Colchis. 135 Achilleium. father of Danae. a Libyan Aea. v. 68 a legendary Athenian. 41. 2. 149 Aegaean sea. (1) 168 vn. 55. V. i. 13. vi. 22 Adeimantus. Aeaces. . a town on the promontory of Athos. a strip of land on the Pontic coast. offerings at Delphi. 5. 149. VII. 61. 123 Aegeus. 145 Aegaeae. 22. a Spartan. vi. 97. 76 Acraephia. ix. i. Aegidae. 85. an Argive hero. . 139. king of Athens. the hill in Attica whence Xerxes saw the battle of Salamis. Aegina. 67 foil. (2) Son of Syloson. 173 " " of Sicyon. 147. vm. 28. 165. 36. iv. Aeginetans at Plataea. vm. 33. confirmed as despot of Samos by the Persians. 137. vn. vm. 35-45. 59. v. 94 Aegialeans. 131. (2) Son of Talaus. iv. vm. i. v. 94 " Race " of. 46 Aeginetans in battle of Salamis. 84. 64.

in Darius' Scj^thian expedition. their conquest by Croesus. 197 (2) Son of (1) a descendant of Temenus. vin. a town in Phocis. Sestus an Aeolian town. 98 Agbatana. 91 305 . 122 Xerxes' fleet. a town at the mouth of the Hebrus. I. 95. 115. 134 Aetolians. Aeolus. in. their settlements in Asia. i. 92. 103. i. 73 (Elis the only Aetolian part of the Peloponnese). 11 Aeschrionians. iv. of Elis. on the Thracian coast near the Hellespont. 6. 89. iv. 138. in.INDEX Aegiroessa. 171. 92 Aegli. vii. 35 . 165 Aenus. iv. 147. a Samian clan. I. (often mentioned with Thessaly originally Aeolian. 131 Agasicles. n. vi. vn. king of Macedonia. 100. to denote Greek colonists in Asia. 127. (1) Persian capital in Media. near Bactria. 8. 149 in Argolis. (2) In Syria. . 145 Aeglea. 58 Aenyra. 159 Agariste. VT. vin. their customs. 152 armies of Harpagus. 102. in. vi. in. 130 (2) Daughter of Hippocrates of Athens. 49.) Aeolidae. 123 Aenesidemus. 28 part of by Persians. 150 Aesanius. I. IX. reference to one of his plays. 141. resistance to Cyrus. 119. vn. Agaeus. 153. a leading Eretrian. an officer of Gelos in Sicily. 137. Aeschines. Aegium. vni. vi. iv. vii. of Halicarnassus. the chronicler. vn. an island in the Aegean. king Mycenae. Philippus. 90. . iv. 20. 156 Aesopus. 144 Agathyrsi. n. son of Heracles. i. 119 Aeimnestus. in. IX. 100 Aeschraeus. vii. (1) daughter of Cleisthenes of Sicyon. a tribe on the Scythian borders. an Athenian. ix. Aeolian town in Asia Minor. 26 Aeschylus. iv. part of a Persian province. 149-152 in the I. v. the Athenian poet. lonians. 64 Agenor. plan of. a Spartan. an Aradian. 139 a man of Thera. vi. 104 Agathyrsus. 107 a tribe in the Persian empire. 125. 110. a town on the Thermaic gulf. 47 Aeolians. 126. vn. Aeropus. combatant at Plataea. Aegospotami. Agamemnon. 98. father of Athanms. 10 Agbalus. i. 67. reconquest in Ionian revolt. vi. vi. 154. 90. vi. I. vin. father of Cadmus. 54 Aenea. 176. vin. Cambyses' death there. 127 of foil. iv. 64. vn. i. . a place in Thasos. iv. vn.

137-139. a Spartan king. 61 Alcimachus. 43. 167 Aias. an Athenian. vi. enriched by Croesus. 7 Agyllaei. vi. v. suspected of collusion with Persians after Marathon. v. 136. iv. under a curse for killing Cylon. vii. vi. mother of Heracles. iv. 125. (1) a Paeonian tribe. vi. 58 Alexander. 95 Alcamenes. another alleged to be in Phrygia. 121 v. 52 Alcaeus. an Argive. an Athenian. Megacles. vm. 121-124. v. his tower at Gyrene. son of Teleclus. i. 7. 82 Alcetes. 165 Alarodii. vm. i. 58 Agrianes. son of Aeacus. vm. a tribe in or adjacent to Scythia. 64. 65 Aglaurus. vm. in Egypt. i. king of Sardis. a town in the Chersonese of Thrace. 59. vi. 70. 66. vi. 94. 95 Aleuadae. n. His son and descendants. the ruling family in Thessaly. vi. 17 Alcides. a town in Caria. vii. one of three survivors of a battle between Argos and Lacedaemon. (1) son of Priam (Paris). 204 Alcenor. his treatment of Persian envoys. i. king of Macedonia. son of Aeropus. 115. the successful suitor for the daughter of Cleisthenes of Sicyon. 101 Alcmene. 3. i. 35. local name of Athene at Tegea. 173. 22. 17. 306 . iv. vi. 164 Alazones. iv. of Armenia. 131 Alcon. vm. 145 Alcmeon. vm. king of Sparta. vn. vi. son of Amyntas. vii. 113-120. (2) The lyric poet. 164 Agora. VII. an inter. ix. V. v. his ancestors. 66. 61. an Etruscan tribe. 19-21 claim to be a Greek. Alabanda. 53 Aglomachus. an Eretrian. a hero of the Trojan war. 127 Alea. the rendezvous for Datis' army. 125. II. 64. 130. Alalia. v. a tribe in the Persian empire. father of Clinias. E. her shrine at Athens. 195. a Molossian suitor for Cleisthenes' daughter. ix. 6. a town in Corsica inhabited by the Phocaeans. (2) A tributary of the Hebrus. daughter of Cecrops. 172. a Spartan. 61 Agis. king of Barca. (1) son of Heracles. 16. 62. advice to Greeks. in. I. i. his poem on a battle between Athenians and Mytilenaeans. a Spartan. 79 Alazir. vii. vi. enemies of Pisistratus. 90 Agron.INDEX Agetus. i. 139 Alcibiades. I. 70 Aleiian plain in Cilicia. (2) King of Macedonia.

vu. 145. vn. vu. his war with Miletus. 30. vm. (2) A Maraphian. m. 110-117. 229 Alpheus. 154. vu. 127 Amilcas. n. 39-43. i. Amiantus 84-93 Aminocles of Magnesia. ix. 140-144. an Athenian. vn. vi. 162. i. flowing apparently from the eastern Alps. 42. ix. iv. 203 Amathus. his revolt against Apries. 216. king of Carthage. 227 Alpis. 10. vm. 25. 16-25. i. 167. its refusal to revolt against Persia. commander of Persian army against Barca. 190 Ammon (or Amoun). protection of Scythians against Media.INDEX mediary between Persia and Athens. enriched by Persian shipwreck at Sepias. 37 . an oracular deity in Libya. a tributary of the Danube. n. distinguished at Salamis. in. 32. 176. her revenge on a rival. in. Amazons. 73. his i. king of Lydia. vu. ix. tradition and ceremonial there. iv. of Trapezus. a Spartan. vn. 61. information given by him to the Greeks before Plataea. father of Croesus. 4446 Alilat. 169. identified with Zeus. iv. 93 i. place in Egyptian chronology. Spartan commander of the ion. an Arabian deity identified with Aphrodite. n. 104 their intermarriage with Scythians. in Cyprus. defeated by Gelon. 55 Ammonians. I. 201. alliance with 77. in Achaea. 16. iv. distinguished at Thermopylae. 114. (1) Croesus. . 8 Alopecae. king of Egypt. 109-112. Cambyses' treatment of his body. 165-167 Aminias of Pallene. visited by Solon. story of Athenian victory over them. n. n. m. a colony from Egypt and Ethiopia. a town v. his death. v.W. 197 Alyattes. ix. Greek guard. 121 Amorges. 26 " Pitanate battalAmompharetus." his refusal to quit his post at Plataea. v. Amasis. 49 Alus. 53-57 a Persian general. 27 Amestris. 173. in. 43. a deme of Attica. on the route from Egypt to N. a village behind the Greek position at Thermopylae. 63 Alpeni or Alpenus. friendship of Amasis and Polycrates. 181 Cambyses' expedition against them. wife of Xerxes. Africa. an Arcadian suitor for Cleisthenes' daughter. his tomb. 46.

vn. 64 Amyris. and Cleombrotus. a deme of Attica. (2) King of Sparta. Greece. a Phocian town. 91. 131. 173. a legendary Greek hero. a deme of Attica. 91 Amphilytus. a tribe of the Sacae. vn. 127 Amphissa. . 28 Anagyrus. a people of N. n. 49 Anacharsis. vi. 62 Anaphlystus. 213. 180. (1) king of Macedonia. in Pausanias' army. vin. vm. son of Amphiaraus. a Persian officer in Xerxes' army. I.E. vii. contemporary with Croesus. council of a confederacy of states in N. 91 his oracular shrine.INDEX . gulf. vn. vni. v. 76 Anacreon of Teos. v. grandfather of the despot Cypselus. 140. vn.W. Persian envoys sent to him. a town on the Persian vi. 94. an Acarnanian diviner. 62. 15 Amytheon. 44. father of the seer Melampus. (2) A Persian. 136. a suitor for Cleisthenes' daughter. 134 Amphicaea. 49. v. in. 36 Amphion. in N. a refuge for some Delphians when threatened by Xerxes. 93 Anaphes. 200. An eponymous hero AmII. 46. ix. 308 71 . 127 Amyrtaeus. a Scythian phil-Hellene. m. king of Samos. 32. a legendary hero. a Corinthian of the Bacchiad clan.W. vin. 46. 228. 11. 52. the poet. vin. vi. vi. son of Bubares and grandson of Amyntaa of Macedonia. in. vm. 33 Amphicrates. 99 Anaua. in. vm. 43. . 30 Anaxandrides. 67 Dorieus. iv. 92. 122 Ampelus. son of Theopompus. (1) a Spartan. 17-19. son of Leon. a town i n Phrygia. vn. iv. Greece. vn. one of the later kings of Egypt. vin. Ampe. v. 92 Amphitryon. 59 Amphictyones. phictyon. ix. 200 Amphilochus. father of Cleomenes. 204. father of Alexander. I. 53 Ampraciots. v. 28 Amyntas. alleged father of Heracles. a town in Locris. i. ancestor of Leutychides. vn. 45. vn. Leonidas. 139. vm. IX. 20 a promontory in Chalcidice. 136 Amyrgii. Amphiaraus. part of the Greek fleet. 158. a man of Siris. near the mouth of the Tigris. Greece. 62 Amphimnestus of Epidamnus. n. 59. 146. v. 39. in. 121 Anactorians.

137 a tributary of the Strymon. a town in the Troad. 91 39 . chosen by his countrymen to provide for Xerxes' reception. 97 Antichares. 108. (1) a Spartan. 113 Angites. daughter of Cepheus and wife of Perseus. vn. vn. Andrians in the Persian fleet. 23. a people adjacent to Scythia. vn. 11 Antiochus. in the Aegean. iv. a suitor for Cleisthenes' daughter. vn. vi. vm.INDEX Anaxandrus. vn. 150 Androphagi. IV. a Lemnian deserter to the Greeks from the Persian son of (1). vi. vin. a town in Macedonia. 42 Anthele. vn. n. a river in Illyria. son of Creticus. a local hero worshipped at Plataea. a Delphian. 66 Aneristus. 141 Androcrates. vn. father of Sperthias. 43 Anticyra. vm. fleet. of Lindus. 118 Antiphemus. a Thasian. vn. vn. Anopaea. 33 Antipatrus. a town in Mails. 137. vn. 119. 26. 94 Anthylla. (1) (and Anysian pro vince of Egypt). 204 Anaxilaus. 165. 25 Androdamas. 106 Andros. 31. on the Spercheus. besieged by Themistocles. v. 137. vin. 165 Anchimolius. a king of Sparta. ix. vm. an ally of the Carthaginians in Sicily. (2) Grand- Herodotus' theory that his death was caused by the wrath of Talthybius. 140 Aparytae (possibly the modern Afridi). ancestor of Leutychides. iv. 61. vn. 100. 33. 131. vn. father of Amilcas. vn. an Elean. a man of Cos. ix. 85. vm. 76 Antandrus. Angrus. v. a Carthaginian. ix. v. 216 Antagoras. inhabited by one of the warrior tribes. a town in the Delta. 137. 166. 213 Antidorus. his expulsion by Ethiopians. 49 Annon. 90 Andromeda. 03 Andreas of Sicyon. n. ix. a village near the pass of Thermopylae. Ill. (2) A blind king of Egypt. iv. 125. 18. their customs. 153 Anysis. 102. (1) a Spartan. a Spartan general. founder of Gela in Sicily. n. son of Archidemus. 176 Anthemus. 198. a tribe in the eastern part of the Persian empire. a Samian. v. a man of Eleon. the mountain pass which turned the Greek position at Thermopylae. (2) Despot of Rhegium. in. 126 Androbulus. v. vn.

119 Arabia. off the Phoenician coast. 184 Aradians. n. 153. a Scythian goddess. 59-61. 310 . vm. 7. 147 Aphetae. 134 Apollonia. 80. marriage of his daughter to Cambyses. 11. 205. 26 Apries. 66. 112. n. 91. 36. 83. 169 Aphrodite. 141 . 52. vii. 144. 92. 107-113. 38. II. 27-29. 90 Apollophanes. worshipped in Cyprus and Cythera. vn. storm and shipwreck there. II. (1) a town on the Euxine sea. 193. 198. 91. 196. 67 Aphthite province of Egypt. a king of Egypt. iv. 93. 41. Apollo. other local cults. n. in. i. its customs. 118. 159 Apsinthii. a man of Abydos. 11. 26. a Pelasgian people. in. 161-163. 8. inhabited by one of the warrior clans. 50. a river of Thessaly. 69. in Egypt (Hathor). in. 144. its relations with Sparta. in. natural history. 52. 202. 73 Aphrodisias. 73. 209-211 Arcadia. i. i. i. 8. 59. I. other local cults under various names. Cambyses' sacri(2) An Egyptian town. iv. deposed by Amasis. 75. his death.INDEX Apaturia. a deme of Attica. n. 98 Arams. 40. 199. part of Persian empire. vi. iv. n. 181 . 8. in. 105. 42. iv. 158. 18 cult at Delos and Delphi. iv. (2) A town on the Ionic gulf. station of Xerxes' fleet. 158. 155. vn. invasion of Egypt by Arabians and Assyrians. in. 97 Arabian gulf (Red Sea). 178. 131. 39. vii. 59 Apidanus. I. a river flowing from the west into the Caspian (but apparently confused by Herodotus with other rivers). 11. 169. home of the phoenix and flying serpents. v. iv. geography. 36. n. 87. 1. 33. 48 Araxes. in. i. i. 129. in Magnesia. an island off the coast of Libya. iv. his expedition against Cyrene. 166 Apia. a tribe near the Chersonese (promontory of Gallipoli). on the Pagasaean gulf. n. i. in Gyrene. ix. vm. vi. 59. (1) the sacred calf of Egypt. 102. 159. of the island Aradus. 15. n. vi. 196 Apis. iv. n. 105 . in. 12 Aphidnae. 69. crossed by Cyrus when invading the Massagetae. m. 90. i. 131. 86. 19. II. Arabians in Xerxes' forces. iv. rv. 34. legious treatment of Apis. ix. an alleged tributary of the Danube. 155 (Horus). i. an Athenian festival celebrated in the month Pyanepsion. vn. ix. 163. n.

12 Ardericca. Arcadian deserters to Xerxes. vn. iv. Arcadian settlements in Cyprus. vm. son of Ion. 26 . 115 Argimpasa. v. i. vii. 71 a courtesan of Naucratis. in Egypt. iv. Cleomenes in Arcadia. 57 3" . son of Gyges. (1) a Spartan.) Arcesilaus. his friendship with the Phocaeans. inventor of the iambic metre. son of Anaxandrides. vn. vi. a tribe of the Persian empire. Archilochus of Paros. Arcadians at Thermopylae. 90 Archias. his treatment of political enemies. 55. 67 Argiopium. 52 Argilus. 90. 77 . 68 Archelaus. 59. 131. son-in-law of Danaus. 140. king of Tartessus (at the mouth of the Guadalquivir). 55. 135 Archidice. in Thrace. their tribute. an Egyptian town called after him. 162-164. 119. 83 . vii. 52 Ares. 76 Argades. Arcadians in the Greek army on the Isthmus. 15 Arei. n. 74. 185.INDEX 146. vm. 7. (2) Son of another Battus. preservation of the cult of Demeter. 165 Arge and Opis. iv. 59-62 . his name given to one of the four ancient Athenian tribes. VI. 72 (other unimportant reff. wife of Aristodemus. in. iv. iv. (2) A place near Susa. (2) Grandson of the above. (1) a village in Assyria. 171. son of Perdiccas. 204 Archestratides. I. 66 Argaeus. in. (2) A king of Sparta. his death. son of Zeuxidemus. (3) Son of a third Battus. ix. 98 Archelai. ix. IV. Ardys. n. vm. 139 Arganthonius. 36. VI. a Scythian goddess identified with Aphrodite. vii. two maidens fabled to have come from the Hyperboreans to Delos. a king of Sparta. a king of Macedonia. 159. a town west of the Strymon. 160. 93 Areopagus at Athens. honour paid him by the Samians. king of Sparta. iv. king of Lydia. local cults. in. his exploit in the Lacedaemonian attack on Poly crates of Samos. 59. I. in Scythia. (1) a Spartan. vin. vm. vi. a place near Plataea. 163. (1) Son of Battus. n. one of Leutychides' ancestors. vii. a Samian. 202 . v. 1. viu. II. Archidemus. name of three kings of Cyrene. 35 Argea. 164 Archandrus. a Sicyonian tribe so named by Cleisthenes of Sicyon. v.

(1) a Persian officer in Xerxes' army. iv. (2) A Proconnesian poet. 97-100 . in. 92 war. iv. 13. 13. good offices to Mardonius. (1) despot of Cyzicus. vn. his temple violated by Cleomenes. in. v. an Athenian. his conference Aristeas. 18. Argive musicians. 61 war with Sicyon. killed at Salamis. iv. son of Artabanus. 67. to Athens. a primitive people adjacent to Scythia. his a Corinthian. 90. son of Darius. to Colchis. ix. iv. (3) Despot of Cyme. madness of Argive women. 86-89. 78 Arion. vii. war against Sparta. 57. v. a fabled northern people. 67 . a king of Scythia. vi. of Xerxes. 34 Argus. 23 Argo. war between Sparta and Argos. 62 Arimaspi. organiser of the Ionic revolt against Darius. ix. a Persian. (2) Son of Teispes. vn. (2) A Persian officer in Xerxes' army. 89 Ariantas. 11. 9. viu. Cadmeans expelled from Boeotia by Argives. 33. a Persian general. 1. (1) flight and death. 30-38. vii. disappearance and subsequent reappearance after 340 years. i. 27 Arimnestus. Argive neutrality in the Persian quarrel with Aegina. son of Darius. 195 a Median people. vi. iv. 75-82 Ariabignes. 37. vn. 137. 65. 148-152. 24 Ariphron. v. alliance with Aegina against Athens. 72 Ariomardus. vi. (1) a Persian. ix. a Plataean. 13-16 Aristides. 192 Argos and Argives. 14. vii. 1. Ariazus. 312 . son of Caystrobius. 81 Ariapithes. . v. Aridolis. vm. Argive tribes. 5. 78 Ariaramnes. ostracised by the people. a local hero. v. Milesian. 116. vni. said to be bald. v. voyage of the ship to Libya. vi. 124-126. a minstrel of Methymna. son of Adeimantus. story of his rescue from death by a dolphin. vn. 138. lo carried ofi from Argos. his travels in the north. vii. 75-84. 12. 49-55 . 82.INDEX Argippaei. 5. vii. vii. v. an Athenian. I. 82 Alabanda in Caria. v. 151 Aristagoras. iv. 97. i. i. 90. (4) A (2) A Samian. 68 . 23. vi. 131. 179. a king of Scythia. his appeal to Sparta. 131. an ancestor . iv. iv. 138. v. 131 Arisba. said to be one-eyed. despot of Arii. vn. ix. a town of Lesbos. Pericles' grandfather.

Pythian priestess temp. vm. 67. 204. v. king of Taras (Tarentuni). I. return to Asia. his siege of towns in Chalcidice. 131 Aristodicus of Cyme. . 41. vm. son of Darius. 131 Ariston. I. vn. king of the Solii. a king of Sparta. 138 Aristonice. of the Euphrates. a suitor for Cleisthenes' daughter. 143. (1) sole survivor of the Lacedaemonians at Thermopylae. 59 Aristomachus. 89 Aristolaidas. 66. iv. 158 Aristogiton. his death at Plataea. 79-82. 52. (2) A Persian officer in Xerxes' army. 95 at Plataea. vi. 113 Aristodemus. 140 Aristonymus of Sicyon. 204. 73 in. vii. 180. adjacent to Cilicia. 5 Arsamenes. 1518. a Persian. a leader in the Cyprian revolt against Persia. 101 Armenia. source of the Halys. 229-231. (1) a Persian. iv. vn. VIT. 209. vn. vii. 66. ix. vn. v. 55. a Delphian. vn. his dialogue with Xerxes at Abydos. an Athenian. 83. Artabates. Croesus. 52. 136 Arizanti. I. son of Hystaspes. one of the sons of Targitaus the legendary founder of the Scythian people. i. 126 Aristophantus. . 72. 109 123 . 126-129. vm. 52. a Persian officer in Xerxes' army. 46-52. 68 Arsames. ix. 51. 49. IV. flight with his army from Plataea. his vision and change of mind. vn. 93 Arpoxais. father of Hystaspes. first mentioned. vn. v. disagreement with Mardonius before Plataea. (2) Despot of Byzantium. advice to Xerxes against his expedition to Greece. 10-12. 66 Aristophilides. a Persian general in Xerxes' army. part of the Persian empire. one of the six Median tribes. 75. in. Xerxes' uncle. ix. (1) king of Sparta temp. an Aeginetan. 65 Artabazus. 73 Aristocyprus. 199. vi. v. i. vi. 71. a conversation with Darius. vm. (2) A king of Sparta. vi. vn. vi. Elsewhere as a patronymic. ix. 69 Artabanus. Armenians in Xerxes' army. son of Darius. ix. 28 Aristocrates. Xerxes' invasion. I. iv. vi. 58. I.INDEX with Themistocles before Salamis. vui. vn. 01-69. vi. one of the murderers of Hipparchus. his part in the battle. dissuades Darius from the Scythian expedition.

in. conduct in the battle. 108-112 Artayntes. 87 . in 128. and governor of Sestus. v. vin.INDEX Artace. 4. two Persians of the name. 1-30. (2) A Thracian tributary of the Danube. 92 Artobazanes. iv. and its rupture. vi. (2) A Persian general in Xerxes' army. ix. his candidature for the throne of Persia. captured and crucified by the Greeks for his violation . queen of Halicarnassus. 77. vn. 78. (1) a Persian general in Xerxes' army. vin. (1) a Persian. i. 176. v. v. 100. v. 35. ancestor of Artayctes. ix. 1. 137. 7. VT. his operations in Ionia. vin. 122 Artemis. vin. 123. vn. 67 a Mede. Xerxes' intrigue with her. 116-120 Artaynte. n. vn. iv. v. vn. 102. 33. 194. 30. 192. 40 Artescus. son of Mardonius. 59. vi. ix. son of Artachaees. his death. vin. a Persian officer under Xerxes. 107. Artaei. 176. a Persian general under Xerxes. 8. 33. 182. his escape after Mycale. 99. 48. 68. described. 66 Artanes. 26. a town near Cyzicus. (2) Son of the above. vn. vi. execution of Histiaeus. iv. a river in Thrace. 33 Artachaees. 61 Artaeus. vn. 42. (2) A Persian. station of the Greek fleet. 114-116. in Thrace and Scythia. 119. an old name for the Persians. in Egypt (as Bubastis). abandoned by the Greeks. 2 Artochmes. 73. the Persian engineer of Xerxes' canal through Athos. punishment of conspirators at Sardis. (1) a brother of Darius. vin. daughter of Xerxes' brother Masistes. 96. 49 Artaphrenes. (1) treatment of Artembares' son. vn. 224. 87. 117. 101-103 Artemisium. 94. son of Ithamitres. at Sardis when taken by Athenians and lonians. 22. the Persian governor of Sardis. charge against Histiaeus. vn. iv. i. her worship in the Greek world. his complaint to Astyages of Cyrus' Artembares. 10. colleague of Datis in the invasion of Attica. of a temple. iv. (1) Darius' brother. battles with Xerxes' fleet. 73 Artontes. 74 Artayctes. 14. eldest son of Darius. vii. 83. with Xerxes' fleet. vin. vii. vn. v. ix. advice to Xerxes after Salamis. vn. 30-33 negotiation with Athenians. ix. his proposal to Cyrus. Elsewhere a patronymic. (2) A Persian. 25 . vi. 138. 22 and vn. vi. vn. her advice to Xerxes before Salamis. vn. vn. 155. 84 . 4-6. vi. 8-23. crossed by Darius on his way to Scythia. his alliance with Aristagoras. taxation of Ionia. 156 Artemisia. in northern Euboea.

Asia "shaken for " three years by Darius' preparations against Greece. Asia ruled by Medes. by Persians. his friendly relations with Argos. wife of Darius. 6. geography of the world. mistake of those who think Europe no bigger than Asia. 166. 36. 66 Artystone. by Scythians. 95. 88-94. Darius' Asiatic empire. 157. a Persian general in Cyprus.INDEX Artoxerxes. 170 Ascalon.g. iv. 45. a Persian officer in Xerxes' army. in. iv. iv. u. vu. his silver coinage. v. 31-42. ix. ix. 115. at Sardis. ix. division of Asia and Libya. 45 (2) A clan Asias. iv. 184. a Theban cavalry leader under Mardonius at Plataea. 4. a legendary Lydian. extremities of Asia (e. Arabia). 102. lonians of Asia. a town in Laconia. i. 103-106. 167. the "royal road" in Asia. 88 Aryandes. captain of an Aeginetan ship captured by Xerxes' fleet near Sciathus. 45 Asine. name of a people in Ethiopia. wife of Prometheus. vu. iv. his forces sent to reinstate Pheretime in Barca. i. name of Asia. Aristagoras' map of Asia. vu. 17. i. 15 Asopodorus. numbers of Asiatic contingents. v. 21. a town in Syria. iv. Persian belief that all Asia is theirs. a tribe of Libya. 43 Artybius. 198. in. 151 Artozostre. vii. i. Median conquest of Lower. 130. son of Artabanus. n. 20. daughter of Alyattes king of Lydia. 52. son of Xerxes. (1) son of Cotys. 45. 181 Asopii. Asia and Libya compared. i. i. Croesus' conquest of Asiatic Greeks. 1 . viu. Cyrus' daughter. 49. 105 Asia : beginning of troubles between Asia and Greece. 72 . iv. 142. king of Persia. vu. wealth of Assyria a third of entire wealth of Asia. iv. 4. in. prosperity of Asia under Darius. every nation of Asia in Xerxes' armament. 106. division of Upper and Lower Asia by the Halys. vu. 192. married to Astyages the Mede. 73 Asmach. 116 (many other unimportant reff. 108-112 Artyphius. v. iv. i.) Asia. iv. daughter of Darius and wife of Mardonius. 1. 30 Asonides. 200 Aryenis. 69 3*5 . 74 Asbystae. Persian of Upper Asia. Assyrian rule of Upper Asia. 177. Persian satrap of Egypt under Darius. i. iv. iv. vn. I. i. 16. inhabitants of the Asopus valley. i. I. vu. vi.

106. 188. 63 Astacus. 95. . v. 180 cult at Athens. 42 Athamas. 94. a people in Libya. v. a town with a local cult of Athene. i. 60. i. 56. Pisistratus' usurpation of power. 122 Assesus. v. 29. . on Xerxes' line of march. vm. of Trachis. 62. 19. v. vii. 39. 141 Assyrian. I. 22. 213 Athenagoras. vi. 70. Libyan tradition of. 160. 15-59 Aspathines. vii. 78 Assa. vm. i. one of the seven conspirators against the Magians. 19. 197 Athenades. iv. 178. Cyrus' invasion. 107-125. deposed by Cyrus. resistance to Medes. 43. 216. vii. in. expulsion of Hippias with help from Sparta. 77. 63 Astrabacus. n. 104. king of Egypt. Median conquest of all Assyria but Babylonia. a Median king. a district of Mysia. iv. v. 41 Atarneus. iv. 127-130 Asychis. 95. 199. i. iv. 82. 175. legia- 316 . a town in Egypt with a temple of Aphrodite. 192194. elsewhere. 183. v. 54. vii. i. ix. 83. i. i. 22 Assyria: Assyrian rule of Upper Asia. ix. 37. 28. 160. 69 Astyages. 180. 175. vii. a legendary Greek hero. I. n. 45. 58. 59-64. (1) (2) a river in Trachis A river in Boeotia. vn. a Spartan. Theban and Plataean territory. 106. . 217. Sanacharibus' invasion of Egypt with Arabians and Perseus an Assyrian script. made the boundary between 108. 55. 87 Assyrians. son of Cyaxares and son-in-law of Croesus. 59. a town in the Singitic gulf west of Athos. vi. Assyrians in Xerxes' army. 184 " Atarbechis. 29 . 169. i. 182. some account of Assyria. builder of a brick pyramid. in the lands of Miletus. i. 55.INDEX Asopus. . Athenians the leading Ionian people. 56. vm. 97. vn. Herodotus' proposed Assyrian history. 59. vi. 66. ix. vii. vii. 188. v. Ionian appeal to Athens. a legendary Theban. ritual of human sacrifice connected with his family. Solon's legislation at Athens. vi. I. and his dealings with Harpagus. 141. in. v-ix. i. 70 Athens and Athenians. 28. who encamped on its bank. his treatment of Cyrus as a child and as a youth. i." n. frequently referred to in connection with the Plataean campaign of Mardonius. 102. 62 foil. near Thermopylae. 146. of Samos. 136 Atarantes. 67 Aster. 92. I. murder of Hipparchus. i. ir. 73-75. a Spartan hero or demigod. passim in Bks. 90 Athene (and Pallas).

origin of the name "Athenian. Athens an open enemy of Persia. 37. v. 203 Atlas. 40. 49 Atlantes. 13. a river in Thrace. 140-144. Athenians support Ionian revolt. 122 . their policy for Ionia. (See also Pisistratus. 26-28 . 77-89. siege and capture of Sestus by Athenians. a people in Libya. vm. 52. decision of Peloponnesian congress not to restore Hippias. v. Athribite. . 22. ix. 7-11. 189. IX. Persian shipwreck there. vm. Themistocles) Athos. wars of Athens against Boeotia and Aegina. Miltiades (the elder) at Athens. 11. Athenian refusal to make terms with Persia. ix. vii. v. 97. 61. Athenians before the capture in the battle itself. his expulsion attempted by Cleomenes of Sparta. vi. 22. . 83-96. iv. vn. vm. vi. 18. 85 foil.INDEX lation of Cleisthenes. then of the 317 . 133. 143. ix. reception of Darius' envoys at Athens. Mardonius' departure from Attica. vi. . 96 . 114-118. renewed refusal to make terms. 41. oracles given to Athenians at Delphi. v. alleged treachery of the Aicmeonidae disproved. . their pursuit of Xerxes' fleet. their claim of the place of honour in the army." united with the Atlantic sea. vi. Cleisthenes. Athenian exploits in the campaign of Plataea. 10. 139. at Syracuse. 54. Athens the saviour of Greece. 53. ix. vm. vi. 14. iv. 17. Athenian demands at Sparta for help. ix. 121-124. 161 Athenian migration to Salamis. Athenians in the battle of Mycale. 4. vn. ix. 184. 140-142 . 73. 44. Dorian invasion of Attica. vi. vn. vi. additions to Athenian Athenian envoy fleet on Themistocles' advice. i. 95. war between Athens and Aegina. ix. vin." vm. movements of Athenians before the battle of Plataea. 144 Athenian ships at' Artemisium. 1. vm. 60 foil. 44-47. 44. (2) A river flowing from the Balkan range into the Danube. Xerxes' canal across it. 7476. iv. 57 foil. 184 " outside the Pillars of Heracles. (1) the mountain in Libya. 102. ix. v. 56. ix. Greek sea and the Persian gulf. 21. hostages for Aeginetan good faith sent to Athens. Miltiades. v. 70. 5 . 87-93 . occupation of Athens by Mardonius. 72. siege and of Athens. iv. Persian invasion of Attica and battle of Marathon. Athenian refusal to restore them (story of Glaucus). 35. daughter of Cyrus. province in Egypt. promontory in Chalcidice. 106. 60. 49 Atossa. 108 foil. 166 Athrys. 55. vn. 102-117. wife first of Cambyses. 93 . v. 54.. their part in the battle. ix. vn. battle of Salamis. vn. 73. 3. 73.

a place in Libya. tribute paid to and capture by Darius. iv. 77. n. 86. 92. his escape. 89. iv. Attic dance movements. (1) son of Croesus. 96. Greek demand for his surrender. 92 Bacchic mysteries. 169 Azotus. 133-134. vi. a dearth in his reign. iv. Nitocris and navigation of the Euphrates. 172. a Theban. Cyrus' siege details of Babylonian and capture of Babylon. Agamemnon and Menelaus. 7. 42 Atridae. ix. v. siege Bacchiadae. father of Pythius. i. 184-186. 192. 157. a river flowing from the Balkan range into the Danube. 123 Azanes. on the caravan route from Egypt to the west. iv. i. i. vn. 147. accidentally killed by Adrastus. m. in. (2) Earliest mentioned king of Lydia. 3445. 94 Auchatae. I. Attic weights and measures. 129. 180. alliance with Croesus. 81 Bacis. 43 . ix.INDEX Magian. iv. a Persian officer in Xerxes' army. near Barca. a goddess of fertility worshipped in Aegina and Epidaurus. vn. 157 Babylon. 39 Auxesia. her influence with Darius. vn. rv. v. a date -growing place in Libya. i. a Greek settlement there. 74. one of the earliest Scythian tribes. a powerful clan at Corinth. a river in Macedonia. her desire that Darius should invade Greece. 2 Atramyttium. a Libyan people on the sea coast. 191 Autesion. ix. a hero worshipped at Delphi. 88 Attica: Attic language. vi. in. . vii. a Libyan people on the sea coast. n. 66 Aziris. 138. a town on Xerxes' route through W. vi. 85 Autonous. in. iv. 49 Auschisae. vii. iv. n. 150-160 Persia. Asia Minor. 20 Attaginus. i. (See Athens. m.) Atys. 68. 82-83 Axius (Vardar). reputed author or compiler of oracles. 182-184 Auras. descended from Polynices. 15. 192-200. description of the city. a Plataean. i. 178-183. i. 188-191 life. 93. 109. a town in Syria. ix. i. vm. 95. 6 Augila. son of Manes. 187. his alleged aid against the Persians. 77. 20. ix. a leading Theban friendly to Mardonius. vii. vii. i. 52 Autodicus. 27. 171 Ausees. 88. the capital of Assyria. vm. her tomb. then of Darius. 198.

who has affinities vii. vn. a priestly clan among the Satrae of Thrace. to the lonians. 7. 181 (the temple of Zeus Belus). i. 160. 200-205 Basilei'des. vn. vm. a town of northern Libya. father of Herodotus the historian's namesake. Masistes' plan for a Bactrian revolt. 161. 155.) Belbinite. vn. 13. i. Bermius. 170 Bisaltae." his advice to Croesus. identified with Zeus. an inhabitant of the islet of Belbina off Attica. 9. 80. troubles with Cyrene. three of this name. father of Mardontes. 138 Bessi. 159. apparently with Heracles. 77 Bagaeus. 153. his defeat of an Egyptian army. 203. a Persian. iv. 115 319 . (1) A man of Thera. iv. captured and enslaved by Persians. = vn. (2) A Persian officer in Xerxes' army. 125 Belian gates of Babylon. used by Themistocles as an instance of an insignificant place. tribute paid to Persia. opened to admit Darius' besieging army. Grandson of the last." iv. 204. with Mardonius. in. ix. called " fortunate . one of the 27. 167. vi. all kings of Cyrene (see Arcesilaus). (" Battus said to be a Libyan word meaning " king. iv. vm. and perhaps.INDEX Bactra. rv. son of Hystanes. Pricne. still to be subdued by Cyrus. 113 Badres. the Asiatic god Bel. ix. 75 Battiadae. Ill Bias. a legendary descendant of Heracles. descendants of Battus. in the eastern part of the Persian empire. (2) Grandson of the above. a Persian officer in Xerxes' army. their country Bisaltia. its tribute to Persia. 66. 86. in. vin. 64. (2) Bias of " Seven Sages. rv. son of Polymnestus. vm. 113. and first colonist of " the Cyrene. employed by Darius against Oroetes. vin. vn. iv. the Babylonian form of "Bel" (Baal). Bactrians in Xerxes' army. 130 Barca. 150-159. a colony from Cyrene. i. 91 . 202 Battus. 92. 164. in. a Thracian tribe. 128. in. 132 Bassaces. 167. submission to Cambyses. son of Artabanus. i. vn. in. curtailment of his royal power at (3) " Cyrene. an Ionian. iv. 61. 116. (1) brother of the seer Melampus. iv. vm. i. conquered peoples exiled thither. a mountain range in Macedonia. (1) a Persian commander in the expedition against Cyrene. 34. 155. 158 Belus.

31. (1) a Scythian river. 127 Branchidae. 15. 22 320 . 49 Brygi. bridged by Darius. 31 devotion. on the Thracian sea-board. a Thracian tribe. 53. 17. 136. invoked by the Athenians before the Persian shipwreck. 67 Boges. ix. VI. a man of Abydos. ix. 185. 18. nearly all Boeotia on Persian side. 66. Boeotians at Thermopylae. 108. 10. 101. cp. submission to Xerxes. 110 Bithynians. in Thessaly. 17 Boreas. 159. 100 Bottiaea. 28 filial Biton. 89. Athenian women carried off thence by Pelasgians. 233. originally Thracians. old name of the Phrygians. one of the engineers of the Athos canal. a tributary of the Danube. 28. vn. vn. (2) Cimmerian (entrance to the Palus Maeotis). Boeotians in his army. Persian governor of Eion. answer of the oracle about the surrender of a suppliant. his desperate defence of the place. vn. strife of Athens and Boeotia. I. 73 Brongus. vn. i. 5. Mardonius established in Boeotia. iv. story of their i. married to the sister of Alexander of Macedonia. 99 Briantic country. v. the personified north wind. 78 Bosporus. vm. son of Megabazus. Boebean : lake. 78. v. vn. 19. vii.INDEX Bisaltes. 74. 185 Bubares. (1) Thracian. 202. 92. Thracian tribesmen. 108 Briges. in Attica. vn. iv. vn. 34 . 157159 Brauron. v. 109. 24. v. 129 Boeotia Phoenician immigration. vn. v. 34. iv. the Dnieper. a district on the Thracian sea-board. vi. 189 Borysthenes. vn. iv. vn. 21. vin. iv. 145. 137 Bistones. alliance with Aegina. 46. 45. 47. a town on the Hellespont. 53-56. 49. vn. 81. iv. war with Athens. 57. 74-81. n. vi. an oracular shrine near Miletus. n. 26 Bisanthe. brother of Cleobis. 132. i. ix. vn. part of Xerxes' army. "sacred " road through Boeotia. 75. vin. iv. vn. their courage. vi. 107 Bolbitine mouth of the Nile artificial. 138 Brentesium (mod. Croesus' oiierings there. u. iv. vi. 83-89. 118. 46. of Argos. Brindisi). their attack on Mardonius' first expedition. 12. 17. 36. (2) A Greek port at the river's mouL'i. said to be a colony from Miletus. i. a Persian. in Xerxes' army.

n. 17 Budii. n. a Median tribe. Caeneus. son of Agenor. v. ix. a Corinthian. v. 47 Buto. some in Mardonius' army at Plataea. 59.INDEX Bubastis. i. 33. n. VI. 37 Cadmeans. 83. in Samos. 103 occupied by Histiaeus. 96 92 warrior tribes. 101 Budini. 159 Cai'cus. 83. 137. (HERODOTUS) M 321 . (1) a Tyrian. 26 . 102. in. VOL. ix. 105. 27. vi. 42 Cabiri. n. n. i. 49. (2) An Egyptian town. in. i. i. Cadmeans). a town in Argolis. 64. 166 Cadmus. a town in the Delta. 26. a "Cadmean victory" one where victors are no better off than vanquished. in. an emissary from Gelon of Sicily. 59. 28. 174 Byzantium. n. alleged Phoenician immigrants into Greece with Cadmus. 145 (cp. vi. n. 137. a small tribe in northern Libya. ix. 59. 75. iv. (Bubastite province. 168. 101 Busiris. (1) an Egyptian goddess identified with Artemis. son of Scythes. IV. ix. his offer to expiate the Spartan killing of Persian envoys by surrendering himself to Xerxes. 133. n. 67. once settled at Thebes. 87. vii. n. 166. 122. 134-137 Bura. vii. with a cult of Apollo and Artemis. in Xerxes' army. a town in the Delta with a temple of Isis. and their Greek customs. 61 . iv. iv. 67. v. 171 Cabalees. 108 Bulis. 57. v. n. 119. a town in Syria (Gaza). I. 5. 155 Bybassia. a people on the Lycian border. 111. iv. n. a Spartan. their tribute to Persia. n. 164. taken by Necos. n. chronology. Calasiries. in. 56. 51. a people adjacent to Scythia. 32 Ee'tion. Busirite province. 21. 146. father of Calamisa (or Calama). in Samothrace and Memphis. a Median tribe. one of the Egyptian account of them. 158. iv. 152. Artabazus there in return to Asia. 145 Busae. a Cadmean script. 166) Bucolic mouth of the Nile artificial. 136. n. a river between Lydia and Mysia. 63. description of the temple. 166. 144. a peninsula in Caria. and an oracular shrine of Leto (Uat). (2) A Coan. 59. 163 Cadytis. taken by Otanes. 59. vii. their town of wood. v. 89 . v. near Barca. 165 Butacides. I. 5. 90. 77 minor deities worshipped in many places. a man of Croton. 154. Cabales. 156. vii. annexed by Ionian rebels. beauty of its site. in Boeotia.

(2) King of Persia. i. 1-4. on the frontier of Lycia. Sybaris. I. 51 Callias. son of Teispes. the Athenian polemarch. vi. old name of the island of Thera. v.C. vii. his accession. vi.) Camicus. ix. conquest of Egypt. archon at Athens in 480 B. (1) a Persian. 172. envoy to Xerxes' son Artoxerxes in 448 B. vni. on the Hellespont. vn. with the army at Marathon. Cambyses' punishment of an unjust judge. a Dorian town in P^hodes. 151. 110. 99 Calynda. burnt by Phoenicians. son-in-law of Astyages and father of Cyrus. the legendary seer. 19-26. in. and Cambyses' death. expeditions to Ethiopia and Libya. i. his death.. 107. vn. 156 Cambyses. n. Calyndians in Xerxes' fleet.v. 33 Calliades. 147 Calydnians. i. 25 (other unimportant reff. iv. 31 Callatiae. taken by Otanes. 169 Camirus. (3) Grandfather of the above. 17 Callipolitae. vn. vin. Callipidae. 26. 87 Camarina. 38 Calchas. iv. v. Magian usurpation of the Persian throne. 51 Calchedon (or Chalcedon). its citizens transferred to Syracuse by Gelon. especially the murder of his brother. son of Cyrus. 125 Greek Scythians " near the town of Borysthenes. its site compared with that of Byzantium. his vote for battle. 114 Calliphon. iv. in. vi. a town in Lydia on Xerxes' line of march.C. 1. v. 61-66. from the adjacent town of Naxos 154 Calliste. 109. a Spartan killed (but not in actual fighting) at Plataea. vn. son of Hipponicus. vn. a"man of Croton. scene of Minos' death. Greeks in Egypt during Cambyses' occupation. vi. in. (1) an Elean seer. in Sicily. 121 Callicrates. q. elsewhere mostly a patronymic of Cyrus. settlers in Sicily vii. Callatebus. perhaps the same as the Callatiae. a town in Sicily. 144 322 . 44. 144. in. iv. an Indian people. 97. Indian cannibals. 139.INDEX Callantiae. vn.. 154. i. 72 Callimachus of Aphidnae. 2738. a noted Athenian champion of freedom and enemy of Pisistratus. his sacrilegious and criminal acts while in Egypt. 9-16. acting with Croton in its war with an (2) An Athenian. in. 85. in. 208. islanders in Xerxes' fleet.

26. in Xerxes' army. 58 Carene. 173 Carians. giving its name to the adjacent mouth of the Nile. 33. 165-167 . vn. 97. vi. Ill. on Xerxes' line of march. 72 Carchedon (Carthage). 117-121. (2) A Carian.INDEX Campsa. ix. vm. Apries' Carian guard. on Xerxes' line of march. 112. ib..W. 73 . vn. i. vii. murdered by his wife and Gyges. vm. subdued. 33. vm. vii. v. Cambyses' proposed conquest of Carchedon. 36. I. 113. Cappadocians in his army. 174. 163. 73 on the eastern frontier Cardia. iv. v. Carchedonian story of the island Cyrauis. vi. subdued by Persians. 55. i. despot of Sardis. Carcinitis. 135. 22 . n. 25 . 10-13. a town in the Thracian Chersonese (peninsula of Gallipoli). vi. 93. so-called " " dress really Carian. islanders originally. 73. on the south coast of Euboea. 66. ix. iv. iv. 17. a Spartan. 45 Carpis. 61. a town in Egypt. 88 Ionian Carnea. 171. I. 115. vu. one of the Aeginetan hostages handed over to Athens by Cleomenes. 17-19. vii. a western tributary of the Danube. " " of old Scythia. Carian tribute to Persia. vm. the chief people in the Minoan empire. 152. v. 72. 195. iv. of the Peloponnese. 42 Sicily. in. vu. 179 Caphereus. 323 . Carchedonian and Italian attack on Phocaeans in Corsica. 97. 76. n. 154. vm. Carians in Xerxes' fleet. a Carian warrior in the Cyprian Carian revolt against Darius. vii. attacked by Greeks. in. 72 Carpathus. on Xerxes' route. vi. i. i. Carian language not understood by Greeks. in. revolt. 49 Carystus. 166. 158. v. 99 Cardamyle. an island S. i. 11. vm. vn. 123 Canastraean promontory at the extremity of Pallene. Carian settlers in Egypt. 105 Casambus. a town adjacent to the Thermaic gulf. a town in Laconia. 99. 90. 49. expulsion of a Greek colony in Libya by successes of Gelon against them in Carchedonians. a town in Mysia. vu. in. ib. 123 Candaules. their inventions of armour. its situation. 121 war between Athens and Carystus. 52. 7. n. subdued. held in early August. vn. 15. attacked and conquered by Cyrus. vm. 42 Carenus. . a Lacedaemonian festival in honour of Apollo. (1) called Myrsilus by the Greeks. 71. attacked by the Persians. 206. 7 Cappadocia. at the mouth of the Hypacyris. a promontory in Euboea. 98 Canobus. v.

the farthest west (but one) of all European nations. n. v. 26 Catiari. Athenians called Cecropidae. Castalian spring at Delphi. 1. clearly not the island in the Aegean. 147. its contingent at Plataea. v. iv. origin of its people. 13 Ceans. vu. 26 Celeas. m. 183. in the Greek fleet. perhaps Britain. according to Herodotus. i. vii. 33. a town in Sicily. 76. attacked and subdued by the Medes. 12 Caucones. 171. iv. 172 . 46 Cecrops. 141. v. a river near Sardis. in. ix. i. source of the Catadupa. 46 Celti. in. vn. in. iv. iv. 97. vu. coast of Chios. an old name for the Persians. 92. 40. 39 Casthanaea. n. 100 Caystrobius. vu. 49 Ceos. 6. 44 Celaenae. a Spartan companion of Dorieus' voyage to Italy. vu. vm. low sandhills on the eastern frontier of Egypt.INDEX Casian mountain. ii. vm.E. its size. 203. iv. one of the most ancient of Greek races. 28 Cephenes. apparently a place in Salamis (but not identified). on the S. 35. king of Athens. in. a town probably on the Indus. father of Aristeas. Caspii in Xerxes' army. 188 the first or Assuan cataract of the Nile. 104. n. v. an Arcadian people. near Caria and Lycia. 33 Caucasus range. 203. vm. a town in Magnesia. Caspian tribute paid to Persia. 67. a Proconnesian. northern boundary of the Persian empire. in. 86 Cassandane. 155 Caspatyrus. a town in Phrygia at the junction of the Marsyas and Maeander. iv. 61 324 . rising at Celaenae. participation in Ionian revolt against Darius. natives of Ceos in the Aegean. their exist- ence questioned by Herodotus. 176. i. iv. 53. 2 Cassiterides (tin-producing) islands. source of the Danube in their country. 17 Catarrhactes. on Xerxes' route. 5 Casmena. 148 Caunus. 44 Caspian Sea. 103 Caystrius. an island west of Greece. mother of Cambj^ses. vu. 102. vm. 1. a tributary of the Maeander. beyond the Pillars of Heracles. one of the oldest Scythian tribes. 115 vm. i. 6 Caucasa. Cephallenia. i. iv. river.

son of Belus (q. worshipped in Greece but not in Egypt. 123 Chalybes. a priestly caste at Babylon. in. 74. 104. 156. vu. Cheops. wife of Perseus. the Graces. Charadra. a town on Xerxes' route in Macedonia. 135 Charilaus. 77. Province of Chemmis. his attack on the Persians in Samos. in Euboea. a people of Asia Minor conquered by Croesus. in. Maeandrius. 33 Charaxus. (if the mention is genuine).v. vi. Cheops' successor. ix. 91. 145. with a temple of Perseus. in the Delta. u. iv. vn. u. i. 78 Chersis. 124-127 Chephren. vu. at Plataea. 146. inhabited by one of the warrior clans. 46. v." iv. ruled by Miltiades the elder. 11. a river in Phocis. vu. 33 Ceramicus. vu. 31 Chalcidians of Thrace. a town in Phocis. 28 . 28. 52. a gulf in Caria. . Chalcidians in the fleet. u. used (1) (oftenest) of the modern peninsula of Gallipoli. 50. 103. at war with Athens. v. 91 of the Greek fleet. 97 Cercopes. 174 Cercasorus. 137. i. 48. 150 Cephisus. vm. 325 . 185. (2) An island alleged to float. 33-40.) and father of Andromeda. 01. v. the first pyramid-builder (at the modern Gizeh). the elder and the younger. 178. vm. viu. father of Artayctes." rocks on the mountain side near Thermopylae. vu. a king of Cyprus. 15. 99 Chemmis. 127 Chalestra. 113 Chersonese (= peninsula). hesitating policy of Corcyra when invited to join the Greeks against Xerxes. in Xerxes' army. u. 189. brother of Sappho. (1) a town of Upper Egypt. I. 175 Charopinus. u. a town in Egypt. 181. vi. overrun by Persians. a hill in Libya called "the Graces' hill. 127 Cherasmis. vm. where the Nile first divides to form the Delta. viu. 33 under Miltiades. their capture of Olynthus. brother of Aristagoras of Miletus. 17. subject to Corinth under Periander. (2) A king of Sparta. 104. king of Egypt. 182. 182 station Chalcis. vu. part of the Athenian empire. 131 Charites. vu. legendary dwarfs whose name is preserved by the " seats of the Cercopes. a Mytilenaean. father of Onesilus. 53. 165.INDEX Cepheus. also a pyramid-builder. 1. a Persian. 168 Chaldaeans. (1) brother of Polycrates' viceroy of Samos. u. 216 Cercyra (Corcyra). n.

vi. .W. 117.) Choaspes. 2. 235. 98. disparaged by Artemisia. I. iv. Chians admitted to the Greek confederacy after Mycale. i. 107 Cindya. I. vi. on the Oxus. a Thracian tribe. v. v. Greece. 160. a town in Caria. 12 Cimon. reff. Pisistratus. vn. in. his saying about Cythera. iv. an Aeolian town in Asia Minor. 178. 135. 31. i. 15 originally in Scy thia. his warning to the Spartans. 110 Cilicia. 66 Chromius. a Tegean. 188. 326 . a tribe N. Paeonian refugees in Chios. 77. Ionian. 16. killed by the Pisistratids. 93 Chorasmii. 132. 114-120. one of three survivors of a battle between Argos and Lacedaemon. n. Cilicians in Xerxes' army. a place on the coast of Euboea near Eretria. 20. 91. vi. an Argive. 11-13. vi. 59. 136. 58 . opposite Egypt. ix. vm. 68 by Mardonius. temp. governed by Xenagoras. n. 108 sailing thence of crossing Datis' expedition. his capture of Eion. I. II. vn. its surrender of a suppliant. 98. 149 Cimmerians. 59. son of Demarmenus and father-in-law of Demaratus. vn. vin. vin.INDEX his route through the vi. on the royal road. 52. vi. vi. 65 Chios. 34. conquered by the Persians. its alliance with Miletus. vm. plot against the despot of Chios. 142.E. son of Agenor. vn. their memory preserved by place-names. . vi." v. I. 33 Chersonese. driven thence by the Scythians into Asia. Persian from Cilicia to Cyprus. (2) Son of Miltiades. 52 Choereae. I. 106 (a few other unimportant . 90. traversed by the Halys. v. 34. in Xerxes' army. a victor at Olympia. vn. v. the name given by Cleisthenes to a Sicyonian tribe. 72. vn. vn. " tribute to Persia. v. 108. 49. ib. 18. 15. their invasion of Ionia. 107 hero of Cilicia. on Xerxes' route. a river flowing past Susa. of the Parthians. ix. (1) son of Stesagoras and father of Miltiades the younger. Xerxes' bridge there. 82 Cicones. 6. 38 . 103 . 99 Chileus. 9 Chilon. eponymous Cilia. I. 118 . 5. vi. 170 Chon (if the reading is admitted). their valour in the Ionian revolt. 95. (1) a Spartan. Chians and Histiaeus. I. VI. ix. a river in N. 14 . (2) A Spartan. 93. 68 Choerus. a Chian altar at Delphi. (2) The Tauric Chersonese (the Crimea). 140 . in. ix. 91 Cilix. ix. vn. Greek forces there after Mycale. 100. iv. a man of Rhegium. vn. 101 Choereatae. vn.

123 Cleades. (2) An Athenian. an Elean priestly clan. v. vi. his madness.). his death. 48-51 (from Aristagoras). IX. Cissian fighters at Thermopylae. youngest son of Anaxandrides. 38. his expulsion from Athens and return. 32. v. vi. 122. vii. king of Sparta. in. an Ionian town. 83 Cleinias. v. oracles carried off by him from Athens. (1) despot of Sicyon. tributaries of Persia. in. 56. n. 148 (from Maeandrius of Samos). 204. vn. 42. 141 . 75. 67. 49 Clazomenae. I. 155. at the head of the Persian Gulf.INDEX a Thessalian prince. 70. v." v. 64. 90. 126-31. vm. v. 131. Cineas. I. 31 Cleodaeus. (1) despot of Gela in Sicily. vn. 61-66. advice to the Plataeans. 154. a town on Athos. northern foothills of Cithaeron and passes over the range held by the Greeks against Mardonius. 25. Clazomenian treasury at Delphi. rv 198 Cissians. story of his filial devotion. 131 Cleombrotus. v. iv. vin. 205. 51 . 63 Cinyps. invasion of Argos. vin. in Lydia. 178. 76-82. 85 (2) An Cleandrus. his distinction at Artemisium. Clytiadae. a Plataean. son of Alcibiades. attempt to make a Greek r settlement there. Cleobis. 75 Cleonae. son of Hyllus. an ancestor of the Spartan kings. the country on Aristagoras' map of Asia. ix. son of Anaxandrides. 42. 175. ix. 69. 69. 91. v. IX. v. vi. v. 16. Arcadian seer and fomenter of civil strife in Argolis. vi. 10. vn. 72. 73 an Argive. feud with Demaratus. in command of a Peloponnesian force at the Isthmus. vi. Cissian gates of Babylon. vn. king of Sparta. son of Aristonymus. quarrel with Aegina. 142. 148. its resistance to Alyattes. 17 Cleisthenes. 108. his refusal to accept a bribe. 33 (but see 327 . 52. vi. v. 19. invasions of Attica. 66. Cleomenes. 52. an Athenian. vn. taking of the town by Persians. his reforms at Sicyon. of the Ister. v. 210 Cithaeron. i. vi. his reforms at Athens. 22 note ad loc. (1) a town in Mysia. . iv. vn. ix. 78 et al. competition for his daughter's hand. a river in Libya. i. 61. vi. father of Pausanias. the mountain range between Attica and Boeotia. ally of the Pisistratids against Sparta. 158. a tributary Cius. fertility of the Cinyps valley. v. v. vi. 71. vi. 50. 49. in. on the "royal road. 69 (2) (Or Scius ?). grandson of the above.

near Ephesus. vi. 66 Codrus. 5. vi. 97 Coenyra. 76. 97 . Contadesdus. . tribute to Persia. 37. 202.INDEX Cnidus. in the Greek fleet. adjective of an Attic promontory where wrecks were driven ashore after Salamis. v. a river in Thrace. Apaturia not celebrated at Colophon.his advice to Darius to leave lonians guarding the bridge of the Ister. an Ionian town in Lydia. V. Corinthian estimation of artificers. vii. friendship with Athens. v. 72 dispute between Themistocles and Adeimantus. 104. 178. 122 Cobon. rv. 167. 30 Combrea. an Aeginetan. the capital city of Minos' empire. vn. 323 . 104. 135 Coresus. v. and with Corcyra. vin. vi. 65. made despot of Mytilene. despotism of Periander and his cruelty. a Samian shipmaster. 150 Colossae. in. n. v.. 97. vii. 79 Colias. iv. I. 92. vm. 96 Colophon. taken by Gyges. . i. on the coast. of Mytilene. a Delphian. n. ii. 23. 7 on the Euxine. Corinthian reluctance to invade Attica. v. in. 100 Corinth. vn. ancestor of the Caucones (q. civil strife there. his death. i. in the army at the Isthmus. 38 Colaeus. 108. its situation. 43. on Xerxes' route. v. i. vi. 1 1 . 63 (but probably be read). in Crete.v. 89. a town in Phrygia. vin. 144. i. 123 Compsantus. v. a Dorian town. 174. 138 Cnoethus. vi. v. on the Triopian promontory. 109 " Gonnaean " should Coniaean. 152 Colaxai's. in. 1. iv. ix. adjustment by Corinth of a quarrel between Athens and Thebes. 21. in Caria. Corinthians at Thermopylae. its treasury at Delphi. Scythian race. father of the founder of Miletus. 47 Goes. of Pisistratus. 90 Copais lake in Boeotia. i. attempted restoration by Cnidians of a Tarentine exile. Egyptian origin of Colchians. 48-54. in Xerxes' army. i. in. i. 40. 92 his troubles with his son. 75. Dorian invasion of Attica during his rule. story of Cypselus. 14. a town in Chalcidice. 142. i. a river in Thrace. 147. iv. iv. iv. of Conium in Phrygia. a place in Thasos. 147. 88 Cnosus. an ancient king of Athens.). i. 14. vii. vin. the youngest of the three brothers who founded the Colchis. 162. his corruption of the oracle in Cleomenes' interest.

(1) a river in Achaea. 126 Crannon. 161 Cretan reason for not joining the Greeks against Xerxes. name of a port in Scythia. 151. a legendary Lydian. 28-33. iv. 165 Crisaean plain. "Crocodiles' town. extent of his rule. i. 73. but Cortona in Umbria). 94. a man of Anticyra. 6^ 26-28. iv. in Thessaly. 181. 79 Corycian cave on Parnassus. an island off Caria. a town on Xerxes' route in Cappadocia. Samian settlers in Crete. 151-153 Coronea. 329 . colonized by Dorians. 36 Corydallus. vn. Crete. sent to Athens as hostage for Aeginetan his meeting with Themistocles at faith. a refuge for the Delphians. in Locris. Croton is suggested (not the town in Magna Graecia. vn. king of Lydia. on the "Maeetian lake. vm. 124. 57 is doubtful. 20. 116. in. vn. 127 Crius. 3. in Thrace. i. 49 Crobyzi. 173. Solons' visit to him. 26 Critobulus. n. i. 61 . 102. vn. Corinthians at Plataea. 145. 32 Critalla. 154. old name for Athenians. ix. (1) a man of Gyrene. abdication of its despot Cadmus. employed by Greeks to guide them to Libya. a river in Arabia. 127. beginning of Minos' rule. a man of Himera. 5. 165 Crinippus. 169-171 Lycians originally Cretan. 9 Cos. 164. labyrinth there. vn. vn. (2) A river by Sybaris. vm. 44 Cranaspes. vn. (2) A man of Rhegium. (cliffs). 45 Cremni v. vm. Corinthians' alleged desertion of the Greeks at Salamis. 45 Cranai. 190. v. in. 128 Crathis.INDEX vui. i. 144. iv. 92 a Thracian tribe. a Cretan merchant. vn. ix. 65. a Persian. n. vm. v. 31. 69. son of Alyattes. at Mycale. 110 Crestonian country. The reading Creston in i. i. 92 Cretines. a town in Boeotia. (1) a man of Magnesia in Greece. 214 Corys. food alamis." iv." near Lake Moeris in Egypt. 105 Corobius. vui. vn. story of his son Atysj . connexion of Crete with the settlement of Gyrene. 50. vi. in. made governor of Olynthus by the Persians. (2) A man of Torone. vm. vn. 99 Cotys. vi. Coans in Xerxes' fleet. 59. iv. a leading Aeginetan. 28. vm. . i. Cretan origin of Lycurgus' Spartan laws. 148 Croesus.

in. capture of Sybaris by Crotoniats. 106 Cybebe. 113 Cyanean (Dark) islands. vi. 89 Cyaxares. Croesus at Cambyses' court. help sent by Croton (but by no other western colony) to Greeks against Xerxes. i. and his treatment by Cyrus. 14. a slave class at Syracuse. i.) Crophi. friendship with the elder Miltiades. in Mysia. v. in. gifts to Delphi and preparations for war with Persia. . 125 (other unimportant reff. Scythian offences against him. 30 Cyllyrii. reputation of its physicians. war between Croton and Sybaris. a Lycian officer in Xerxes' army. 28 Crossaean country. 156.INDEX . a Phrygian goddess. rv. Croesus' escape from death. its desertion to the Persians in the Cyprian revolt. vi. 98 Cyclades islands. vii. an Athenian. a town in Crete founded by Samians. v. her temple at Sardis burnt. 85-92. 123 Croton. an Athenian killed at Marathon. 59 Cydrara. 131-138. 103. i. 69. 330 . 37. v. 123. 21. 31 Cydippe. i. 131. an Athenian murdered by the Alcmeonidae for aiming at despotic power. vi. v. 102 Cyberniscus. king of Media. and Cyrus' capture of Sardis. vii. I. 57 . 149. in. gift of gold to Alcrneon. 44. 71 Cyme. vni. in Magna Graecia. story of the campaign. Aristagoras' promise to win them for him. i. 73 of Ninus. 16. 114 I. v. i. 34-45 I. 85. 36. 46-56. daughter of Terillus of Himera. 207. 155. in the Euxine near the Bosporus. story of Deinocedes at the Persian court and his return to Croton. 7684. 65. 35. an Aeolian town. none of them part of Darius' empire before the second Ionian revolt. one of two hills (Mophi the other) alleged to be near the source of the Nile. a town on the frontier of Lydia and Phrygia. in. 30. vni. vni. in Macedonia. brother of Aeschylus. as to the Massagetae. 155 Cylon. vi. 44. its consultation of an oracle as to surrender of a refugee. vi. vn. i. 130 Cynegirus. advice to Cyrus as to government of Lydia. in Cyprus. i. negotiations with Athens and Sparta. v. vn. vn. station of Xerxes' fleet after Salamis. Cyme taken by the Persians. 165 Cydonia. n. his victories over Scythians and Assyrians and capture i. v. 117 Curium. 47 Cuphagoras.

123-130. conquest of Assyria and capture of Babylon. (1) despot of Corinth. 167. tribute to Persia. n. 49) Cyneus. "Cyprian poems. (1) a legendary hero. vi. v. Cyrenaeans' visit to the Cyrene . Cyprus subdued by Amasis.INDEX the most westerly people of Europe. 122 Cynosarges. I. v. (3) A place near Carystus in Euboea. 79. i. n. 93 Cyrnus. revolt of Persians under Cyrus against Medes. worship of Aphrodite. a place in Attica with a shrine of Heracles. viu. vn. u. i. 182. 96 . 188-191 I. Cyrus' Median foster-mother. Cyrus king of all Asia. (1) king of Persia. colonized by Phocaeans. vin. 63. Cyprians in Xerxes' fleet. Croesus charged by Cyrus to advise Cambyses. i. early history of Cyrene and its kings. 181. . 71 Cyno. i. 199 Cyrmianae. I. a promontory of Salamis. 101 Cyniscus. I. Cyrus' advice to the Persians not to 33 * . 117 Cypselus. (2) An Athenian. 34. vi. 20. 130. 76 Cynurii. Cyrus' campaign against the Massagetae and Cynesii. 159. III. 91 Cyprian revolt and its suppression. 159-165. oracle of Ammon. 19. . in. alternative name for Zeuxidemus. an Eretrian. i. in. 167. . rv. 90. 161. 75-92 story of Cyrus. by Mardonius. a Peloponnesian people alleged to be aboriginal. 105 Cyrus. 98 disparaged by Artemisia. 107-122. modern Cercina). iv. 36. rv. iv. vi. comparison of Cyrus with his son Cambyses. Cyprus. son of Eetion. alliance with Amasis. vi. vn. and return to Astyages. 92 (elsewhere a patronymic of Periander). n. beginning of Ionian revolt against him. n. 141 . vi. iv. 165. 73 " Linus " song there. in. 14. 90. son of Leutychides. 104115. his career. II. 199. 33 (called Cynetes. his campaign against Lydia. and clemency to Croesus. 6 . 116 Cynosura. 159. adventures of his childhood and youth. 11. . 32 Egyptian attack on Cyrene. father of the elder Miltiades. vin. v." n. i. under Persians. 100. king of Sparta. capture of Sardis. his attempted murder by Astyages. 68. vin. I. 110. death in battle. in. attack on Gelon of Sicily. a Thracian tribe. ix. 195 " " lotus grown there. . fertility of Cyrenaean country. rv. 105. 165. I. 201-214. different treatment of Babylon by Cyrus and Darius. son of Heracles. 35 an island off Libya in the Mediterranean (perhaps the Cyrauis. (2) The modern Corsica.

vn.. invasion of Scythia. vm. in Xerxes' Salamis. a people in the N. his daughters. 43 Darius. severity of his rule. 94. 49'. 200-204. Histiaeus summoned by Darius to Susa. 135. reff. iv. 89. 209 story of his part in the conspiracy against and his accession . iv. of the Persian empire. on the Egyptian frontier. 38. 24. plans against Greece. in. their in Xerxes' army. in. vi. iv. (2) mostly Paternal grandfather of the above. 39. m.INDEX live in a fertile country. Cytissorus. n. 98 Damasus of Siris. Darius' anger against Athens for the burning of Sardis. vn. m. reduction of Babylon. 53.o the throne. a . in. v. 129-132. 24. of PaeonCyrenaean expedition.E. reception of Scythes. suspected by Cyrus. n. vn. custom respecting his descendants at Achaea. in. I. daughter of Acrisius. estimation vi. son of Hystaspes. Scythian campaign and return to Asia. 87. vii. called "the huxter. m . (2) A Carian officer in Xerxes' fleet. 189 Dardanus. 125 fleet at Damasithymus. vn. near Pelusium. 91. v. in. 33 a . 30. a suitor for Cleisthenes' daughter. Bosporus. 122 (many other where the name is used as a patronymic). apparently. 118-143. despot of Abydos. vi. tribute paid by his empire. march to the Ister. Daphnis. n. a nomad Persian tribe. 91 Daedalus. vi. 127 worshipped in Aegina and Epidaurus. deity Danae. Demaratus at Darius' court. 30. IV. 127. canal made by him in Egypt. and his dispatch of Histiaeus to Ionia. IX. (1) king of the Calyndians." in. I. 150-160. v. 128. 12-15. (1) king of Persia. vii. inquiry into varieties of custom. 107. transportation ians to Asia. 83 Damia. m. punishment of Oroetes. 158. vi. an Assyrian people. Ill Alus in a Colchian. conquest of Samos. 118. v. 70. 197 Dadicae. n. 107 Daphnae. 66 tribute. 89-97. mother of Perseus. 73-87. sought by Minos. his legendary migration to Greece from Chemmis Egypt. vn. demand of earth and water from Greek states. a town on the Hellespont. 61. m. 119. son of Candaules. 105of Histiaeus. 91. 182 n. 138 Dardaneans. reasons for 48. iv. vi. and 83-98. . in. I. 1 Darius' passage of the Scythian expedition planned. 82. 171. the Magians. I. Democedes at Darius' court. iv. 170 Da!. 150 Danaus. 139-149. v. 134. 117.

W. Darius' clemency to the Eretrians. 220. 65-67. a tribe in the Persian empire. ix. ix. vi. battle there between Athenians and Edonians. and conquest of Persia. vn. 119. vi. father of Gyges. vn. 82. 90. on the Propontis. i. 93. a Mede. i. ix. 3. 97. his death. from Apollonia in N. visit of the Hyperborean virgins. (other reff. 133. ix. 33 Dascylus. 118. 108 Daritae. vm. vni. 19. in. appointment of a successor. 92. Greece. I. a seer. 14. vm. 174. vi. vi. 47. its privileges at Sparta. in Mysia. 116-118. in Phocis. the seat of a Persian governor. 11. 89. ix. 13. 92. vm. 35. 15. 52. his feud with Cleomenes. a general employed by Darius against the insurgent lonians. his flight to Persia. 25. v. 114. 101104. 61-66." vn. v. information to Greeks of Xerxes' planned campaign. unjust judge. 98. 96 Delphi. 121. 67-70. in Paeonia. ix. 118. 51. 234-237. 139. 4. vn. 88 Datum. a Lydian. 57. 64. vm. building of a palace at Agbatana. vm. vi. vn. its oracles. support of Xerxes' accession. vii. 94. vn. 94. 15. 50-55. vi. of little importance). iv. 97. 73 Decelus. 59. first king of Media. 13. 82. repulse of the Persian attack on Delphi. 67. 66 Delta of Egypt. 135. 75. 194. 95 Delium. 2. 134. ix. n. v. (2) Xerxes' son. his rise to power. vn. corrup- tion of the oracle. 27. in command with Artaphrenes of the expedition of 490 against Athens. 77. 35 Daurises. 118 Delos. 41. sanctity of Delos respected by Persians. lake in Delos. vi. ix. 81. Darius' treatment of an " Gold coins called Daric. 75 Daulians. 167. 96-99. 3. 148. i. its purification by Pisistratus. 8 Datis. iv. 86. 73 Deioces. 19. 36-39. 101103 Dei'phonus. story of his birth and loss of his kingship. 1 . advice to Xerxes on his strategy. 155. king of Sparta. in Boeotia. vi. 97. 28.INDEX attack on Greece. 121 Decelea. 178. 170. its treasures. vn. 126. 92 Dascyleum. 239 333 . 33-35. in. 161. 92. eponymous hero of Decelea. vi. a deme of Attica. meaning of the name Darius. n. his sons in Xerxes' army. 120. warnings to Xerxes as to Greek resistance. 209. 150. ix. 55. vi. 33. 179 Demaratus. 15-18. I. his preparations for a Greek campaign. 34. 85. m. vn. vi. vi. 140. station of Greek fleet before Mycale.

195 Demophilus. 57. a Spartan. 87. 123. of Naxos. 161 Denionous. n. vi. 12. 109 Dicaeus. 116 Dionysius. vn. his settlement of troubles at Gyrene. vn. 334 . vn. Demarmenus. 65. 80 Dinomenes. 110 Derusiaei. a Milesian temple. father-in-law of Leutydaughter. 63. 75. 127. 56 Diactorides. a physician. iv. vi. Ill. 156 and under various names. of Mantinea. a tribe in Persia. Ill. a Cretan goddess. his saying about Persian arrows at Thermopylae. of Croton. ir. 222 Dicaea. 91. 125. iv. a name for the goddess Cybele. a Spartan. other places of her cult. 79. 61. devices for return to Croton. vm. 122. a Greek town on Xerxes' route in Thrace. n. n. his transference of Naxian ships from Persian to Greek fleet. worshipped at Eleusis in Attica. in. commanding Thespian force at Thermopylae. IX. vi. 144. i. 145. 17 Dionysophanes. brought to Darius from Samos. his attempt to train the Ionian fleet. vn. 41. chides. vin. iv. HI. HI. legendary king of the Hellenes in Phthiotis. 53. 84 Dionysus. Didyma. 156 Democedes. identified with the Egyptian Osiris. 134-137 Deraocritus. VH. vi. 97. vi. identified with the Egyptian Isis. a suitor for Cleisthenes* (2) A Spartan. in pari. father of Gelon of Sicily. 11. 222 Dersaei. v. i. n. an Athenian. 19 Dieneces. 49. i. his vision in Attica before Salainis. ix. in. a Thespian. 42. 46 Demonax. vn. his reputation. 69. 171.INDEX v. 71 Diadromes. 131. 226 Dindymene. 101. 7. her sacred hill in Lydia. a Thracian tribe on Xerxes' route. of Paphos. n. vn. an Ephesian. 125 Deucalion. a Phocaean. 145 Diomedes. a Greek hero of the Trojan war. 200. in. 8. apparently identical with Branchidae. 52. in. said to have buried Mardonius' body. 65 Dictyna. 47. ticular localities his cult in Greece. vn. vi. 150. 67. 132. 59 (if the text is genuine). 65 Demeter. 134. VH. vin. 65. vi. 108. v. (1) a man of Crannon. 29.

46. 66. 17 Echecrates. frontier of Macedonia. eponymous ancestor of Dorians. i. Spartans and Arcadians. 57. 72 Dropici. 178. vi. father of Ee'tion. 113 Dodona. 25.W. Dorian alphabet.E. 106 Dorus. v. 98. Greece. v. 124. four Dorian invasions of Attica. 145 Dyras. their women's I. 93. a Paeonian tribe. consulted. VHI. a stream west of Thermopylae. v. a Thracian tribe. 34. 53-57 Hyperborean offerings at Dodona. a Persian officer in Xerxes' army. vn. a Persian tribe. 10 Edoni. vn. 127 in Arcadia. i. in Xerxes' army. vu. a Corinthian. n.INDEX unknown in Egypt. a king of Sparta. 99 Doriscus. 198 Dysorum. vn. 146. vn. 139. 52. 127 Echinades islands. 121. a town in Achaea. v. 56 Doryssus. v. on the Strymon. ix. vn. 185 Dorians. 124. a mountain range on the N. 26 Echestratus. Greece. entertained by Euphorion. 204 Dotus. vn. i. Dorians in Peloponnese. dress. n. i. vu. v. Dolonci. rv. 6. 43. 46. I. vni. vni. 68 . an Arcadian. its defence by its Persian governor. v.C. vn. 73. i. king of Tegea. v. 144. 43. . 68 Dyme. their worship . an ancient race in N. 108. 40 Dolopes. n. a river in Thrace. 132. son of Hellen. an oracle in N. a town on Athos. names of tribes. 39 Dymanatae. between Dipaea. 110. a king of Sparta. off the mouth uf the Achelous. n. vn. 50. 146. 92 Echemus. 33 Dioscuri. i. Asiatic Dorians. a Dorian tribe at Sicyon. 76. 16 (if the reading be right). v. 114. ix. an important halting place on Xerxes' route. Dorian leaders of Egyptian in origin. 59. vni. a Thessalian people. on the Thracian coast. 87 . Greece. a Thracian tribe. a town in Phocis. 33 Dryopes. ix. ix. ix. ix. scene of a battle about 470 B. 93 story suggesting a connexion between Egypt and Dodona. 204 Echidorus. 35 Dium. 22 Doberes. 75 335 . 31. 125 Drymus. 73 Dryoscephalae. name of a pass in the Cithaeron range. 53. vi. I. vu. vi. his victory over Hyllus. their settlements in the Peloponnese. vn. Doris N. Dorians of Epidaurus.

77 . too late at Plataea. a Persian frontier guard there. vin. 140 Eleon. vin. and capture by the Greeks. alliance with Croesus. n. 26 Eetion. Scythian invasion. iv. I. 43. 105 . i. the first objective of . 116. ix. in. Elis the only Aetolian part of Peloponnese. vi. I. vii. mysteries of Demeterworship there and the vision of Dicaeus. 142-146. 1-16. iv. on the Nile opposite Assuan. its defence. 33. a king of Tegea. in. v. 77 33 6 . 43 Elephantine. 3598. Athenian campaign in Egypt. 30 . vin. in. vn. 198. 160. . revolt of Egypt against Persia. ix. 65. in Attica. a town in the Thracian Chersonese. vin. ix. n. iv. 160. a town in Phocis. Eleans in the Greek force on the Isthmus. 7. 113. burning of the temple of Demeter by Persians. 53-55 . an island in the Delta. Egyptian marines in Persian fleet. 75. chronology. n. 9 the southern limit of Egypt. close to the source of the Nile. n. 91 . Egypt a Persian province. its extent. 89. 19 Eleusis. Solon in Egypt. vn. in. 22 . 32 . 30. Elean management of Olympic games. i. 46. scene of a battle. the pyramids. 107. 39. 120 Elatea. v. vii. Greek forces there before Plataea. 17. ix. n. vi. vin. 65 Elis. eschatology. 123. vii. Egyptian bridge over the Hellespont. 158 Egis. 33 Elbo. 30. 1. 19. a Spartan king. n. 72 . 34. 42. n. no mule3 in Elis. course of the Nile. n. vn. 28. TV. 25. tribe of "Fish-eaters" there. 118 Elaeus. 100. n. the refuge of the deposed king Anysis. 74. 204 Egypt. vin. v. 186. 148. destruction of neighbouring towns. circumnavigation of Africa from Egypt. 140. father of Cypselus. vi. 11. n. n. Egyptian origin of Dorian heroes. 168. 175. ix. ix. a town on the Strymon. 68. their exploits at Artemisium. 140. 193. 180. Egypt and Cyrene. 92 Egesta. Cleomenes' invasion. Xerxes said to have embarked there for Asia. kings of Egypt. 27. 17 E'ion. 28. vn. a Corinthian. vin. iv. Darius' canal from the Nile. n. profanation of its shrine of Protesilaus. Egyptian custom and religion. 5-19. 159. his sacrilege. 19-34. 99-182. vn. 124-128. 73. v. a town in Sicily. vn. allied with Phoenicians against Greeks. iv. I. 4. Cambyses' invasion.INDEX Eeropus. in. 30 stone -quarries of Elephantine. n. a town in Boeotia. 182.

a town in the western Peloponnese. 32 Epistrophus. . Nine Ways. a river in Sicily. Elisyci. I. vi. 72. claiming descent from Cadmus. 114 Eordi. vi. iv. 213-218 Epicydes. one of the most remarkable temples known to Herodotus. 43." v. vm. ix. 127 Epium. vi. Xerxes' sons sent there after Salamis. v. terminus of "royal road. Epidaurians in the Greek forces against Xerxes and Mardonius. a people living at the headwaters of the Spercheus. 67 an Illyrian tribe. Scythians suffering from the so-called I. v. vi. a poem attributed by some to Homer. Syracusans defeated on it by Corinthians. Epidaurus. Greek name for the Egyptian Apis. 165 Ellopian district of Euboea. 52. 1. q. lonians defeated there by Persians. ix. vi. 99. 82.INDEX probably Ligurians. a people living between the Strymon and the Axius. father of Glaucus. vii. their incursion into Greece. Enchelees. an Athenian combatant at Marathon. Enneacrunus. vii. a river in Thessaly. vm. founded by the Minyae. Ephesus. its colonies. 137 " Ennea Hodoi. iv. 154 " female disease. reference therein to Hyperboreans. 117 Epizephyrian Locrians. vn. a Spartan. his guidance of the Persians over the pass at Thermopylae. i. i. Locrian colonists in Sicily. 43 v. 185 Epaphus. 23 Erasmus. see Apidanus. of Ionian origin. i." Enarees. 103 Epialtes of Malis. quarrel with Athens." a town on the Strymon. vn. 54. 146. 9 Enienes. 196. 129 " " Nine Springs fountain outside Athens. . 198 Enipeus. vn. a river in Argolis alleged to be partly subterranean. taken by Periander. vn. and vii. 142. 105. iv. 132. Gelon of Sicily attacked by them others. 102.v. Dorian. in. 31 Epig'oni. 148 Ephesus besieged by Croesus. v. 28. VI. 92 . a people at the head of the Adriatic. 126. vm. vn. 61 Eneti. I. 23 Elorus. 76 337 . 185. 86 Epidanus. in Argolis. Croesus' offerings in the temple of Artemis there. 148 Epizelus. i. in Lydia. a man of Epidamnus.

m. avenging deities (of Laius and Oedipus). rv. 11. . 94. name of Athenians first used in his time. vm. vm. v. 189. native place of Gephyraei. Arabian mountains in " Red Sea" ('ApajStos the direction of the Red Sea. 43. 43 Erinyes. 37." ii. Persia extends to its shores. 57 . Ill Erythre bolos. 22. a town in Phocis. the Persian Gulf and the nearer part of the Indian Ocean. II. vi. I. i. an island alleged to be outside the Pillars of Heracles. a place in Doris. son of Oedipus. 142. mouth of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the Red Sea. Etearchus. vi. 80. 44. Ethiopians in Cyprus. n. his shrine on the Acropolis. captives settled by Persians in islands of the Red Sea. 28. in western Sicily. Pisistratus in exile there. ( 1 ) king of the Ammonians visit of Cyrenaeans to him. v. vi. of Meroe. 18. 149 Erochus. a legendary Attic hero. sacrifice offered to him by Epidaurians in return for Attic olive trees. "Troglodyte" Ethiopians. 160 Eryxo. 154 Eteocles. ix. of Datis. in Euboea. i. iv. vn. vm. vn. its existence doubted by Herodotus." a town in Egypt. objective of Mardonius' campaign under Darius. I. 82. ix. 115 Erineus. 17-26. Phoenician circumnavigation of Africa starting from the Red Sea. I. 158. their tribute to Persia. VII. m. Ethiopian kings of Egypt. 94 . contingent in Greek fleet. 97. 90 Erythrae. vn. 93. vi. a river in Europe. 100-102. m. 183. 161. 1. united with the Mediterranean. n. . 70 . 61 . 139. 45 wife of the second Arcesilaus of Cyrene. 189. IV. 20 Eryx. Phoenicians coming from it. n. Ionian town in Asia Minor. Erythre thalassa. 104 Cambyses' mission to the "long-lived" Ethiopians. iv. "Ethiopians" of Asia. v. 89. n. 11. (2) King of Oaxus in Crete. Ethiopia in relation to Egypt. 119. 61 Ethiopians. n. 43. 31 Eridanus. 146. iv. identical with the Sea. iv. subdued by Persians. 19. iv. 28. viu. 11 . 8 (1) a town in Boeotia. 100. v. v. 33 Erxandrus. 98. n. m. vi. 30. at Plataea. . 97. 8 " Red Earth. 1. 15. vi. burnt by the Persians. vn. 46. near Plataea. in Xerxes' army.INDEX Erechtheus. 29. 203. 37 Erythea. 8. (2) An . 180. 338 . 42 Ampe on the Red Sea. 32. our " Southern K^ATTOS) an offshoot from it. iv. 110. father of Orithyia. 137-140 circumcision in Ethiopia. vm. Eretrian captives in Persia. 55 Eretria. a Mytilenaean.

vi. . the family designation of the first Battus of Gyrene. channel between Boeotia and Euboea. v. vm.INDEX Evaenetus. 173 Evagoras. 45. vi. fertility of its land.) Euphorbus. YIII. 36 Cynetes on the western limit of Europe. commander of a Lacedaemonian force in Thessaly before Thermopylae. 49 Europe and Asia both more fertile than Libya. iv. queen of Babylon. n. viu. 49. . 26. 156. vi. i. 127 Euphrates. rv. Euboi'c coinage. -tripartite division of the world. 89. vn. (1) an Athenian. iv. European part of Xerxes' army. 156 Euclides. father of Aeschylus and Cynegirus. iv. iv." v. 60 Euphemides. 33. 101 Euphorion. (Al. 93 Eunomus. II. part played by it in naval operations before Salamis. distinguished in the battle of Salamis. vi. Euthymides. vni. 155 Evelthon. 126. ni. II. 162. an Eretrian. an Eretrian leader killed in the second Ionian revolt. Megara the western . vn. winner of three chariot-races at Olympia. iv. a Megarian. his betrayal of Eretria to Datis. course altered by Nitocris. 66 Europe. 52 Euripus. 131 Eupalinus. a king of Sparta. i. vn. desirability of Europe to Persians. despot of Gela. rv. a Libyan town near Barca. (2) An Azanian. 102 Chalcidians Euboea. v. 115. 15. Asia. vii. rv. iv. 173. " i. 198 Eumenes. 150. an Athenian. v. 185. vn. 95. 36. 204. 198. 171. 50. made fordable by Cyrus. 339 . desirable object for Persian attack. in. their treatment by Gelon. 104 Evenius. 4-20. Europe. vn. builder of the Samian aqueduct. in. absurdity of supposing the three continents equal in size. 7. ix.v. a Spartan. 100. ii. Europe bisected by the Ister. 16. Athenian ships off Euboea. speculations on the sun's passage over Europe. its source in Armenia. vn. 114. Libya. 31 in Euboea defeated by Athenians. . Euboeans in Sicily. vn. Xerxes' aim of subduing all Europe. 77 Persians under Datis there. 191 passage of the river on the royal road. general ignorance of the farthest regions of Europe. iv. 5. vi. 180. 185. region of Europe infested by lions. 189. vn. 182. king of Salamis in Cyprus. 103 Evalcides. a man of Apollonia. naval operations in Euboean waters. . son of Hippocrates. 92 Euhespe rides.

ix. vin. 105 Eutychides. 26 Eurytus. vn. 6. 2. 10. YIII. king of Sparta. joint commander with Pausanias at Plataea. 75 and Eurybiades. iv. corn-ships from the Euxine. killed in a Theban attack on Plataea. 99. ix. Spartan admiral of the fleet at Artemisium Salamis. 340 . coast. . 108. vi. vn. 173. 81 . V. . vn. 124 Euryclides. vn. Tauric peninsula. a Spartan. a king of Sparta. 213 Euryleon. 14 (many other unimportant re if. 53 Eurysthenes. a king of Sparta. founder of the senior of the two royal families. vn. an Athenian. vi. 39. iv. ix. 110. 204 Eurydame.) Europa. 71 Eurydemus. 73 Euxine Sea. iv. a Spartan. 45. a town perhaps in Caria. an Argive commander killed in battle with the Athenians. 34. 57-64 decision not to pursue Xerxes. father of Eurybiades. vn. 147 Europus. daughter of Agenor of Tyre. ix. viu. iv. 131 Eurypylus. 2. 204 Eurycratides. ix. 92. his determination to fight at Thermopylae. legendary king of Mycenae. 86. v. a king of Sparta. viz. vm. 46. 52. the name of the continent. ix. in. a Malian. provinces of the Persian empire on its character of inhabitants of its northern shores. 36. vm. vn. a Spartan. 46 Eurymachus. part of Media nearest to it. i. an Aleucid. her sons Minos and Sarpedon. 53. 204 Eurystheus. an Athenian. 93 iv. alleged origin of I. a Spartan colonist in Sicily. prize for chief merit awarded him by Greeks. n. iv. 85. I. 147 Exampaeus. 42. (2) Grandson of the above. carried off by Cretans. 229 Euthoenus. (1) a Theban. 89. 55 Eurybates. its length and breadth. 147. 133 Euryanax. vi. of Larissa in Thessaly. iv. 49 part played by him in the councils of war before Salamis. king of Sparta. vn. islands in it. 205. vm. second wife of Leutychides. search made for her by Cadmus. 233 Eurypon. iv. vm. a stream and district in Scythia between the Borysthenes and the Hypanis. ix. relation of Euxine to Xerxes' bridge over the Hellespont. I. Sinope on the Euxine. 2 Eurycrates. 51.INDEX limit of Persian advance in Europe.

91 . a Persian tribe. 8 Gaeson. their part in the campaign against Darius. a town with Cadiz. 49. a people of Mysia. otherwise called Zalmoxis. 125' Gerrhus. vii. iv. usurpation of Gelon. IV. 25. 23. 137 Ge (Earth). iv. near the Hellespont. in Xerxes' army. vii. a town on the promontory of Sithonia. 66 Gelon. ix. (2) The chief town of the Budini (neighbours of the Geloni).INDEX outside the Pillars of Heracles. 94 Gela. 166 Geloni. reply to Greek request for help against Persia. a river and country in Scythia. 57. their alleged Phoenician origin. vn. (1) son of Heracles. burial of Scythian kings among the Gerrhi. 122. 51 Gauanes. 153. 8 " 341 . vii. 145. vn. 19. one of three brothers. 165. by Scythian legend. a stream near Mycale in Asia Minor. 108 Gandarii. their adventures. 155 Geleon. vii. v. victory over Carthaginians and nations of the western Mediterranean (said to be contemporary with the battle of Salamis). 55. in Sicily. 53. vm. 102. ancestors of the Temenid dynasty in Macedonia. a Thracian deity. a Persian general in Xerxes' army. their tribute. worshipped in Scythia as Apia. iv. said to be of Greek origin. 183 Gargaphian spring. 66 Garamantes. a Libyan tribe on the route from Egypt to the Atlas. iv. iv. v. vin. 10. an Indian tribe in the Persian Empire. iv. 154. on the battlefield of Plataea. ix. iv. descendants of the Teucri. vii. a Rhodian colony. vii. ix. 154-156. on Xerxes' route. 71 Geryones. 82 Gergithes. 174. 97 Galepsus. his rise to power. vii. 119. 7. 59 Gebelei'zis. in Chalcidice. 43 Germanii." identified Gadira. 122 Gallaic country (or Briantic). iv. v. in Thrace. 105 Gergis. 157-163. built of wood. 61 Geraestus. in. eponymous hero of one of the four ancient Athenian tribes. 47. 136 Gelonus. the clan to which Hipparchus' murderers belonged. vii. neighbours of the Scythians. vii. 56. 108 Gephyraei. vi. Hippocrates its despot. I. his oxen driven off by Heracles. a town at the southern extremity of Euboea. 108. IV. despot of Syracuse. iv.

2 (elsewhere as a patronymic). vu. a Persian. a Thracian tribe said to believe in immortality. in. a town in Thessaly. 132. . 98 Grinnus. iv. (2) Son of Epicydes. I. vni. an Athenian. vn. king of Sparta. 91 Gorgus. vn. 80. 169 Gillus. 122. ancestor of a Lycian dynasty. vu. a Libyan tribe. iv. (2) A Lydian. 3 Gigonus. I. iv. 48. 239 to Cleomenes. 123 Giligamae. 43 Gnurus. (1) father of Midas. . ix. vin. a Scythian. Goetosyrus. 70-79. (3) A Chian worker in metals. 134. IV. v. I. iv. 47. a mountain range in Thrace flowing from it into the Danube. vn. rivers 342 . a Scythian deity identified with Apollo. 104. 138. v. in. his advice to Darius in Scythia. 115. 76 Gobryas. king of Thera. i. vi. his consultation of the Delphic oracle about a colony in Libya. 72. a Tarentine refugee in Persia. 35. 150 Grynea. 49 (the Balkans). 93. brought from Libya by Perseus. . v. 45 Gorgo. v. 121 Gyndes. iv. daughter of Cleomenes. 25 a town in Boeotia near Tanagra. 173 Gordias. 138 Gindanes. 189. 176 Glaucon. rv. 14. in Xerxes' fleet. 93 Gyges. iv.INDEX Getae. a Libyan tribe inland of Cyrene. story of his attempted fraud told by Leutychides at Athens. king of Salamis in Cyprus. 136 Gygaean lake. vn. a river in Assyria diverted by Cyrus from its course. her advice her interpretation of a message. his gifts to Delphi. ix. his daughter married to Darius. 8-13. married to Bubares. daughter of Amyntas of Macedonia. i. father of Mardonius. 51 Glisas. 43. son of Midas father of Adrastus. 59 Gonnus. 202 Gyzantes. vi. vin. v. (2) King of Phrygia. an Aeolian town in Asia Minor. in. (1) son of Darius. a town in Chalcidice. a Spartan. 149 Gygaea. 75 Glaucus. I. 194 Haemus. a tribe in the western part of Libya. (1) son of Hippolochus. ( 1 ) king of Lydia his accession after murdering Candaules. n. v. 11. 118. i. I. Gorgon's head. father of Anacharsis. 128. 21. in Lydia. an officer in Xerxes' army. rv. (2) One of the seven conspirators against the Magians.

iv. ancestor of Leuty chides. in . a river in Thrace. v. vin. king of Sparta. 123. ix. 28. vn. 33 343 . passage a part of the vii. 37. ix. in Cyrus' expedition against Croesus. ix. v. 52. son of Doryssus. 143. son of Hippocratides. 178. 6. 36. a river in Asia Minor. 129. vn. 104-177. the name used as a watchword or battle-cry. daughter of Olorus of Thrace. his advice to Ionian rebels. 103. 125 65 Hegesicles. 90 Doriscus on it. 75. vi. the historian. a town in Argolis. 127 Halia. (1) king of Sparta. 17 Harmodius. 227 Harmocydes. 109. v. I. his chronology. 144. probability of his surrendering Helen had she been in Troy. . vn. (1) an Elean seer in Mardonius' army. ix. 59 Hecataeus of Miletus. a Macedonian river (mod. n. Vistritza). ix. his story of Athenian dealings with Pelasgians. father of Hecataeus." v. 30 Hebe. (2) An emissary from Samoa to the Greeks before Mycale. I. i. i. son of Priam. vn. commander of Phocians in Mardonius' army at Plataea. 90. of Miletus. one of the murderers of Hipparchus. 39 of Hegesistratus. 108113. v. 137 Halicarnassus. vn. a Thespian. 120 Hegesandrus. 88 Harmatides. I. its " royal road. crossed by Croesus. 72. brother Tisamenus. ix. Harpagus' services in placing Cyrus on the throne. 76 of the seer Hegias. 26 Harmamithres. I. 98 Hebrus. wife of Miltiades the younger. in Caria. (2) A Persian officer under Darius. I. of Cos . I. his daughter rescued after being carried off by Persians. 99 of Croesus' Halys. 28. I. 204. son of Datis. vi. 120. 131 . (3) Despot of Sigeum. vi. a king of Sparta. 127. vn.INDEX Haliacmon. 137 Hector. bastard son of Pisistratus. 175. A Hegesilaus. vn. 55. 125. story his escape from death. a Median officer in Xerxes' army. (1) a Mede. Astyages' punishment of Harpagus. Hegesipyle. 94 Hegetorides. Herodotus' birthplace. n. an Elean. 117-120. (2) Spartan. an Athenian. 123 Harpagus. vi. n. subduing the lonians. colleague of Leon. crossed by Xerxes. 80 charged by Astyages to make away with Cyrus. the eastern boundary empire.

93 . 56 Hellespont. in Egypt. 114 (many other unimportant reff. iv." ii. n. 52. 106. n. 43. 110. 41. Greek decision not to sail to the Hellespont after Salamis. of "Hephaestus" (Ptah) in at Memphis. 196 . 35. Herodotus' conclusion as to a "double Heracles. 82. 80. 204. 99. 33 Hellespont scourged by Xerxes for the destruction of . 108. 108. v. v. 85. 59. 3. 25. I. Hellespontian towns subdued by Ionian rebels. father of Dorus. a part of the Spartan army. 3. armour. 59. 36. n. vm. a town in Lemnos. vm. 192.INDEX Helen. vii. ii. . 95 . despots of places by it with Darius' Scythian expedition. vra. an Achaean town on the Gulf of Corinth. 58 Hellen. 44. passim in all Books. to what is distinctively Greek : language. 42. 73. 78. 53. 135. vii. v. 145. 116. Athamas. 43^5. 28 Heraclea. religious gatherings. horses. her tomb in the Thracian Chersonese. 144. vi. 7. i. temple his bridge. i. vi. vi. account of her voyage to Egypt. vn. n. 180. cults of deities identified with Heracles in Egypt and elsewhere. 8. vni. 80. vi. bridges there found broken. 148 Heliopolis. vn. dress. distances of various places from Heliopolis. brought to Attica by Theseus. iv. 145 Heliconius. v. 3. 63 Hellas and Hellenes. iv. V. 98. ix. his cult in Greece (the torch-race). 155. n. 110. Darius' passage of it in his return. 58. n. vn. n. 7-9 . sources of Egyptian history there. her temple at Therapne in Laconia. 10. 107. 101 and else- where Bk. i. Pillars of Heracles (Straits of 344 . v. 10. II. 193. 55 . ix. iv. 88. 140 Hephaestopolis. 176.) Hephaestiae. vii. ix. 75. an eponymous Greek hero. 83. 98. her abduction from Sparta. vi. 103 reconquered by Darius. vi. 229. 113. vin. Persian governors of towns there. n. in Greek legend son of Amphitryon and father of Hyllus. 56. vii. 44. vi. iv. vii. 154. 30. Helots. ii. 85. ceremonial there. 112. ra. 58 Helle. v. iv. 11. Hellespontians in his fleet. 59. Xerxes' passage. proposed foundation of in Sicily. 26. 63. vii. 61 Helice. its length and breadth. vn. bridged again. 137. 43. Greek cult. the serf class in Laconia. the title of Poseidon at his temple in the Panionium near Mycale. a Samian. ix. 91. 137. The following are among the principal refl. 43 Heracles. I. 134 Hephaestus. n. i. daughter of vii. 112-120.

a man of Thebes in Boeotia. 152. 164. Argolis. i. I. vm. his date. 80. 129 Hippoclus. ix. 7 Hermion or Hermione. 196. v. iv. vm. ancestors of Spartan kings. 43. Hermippus of Atarneus. 107 his Hippoclides. vii. ix. 81. Datis' army in Attica. (2) A man Mylasa. 123. son of Basileides. 90 Here. in. an Olympian prize-winner. 28. 33. his cult in Greece.E. ix. 43. 61. 65 . 24. 182. n. at Argos. 52. 37. 138 345 . u. rejection. 132 Heraclidae. 168. iv. 6 I. 1. vi. 96. in Upper Egypt. his banishment of Onomacritus. 32. an Athenian. of Dryopian ix. 91 ix. n. 152. brother of Gelon of Sicily. 105 Hermophantus. place of burial for ibises. 185. 31. n. a river in Lydia. of Andros. at Plataea. 73. v. vm. vii. v. 55. 67 . v. 88. identified with the Egyptian Thoth. IY. a town in Sicily. vu. vu. 70. one of the Hellespontian despots in Darius' Scythian expedition. iv. 114. the historian. ix. at Corinth. 158. n. 32 Hermus. v. one of the Egyptian warrior-tribes. a refugee in Persia. 99 Hermopolis. 121 Heraeum. Gibraltar) farthest western waters known to Herodotus. iv. 208. story of his sufferings and revenge. I. 69 Hermes. his assassination. 181. her temple at Samos. 38 Hesiod. (2) An Ionian envoy. 178.INDEX 33. Hermotimus of Pedasa. its contingent at Plataea. with Darius' Scythian expedition. 96 with expelled from Athens. in. ix. son of Pisistratus. 165 Hipparchus. v. an Athenian suitor for Cleisthenes' daughter. n. 33 Himera. vi. 13. ix. vm. 31 origin. 132 Herophantus. an emissary from Histiaeus. vi. passing near Sardis. son of Pisistratus. of Heraclides. 8. his advice to his father. 4 Hermolycus. V. vi. in S. Heraclid dynasty in Lydia. 53. v. . at Bubastis. (1) of Halicarnassus. a Carian leader. 156 Hieronymus. i. (1) a man of Cyme. vi. a town near Perinthus. vm. v. Hieron. 101 Herodotus. 26. 55. 42. u. 51. 138 with a Thracian deity. at Naucratis. n. 92. 59. its despot expelled. 61 Hippias. 123. iv. vi. distinguished in the battle of Mycale. 104-106 Hermotybies. 7. a Milesian leader in the Ionian revolt. 138 Herpys. his reference to Hyperboreans. 145. v. . I. despot of Lampsacus. I.

(4) A 127 Hippocratides. 121. (2) Father of Callias. 26-31. iv. vi. ancestor of Leutychides. 53. 38 Hipponicus. 85 ocean disbelieved. 59. (1) despot of Miletus. v. 137-139. 98. v. v. 127 Histiaea. a town in Phocis. rv. vn. son of Ion. (1) one of the seven Persian conspirators against the Magians. 151 Histia. (1) son of Pisistratus' enemy Callias. n. iv. 23-25. ancestor of a Lycian line of Ionian kings. quoted as to Paris and Helen. 117. vm. (1) an Athenian. his alleged poem. 23. 70. so named by Cleisthenes. Athenian envoy to Persia about 450 B. n. (3) Despot of Gela. his celebration of Argives. son of Pantares. 33 . v. vm. Samian. ii. between the Hypanis and the Borysthenes. a Carian despot deposed by the lonians. enforced attendance on Darius.INDEX Hippocoon. his protection of Darius' bridge over the Ister. his capture of Zancle. her name Tahiti in Scythia. in Xerxes' fleet.C. ix. man of Sybaris. father of Pisistratus. a summer festival at Sparta in honour of Apollo and Hyacinthus. a Leucadian diviner with Mardonius' army at Plataea. a town in Sicily. 68 Hybla. vin. i. ix. 39 Hyampolis. vi. 66 Hyacinthia. 67. 147 Hippomachus. an Athenian. (2) A man of Termera. IV. i. 50 . v. VII. eponymous hero of an old Athenian tribe. son of Megacles. 106-108.. instigation of Ionian revolt. a suitor for Cleisthenes' daughter. 7. i. 60 Hippocrates. 154 . 23 his probable date. Histiaean country in Thessaly. 131. vi. vn." iv. (2) Son of the above. (3) A Homer. in northern Euboea. 346 . 28 Hyatae. one of the tribes at Sicyon. 66. (2) An Athenian. his theory of the . 175. one of the peaks of Parnassus. V. 11 Hyampea. return to Ionia. vi. a Spartan. 155 Hydarnes. vi. in. as to Libya. 37 . 59. "the Epigoni. 29. vn. 83. 32. Thessalian disaster there. vn. 161 Hoples. 133. formerly a Dorian possession. 131 Hippolaus' promontory. 56 Histiaeus. II. 53 Hippolochus. v. vi. 05. viir. 1-6. vn. vm. v. vm. vi. escape from the Persians. of Athens. 35. goddess of the hearth. in Scythia. further adventures and death. 116. v. vn. 66. a follower of Cadmus. 23.

83 . 224 Hyperboreans. a village on the slopes of Cithaeron. (Elsewhere a patronymic. (1) father of Darius. vu. vi. a town in S. with Xerxes in his flight after Salamis. 218. 122 Hymessus (Hymettus). viu. vi. vn. 25 Hysseldomus. 52. a Scythian river (Bong). 57 Hyria. 80 Hymaees. v.INDEX of Xerxes' Ten Thousand. commander " iv. 15. in. 135. 117. 211. 26. rv. (1) son of Heracles. I. ix. story of their communication with Delos. his discovery of a way into Sardis. vu. ancestor of the Spartan royal families.) (2) A son of Darius. 13 . a Sicyonian tribe BO v. 204. ix. 18.E. a Persian. 90 . 116. 68 Hyllus. S. (2) A tributary of the river Hermus in Lydia. I. 54. vu. east of the Borysthenes. iv. 113. 91 Hypacyris. his command at Thermopylae. of the Caspian. 55 Hypanis. vii. in. Italy (Oria). 137 Hypachaei. 98 Hystanes. a hill outside Athens. 81 Hyperanthes. vu. 18. a Mardian. 64 Hytennees. a Pisidian tribe . governor of the seaboard of W. his pledge to Cyrus of Darius' fidelity. 347 . Asia Minor. 84 Hysiae. apparently east of the Borysthenes. iv. 9." vu. 74. vu. part played by it on the battlefield of Plataea. 118 Hydrea. I. 32-36 Hyperoche. 52. v. iv. 62 Hyrgis (or Syrgis). vi. his death. 76 Hyllees. their tribute to the Persian empire. named after Cleisthenes' death. a Persian commander in the second Ionian revolt. in Attica taken by Boeotians. 209. alleged to be founded by Cretans. a district of Scythia. an Italian town (Velia) colonised by Phocaeans. 59 Hyela. a people in the Persian empire. an island S. 47. 33 Hyrcanians. governor of the province of Persia. 167 Hylaea (Woodland). vu. 77 Hystaspes. in. a Scythian river. 210. a people alleged to inhabit the farthest north of Europe. a son of Darius. vu. 170 Hyroeades. of Argolis. iv. 108. an old name for Cilicians. a Carian. 47. 215. 70. in. a Scythian river (probably the Donetz). one of two maidens alleged to have come to Delos from the Hyperboreans. in Xerxes' army. killed at Thermopylae. viu. I. 131 . iv. vu.

lardanus. 41. 10. ix. a family of diviners in Elis. in. 179. 37. his revolt against Persia in 460 B. 123 Ichthyophagi. 170 lapj'gia. 165 Icarian sea. 163. 7 Indians. in. v. the Trojan war there. Cambyses' interpreters in his mission to the Ethiopians. 116 Ilissus. 137. iv. his slaves Rhodopis and Aesopus. 31. his presumption and punishment. with MarIndian dogs. vi. 104 . rv. near the Egyptian frontier. iv. vn.INDEX ladmon. traversed by Xerxes. 76. 121 Iberians. 44. in. v. in. 44 vn. Intaphrenes. wi. I. ix. an agent of the lonians in revolt against Darius. 12. 70. v. 1. iv. vn. 193 latragoras. v. v. Troad subdued by Persians. 15. 144 lenysus. 11. 104 Inachus. 86. 26. a tribe inhabiting Elephantine. 43 Inibros. father of lo. 94. vn. 348 . 196. 113.E. 122. Illyria. in. his defiance of Darius. 161. 42 river Angrus there. 42 Idanthyrsus. Illyrian invasion of Greece. iv. 120.. their traffic with Phocaea. I. vn. n. iv. 65. 49. 33 vn. in. 197 Ino. 3. a river in Attica. attack on Gelon of Sicily. story of Paris and Helen in it. flight to Illyria of the Temenid brothers. 37 a man of Mylasa. 189 Ilium. a Scythian king. Aegean. v. I. their customs. 99. 192. vn. i. 118 . vn. 5. 78. their tribute to Persia. vin. Ibanollis. Iliad. vn. I. 127 Idriad district in Caria. vni. 44 in the world. a town in Syria. vn. Darius' exploration of it. customs of the Eneti there. a Dorian town in Rhodes. I. near the coast. 20. 151. 5. vi. 118 lelysus. 7 lason. a mountain in the Troad. Indus. in the heel of Italy. 19-23 Ida.C. his voyage in the Argo. the river. wife of Athamas. temple of Boreas built near it. 97most numerous people 102. 134 lamidae. a town in Macedonia. v. Xerxes' route past it. Inaros of Libya. in Xerxes' army. I. one of the seven conspirators against the Magians in. a Samian. 138. iv. iv. i. ill. 117-120. 95 Ichnae. 187 donius. in the N. vn. ix. conquest by Darius. 11. a Lydian. in command of Scythians against Darius.

vi. 97-103. v. vn. in Libya. producing bitumen. 41 lolcus. a town in Sicily. 42 " " (in story of Glaucus). 70-74 and 349 . v. ix. 143-153. the scene of a Persian shipwreck. Ionian desertion of Persians at Mycale. a place eight days distant from Babylon. vn. v. Sesostris' inscriptions in Ionia. 98. viu. Dorian and Ionian races. n. vm. Ionian beliefs about Egypt refuted. ix. 89. 103 revolt against Persia. 133. vn. I. 90 lonians with Darius' Scythian expedition. 44. 15. rival of Cleisthenes the reformer. 22. 85 Is (Hit). lonians in Peloponnese. Ionian and Phoenician writing. 90. 178. left to guard the Ister bridge. 92 Iphiclus. subdued by Croesus. v. an Athenian. 94. I. Spartan young men between 20 and 30 years of age. viu. n. I. 104. 59. 73 Ionian ships with Xerxes at Salamis. their settlements I. 28-38 . threatened by Cyrus. 128. iv. eponymous ancestral hero of the lonians. vi. conquest by Cyrus. vn. 136142 . Themistocles' appeal to them. on a river of the same name. daughter of Agamemnon. 85. 86 . reduction of Ionian towns. Ionian revolt against Darius. 116-123. ix. human sacrifice offered to her in Scythia. 69. IV. Ionian pirates in Egypt. (or Inycus). (other unimportant refL) Ionian sea. Iphigenia. continuance of revolt and its final suppression. her abduction. vm. vi. and burning of Sardis. Ionian dress. Persian organisation of Ionia.INDEX Inyx 123 Io. 158 Irens. appeals from Ionia to the Greeks for help. v. a town offered by the Thessalians to the exiled Hippias. in Asia. I. 1. 116 Persia. 87 . ix. 6. 179 Isagoras. 108-115. 90. probably near Acragas. I. . 132. 106. 106 . 94. 58. vi. 152. 103 Ipni (Ovens). 56. 141. Athenians called lonians. 188 Irasa. ix. course of Ionian revolt. n. name of rocks at the foot of Pelion. v. vm. 66. 142. . 20. Ionian tribes in Attica. n. . v. 66. exposed to many risks lonians in Xerxes' fleet. depicted in the form of a cow. i. v. father of Protesilaus. tribute paid by lonians to in. 163. Amasis' Ionian guards. ix. 97. daughter of Inachus. 5. the site of the founding of Cyrene. n. 159-171. v. iv. n. supported by Sparta. 16. . vm. 94 Ion. iv. Ionia 1-32 passim . 44 lonians.

59 Labraunda. v. fortification of the isthmus. 109 Ismenian. decision reversed. 68. v. 134 Issedones. 81 Istria. on Xerxes' route. 69. probably. . 19. I. of the v. despot of Corinth. vm. vm. epithet of Apollo at Thebes. 67. daemon. m. 4447. Lycurgus' legislation. 63-65. Isis. 136Italia. iv. 147149 39-43 Lacedaemonian invasion of Attica to expel the Pisistratids. 172 decision to guard it. identified by Herodotus with Demeter. lake in Thrace. 201. rv. attack on Samos. 63. 26. a town hill Ithome. Croesus' friendship with Lacedaemon. dedication of spoils of war there. Danube). 33 Istrus (Ister. vm.INDEX Ischenoiin. i. 26 Isthmus of Corinth. her temple at Busiris. 16. 145 . 22 Labda. compared to the Nile. iv. q. iv. Greek advance from the isthmus. father of La'ius. ix. 119 Labynetus. 141 . represented with a cow's head. (2) His son. vn. 70-76. 59 Ismaris. 71 Peloponnesian policy of holding it. (1) ruler of Babylon. lyrcae. 77. 15. in Caria. bridged by Darius. 52. 9 (some other unimportant reff. river Crathis there. IX. to withdraw the fleet thither from Salamis. 43. n. 56. 66. 121. vn. i. ix. v. iv. 33. Greek council of war there. Cyrus. 186 . vm. and . 32. I. 40. a Milesian colony at the mouth of the Ister. I. iv. 188 Lacedaemon (and Sparta). a people living north of the Caspian. 92 Labdacus of Thebes. v. 101 Darius' recrossing of the river. rv. v. 350 . i.v. vm. . unknown country N. a and town in Crete. vn. an Aeginetan. 62 Itanus. their customs. 13. Theras' colonising expedition from Lacestate of Sparta under Cleomenes. 54-56. 47-50. . n. 151 in Messenia. v. Metapontium. temple of a war-god there. I. . IX. 82. iv. with Tegea. 59. rv.) Ister. feud between Spartan kings. 74. mother of Cypselus. iv. m. Athenian threat to migrate to Siris in Italy. I. i. 89. n. n. v. iv. . a Scythian hunting tribe. also ruler of Babylon. vm. adventures of Dorieus in Italy. Lacedaemon war with Argos. Democedes in Italy. 181 an Egyptian deity. 7-10. 41. its course and tributaries. 65. temp. Ister ten days' journey from the Borysthenes. 35 (but the reading is doubtful). 138. 44. 92. vm.

v. 90. 134 its oracular shrine of Trophonius. in northern Greece. vn. Eurybiades. (1) son of Eteocles of Thebes. ix. 351 . 152 Lade. 142-144. ix. 120. 46-70 . v. vn. ix. 181 La'ius. v. vii. 90 Lasus of Hermione. (3) Despot of Phocaea. 19. its hostility to Miltiades. Spartan tactics before Plataea. . 465 B. one of the Hyperborean visitants at Delos.C. (3) An Aeginetan. VI. vi. (2) An Aeginetan. vi. a mountain in N. 144 Laus. . Greece. 7-1 vance into Boeotia. above Apollonia. 21. ix. 152. daughter of Leuty chides. a Lesbian colony Lampsacus. and conduct in the battle. . Athenian revenue from its silver mines.) Lacmon. vm. Spartan force too late for Marathon. a suitor for Cleisthenes' daughter. n. wife of Amasis of Egypt. 77 in. a Spartan envoy to Cyrus. 51. in the Troad. son of Labdacus. 52. on the Hellespont. iv. 11 Ladice of Cyrene. an Athenian general in Thrace. 75 Learchus. to Pausanias to impale the corpse of Mardonius. vi. 37 Laodamas. Athens to maintain Athenian alliance.. 61. vi. an island off Miletus.W. king of Sparta. 43 Lampito. Cyrene. (1) a Samian envoy to the Greeks before Mycale. his oracles. 127 Lasonii. 6 Laurium. vi. 159 Lacedaemonians under Lacedaemonian envoys at at Thermopylae. headquarters of the Ionian fleet in the revolt against Darius. brother and murderer of the second Arcesilaus of . in Attica. 138 Laodice. a pre-Hellenic race Laphanes. vi. 7. 102-104 (many other incidental refi. iv. his advice (2) An Athenian. iv. 204-232. claim to command Leonidas against the Persians. I. Demaratus. vi. 76-82 . vm.INDEX and duties origin of dual kingship. vn. ix. in Xerxes' army. iv. an Azanian. v. with Darius' Scythian expedition. a people on the borders of Lycia their tribute to Persia. ix. 117. and father of Oedipus. ix. vn. 71 Lampon. Pausanias. 21 Leagrus. . Leonidas. 26 Lamponiurn. 56-60 . dilatory 1 their adpolicy of Lacedaemonians after Salamis. 92 Lapithae. v. ix. vi. 59 . his detection of a forgery. 33 a Lapith at Corinth. see also Cleomenes. 78 in Mysia. 160 Lebadea. rights of the kings. 93 Lacrines. 61-71 . v. a town on the W. ix. coast of southern Italy. war with Argos. at Mycale. .

a promontory in the Troad. king of Sparta. defeat of the second Arcesilaus by Libyans there. commander of the Thebans at Thermopylae. a centre for Xerxes' commissariat. 39. colonised by the Minyae. vn. 114 of the Carians. vm. in. 45. (2) A Cean. in Pausanias' army at Plataea. 160 . ii. 151 alleged to be as big as Lesbos. v. 127 Leon (1) of Troezen. identified with the Egyptian Uat. vm. 65. father of Simonides. 25 Leucon. v. 26. an Ionian town in Lydia. old name Lemnos. 352 . vn. rv. 138. vii. received into Greek alliance after Mycale. 154 Leoprepes. 85. 114. 204 . a place in Libya. 180. vi.INDEX Lebaea. i. i. 79 Leontiades. proposal that the Ionian rebels against Darius should take refuge there. ix. founded by the Minyae. 228 Lepreum. off vii. an Aeolian town in Asia Minor. i. 39. 73 Leobotes. vi. i. ix. a king of Sparta. an Argive. one of the suitors for Cleisthenes' daughter. vn. in N. 171 the Troad. 138-140. iv. Greece.W. a place on the river Marsyas in Caria. 233 Leontini. son of Anaxandrides. a town in Sicily. captain of the first Greek ship captured by Xerxes' fleet. 8. vi. Aeolian towns there. 149 Leros. Leleges. 28 Lerisae. 59. I. ix. off the Carian coast. 31. their fleet in the Ionic revolt. a town in Macedonia. a town in Elis. in the Greek fleet. 202. 125 islands in the Araxes Lesbos. 148. Leonidas. vi. vm. v. (2) A king of Sparta. Lemnians in Peloponnese. its contingent at Plataea. 28 Leucae stelae (White Columns). i. (1) a Spartan. 205. 106 Leto. their crime and penalty. 118 Leuce Acte (White Strand). 65. v. 152. 41 . vn. 145. vi. its Pelasgian inhabitants. her oracular shrine at Buto. 155 Leucadians. v. 137 Lebedos. vm. 204 Leocedes. 47. in Thrace. ix. Pausanias' refusal to avenge Leonidas on Mardonius' dead body. his command and death at Thermopylae. Lycurgus' ward. i. vn. 142 Lectus. 204238 atonement for his death demanded by Sparta. ix. Lesbos reconquered by Persians. vi. iv. Lesbians defeated by Polycrates of Samos. vn.

loc. a hill in Caria. circumnavigation of Libya. n. 182. temple of Athene there. 114 Libya. vn. 86. n. 131. Libya and Dodona.). 98 . with the Carthaginians in the attack on Gelon. a place near Miletus. Lindian founders of Gela in Sicily. vm. Poseidon a Libyan deity. 9. probably on Mt. ib. one of the three mythical ancestors of the Scythian nation. 207. vii. apparently from near the Halys. his discovery at Tegea. iv. 165 Lichas. vn. vii. n. n. v. extent of Libya. enemy and successor of Demaratus. vii. v. 50. identified by Herodotus with the Egyptian Maneros. a town in Thrace. 108 Locrians. vn. in Rhodes. his command of the Greek force before and at Mycale. IX. 153 Linus. defeat there of Milesians by Sardyattes. vm. return to Greece. Ethiopians of Libya woolly haired. 79 (see note ad . Darius' proposed conquest of Libya. a town in Chalcidice.C. vi. opposite to Euboea (Opuntians). i. I.INDEX Leucon teichos (White Fort) at Memphis. with the Greeks at Thermopylae. iv. (1) an Asiatic contingent in Xerxes' army. vn. great -great -grandfather of Leutychides. heat of Libya. king of Sparta. 42 . 5456.) Lipaxus. Libyan tribute to Persia. in. 77. vi. n. held by a Persian garrison. Locrian ships 353 VOL. rv. 67 Lide. 72. 71. (2) Ligurians. n. iv. 86. 72. fortified by the Alcmeonidae. 18 Lindus. . vi. 71 his death (469 B. 145. 91. (1) a Spartan. 32 story of a crossing of the Libyan desert. 165 Limeneium. vi. vn. in. 90. 167. a Spartan. (HERODOTUS) N . 23. 174 Ligyes. Parnes in Attica. 65. vi. 5. list of Libyan tribes and description of their manners and customs. 67 his family. 66. (2) King of Sparta. 62 Lisae. iv. 132. in Italy (Epizephyrii). 11. 123 Lisus. Lipsydrium. 123 Lipoxais. early history of Gyrene. iv. 18. Libyans in Xerxes' army. Libyans a healthy people. 42-43. Dorieus in Libya. 91 Leutychides. 150-164. a youth lamented in Greek song. 31. v. 29. part of it submerged by the Nile flood. . 70. on Xerxes' route. a town in Chalcidice. 203. I. vn. 168-199. their part in the invasion of Sicily. ix. defended against the Persians. in the Persian armies. vn. ix. vn. IV. . his appeal to Athens to surrender Aeginetan hostages (story of Glaucus). 92.

i. 94. a Spartan. 154-156. Alcmeon's good offices to Lydians. iv. 127 Lysicles. 125. Lydian theory of the name Asia. 177. Lycia called after him. father of Histiaeus. brother of Maeandrius. ix.INDEX Ozolian Loerians. son of Pandion. 92 Lycidas. (1) a Halicarnassian. (1) the Spartan legislator. 354 . v. son of Periander of Corinth. 7. 133 Lysanias of Eretria. flowing into the Maeetian lake. i. their kings of Ionia. vn. iv. 173. on the sea coast. vn. leader of the (3) An Arcadian. 127 an Athenian. made governor of Lemnos by the Persians. iv. i. vn. . (2) A Scythian. vi. . vn. . vm. 91 Lysagoras. in. (4) A river in Phrygia. 11 Lycopas. 91. in. 74 Lygdamis. 49. in the Cyrenaean part of northern Libya. i. i. vn. Lycians. vi. an Athenian. (1) i. 90. 6-56. and its customs. in Xerxes' army. 45. lonians in Lydia. his quarrel with his father. 32 Lotophagi. a friend and helper of Pisistratus. . in. 65. Croesus' advice as to Cyrus' government of Lydia. flowing by Colossae. son of Atys. 50-53 Lycurgus. passim i. n. 55 Lycophron. 92. 163 Lycaretus. i. 93. 21 in the . 183 Loxias. 90. an Athenian. 147 their resistance to the Medes. 27 Lycians originally Cretans. alleged to have come with his uncle Danaiis from Chemmis in Egypt. 99. 143. vi. i. (1) a Milesian. i. flight of the Greek fleet. Xerxes' passage through Lydians in his army. tribute to Persia. 66. (2) An Athenian. i. distinguished in a sea-fight off Artemisium. vm. vn. v. 74 Lydia. 69-92 (but without any important mention of the name see Sardis and Croesus) notable sights in Lydia. 61. 127 Lydus. rv. 76. distinguished in an attack on Samos. 5 Lycomedes. Lycus. 64 Lynceus. an Athenian. i. 30 Lydians. a Samian. son of Tisias enemy of the younger Miltiades. I. put to death for advising negotiations with Persians. " men of the plain. . vn. 142. a river between Bottiaea and Macedonia. vi. 173. Lydian tribute to Persia. 171. (3) A river in Scythia. vm. 123. 30. v. title of the Delphic Apollo. vn." son of Aristolai'das. 17G. in. vm. 59. (2) A Parian. wealth of Lydia. iv. a suitor for Cleisthenes' daughter. in. (2) A Naxian. origin of the name Lydia. 1 Delphians thither. father of Artemisia. 30-32 Lydias.

45 Maeetian lake (Palus Maeotis. 86. 42 Macedonians. 142 Maeetae. and end. vn. I. . a name for Dorians in their early settlements near Mt. ix. a Median tribe of magicians and interpreters of dreams. a tribe north of the Maeetian lake. subdued by Mardonius. 107. 175. in. . vn. 120 Maeander. 180 Macistius. vn. 63-69. 74-80 a district in Thessaly. Polyhis death. 18-20. nearly as large as the Euxine. secretary to Polycrates of Samos. founded by the Minyae. IV. also Alexander). 94. a town in the Thracian Chersonese. 128. 132. vn. 17. their tribute to Persia. 57. vn. an Athenian oracle-monger. 34 (see . an Athenian. vm. Magnesia. i. 31 story of the beginnings of the Temenid dynasty. 71. 43 Macedonia. vm. 29. Pindus. mouth of the Tanais there. v. 185. vm. vui. 355 . a tribe on the Libyan coast. 137-139. 116. in. iv. near Xerxes' bridge. a town in the west of the Peloponnese. (2) A m. a town near Gela in Sicily.E. 56. n. v. a tribe on the Libyan coast. 124. 120. I. v. 79 Lysistratus. vn. n. 113. 191. fate of Persian envoys there. i. see Masistius. iv. 33. 101 . 100.INDEX Lysimachus. 26. 120. a Scythian king. iv. 123 the Tana'is called Maeetian. 44. 153 Madyes. 185. ix. vn. 128. Xerxes' fleet there.). 159 Magi. vn. source at Celaenae. 183. on the Egyptian and Syrian frontier: alleged scene of a battle (really fought not here but at Megiddo) between Egyptians and Syrians. in Xerxes' army. a river between Lydia and Caria. 110. his invasion of Media and conquest of Asia. vn. 104 Madytus. 43. its distance from the Phasis. Sea of Azov). 173. Magnesians in Xerxes' 'army. 78 Mactorium. in. its their services in this respect. passes from Macedonia into Thessaly. Macedonians governing Boeotia for Persians. 178. 148 Macrones. 37. vm. crossed by Xerxes. Macistus. n. 140. m. iv. Machlyes. its windings. vi. 193 61. 19. of the Euxine. 30 Maeandrius. at Plataea. 104. 123 Magdolus (Migdol of O. rv. access to it from the east. 143 crates' deputy. the Magian usurpation of royalty (1) . 104. 132. vn. a tribe S.T. Macedonians in Xerxes' army. father of Aristides. 96 Macae. rv. i.

84 . his consultation of oracles. ix. his and his brother's proposal to the Persians to annex Paeonia. vni. 125 Marathon. Magnesian tribute to Persia. one of the six generals in command of Xerxes' army. dispute between Mardonius and Artabazus. vn. vi. ix. 61-63 . 62 Persian landing under Datis. 107-117 . 161 202 . his warlike counsel to Xerxes. proposal through Alexander for an Athenian alliance. iv. ix. i. in Xerxes' confidence. vi. a Paeonian. 140. 43-45. iv. ix. in. 49. 79 Manes. i. 111 Mandrocles. 121. 161. 15. 9 . 14. . v. Polycrates put to death there by Oroetes. near Atarneus in Mysia. his expedition to Greece and shipwreck off Athos. retreat into Boeotia and position there. vi. rv. his cavalry attack on the Greeks. 97. 38-40. 114. 82 . proposal for Xerxes' operations in Greece after Salamis. vni. vn. in. ix. affairs of Gyrene. daughter of Astyages and mother of Cyrus. I. scene of a battle in the Ionian revolt. the southernmost promontory of Peloponnese . taunting message to Spartans. Pisistratus' landing there after exile. a Persian tribe. 135. vni. an arbitrator sent thence to settle the Mantineans at Thermopylae. i. 42. n. and the battle itself. i. 77 Mantyes. constructor of Darius' bridge over the Bosporus. town 29 Males. vn.E. 88 Maneros. vi. 125 Mardonius. 131. lament for his early death identified with the Greek Linus-song. VIH. ix. 90 Malea. final engagement. ix. iv. 168 Malene. their late arrival at Plataea. 125. 5. lason's voyage near it. 87. i. 107. 127 Mandane. . ix. 179. Mardonius in Thessaly. 100102 promise that Mardonius should give the Greeks satisfaction for the death of Leonidas. 41.INDEX in Asia near the Maeander. 3. 12 Maraphii. operations near Plataea. 45 Mantinea. vni. (a few more unimportant refi. a Samian. ix. i. 17 25. an Aetolian suitor for Cleisthenes' daughter. and death of Mardonius. taken by Medes. 356 . his burial. vin. vn. on the N. son of Gobryas. all western Greece as far as Malea once ruled by Argos. son of Min. 94. vi. his second capture of Athens.) Mardi. a Persian tribe. 48. 102 preliminaries to the battle. 82. the first king of Egypt. an early Lydian king. Corcyraeans' pretext that they could not pass Malea. in Arcadia. coast of Attica.

94 in Xerxes' army. Marea. of the modern "Greater Zab. coast of the Euxine. of the Gyndes. 49 Maron. Scythians driven from their country by Massagetae. vm. a tribe apparently on the S. 118. one of Xerxes' officers. a people apparently N. n. a man of Cindye in Caria. 125 Massages. 201. 11 Massalia (Massilia. . vu. 2 Media called after her. tribute to Persia. v. 52. a Persian. 79 Mariandyni. 94. Persian governor of Doriscus in Thrace. 189. vn. i. I. 79. in Xerxes' army. ix. tribute to Persia. vii. v. 110-113. tribute to Persia. vn. 22.E. in command of cavalry at Plataea. 20. his death at . 109 " " Silenus Marsyas. in Xerxes' army. 227 Maronea. and slain by Melanippus. son of Darius.INDEX Mardontes. 107. Matieni. a tribe in Paphlagonia. in. her abduction by lason. 80 130. victim of Xerxes' adultery and cruelty. a Tyrian officer in Xerxes' fleet. his death. according to Herodotus (but this is wrong. 71 Massagetae. ix. 202. Mycale. Marseilles). 215.) Mascames. 20. 72 Matten. (1) the according to legend worsted in a musical competition and flayed by Apollo. 211-214. brother of Adrastus according to legend. (2) A river in Caria. vu. a northern tributary of the Danube. 105 Masistes. 122 Medea. ix. 30 Mares. his quarrel with Artayntes. their customs. 72. vii. 49. in. 9 on the right of the Halys. vn. 102 357 . 90. vn. a people of doubtful locality source of the Araxes. Masistius. i. I. v. i. a frontier post in western Egypt. of the Caspian Cyrus' campaign against them. vu. a Persian officer in Xerxes' army. ix. a Spartan distinguished at Thermopylae. vii. a Persian tribe. IS. I. vu. 216. if Maris is modern Marosch). vn. (The better known Marsyas in Phrygia is called Catarrhactes by Herodotus. 26. iv. west of Armenia. v. . v. mand of Persian fleet after Salamis. one of the six generals of Xerxes' army. iv. a Persian officer in Xerxes' army. in comvn. vu. on Xerxes' route. 98 Mausolus. 24 Maspii. a Greek town in Thrace. ix. and mourning for him. a town on the Sithonian promontory of Chalcidice. 72 Maris. 82. his defence of the town. i. 62 . in. vu. ." v. 121. 204-208. 67 Mecyberna. 118 Mecisteus.

I. vn. left by Darius in Thrace on his Scythian expedition. 37 . vn. . subjection of Media to Persia 123-130. ix. v. 134. iv. ib. 40. vn. i. vn. fatherin-law of Pisistratus. their treatment by Gelon. a legendary hero and teacher. i. vn. 156 Megasidrus. 81. 85. 131 Megacreon. 9. iv. 82. 153. a Dorian settlement. Babylonians alarmed by Median power. in. ancestor of Megistiae. 10. father of Zopyrus. i. (3) Grandson of Megacles (2). at Thermopylae. 72 . vn. Median system of government. 219. 97 a Persian. 221 . in. 160 Megacles. 7. 143 Darius' estimation of him. i. a Persian. 95-102 conquered by Scythians. Medians' revolt from Assyria. and growth of their power. father of Alcmeon. Media on the northern frontier of Persia. n. Megarians in the Greek fleet. 1. . 21. 70. a Persian. i. 4. his saying about the feeding of Xerxes' army. i.INDEX Medians (as distinct from Persians). v. IX. 40 Megabates. 73. vii. 74 Melampus. v. 185. 358 . 28. advocate of oligarchy for Persia. 34 their liberation. their war with Lydia. (1) a Persian general. on the borders of Attica. 69. in. 62 Megara. a Persian general. i. vm. their dress. with Leonidas at Thermopylae. (1) an Athenian. 104. vn. i. Darius' cousin. Median tribute to Persia. 12. 1. old name of Lydians. 16. 32. and grandfather of Pericles. 23. Cyaxares' feud with Scythians. in. horses. his operations in Thrace. vi. Megarians of Sicily. 210. in. 31 . 130. in Pausanias' army. in command subsequently in Egypt. Medians in Xerxes' army. (1) the Magians. 127. one of the generals of Xerxes' army. the Halys their frontier. 72 Megistias. i. vn. 135. 106. I. . 76. afterwards governor of Babylon. in Xerxes' army. 35 Megabazus. rv. v. vm. their disaster. 1 ." i. vi. 84. vi. iv. 45. his introduction of the cult of Dionysus into Greece. 69. (2) One of Xerxes' admirals. 49 . 228 Mei'onians. (2) Son " of Alcmeon r leader of the Men of the Coast. 113. 61 married to the daughter of Cleisthenes of Sicyon. vii. 62 . one of the seven conspirators against Megabyzus. 14. in. 121 . . (2) A Persian. i. vn. 92. in Mardonius' army. 120 Megadostes. 31. 106. 105 Megapanus. vn. IX. vn. in. a Persian officer in Xerxes' army. an Acarnanian diviner. his demand of privileges at Argos. vii. 221 his epitaph. of Abdera. . 17. by Cyrus. IX. 125. (3) Son of Zopyrus. son of Megabates.

" . in. 106 . in. 92 Membliarus. legendary king of Ethiopia. n. 158. Nile flood below Memphis. pyramids there. 131 Mende. 65 Melas (black). IV.INDEX Melampygus. 99. n. n. n. their part in the war with Darius. . 359 . in. 216 Melanchlaeni (Black-Cloaks). i. a Phoenician. iv. vi. 58. 42." n. 46. 147. of Scythia. 201. a town on the promontory of Pallene in Chalcidice. n. 71. father of Codrus. . Melians in Persian armies. Melanippus. 132. 151 Memphis. 46. a Spartan. vm. their customs. its temple of Hephaestus. (2) A bay into which the above flows. v. 97. 6. 147 Memnon. 123 Mendee. (2) A Mytilenaean. 125 . 66. . (1) a legendary Theban hero. vn. I. in. a rock figure hi Ionia " Memwrongly taken to represent him. II. 107 119. mountains of Melis. 198 Meles. near the coast of Magnesia. vn. founder of a settlement in the island of Calliste or Thera. iv. in. 13 his return thither from Ethiopia. 20. his cult introduced at Sicyon. an Egyptian deity. v. 99. or Malis). ix. 25 his sacrilege Persian garrison there. father of Leuty chides. wife of Periander of Corinth. vn. vn. identified with Pan. Thermopylae in Melis. vii. in Egypt. vn. 175. vm. name of a rock on the mountain side above Thermopylae. 97 Melanthus. 112. 37 at Memphis. hills above it. colonists from Lacedaernon. water supply from Memphis. n. 95 Melanthius. in the Greek fleet. v. 58. iv. n. 215. 65. 53. 8. 12. Memphis taken by Cambyses. wreck of Xerxes' fleet near it. v. vn. 112. their submission to Xerxes. 84 Meliboea. Susa called nonian. works of Min there. discovery of the Anopaea path. an Athenian commander sent to assist the Ionian rebels against Darius. 188 Melians (of Melis. 153. in. 3. 50. 100. vn. crossed by Xerxes. v. 33 Melians of Melos. 41." v. vn. vi. 198. king of Sardis. iv. 91 Darius and there. epithet of (1) a river in Thrace. vn. quarries of Memphis. 67. 48 Melissa. a tribe N. vm. precinct of Proteus. a friend of the poet Alcaeus. 139 Syloson Menares. vn. 31 Melian gulf a stage on the way from the Hyperboreans to Delos. (3) A river in Malis near Thermopylae. in. .

28. threatened attack of Miletus by Persians. vi. 1822. vii. his offerings at Delphi. ix. 93. 64 Metapontium. 138 Miletus. iv. 170 Messene. Persian fleet off Miletus. 160. 42. on the Nile. Phrynichus' drama on the subject. 360 . inhabited by one of the Egyptian warrior tribes. wars with Sparta. vi. 35. 138 Micythus. i. siege. vm. attacked by Gyges. a people near Tarentum. a Spartan. 108 Messapii. v. in Caria. 33. iv. king of Phrygia. n. his gardens in Macedonia. V. 118. vii. I. 14. n. 169. 169. his capture by Persians. war with Alyattes. son of Gordias. otherwise called Zancle. 120. (1) brother of Agamemnon. 78. 119. 169 Menius. 98 Mermnadae. vi. v. 164 Messenia. the capital of Ethiopia. its alliance with Samos. 15 Metiochus. 5-7. 97. 14. an Ionian town. Aristagoras its Milesians defeated by Persians in Ionic governor. 31. 7. in Sicily (Messina). I. 29 (probably Napata) Mesambria. vi. 14 Meroe. n. near Croton in Italy. vi. story of the Milesian and Glaucus. the reigning dynasty in Lydia from Gyges to Croesus. agreement with Cyrus. 170 Midas. capture. vii. his defeat by Messapians and his offerings at Olympia. vii. 30 revolt. Miletus' foundation by Neleus. wealth and dissensions of Miletus. 49. iv.INDEX Mendesian province. 46. governor of Rhegium. 22. I. a town on the Thracian coast of the Aegean. said to be of Cretan origin. I. ix. vi. 29. one of the Hellespontian despots with Darius' Scythian expedition. (2) A harbour near Cyrene. son of the younger Miltiades. 71 Merbalus. n. Mendesian mouth of the Nile. i. brother-in-law of Leutychides. from the island of Aradus. 41 Metrodorus. and depopulation of the town. his visit to Egypt. port of Borysthenes a Milesian settlement. vi. 17 Menelaus. its story of the reincarnation of Aristeas. 171. vi. vn. iv. Cretans reminded of their assistance of Menelaus before Troy. 86. in. Milesians' desertion . an officer in Xerxes' fleet. 1722. vii. 142. n. 47. rv. a Coan settlement there. v.

vi. vi. a Persian deity identified with Aphrodite. 46 Minos.INDEX of the Persians at Mycale. 146. 101 . 126 Mnesarchus. 110. 169 his Carian auxiliaries. i. n. 141. 90. 103 (temp. 99 Minoa. his decision to fight. ii. iv. in Lacedaemon and the western Peloponnese. i. in Sicily. 140. a Milesian. iv. I. the first Battus of Cyrene a Minyan. . 137 Miltiades. son of Cypselus. 132. his work at Memphis and elsewhere. a Persian governor at Dascyleum. 4. vi. 169 361 . battle there between Apries and Amasis. father of Aristagoras. 163. revenue of Persia from it. his advice to Themistocles before Salamis. ix. old inhabitants of Lycia. 30 Momemphis. vi. killed by Oroetes. Democedes' alleged betrothal to his daughter. also ruler of the Chersonese. a Samian. their Asiatic settlements. 131 Mitradates. 145-148. 104. expulsion of his brother Sarpedon. an Athenian. see also Aristagoras and Histiaeus). in. their alleged settlements in Asia. 57 Molossians. in Xerxes' army. n. 173. 136 Milyae. 173. v. in. his rule in the Thracian Chersonese. a people from Orchomenus. adventures of Minyan descendents of the Argonants I. one of the ten generals at Marathon. iv. his embankment of the Nile near Memphis. in Egypt. vi. king of Crete. Cyrus' foster-father. the wrestler. 146 Molpagoras. a colony from Selinus. 137 . a people of Epirus. vi. n. vi. his attack on Paros. son of Cimon. 103. 104 (other less important reflf. king of Egypt. conquest of Lemnos. his death in Sicily. 34-38. his impeach- ment and death. 69. (2) Nephew of the above. a stream on or near the battlefield of Plataea. their tribute to Persia. 40 . iv. Milon of Croton. 91 Molois. vui. I. vi. II. 148. vn. 150 Mitra. 900 years before Herodotus. 95 Mnesiphilus. ix. his escape from the Scythians. in. the first human king of Egypt. Minyae. 34. ( 1 ) an Athenian. 77 Min. v. lake of Moeris (in the Fayyum) and labyrinth adjacent described. 57 Moeris. in. 41 . I. 149. from the Phoenicians. n. vi. I. his advice to the lonians to cut off Darius' retreat from Scythia. vn. 109. 13. Croesus). 110 Mitrobates.

(1) an Aeolian town in Mysia. vn. of the Piraeus. 166 M^gdonia. 171 Mylitta. 93. an Assyrian deity identified with Aphrodite. a tribe probably in the south of Persia. v. taken by Miltiades. Mysians "brothers" of the Carians. and economic state of Egypt in his time. in Xerxes' army. king of Egypt. i. Panionium there. the bay of Issus in Asia Minor. (2) A Lydian emissary of Oroetes. vi. 98 Myconus. near Delos. temple of Zeus there. their in Xerxes' army. 149. a man of Europus sent by Mardonius to consult oracles. at Thermopylae. 133-135 Mysia. I. IX. given to Histiaeus. I. despot of Sardis. 118 Myecphorite province of Egypt. 31 Mycerinus. his death in battle in Caria. (1) father of Candaules. u. 126 Myriandric gulf. grandfather of Cleisthenes of Sicyon. 90. Mycenaeans in Pausanias' army. ix. a tribe at the E. an Ionian promontory opposite Samos. son of Cheops. vn. vn. vm. his oracles. 23. one of two hills alleged to be near the source of the Nile (see Crophi). in Xerxes' army. 10. 122. 90. Greek name for Candaules. vii. their tribute. ix. 38 Myrina. a tribe between Armenia and the Euxine. v. an island in the Aegean. 43 Mycale. (2) A town in Lemnos. G. 78 tribute to Persia. Heraclidae and Mycenaeans. Aristagoras' retreat thither. 121 Mys. name of a reef between Magnesia and Sciathus. their tribute to Persia. plagued by a wild boar. in. 183 Myron. 123. legendary 362 . ix. v. their tribute to Persia. vm. 148. vn. vn. and his way of prolonging his life. 202. vn. 129-133 . vi. 94. 28 Moschi. 78 Mossynoeci. i. 136 Myci. defeat of Persians by Greeks at Mycale. 199 Myrcinus. m. vi. 126 Myrsilus. a town in Caria. ix. n. inhabited by one of the warrior tribes. vm. his virtues and misfortunes. 140 Myrmex (the Ant). in. 4 Musaeus. 11. vi. 127 Mylasa. 131. I. 94 Munychia. his buildings. a town of the Edonians in Thrace. i. IV. 7. flight of Chians thither after Lade. . 36. in. n. i. 7 Myrsus. 76 Murychides. II. i. 27 . 96. the eastern extremity of Xerxes' line before Salamis.INDEX Mophi. on the Attic coast E. a Hellespontian envoy from Mardonius to the Athenians. end of the Euxine. 171. in. 9G-101 Mycenaeans. a district on the Thermaic gulf.

INDEX Mysian and Teucrian invasion of Europe. 32 . vn. vii. ix. 190 Nathos. in. and proposed annexation by the Persians. vi. 142. father of Themistocles. 95. 38. 36. their customs. in. a Lydian refugee there. V. worship of them unknown in Egypt. v. I. in. king of Egypt. Mytilenaeans killed by Egyptians. 178. annexed ships to the Greek fleet. i. ii. its contingent in the Ionian fleet. n. 65 Neocles. Mysians in Xerxes' army. an Egyptian province in the Delta. 32 Mytilene. n. 50. n. 60 Naxos. 106. 11. 149 Nereids. Histiaeus at Mytilene. its courtesans. the Pisistratids so described. near the sea. 40. u. his canal from the Nile to the Red Sea. 8 Goes. 13 . 91. a Libyan people near Gyrene. an Ionian town in Caria. horses bred there. and Greek settlement there. in war with Cambyses. II. 48 Nasamones. n. n. 152. (2) Son of Psammetichus. 42 Nelidae. descendants of Neleus of Pylus. vin. 123 Necos. 46. v. I. vi. v. devastated by Datis. 5 Myus. IV. an Athenian. 158." (1) in Upper Egypt. a town on the sea-coast of Argolis. 172. a northern tributary of the Danube. killed by Sabacos. (1) father of Psammetichus. iv. 160. 74. vi. with Mardonius at Plataea. vn. 20 363 . Naparis. a new town. desertion of Naxian Naxians of Sicily. 28-33. a Megarian. (2) In Pallene. n. vi. in the Aegean. a town below one of the peaks of Parnassus. 135 its importance as a port. Ionian despots arrested at Myus. i. vn. 143 Neon. circumnavigate Africa. vm. 101 Nesaean plain in Media. 96. vn. despatch of Phoenicians to . execution by Mytilenaeans of their despot Mytilene and Athens reconciled by Periander. ix. 20.. 64. story of their passage of the Libyan desert. ridden in Xerxes' army and at Plataea. 97. vn. 32 Neon teichos (New Fort). vii. in the west of the Delta. subdued by Pisistratus. in Lesbos. ib. 76 Naustrophus. an Aeolian town. 154 " Nea. 182. partly inhabited by one of the warrior tribes. deities of the Sepias promontory. 165 Naucratis. 178-180 Nauplia. by Hippocrates of Gela. propitiated by the Magi to abate a storm. vn. v. an Aeolian town in Asia Minor. 40. iv. its wealth and civil dissensions. n.

taken by the Medes. youngest of the priestesses of Dodona. (2) Queen of Babylon. 131 Nicodroinus of Aegina. n. 193. A priesthood of the Nile. i. the Homeric hero. Necos' canal from Nile to Red Sea. of it. n. of Pjdus. n. iv. in. 93 Nisaea. the port of Megara. iv. Nile mouths all closed to trade except one. formerly. 119. son of Codrus. (2) Son of Bulis and grandson of the above. 97. II. n. vii. 90 Nicolaus. 100. a river in Thrace flowing past Abdera. 19-27. 364 . . iv. daughter of Apries. n. 179. 185. 185 Noes. n. i. one of Cambyses' wives. on the Tigris. 106. of Cos. 42.INDEX Nestor. a Thracian tributary of the Danube. 99 Nitetis. 1 Nitocris. 134. crossed by Xerxes. 90 Nileus. its ships under Artemisia's command. known course of the river. and comparison of Nile and Danube. 45. i. (1) a Spartan. 50. 74 Nonacris. no lions in Europe E. (1) son of Belus and king of Assyria. i. her treatment of the Euphrates. vii. i. vi. n. his attempted betrayal of Aegina to Athens. 178. n. flood below Memphis. Nile connected with the II. a town in Arcadia. Delta and Nile mouths. vm. robbery of Sardanapalus' treasures there. 31-34. iv. superseded by Babylon. Nile flood and fish. 93. 150 Nipsaei. iv. v. capital of (2) Nineveh. 65 Nestus. their submission to Darius. iv. Assyria. 150. vii. 88. 59 Nisyros. II. Nile and Danube compared in respect of volume of water. near the . 126 Neuri. 97 Ninus. 17. n. northern neighbours of the Scythians. 99. 10 height of inundation. (1) an Egyptian queen. a king of Sparta. lake of Moeris. 7. 55 Nicandrus. source of the Nile unknown. 17. iv. n. an island S. ix. 109. Nile one of the boundaries of the world. 11. 105. II. taken by the Athenians. said to turn into wolves. vn. II. 28-30 its upper waters. i. 100. their part in the war with Darius. 137 Nile lower Egypt perhaps the deposit of the Nile. n. her revenge for her brother's death. 49 " water of Styx. a Thracian tribe of Salmydessus. ancestor of Pisistratus. Min's embankment. his foundation of Miletus. 125 Nicandra. 149. iv. 53." vi. a victim of the vengeance of Talthybius on the Spartans. in. n. theories of the Nile flood. . 158. vn.

vn. the Phocaeans' proposal to buy them from Chios. 100 Notium. 112 Odrysae. (1) a Persian. iv. 137 " the sacred. a Persian. his betrayal of Spartan envoys to the Athenians. an Aeolian town in Asia Minor. islands between Chios and Asia Minor. this theory questioned by Herodotus. of Abdera. m. vn. v. iv. a Corinthian. 71 Oarus. 167 Oenussae. iv. a town in Crete. the toe of Italy." Nysa. the modern Great oasis reached by Cambyses' force sent against the Ammonians. vi. i. vm. 5 Odomanti. his Oedipus. of the Peloponnese. vi. a 365 . a king of Scythia. quoted by Herodotus. iv. 16 (if the reading be right). 46 Oenotria. 85-88. the circle of sea (or river) supposed to surround the whole world. 36 Octamasades. 29 Oea. figures of Damia and Auxesia carried thither. a northern division of Attica. n. Oasis. iv. founded by the Minyae. i. 26 Oaxus. 23. i. n. a Thracian tribe on Darius' route to the Danube. inhabited by Samians. Darius' cruel treatment of him. 149 Nudium. an Eretrian. son of Megabazus. iv. 8. 165 Oeobazus. ruled by Etearchus. his murder of his brother Scyles. iv. a river in Scythia running into the Palus Maeotis. v. 83 Oebares. called 146. a Thracian or Paeonian tribe inhabiting the range of Pangaeum. 149. n. ancient name of Aegina. father of Adimantus. 80 Ocytus. in Ethiopia.INDEX Nothon. iv. 92 Odyssey. in. 97 its cult of Dionysus. (1) Darius' groom." rv. Oarizus. avenging deities. taken by the Boeotians. vn. m. 21. 84. his trick to ensure Darius' election as king. a town in the W. vm. 33 " son of Lams of Thebes. 60 Oenoe. 116. a place in Aegina. 148 Nymphodorus. v. 154 Oceanus. v. (2) Persian governor at Dascyleum. 74 Oenone. 123 town eight days west of the Egyptian Thebes (apparently " " of Khargeh).

a leader in the Cyprian revolt against Darius. vn. 47 Cylon. 33. (2) In Mysia. management of games by Eleans. n. 126. iv. 37 Olophyxus. ix. Lydian settlement there. Demaratus. 196 vin. iv. Cimon. 68 Onesilus. 127. 122. Olbiopolitae. vi. 176. vi. v. before battle of Thermopylae. son of Theras of Sparta. ix. sacrifice to obtain oracles. 170. i. 71. Herodotus' denial that he was the Persians' guide over the Anopaea pass at Thermopylae. 39 Olympia. vn. source of a river Alpis in the country above the Ombrici. vu. name given to a Sicyonian tribe by Cleisthenes. 43. a river in Thessaly alleged to have been drunk dry by Xerxes' army. vi. a town on the seacoast of Achaea. of Thermopylae. his duel. 217 the Borysthenite Olen. 149 the battlefield of vn. his seizure by the lonians. (3) from the Greeks in Thrace. an Athenian leader at Plataea. vi. a Thracian king. 122. Mysians called Olympians. besieged and taken by Artabazus. 103. vn. 94. 366 . a variant of Goetosyrus. 125. q. 127 Ombrici. ix. 36. 129. V. 70. father-in-law of the younger Miltiades. haunted by a wild boar. v. iv. on or near Plataea. IX. ix. competition limited to Greeks. offerings there. 26. i. 49 Oneatae. a town on the promontory of Athos. a tributary of the Asopus. northern boundary of Thessaly. vni. 145 Oliatus of Mylasa. 51 Oeta. vi. 173. his A 119 Oeolycus. Greek name for the people of port (Olbia) on the Euxine. 59. vn. 129. his death there. Miltiades the elder.INDEX (2) A fugitive Persian Persian. 134 Olympic games. i. Cleisthenes. 214 Onochonus. 108. i. 206. 74 Olynthus. i. 110-115 Onetes of Carystus. rv. Oetosyrus. in Chalcidice. v. v. 22 Olortis. vn. a Lycian hymn-writer. crown of olive given as the prize. Mount. 22 Olympiodorus. 160. 81. vi. vn. and death in battle. viii. Callias. vi. v. (1) in Thessaly. v. the people of central and northern Italy. . 35 Olenus. father of Siromitres. the mountain range S. 115. 72 victories won by Philippus. 68. Alcmeon. vni. vn. 36.v. Hieronymus. vi. . vii. 56. of Salamis. 104. vn. pass between Olympus and Ossa. 18 name. origin of Oeroe. 21 Olympus.

his command against the 367 . son of Agamemnon. a Scythian tributary of the Danube. his treacherous murder of Polycrates. an Egyptian deity. 98 Oropus. (1) in Arcadia. iv. father of Xerxes' wife Amestris. 227 Orus. a mountain in Thrace.v. vn. son of Ariapithes. 61. a mountain in Thessaly. the port of Apollonia in N. ix. 7 Onomastus of Elis. 35 Opoea. 166 Ophryneum. vn. Ossa. (1) a town on the Tigris (at the highest point of navigation). Greece. 128. n. vni. vn.v. made a judge in place of his father Sisamnes by Carnbyses. VU. (2) One of the Hyperborean pilgrims to Delos. 126-129 Oromedon. an Arabian deity identified with Dionysus. vi. 173 Otanes. I. wife of Ariapithes and afterwards Scyles of Scythia. 101 Orotalt. king of Scythia. identified with Apollo. 146. n. inhabited by one of the warrior tribes. (2) A Persian. 48 Orestes. vn. 11 Orgeus. VII. 56. vi. territory overrun by Persians. its contingent at Thermopylae. their similarity to Egyptian. 78 Oricus. inhabitants of Orneae in Argolis. Persian governor of Sardis. 43 Opis. Orbelus. 34 Ordessus. I. 118 Oricus. m. vu. see Locrians. 40. iv. HI. of inferior status like the Spartan Perioeci. ix. in. identified q. 67 Orestheum. a Spartan. an Athenian purveyor or forger of oracles. his downfall and death. i. (1) a Persian. q. Osiris. 25.W. vu. a Thasian. iv. 8 Orphic rites. 120-125. ix. a Cilician. discovery of his tomb at Tegea. Minyans there. in the neighbourhood of the lake -dwellers. v. 189 Orneatae. vn.INDEX Onomacritus. apparently on the route from Sparta to Megalopolis. legendary daughter of Erechtheus and wife of Boreas. v. separated from Olympus by the Peneus. at Plataea. on the Attic coast opposite Euboea. 78 Opuntians. 189. a suitor for Cleisthenes' daughter. 82. 73 Oroetes. 81 Orsiphantus. 202. 127 Onuphite province of Egypt. I. vni. a town in the Troad. 28. at Xerxes' court. 16 Orchomenus. iv. with Dionysus. (2) In Boeotia. 93 Orithyia.

on Xerxes' route. 154. vn. iv. v. Syrians of Palestine . boundary of Thessaly.W. 110 Paeum (or Paeus). a Paeonian tribe. 33. iv. 44. v. a town in N. 67 another Pactyice to Persia. vn. 82 Othrys. of the Persian empire. see Locrians. the one survivor of 300 Lacedaemonians in a battle . vn. 32. a Persian officer in Xerxes' army. ix.INDEX Ionian rebels. 129 368 . a town at the head of the Thracian Chersonese. Libyan and worship. 49. 36 Pactyes. on Xerxes' route. i. 101 Pactya. 88 in command in Samos. 123. at the head of the Pagasaean gulf in Magnesia. v. 104. i. vn. one of the promontories of Chalcidice. conquest and removal of Paeonians by Persians. v. 113. vn. in Pausanias' army. in Syria. 93 an Indian tribe. n. Paeanian dome of Attica. a station of Xerxes' fleet. 193 Palee's. 68-72. originator of the conspiracy against the Magians. 124. in. 11G. Parnes. iv. in. 117 Paeti. 15. iv. vn. vi. m. a river flowing through Sardis. in Xerxes' army. in. said to be cannibals. I. surrender of his claim to be king. in Xerxes' fleet. vi. Indus. 80. v. 189 Pallene. their theft of Xerxes' chariot. their return. 12-17. v. 63 Othryades. a Thracian tribe on Xerxes' route. I. 144-147 Otaspes. 89 " " Palladian Pallas. 62 Paeoplae. 99 Padaei. 126-129 Pamisus. 106. 127 Pagasae. its tribute army. pillars set up there by Sesostris. 115. in. i. a people in the E. son of Pharnaspes. 12 J Ozolae. 28 Palestine. with 300 Argives. ix. vn. 98. 185. in. (3) A Persian. vii. a people of Cephallenia. circumcision practised there. see Athene . the range forming the S. ( Pactolus. in Xerxes' Scylax' voyage thence down the " " near Armenia. a leader of a Lydian revolt against Cyrus. 60 Paeonia. Paeonian sacrifices. vin. a Hellespontian town taken by the Persians in the Ionic revolt. vii. 11. (2) A place in Attica at the foot of Mt. vn. his advocacy of democracy for Persia. Arcadia. its war with Perinthus. 113 Paesus. 23. a river in Thessaly. in. 105. Darius' father-in-law. 161 Pactyes. its people attacked by Artabazus. (1) a country west of Thrace. 83 . v. v. near India. vn. vn. 123. 1 . his surrender to the Persians.

170. 18. their tribute. a river in Scythia east of the Borysthenes. a legendary Athenian. a harbour near Miletus. 90. identified with the Egyptian Mendes. vi. I. in. 195 Papremis. Asia Minor. said to have been sent as a messenger to Sparta from Thermopylae. 92 Pantites. i. 72 Paphos. vii. in Asia Minor. murder of Hipparchus at it. 232 Papaeus. 59. 183 Pamphyli. near Mycale. vii. and put to death by Polycrates of Samos. tribute to Persia. vi.INDEX of Scyros. half brother of Croesus. 42. contingent in Xerxes' army. v. vm. a Messenian. II. 72 . a festival celebrated every fourth year at Athens . vii. vii. 125 Panticapes. vm. his crime and punishment. 16. 7 Panionius of Chios. Paphian ships in Xerxes' fleet. his advice to the Spartans about the royal succession. their tribute to Persia. 46. 106 Panites. on the borders of Phocis and Boeotia. n. a town in Egypt. 173 Pangaeum. 68 Pamphylia. 148. 56 Pandion. a tribe in the Persian empire. 54 Pantimathi. 39 Pantaleon. vii. one of the "youngest" Greek gods. 08 Pan. i. dis- Pammon paraged by Artemisia. i. put to death by him for conspiracy. of the Caspian. a Scythian deity identified with Zeus. the festival of the Ionian stock. S. 112 Panionia. father of Lycus the hero of the Lycians. ceremonial 369 . 34 Panorrnus. name assumed by a Dorian tribe at Sicyon. 145. 154 Panthialaei. i. in. I. vi. vii. 82 Panathcnaea. in Xerxes' army. 6. a Persian tribe. 105. I. vm. m. 105. 91. 92 Pantares. subdued by Croesus. vm. a man of Gela. 59 Paphlagonians. 47. his guidance of the Persian fleet to Magnesia. Xerxes' army there. brother of. his cult at Athens. west of the Halys in N. 90. iv. 28. 148 Panionium. iv. his news of the Persian encirclement of Salamis. vn. v. an Ionian place of meeting for council or ceremonial. in. a mountain range in Thrace. 52 Panopeus. 157 Pantagnotus. i. v. n. its cult of Ares. 145 Panaetius of Tenos.

158 Pausanias. . 32. son of Cleombrotus and grandson of Anaxandrides mentioned repeatedly as leader of the king of Sparta. 71. ix. tribute to Persia. viu. 62 bribe to Themistocles. in. in. one of the Cyclades. a people in the S. v. 40 Patizeithes. his message from Apries to Amasis. I. vii. 67 . vm. repulse of Persians there.INDEX "river-horses" sacred in the province. I. 182 Patarbemis. a race of Scythian kings. Phoenician images of dwarfs. . a battle there between Persians and Egyptians. of Lemnian origin. v. a town on the seacoast of Achaea. 68. 133135 neutrality of Parians in the Persian war. 46 Paralatae. 117 Parmys. in Lycia. 11. Greeks against Mardonius. of the Persian empire. vii. IV. 125 Pasicles. 63. daughter of Smerdis and wife of Darius. 97 Pataeci. a refuge for the Delphians. V. 6 Parapotamii. 71. his plot to make his brother king. in. 94. . a town in Phocis burnt by the Persians. vm. son of Otanes. 37 Paroreatae. 93. Syrians in its neighbourhood. their Parian marble. a mountain in Arcadia. 61 Patrae. in. vm. 31 . 78 Parnassus. ix. brother of the pretended Smerdis. a Median tribe.E. 105 Parthenius. (personal allusions) his proposal to the Athenians for a rearrangement of the battle 370 . in. ix. in. vm. and cruel treatment by Apries. a Persian tribe. Miltiades' repulse from Paros. a man of Acragas. n. 73 Paros. 148. 10-82. vii. v. 104 Parthians. 12 Paraebates. Parian settlement of the troubles of Miletus. 162 Patiramphes. inhabited by one of the warrior tribes. in Xerxes' army. 37 Pataecus. an Arabian town. I. 28. vii. ix. 101 Paricanii. vm. n. S. 1 12 Parthenium. vision of Pan seen there by Phidippides. a people of the west of the Peloponnese. 33 Paretaceni. of the Caspian. 29. 92. n. 86 Parium. 154 Patara. a town on the Asiatic coast of the Hellespont. iv. canal from the Nile near it. I. an Egyptian. vn. 27. the mountain above Delphi. a river in the west of Paphlagonia. a little way west of the modern Isma'ilia. probably an Athenian. 11. vi. 88. their tribute to Persia. 66 Pasargadae. 10 there. n. 145 " " Patumus. a Spartan with Dorieus in Sicily. in Xerxes' army. Xerxes' charioteer. a custom of the temple there. vi.E.

I. Pelion and Ossa in the E. vm. 46. 12 Pella. 202 Isthmus. I. ix." I. 50-52. I.INDEX line. vm. n. 56. 129. expulsion of Minyae by Pelasgians. 171. 17. Lemnos and Imbros Pelasgian. 137-139. vi. ambition after the Persian war. vm. Peloponnesian Peloponnesian tale of Anacharsis. 40. of less importance) Pelops. 81 . 56 . 74. antiquity. Croesus. vm. Peloponnesian scale of ransom. vm. n. ix. deities. 121. 79. vm. 79. cp. ix. Hellas formerly called Pelasgia. vi. prophecy of Peloponnesian armies in expulsion of Dorians. 26. . rv. 146. 191 Pelion. special appeal to Athenians. 141. 15. near the Arabian frontier of Egypt. vi. Pelopides a title of Agamemnon. 68. 49. v. bronze caldron dedicated by him on the Bosporus. vn. in. vm. at the E. . rv.Greek. n. Thetis carried off by him from Magnesia. expulsion of Pelasgi from Attica. v. vii. security of property there. 179. mouth of the Nile. vii. near Sicyon. an Egyptian. 86. 11 . wreck of Xerxes' fleet near Pelion. II. i. 104 Pedieis. contrasted with Hellenic. 71. singular story of a priestess there. vm. contingents at Peloponnesians anxious to guard the Thermopylae. 57 Pelasgian forts. vi. 175. 3 Pausicae. 145 Peloponnese. iv. 43 . called by Xerxes a Phrygian settler in Greece. the Argo built there. 159 Peiusium. 123 an Achaean town. v. migration of Dorians thither. 64 and . ix. of the Caspian. 56. vm. v. in. 8. Pelusian mouth. Arcadia Pelasgian. 92 ix. vii. 114 (other reff. most of the Peloponnese subject to Sparta temp. i. Athenian jealousy of Peloponnesians. ib. ix. various nations of Peloponnese. 68. 141 Pellene. Pelasgian language probably non. vn. 20. vii. vm. 32. 77 invasion of Attica. a town in Macedonia. instance of his generosity and courtesy. of Thessaly. a tribe S. n. 145. 33 Pelasgian. 44 Peleus. 8. . 73. 26. iv. 106.. permitted by the Persians to succeed to the governorship of his rebel father Amyrtaeus. Greek settle- 371 . ix. a Phocian town burnt by the Persians. Peloponnesian return from Mycale. 60. 76. a place in Caria. I. v. their tribute to Persia. contingents at Salamis. his pride and Pausiris. a name applied by Herodotus to the oldest known " inhabitants and remains in Greece. 15 Pedasus (or Pedasa). Artemisia's advice to Xerxes about the Peloponnese. 8.

ix. deprived of her office for fraud. son of Danae. the eponymous hero of the Persians. pass into Thessaly along its banks. their contingent in the . vi. 140 Peneus. vii. v. 95 Pericles of Athens. an European town on the Propontis.INDEX ments there. vui. vn. despot of Corinth. 90. I. 185 Perses. 173 Penthylus. 128. son of Cypselus. 154. vi. his quarrel with his son. 22 his escape from Lebaea and establishment of the Temenid dynasty in Macedonia. vn. vn. 2. vi. a river in Thessaly. Xerxes' route past it. vn. VI. 92 . 195 Percalus. his command of Paphian ships in Xerxes' fleet. ICO. its mouth viewed by Xerxes. its war with the Paeonians and conquest by the Persians. their connection with the story of communication between Dclos and the Hyperboreans. Laconians inferior in status to the Spartans. iv. 43 Pergamus. i. iv. captured by the Greeks. v. 23. a Thessalian tribe. son of Perseus. 103 Perinthus. Psammenitus' encampment there Cambyses' invasion. v. vn. reception of the minstrel Arion. vn. his warning to Thrasybulus. a Sicyonian leader killed at Mycale. 150 Perseus. 137-139 Pergamum. 61. the ancient citadel of Troy. 1. a town on the Hellespont taken by the Persians in the Ionic revolt against Darius. 61. his reconcilement in. vi. . his Alcmeonid parentage. 128. 33 Perrhaebi. Spartan army. Pan in said to be her son. n. in Xerxes' army. 65 Percote. a Delphian priestess. daughter of Chilon of Sparta. 117 Perdiccas. betrothed to Leutychides but carried off by Demaratus. limit of the legendary Mysian and Tcucrian invasion from Asia. officials at Delos. 20. 173. his tyranny and cruelty. vn. n. 58. 131 Perilaus. 10 Penelope. 33 Perioeci. 11 Perpherees (= carriers). v. vn. GO Periander. 145. Xerxes' visit to it. 48-53 of Athens and Mytilene. 131. and revenge upon the Corcyraeans. ix. Xerxes' passage through their country from Macedonia. in. a Thracian fort. 20. their attendance at royal funerals. v. burnt by Phoenicians. vn. 112 Perialla. his supposed Egyptian . 24 .

1. i. an Athenian. I. a Persian officer in Xerxes' army. 65 Pharnuches. 75-85. a Pierian fort in Thrace. 54. : and its punishment. 68 Pharnazathres. inhabited by one of the warrior tribes. 150. Pharnaspes. in. in later books origin of Persians. scene of a battle between the Pisistratids and the Spartans. vn. ix. his desertion from Amasis to Cambyses lon. Persian council. i. armour. campaign against Massagetae. father of Callias. 54. a Persian officer in Xerxes' army. 81. 59. 1-5. Persian and Spartan customs compared. n. v. iv. 201-214. a Halicarnassian. 4. hostilities against lonians. 88 373 . a Persian officer in Xerxes' army. and of Cyrus' wife Cassandane. vi. Persians in Libya. 188-191. 31. iv. vii. to be in the west of the Delta. I. daughter of Otanes. 11 Pharae. 166 Pharnaces. 122 Persidae. vi. vin. see abstracts in Introductions to Vols. . see abstract of Book in. liberation from the Medes. 61. Persian judges. flight of Persian ships thither. 145 Pharandates. 214 Phanes. n. Cyrus' counsel to the Persians. 15 Persians: their stories of Greek wrong-doing. vn. specific reff. Xerxes' route past it. 83-142. Persian tribes. 08. I. 91 Phanagoras. v. i. 110. ix. father of Artabazus. vi. a dcme or district of Corinth. against Egypt. 2. 112 Phalerum. 01. 116. Persian campaign in Scythia. 131-140. 1. conquest of Lydia. customs. 37. vi. iv. his accident at Sardis. 125 Petra. i. her discovery about the pseudoSmerdis. ix. 125. in. vn. a man of Carystus. General history of Persian doings in remaining Books. destroyed by Aeginetans. 58. vn. 79. 1 . a port of Attica. a Persian. vii. a town in Achaea. 97. vi. 66 et al. vn. 76 Pharbaiithite province of Egypt. 59. I. Xerxes' fleet there. in. story of his Greek concubine. 11. 53. 66. in. Specific reff. 8. Persians under Cambyses and Darius. vii. u. 154177. Ill and IV. 123-130. freedom of Persia from taxation. 92 Phaedyme. 63. father of Otanes.INDEX origin and temple at Chemmis. Achaemenid kings of Persia so called. 53. u. capture of Babyi. 91 Persian belief that he was an Assyrian. 200-205. " Perseus' watchtower " alleged . i. 32. ix. a Persian. in. 09 Phaenippus. its geographical situation. v. 121 Phagres. vn. v. vin. 58.

a Cyprian in Xerxes' fleet. v. vi. ancestor of Miltiades. vi. 83 Philaeus. (2) physical beauty. 71. vn. a Dorian town of Asia Minor. 85 Philocyprus. a friend of Solon. (1) king of Macedonia. losses in the latter battle. her revenge and death. Phocaean enterPhilition. captain of the one ship from Sicily or Italy in the Greek fleet. iv. boundary of Europe and Asia. 139. 69. 47 Phegeus. 142. 31. iv. a victor in the Pythian games. man of Croton. 178 Phasis. his victory at Olympia. his foundation of a temple of Demeter near Mycale. son of Butacides. vm. 47 Philistus. son of Argaeus. a 374 . i. 60 Philippus. 103. 67 Pheretime. vi. to Persia. 162. 101 Philaon. son of Aias. v. its part in the Greek settlement at Naucratis. in. a Samian. an island in the Tritonis lake hi Libya. end of the Euxine. wife of Arcesilaus. i. 167. vm. II. distance from the Palus Maeotis. his blindness and cure. 128 Philocyon. iv. ix. vn. .INDEX Phaselis. 205 Pheros. her banishment from Gyrene and appeal to Cyprus. 165. iv. ix. its his vision of Pan. an Ionian seaport in Lydia. son of Sesostris. n. his capture by the Greeks. 85 Phocaea. vm. 123 Phlius. a Spartan distinguished in the battle of Plataea. iv. 11 Philes. the Argonauts there. an Athenian. 202. 45 Phayllus of Croton. 113 Phla. 127 Phigalea. vi. I. a Persian officer in Xerxes' army. ancient name of Pallene. a river in Colchis at the E. 104. 74 Pheneiis. an Athenian messenger to Sparta. a town in Arcadia a seer from it. vn. ix. a Cyprian of Soli. 28. 97 shepherd alleged by the Egyptians to have built the Pyramids. his betrayal of that place to the Persians. iv. 35 Philagrus of Eretria. despot of Argos. n. n. A ix. 26 " water of Styx. a town in Arcadia near the Pherendates. vi." vi. and death with Dorieus in Sicily. 202. at Plataea. a town in Argolis. an ancestor of kings of Tegea. its contingent at Thermopylae. king of Egypt. 37. 178 Phlegra. 105 Phidon. father of Leocedes. ix. 2. Sesostris' army there. Ill Phidippides.

27-30. in Ionian revolt. 105. vn. vn. not important) Phoebus. 143.) Phoenix. flight of Phocaeans to Corsica. cp. vn. 90. defeat of Greek colonists in Sicily. 89. founded by the Minyae. vn. 19. i. 73 . 54. vm. vi. 23. 218. iv. 163. a town in the west of the Peloponnese. 165. their fortification of Thermopylae. vn. name of Cyme in Mysia. Phocian guard on the path Anopaea. v. 197 1 375 . n. i. one of Darius' wives. vi. 224 Phriconian. 31-33. 112. 176. in. circumcision. n. 164. 66 (other reff. Croesus. in. his defeat and deat at the hands of the Assyrians. vn. 44. 57. Phoenicians of Libya. v. n. vin. iv. pursuit of Miltiades. vi. trade between Arabia and Greece. 58. 28. 44. 107. Phocian feud with Thessaly. a stream near Thermopylae. (2) King of Media. 1. 167 (other less important reff. 148 Phrixus. vui. i. y. n. vii. Phocis overrun by Persians. 203. 197. i. 37. 102 Phratagune. vni. Artabazus' flight to Phocis. in the Ionian fleet against Darius. vi. 166. 96. Phoenicians still independent temp. son of Athamas. 96. Phoenicians' blame of lonians at Salamis. 14. 200 Phormus. Phoenician cult of Aphrodite in Cythera. Phocaeans at Naucratis. Phoenicians. 11. 108. reliance of Persia on Phoenician ships. disparaged by Artemisia. 47 . 32. 104. I. vn. attack on Hellespontian towns. abduction of priestesses from Egypt. 25. (1) a Median. vn. his escape from the Persians. I. 34. VH. 33. 42. the legend of his fate at Alus. Phoenician writing in Greece. IX. town captured by Persians. in. 91 . Phoenician bridge over the Hellespont. father of Deioces. their abduction of lo. 111. 178. 165. 6. 176. vn. 100. 5. see Apollo. their original home on the Persian gulf.INDEX prise in the western Mediterranean. son of Deioces. vii. n. an Athenian trierarch. 8 Phocians. 182 Phraortes. work at the Athos canal. iv. and their adventures there. 112. i. ships in Cyprian revolt. in. tribute to Persia. i. i. excellence of their ships. their images. 41. Phoenician mines in Thasos. 49. contin- gent with Leonidas. 149 Phrixae. their temple of Heracles in Thasos. courage of a Phocian contingent in Mardonius' army. vin. I. 217. settlement at Memphis. attack on Gelon there. 46. 17. vi. circumnavigation of Africa. ii.

second retirement and return. vu. 132 Phthius. i. i. an early home of the Dorians. 154. in. Pieres. 61-64. vn. and her escape. Phthiotis. viu. 39. 112. v. vin. 92 Pirus. 56 . vi. vi.) For the Pisistratidae. ix. vn. 155 Phrygia. 98 a town on the Singitic gulf west of Athos. vn. its distance from Athens. 7 Pisistratus. see Hippias and Hipparchus. . a town in Elis. 65. on the Strymon. 93. v. i. 60. 195 Pigres. son of Achaeus. 56. 52 exiled Paeonians settled there. his seizure of power. I. 60 Phylacus. v. iv. 98 Xerxes' route through Phrygia. a spring at Corinth. v. frontier of Thessaly. vn. (2) A Samian trierarch on the Persian side at Salamis. 98 Phya. the plot against her life. Phrygians in Xerxes' army. 63-65. his play Capture of Miletus" suppressed.. 90. a Theban. earliest home of the Dorians. an Athenian woman caused by Pisistratus to impersonate Athene. i. 145 Pisa. antiquity of the Phrygians proved by Psammetichus. 131. n. also v. 122 Pilorus. 21 in northern Greece. 38 Pindus. Pindar. in. 129 one of the ports of Athens. his supposed aid against the Persians. (Elsewhere as a patronymic. on Xerxes' route. quoted ("Custom is the lord of all"). vn. a legendary personage. in Mardonius' army. i.v. I. 185 Pieria. 376 . (2) A Carian officer in Xerxes' fleet. the Athenian tragedian. and use of his power. 2. 26. 30. in Xerxes' army.INDEX Phronime. 85 Pirene. 32 Phrynon. Royal road through Phrygia. vn. ix. the poet. a district of Macedonia. . (2) A mountain range on the W. vn. its submission to Xerxes. vu. 6. iv. at the eastern end of Piraeus. vn. vni. a Thracian tribe. q. 59. " " their tribute to Persia. 35. 85 a district of Thrace. 73. pitch from thence. n. their European origin. (1) brother of Mantyes. 16 " Phryrichus. ii. (1) the son of Nestor of Pylus. (2) Despot of Athens. (1) a Delphian hero. 12. (1) a Thessalian town. v. Xerxes' line at the battle of Salamis. expulsion and return. vin. i. a river in Achaea. 113 Phyllis. 177. mines in their country. daughter of Etearchus of Crete.

57 Plataeae (or Plataea). vi. vn. iv. 55. Pausanias' ward and son of Leonidas. one of the Seven Sages. a Libyan harbour (modern Gulf of Sollum). ix. his friendship with Amasis. v. iv. 168 Poeciles. rendezvous for Greek ships before Salamis. passim in ix. near the west of Egypt." vii. at Mara" thon. 170 Polyas of Anticyra. vm. 377 . their attempt to induce Athens to surrender. 42 Poliades. 66. 46 Pittacus of Mytilene. Ill. Plataeans. in connection with military operations there (16-88). 132. sacrifice of a Persian to him. despot of Selinus. their first alliance with Athens. 119 Plinthinete bay. in Chios. 108. 21 Polybus. . (1) an Aeolian town in Mysia. refusal to medize. the port of Troezen. a stronghold of Histiaeus. iv. (2) A Spartan " Pitanate battalion" in the Lacedaetownship. vm. a people of Crete. 147 Pogon. vm. i. his successes and alarming good luck. 7. 44 their envoys to fleet. 10 Pleistorus. i. 113. 26 Polichnitae. 118 Placia. a Phoenician. his war with Lacedaemon.INDEX their expulsion from Athens. 28. Polycrates. ix. 67 . vm. 53 Polichne. 40. king of Sparta. 53 (see Amompharetus) Pithagoras. vn. in. his advice to Croesus. 52 Pistyrus. 169 Pleistarchus. 109 Pitana. son of Aeaces. ix. near (the later) Alexandria. a god of the Thracian Apsinthians. 39-43. burnt by the Persians. 39. his advice to the Carians on choice of a battlefield. 44-46. i. a town in Thrace. father of Amompharetus. in. on the coast of Egypt. vi. vii. occupied by the Platea. ix. ix. (later) Theban attack on their town. at Xerxes' court. vm. 50. ix. vm. 156. 54-56. in the Greek but not at Salamis. an ancient king of Sicyon. despot of Samos. 149. ancestor of the inhabitants of Thera. 6. 27 Pixodarus of Cindya. 182. a messenger between the Greeks at Artemisium and Leonidas. in. earliest colonists of Cyrene. 1 Sparta. in Pausanias' army. a Spartan. vn. on Xerxes' route. 31 an island (modern Bomba) off Libya. vm. deposed. 6 Plynus. ii. 233. a monian army at Plataea. v. a town of Pelasgian origin on the Hellespont. m. v. n. vi. 151-153.

besieged by Artabazus but not taken. 150. 128. son of Aspathines. in Libya. 97 Prexilaus. n. ix. 188. a town in Pallene. in Scythia (as Thagimasadas). (2) A king of Sparta. 115 Potidaea. 129. 31 Praesii. (2) A Persian officer in Xerxes' army. 148. i. 107 Prexinus. 3 . 120125 (2) Grandson of the above. a king of Sparta. by Prinetades. ix. 75. Porata (or Pyretus). 180 Priam of Troy. taken by Lydians. unknown to the Egyptians. Procles. his cult at Mycale. i. I. 15. his citadel. 74. ships in the Ionian fleet. 123. son of Oedipus of Thebes. 170 Prasiad lake. 16 Prexaspes. Cleomenes' father-in-law. iv. 147. via. in Greece. 28. 11. 50. description v. in. iv. a tributary of the Danube. (1) an Aeginetan. in. 34.INDEX induced to leave Samos. (1) a town on the borders of Syria and Cilicia. 71 Posidei'um. its 373 . 120 . ix. vi. vii. in. his confession and suicide. in. v. . (1) Ionian town in Caria. information given by a man of that place to exiled Phocaeans. 131 Polydorus. (2) A town in Thrace. 48 Poseidon. probability of his giving up Helen. 43. vii. 180. in Italy). 129. 59. ix. iv. vii. 8 a Spartan. father of the first Battus. 52. vii. 129 Potidaeans in Pausanias' army. 59 Poseidonia (Paestum. 92 wife of Thon of Egypt. vi. 41 one of the twin brothers whence the dual kingship 161 . n. vi. iv. vii. i. vin. captain of a Troezenian ship captured by the Persians. vni. 91. a man of Halicarnassus. a Spartan distinguished at Plataea. vii. 55. vii. iv. v. ix. 62-65 . an i. 50. her gifts to Helen mentioned Polydamna. see Euxine. vii. 192. 167 Poseidonius. 155 Polynices. vn. of lake -dwellings there. (1) son of Cadmus. and murdered by Oroetes. I. Persians. his taunt to Themistocles at Salamis. 116 Polydectes. 204 Polyrnnestus of Thera. the channel of the Peneus his work. a Cretan people. probably the Pruth. 43 Priene. 30. 123. 142. 27 Pontus. (1) a Persian. in Paeonia. employed by him to murder Smerdis. Cambyses' agent. viu. in the Odyssey. Polycritus. 81.

oracle there consulted by Mardonius. n. 15 Psammetichus. a Spartan king. i. 76 Ptoiim. II. vm. representatives of the Amphictyonio" league . 131. his temple at Elaeus desecrated by Artayctes. banishment and restoration. vn. iv. 379 -- . his life spared. 10. 95 in Cappadocia (probably modern Boghaz Keui). 50-52 a town on the Propontis. 110. 135 Pylae. son of Amasis. 152. a priestess at Dodona. vm. 122 an island in the Delta. iv. 41 . its measurements. 154 of Egypt. 14. 92. vi. Persians posted there to intercept the Greeks in the battle of Salamis. iv. 39 Propontis. 33. 131 Psammenitus. 105. taken P|eria. i. inhabited by one of the warrior tribes. II. vn. king of Egypt. vm. Persian operations near it. 153. n. son of Necos. 120 Proteus of Memphis. n. 147. n.INDEX at Sparta began. 151. title of Athene at Delphi. 33 Promenea. 112. byses. his prevention of a Scythian invasion. their destruction Olympic iv. father-in-law of Periander of Corinth. vm. 1GO a Libyan 173 by a sand-storm. (2) Despot of Epidaurus. there. his defeat by CamProsopitis. II. 201 Pylaea. his frontier guards. the legendary fire-stealer. 213) of the " Pylagori (&. the first Greek to fall in the Trojan war. a temple of Apollo (hence Apollo Ptous). vui. king Psylli. 11. II. and concessions to Greeks Psammis.). 165 Protesilaus. p&ce of meeting (vn. son of Necos. games. in. king of Egypt. his behaviour in Cambyses' presence. vm. 103 Prytanis. buildings at Memphis. 30. burnt by PhoeProconnesus. 115 Protothyes. u. nicians. vi. Herodotus' informant about the connection between Dodona and Egypt. IX. v. near Thebes in Boeotia. 45 Pronaea. in. an islet between Salamis and Attica. 14. in. 52. by Croesus. his inquiry into the antiquity of nations. i. his reception of Paris and Helen. synonym for Thermopylae. 76 their fate. 55 Prometheus. the continent of Asia called after his wife. 2. his opinion of the tribe. IV. 11. n. into the depth of the Nile source. Psyttalea. i. a king of Scythia. in. 28. king of Egypt. 85.

father of Lampon. ii. vni. Rhegium. 95. Pylians. 213 Pylus (1) in Messenia. 137 Pythian priestess. their action in regard to Epialtes. Pyrgus. Pythians. iv. according to Herodotus a town of the Celts in western Europe. vn. 168. source of the Danube said to be there. vi. (1) an Aeginetan. a mountain range in Thrace. his bravery. ix. (2) A Milesian. an island near Delos. vii. his return to Aegina. descendants of Nestor of Pylus. v. I. a Samian. Greece. his imprisonment by Hippocrates. flight thither of a Bisaltian king. 78 Pythermus. i. vi. 27-29 his request to Xerxes and its consequence. 116 Rhodopis. IV. vn. 34. vi. 97 Rhodes. a man of Abdera. son of Mnesarchus. G5. 178. iv. vn. and attention paid him by the Persians. king of Egypt. n.E. his offer of his wealth to Xerxes. its part in the Greek settlement at Naucratis. 38. see Delphi. 60 380 . put in charge of Miletus by Aristagoras. ( 1 ) the philosopher. 81 . its disaster in battle. 166. Zalmoxis his slave. a Thracian courtesan in Egypt. 170 Rhenaea. 39 Pytho. (2) An Aeginetan (apparently not the same as 1). 23 . a Lydian. I. v. see Porata. a town in western Greece founded by the Minyae. story of the theft of his treasure. vii. 121 in southern Italy. brother of the despot of Zancle. 57 Pythius. spokesman at Sparta for Ionian and Aeolian envoys. a Phocaean. source of a tributary of the Danube. 126 Pytheas. n. 23. Rhodian colonists in Sicily. ix. vn. n. vii. in.INDEX of twelve states in N. a synonym for Delphi. 49. her offerings at Delphi. Spartan officials for communication with Delphi. 148 Pythagoras. Pisistratus of that family. 181 . vn. 135 Rhoecus. 134. son of Ischenoiis. their privileges. Rhampsinitus. Caucones called Pylians. 152 Pythes. builder of the Heraeum at Samos. Pythagorean and Orphic belief. 174. i. (2) In Elis. 153 Rhodope. vni. 54 Pythogenes. 92. 147 Pyrene. vi. 33 Pyretus. n. I.

re j ^ 121 Athenians Salamis after cruising in the Aegean. 94. in Xerxes' army. battle in the Cyprian revolt. 184. vii. 152 Sabacos. a town in Achaea. 108. 130. 95. 141 . king of Ethiopia. Cambyses' treatment of Amasis' 16. n. 104. ix. in Thrace. n. 5 immortality. vn. vi. and the battle itself) . Delphian oracle respecting it. 43 Rhypes. in. 85 there. 59. I. 60. the temple scribe A P n ? s P alace II. (1) island off Attica. 70. 139. fr orn . in. its S ub iv. at designs against them. their return to Att *? 19 f } town in Cyprus. Salmydessus. 11. Saite province. his possible connection with Pythagoras. 93 n commemoration Samius. 152. n for a rebellion their cavalry there. iv.. 93. a Samothracian fort near Doriscus. vn. 182.INDEX Rhoeteum. son of Archias. on the Euxine. n. Cyprian colonist? ree c n eefc there ! 90. Polycrates' despotism 01 Kere there ' in the settlement at Nauin S amos ' IIL 39 40 ' . 165. 11( v. Samians' alleged the an Ionian settlement. ' Sadyattes. ica 2) still at Salamis. 4-6. so caUed i . vn. 145 n 137.1 m - ^ m . 11. I. Masistes' desig of the Sacae.E. ? Xerxes' fleet. 96 mission to -Darius." n. tur of Gl e of debates there. v. in these chapters to palamis. 17 l rom thence. 178. 40-97 (many reff. Amasis' additi boa y at bais n. Salamis. v: ^" of the king of Salamis. a Spartan. with Mardonius at J?jtaea. 93. a town in the Troad. his rule of Egypt. vn. I. worship of "Athene. in. 31. inhabited by n to the temple. tribute to t in Xerxes' army. vii. 153. Sagartii. vii. a man of Gela. > 5 ' - 5 1 m . a Persian tribe. ix. tribute to F 4 as marines in Marathon. 113 - > - > . ix. of his father's honours won in Samos. v. a tribe in the N. 55 ft Samos. his killing of Cleandf j^ re V H. ix. n. II. 175. flight of Pheretime thither? IV Ib2 Salamis near it. us vn 4 Sabyllus. the warrior tribes. 142. 28. respect vni. 115 " Sale. ] z. 71. Samian share cratis. 6? one of there. 125. his war with Miletuip' ne empire. Sa'itic mouth of the Nile. i. . cp Sals. a town in the Delta. 148. restoration desertion of Salaminians to the Persians. Spartans. vn. tern^ 6 i. of the Persian emp^ crBla in. king of Lydia. 9 Cyrus Sacae. island and town. 163. a teacher of belie* deified by the Getae. Salmoxis (or Zalmoxis). 113. iv.

Lacedaemonian attack on Samos, in. 44-46, 54-59; Samian aqueduct, in. 60; fate of Polycrates, in. 120-123; conquest of Samos by Persians, in. 142-149; Salmoxis at Samos, iv. 95; flight of Arcesilaus thither, rv. 162; Samian bravery against the Persians in the Cyprian revolt, v. 112; desertion to the Persians of all except eleven of the sixty Samian ships in the Ionian revolt, vi. 8, 14; Samian colonists in Sicily, VI. 22-25; distinction at Salamis of Samians in the Persian fleet, vin. 85 ; vague Greek ideas about the distance of Samos, vni. 132; Samian envoys to Greeks before Mycale, ix. 9092; disloyalty of Samians to Persia, ix. 99-103; reception into the Greek confederacy, ix. 106 (other reff. less important) Samothrace, an island south of Thrace, vi. 47; its Pelasgian inhabitants, II. 51 ; exploit of a Samothracian ship at Salamis, vin. 90; Samothracian forts on the mainland, vn. 59, 108 Sanacharibus, king of Assyria, his invasion of Egypt and the
destruction of his army, n. 141 Sandanis, a Lydian, his advice to Croesus not to make war on Persia, I. 71 Sandoces, a Persian, his punishment and release by Darius, and subsequent capture by the Greeks, vn. 194 Sane, a town on the isthmus of the peninsula of Athos, vn. 22, 123 Sapaei, a Thracian tribe, on Xerxes' route, vn. 110 Sappho, the poetess, her satire on her brother Charaxus, n. 135 Sarangae, a people of northern Persia, their tribute, in. 93; in Xerxes' army, vn. 67 Sardanapallus, king of Ninus, the theft of his treasures, II. 150
Sardis, Croesus' capital of Lydia, its kings, i. 7; Cimmerians, I. 15; Lacedaemonian envoys


capture by i. 69;

80; taken, 84; Cyrus at besieged by Cyrus, 141; town attacked by Lydian rebels, i. 154; road Cadytis nearly as large as Sardis, in. 5; Oroetes at Sardis, in. 126-128; Asiad tribe there, rv. 45 ; Darius there, V. 1 1 ; seat of Persian governor, v. 31, 73, 96, vi. 1; distance from Sardis to Susa, v. 53; Sardis attacked and burnt by lonians and Athenians, v. 99disaffection of Persians at Sardis, 102 ; Histiaeus there, vi. 1 vi. 4 ; Alcmeon there, vi. 125 ; Xerxes and his army at Sardis, vn. 32, 37 ; portent seen there, vii. 57 ; Pharnuches' misfortune there, vn. 88; Xerxes' return thither, vm. 117, ix. 3; Persians' flight to Sardis after Mycale, ix. 107; Xerxes' amours there, ix. 108 (other reff. not important)





from Sardis to Smyrna, n. 106




Sardo (Sardinia), designs of the lonians to migrate thither, 170, v. 124; Histiaeus' promise to conquer it for Xerxes,


106; Sardinians among the invaders of Sicily, against Gelon, vii. 165 Sarpedon, Minos' brother, his banishment by Minos and his rule in Lycia, i. 173 Sarpedonia, a headland in Thrace, vii. 58 Sarte, a town on the Siugitic gulf W. of Athos, vii. 122 Saspires, a people between Colchis and Media, i. 104, 110, IV. 37, 40; their tribute to Persia, in. 94; in Xerxes' army, vn. 79 Sataspes, a Persian, his attempt to circumnavigate Africa, iv. 43
Satrae, a Thracian tribe, their mines

and places

of divination,

110-112 Sattagydae, a people in the Persian empire, perhaps in Afghanistan, their tribute, in. 91 Saulius, a Scythian king, Anacharsis killed by him, iv. 76 Saurornatae, a people immediately E. of the Palus Maeotis, IV. 21, 57; their conflict and reconciliation with the Amazons, rv. 110-117; their part in the campaign against Darius, iv.
122, 128, 136

Scaeus, a Theban, his dedication of a tripod, v. 60 Scamander, a river in the Troad, v. 65 on Xerxes' route, vn. 43 Scamandronymus, a Mytilenaean, n. 135

Scapte Hyle, in Thrace opposite Thasos, gold-mines there, vi. 46 Sciathus, an island off Magnesia, naval operations there, vii.
176, 179, 182, vin. 7 Scidrus, a town on the W. coast of Italy, a place of refuge for the exiled Sybarites, vi. 21 Bcione, a town on the promontory of Pallene, vn. 123; in the local confederacy, vin. 128 Sciras, a title of Athene in Salamis, her temple there, vin. 94 Scironid road, along the isthmus of Corinth, destroyed by the Greeks, vin. 71 Sciton, servant of the physician Democedes, in. 130
Scolopoi's, a place near Mycale, ix. 97 Scoloti, ancient name of Scythians, iv. Scolus, near Thebes in Boeotia, ix. 15


Scopadae, a Thessalian family, vi. 127 Scopasis, a leader in the Scythian army against Darius, 128 Scylace, a town on the Hellespont, its Pelasgian origin,

IV. 120,




Scylax, (1) a man of Caryanda, his navigation of the Indus and the eastern seas, iv. 44. (2) A man of Myndus, his maltreatment by Megabates, v. 33
Scyles, a king of Scythia, his adoption of

Greek customs and



fate, iv.


Scyllias of Scione, his exploits as a diver, vni. 8 Scyros, an island in the Aegean E. of Euboea, vn, 183 Scythes, (1) son of Heracles and reputed ancestor of all Scythian (2) Despot of Zancle, his imprisonment by kings, iv. 10. Hippocrates, vi. 23, 24, vu. 163 Scythians, their expulsion of Cimmerians, i. 15; quarrel with Cyaxares, I. 73; invasion of Media and conquest of "Asia," I. 103-106; Scythians subdued by Sesostris, n. 103, 110; contempt of peaceful occupations in Scythia, n. 167; alliance against Persia proposed to Sparta by Scythians, vi. 84; Scythians called Sacae by Persians, vn. 64. Book iv. 1-142 (relating almost wholly to Scythia and adjacent regions) : iv. 14, Scythians' invasion of Media and troubles after their return; 5-10, early Scythian legends; 11-12, their expulsion of Cimmerians; 16-31, 46, 47, general description of Scythia and inhabitants (nomad, farming, and " royal " Scythian), and regions adjacent 48-58, rivers of Scythia 5975, manners and customs; 76-80, Scythian dislike of foreign manners; 81, size of population; 99-109, geography of Scythia and description of adjacent tribes; 118-142, Scythian warfare against Darius. Sebennyte province of Egypt, in the Delta, inhabited by one of the warrior tribes, n. 166; Sebennytic or central mouth of the Nile, n. 17, 155 Selinus, a town in Sicily, its occupation by one of Dorieus'
; ;

followers, v. 46 Selymbria, a Greek town neur the Hellespont, vi. 33 Semele, daughter of Cadmus and mother of Dionysus, n. 145 Semiramis, queen of Babylon, her embankment of the Euphrates, I. 184; gate of Babylon called after her, in. 155 Sepea, near Tiryns in Argolis, scene of a battle between Lacedaemonians and Argives, vi. 77 Sepias promontory, in Magnesia, Xerxes' fleet there, vn. 183; wreck of many of his ships, vn. 188-190 Serbonian marsh, on the eastern frontier of Egypt, n. 6, in. 5 Seriphus, one of the Cyclades islands, Seriphians in the Greek fleet, vin. 46, 48


Sermyle, a town on the Sithonian promontory in Chalcidice, vii. 122 Serrkeum, a promontory in Thrace near Doriscus, vii. 59 Sesostris, king of Egypt, his conquests, n. 102104; his monuments, ii. 106; his life attempted by his brother, n. 107; canals made by him, u. 137 Sestus, in the Thracian Chersonese, on the Hellespont, Darius' Xerxes' bridge near it, vii. 33 crossing there, IV. 143 siege and capture of Sestus by the Greeks, ix. 114-116, 119 Sethos, king of Egypt, his deliverance from Sanacharibus' army,


n. 141 Sicania, old


of Sicily, vn. 170

Sicas, a Lycian, vii.


Sicily, Arion's design to visit it, I. 24; Dorieus in Sicily, v. 4348; retirement thither of Dionysius of Phocaea, vi. 17; Samian exiles there, vi. 22-24; growth of Gelon's power, VII. 153-156; Carthaginian attack on Sicily defeated by Gelon,


Sicinnus, Themistocles' servant, his mission to the Persians before the battle of Salamis, vni. 75 ; to Xerxes after Salamis, VHI. 110 Sicyon, W. of Corinth, i. 145; Cleisthenes' despotism there, V. 67, 68 ; quarrel between Sicyon and Argos, vi. 92 ; Sicyonians in the Greek fleet, vni. 1, 43; in the force at the Isthmus, vni. 72; in Pausanias' army, ix. 28; their losses at Mycale,
ix. 103 Sidon, Paris and Helen there, n. 116; Sidon attacked by Apries, n. 161; Democedes' voyage from Sidon, in. 136; speed of Sidonian ships, vn. 44; in Xerxes' fleet, vn. 96, 99; Xerxes' Sidonian ship, vn. 100, 128; place of honour of Sidonian king in Xerxes' council, vni. 67 Sigeuni, a town in the Troad, iv. 38; taken by Pisistratus, v. 94; retreat of the Pisistratidae thither, v. 65, 91, 94 Sigynnae, a people north of the Danube, v. 9; other meanings of the word, ib. " Silenus, a wood-deity, his alleged capture in the garden of Midas" in Macedonia, vni. 138; Marsyas called Silenus,
vii. 26 Simonides of Ceos, the poet, his praise of Evalcides, v. 102 his epitaphs for those fallen at Thermopylae, vn. 228 Sindi, a people to the east of the Cimmerian Bosporus, iv. 28; at the broadest part of the Euxine, iv. 86




Sindus, a town on the Thermaic gulf, on Xerxes' route, vii. 123 Singus, a town on the Singitic gulf west of Athos, vn. 122 Sinope, Greek town in Paphlagonia, on the S. coast of the Etixine, I. 76 ; distance from the Cilician coast, II. 34 ; on the site of

a Cimmerian settlement, iv. 12 Siphnus, one of the Cyclades, its prosperity, in. 57; Samian raid upon it, ib.; Siphnian ships in the Greek fleet, vm.
46, 48 Siriopaeones, a Paeonian tribe, carried off to Asia by the Persians, v. 15 Siris, (1) a town in Paeonia, disabled Persians left there by town in Italy, between Sybaris and Xerxes, vm. 115. (2) Tarentum, threat of Athenians to emigrate thither, vm. 62


a Persian officer in Xerxes' army, vn. 68, 79 Siromus, (1) a man of Salarnis in Cyprus, v. 104. (2) A Tyrian, vii. 98 Sisamnes, (1) a Persian judge flayed by Cambyses for injustice, v. 25. (2) A Persian officer in Xerxes' army, vn. 66 Sisimaces, a Persian general in the Ionic revolt, his death in

battle, v. 121 Sitalces, king of Thrace, his bargain with the Scythians, iv. his betrayal of Spartan envoys, vii. 137



Sithonia, the central peninsula of Chalcidice, vn. 122 Siuph, in Egypt, the native town of Arnasis, n. 172

Smerdis, (1) son of Cyrus, Cambyses' dream about him, in. 30; his murder, ib.; his daughter married to Darius, in. 88. (All other mentions in Book in refer to Smerdis' murder and his (2) A Magian, his imimpersonation by his namesake.) personation of Cyrus' son Smerdis and usurpation, in. 61 ; discovery of popularity of his government of Persia, in. 67 the truth, in. 69; his death at the hands of the seven conin. 78, 79 spirators, Smerdomenes, a Persian, son of Otanes, one of the generals of Xerxes' army, vn. 82, 121 Smila, a town on the Thermaic gulf, vn. 123 Smindyrides of Sybaris, a suitor for Cleisthenes' daughter, vi. 127 Smyrna, in Lydia, attacked by Gyges, I. 14; taken by Alyattes, I. 16; its transference from Aeolians to lonians, i. 149, 150, road from Sarclis to Smyrna, 11. 106 Socles, a Corinthian envoy, his story of Corinthian despotism, v. 92


Sogdi, a people in the Persian empire, E. of the Oxus, their

tribute, in. 93; in Xerxes' army, vn. 66 a town in Cyprus, its part in the Cyprian revolt, v. 110; siege and capture by the Persians, v. 115 Solols, a promontory at the western extremity of Libya (perhaps


Spartel), n. 32, iv. 43

Solon, his Athenian legislation, I. 29, n. 177; his visit to Croesus, his praise of a Cyprian ruler, v. 113 I. 29-33; Solymi, inhabitants of what was later Lycia, i. 173

Sophanes, an Athenian, his exploits in Aegina, vi. 92, ix. 75; at Plataea, ix. 74 Sosimenes, a man of Tenos, vin. 82 Sostratus, an Aeginetan, his commercial success, iv. 152 Spaco, Cyrus' Median foster-mother, i. 110 Spargapises, son of Tomyris queen of the Massagetae, his capture by Cyrus and his suicide, i. 211-213 Spargapithes, (1) king of the Agathyrsi, his murder of a Scythian (2) A king of Scythia, iv. 76 king, iv. 78.
Sparta, see Lacedaemon Spercheus, a river in Malis, near Thermopylae, vn. 198, 228 Sperthias, one of the two Spartans who volunteered to surrender themselves to Xerxes as atonement for the killing of Persian
heralds, vn. 134 Sphendalae, a deme in northern Attica, on Mardonius' route into Boeotia, ix. 15 Stagirus, a Greek town in Chalcidice, on Xerxes' route, VII. 115 Stentorid lake, in Thrace, on Xerxes' route, vn. 58 Stenyclerus, in Messenia, scene of a battle between Spartans and Messenians, ix. 64

Stesagoras, (1) grandfather of Miltiades the younger, vi. 34, 103. (2) Grandson of (1), vi. 103; his murder, vi. 38 Stesenor, despot of Curium in Cyprus, his desertion to the Persians in the Cyprian revolt, v. 113 Stesilaus, an Athenian general killed at Marathon, vi. 114 Stratopeda (Camps), places on the Nile allotted by Psammetichus to lonians and Carians, n. 154 Strattis, despot of Chios, with Darius' Scythian expedition, rv. 138; Ionian plot against him, vin. 132 Struchates, a Median tribe, i. 101

Stryme, a Thasian town in Thrace, vn. 108 Strymon, a river in Paeonia, Pisistratus' revenues thence, i. 64 Paeonians from the Strymon, v. 98; Xerxes' bridge over it,



vu. 24; Bithynians of Asia originally Stryrnonians, vii. 75; Persian defence of Eion on the Strymon, vu. 107; sacrifice offered to the river by the Magi, vu. 113; Strymonian or north wind, Xerxes' danger from it, vin. 118 (a few other

unimportant reff.) Stymphalian lake, alleged subterranean channel from



Argos, vi. 76 Styreans, from Styra in S.W. Euboea, vi. 107; in the Greek fleet, vin. 1, 46; in Pausanias' army, ix. 28, 31 Styx, the water of, a mountain stream in Arcadia, supposed to communicate with the world of the dead ; oath there administered by Cleomenes, vi. 74 Sunium, the southern promontory of Attica, iv. 99; Athenian festival there, vi. 87; settlement of banished Aeginetans on Sunium, vi. 90 ; rounding of Sunium by Datis after Marathon, VI. 115; Greek trophy set up there, vin. 121 Susa, the capital of the Persian kings, on the Choaspes, i. 188, v. 49; Smerdis murdered there, in. 30; revolt against the Histiaeus at Susa, v. 30; end of Magi there, in. 70 seqq. the Royal road, v. 52; called the Memnonian, v. 54, vn. 151; Milesian captives brought thither, vi. 20 Demaratus and the Pisistratidae at Susa, vii. 3, 6; Spartans there, vn. 136; reception there of Xerxes' despatches from Greece, vin. 99; Xerxes' amours at Susa, ix. 108 (other unimportant reff. to Susa as the royal residence) Syagrus, Spartan envoy to Sicily, vn. 153; his reply to Gelon, vii. 159 Sybaris, in southern Italy, attacked by Dorieus, v. 44; its its former prosperity, vi. capture by the Crotoniats, vi. 21 127 to be near the source of the Nile, opposite Syene (Assuan), alleged Elephantine, n. 28
; ; ;

Syennesis, (1) king of Cilicia, his reconciliation of Medians and Cilician officer Lydians, I. 74; his daughter, v. 118. (2)


in Xerxes'

army, vn. 98

Sylean plain in Thrace, near Stagirus, on Xerxes' route, vn. 115 Syloson, banished by his brother Polycrates from Samos, in. 39; his gift to Darius and its reward, in. 139-141 his restoration to the government of Samos, in. 144-149. (Elsewhere & patronymic.) Syme, an island near Rhodes, I. 174


Syracuse, its despots comparable for splendour to Polycrates, in. 125; its seizure by Gelon, and growth under his rule, vii. 154-150; Greek envoys there, vn. 157; Amilcas of Carthage partly a Syracusan, vn. 166
Syrgis, see Hyrgis Syria, its geography, n. 12, 116; many rivers there, n. 20; Syrian desert, in. 6; see also Palestine; Syrians' defeat by Egyptians, n. 159; their tribute to Persia, in. 91; Syrians of Cappadocia, i. 6; Cappadocians called Syrians by Greeks, invaded by Croesus, I. 76 ; their tribute to Persia, I. 72, v. 49 ; in. 90; in Xerxes' army, vii. 72 Syrtis, the bay of the Libyan coast W. of Cyrene, alleged canal between it and Lake of Moeris, n. 150; silphium produced near it, iv. 169; inhabitants of its coast, n. 32, iv. 173

made governor of Sardis by Cyrus, I. 153; rising of Lydians against him, i. 154 Tabiti, a Scythian deity identified with the Greek Hestia, iv. 59 Tachompso, an alleged island in the Nile between Elephantine and Meroe, n. 29 Taenarum, southern promontory of Laconia, Arion's arrival there on a dolphin, i. 24 Corcyraean ships' delay there, vii. 168 Talaiis, an Argive, father of Adrastus, v. 67 Talthybius, the Greek herald in the Iliad, his supposed vengeance of the death of heralds, vii. 134, 137 Tamynae, a town in Euboea, its occupation by Datis, vi. 101 Tanagra, a town in Boeotia, its lands occupied by Cadmus, followers, v. 57; Mardonius there, ix. 15; scene of a battle (later) between the Spartans and the Athenians and Argives, near the river Thermodon, ix. 43 ix. 35 Tana'is, a Scythian river (the Don), between Scythians and its source and mouth, iv. 57, 100; crossed Saurornatae, iv. 21 by Amazons and Sauromatae, iv. 116 Tanite province of Egypt, inhabited by one of the warrior tribes,



n. 166
i. 24; Tarentines' to Democedes, in. 136; their refusal to admit a banished man, in. 138, iv. 99; Tarentines' losses in a battle with their neighbours, vii. 170 Targitaus, by legend the earliest Scythian, son of Zeus and Borysthenes, iv. 5; a thousand years before Darius' invasion,

Taras (Tarentum), Arion's departure thence,

iv. 7






ix. i. 152 Tartessian weasels. his device for a Phocian night attack on Thessalians. 66-68. 137 390 . iv. iv. 35. 84 Telos. probably in Lycia. of Laconia. v. 145. ix. ix. Amphitryon's defeat of them. its water praised by Darius. iv. vi. I. despot of Sybaris. 153 Telliadae. Tegean valour at Plataea. 202. its occupation by the Minyae. 192 Tauchira. 30 Telmessians. vn. near the Canopic mouth of the Nile. .INDEX Taricheae (salting-places). vui. his opposition to Maeandrius. 70 Tei'spes. 3) Telamon. iv. 79. vn. the mountain range E. 56. 59 Telecles. v. i. 37 Tellias of Elis (perhaps of the above family). Appendix iv. Samians' voyage thither. in the Tauric Chersonese W. 64 Teleboae. . a leader in the Scythian armies against Darius. a Thracian river. Solon's judgment of his happiness. n. ancestor of the Temenid family of Macedonian kings. a Samian. 146 Tearus. ix. 60. vni. Tegeans' claim to the post of honour in Pausanias' army. vn. 102-119 Taxacis. a Persian. 41 Teleclus. 153 Telys. I. a town in Libya near Barca. iv. 72. a Scythian people. 143 Telines. 116 Telesarchus of Samos. Phidippides' vision near Tegea. 26-28 (later) victory of Spartans over Tegea and Argos. an Acamanian people. Leutychides' death there. one of them with Mardonius. his aid invoked by the Greeks. son of Nestor. 62. home of Telines. 204 Telemachus. 105. friendship of Phocaeans with its king. vni. 171 Tauri. their country described. iv. of the Palus Maeotis. an Athenian. iv. 43. 89-90 Teaspis. 11 (see How and Wells. at the mouth of the Baetis (Guadalquivir). iv. Paris' landing there. a town in Arcadia. 76 Tegea. 113 Tartessus. their prophetic answers. varying event of its wars with Sparta. n. vi. vn. their part in the campaign against Darius. a Spartan king. 103. two of this name in the list of Xerxes' forefathers. 27 Tellus. one of the legendary heroes of Salamis. an island near Rhodes. 44 Temenus. IV. in. a family or clan of diviners in Elis. in. 78. Menelaus' narrative to him. 120 Taygetus. 99-101 . vn. Tegeans at Thermopylae. vn. his priesthood at Gela in Sicily. ix. 61.

vi. an Aeolian town there. father of Sandoces. 75 Teuthrania. 149 Tempe. vi. silting up of a river bed there.INDEX Temnus. vii. vm. 74 his diversion of the course of the Halys. his warning to the Aeginetans. 13. his prediction of an eclipse. viu. 80. i. 118. 8 Teres. I. and Gergithes. an alternative name for the Lycians. I. 33 . iv. v. a stage on the Hyperboreans' route . 173 Tethronium. a people probably in N. the valley of the Peneus in Thessaly. an Ionian town in Lydia. (2) A Phoenician. vn. despot of Himera. Thamanaei. 15 Thasos. 165 " Termera. a Scythian deity identified with Poseidon. 44 Thasians' revenues from mines. 391 . a Phocian town. his advice as to a meeting. an island off the Troad. 151 Tenedos taken by Persians in the Ionian revolt. vn. Phoenician temple of Heracles there. . 59 Thales of Miletus. i. a Sidonian officer in Xerxes' army. 75. v. n. 117. i. vi. i. v. in. iv. a Persian. 85 . a Spartan. 20. 46 their expenditure on feeding Xerxes' army. vi. vn. their Thamasius. vn. 170 in. 33 Tetramnestus. 11. 31 Tenos. 47 Theasides. its despot captured by the Ionian rebels. on the coast near Halicarnassus. 10 Thagimasadas (or Thamimasadas). Persia. 142 . descended from them. 44 on Mardonius' route to Euboea. his confederacy against Gelon. Paeonians. to Delos. a Libyan. their denial of the possession of Helen. i. 82 Teos. an Aeolian town in Asia Minor. its share in the Greek settlement at Naucratis. 11. Teos proposed as a meeting-place for lonians. 98 Teucrians (Trojans). burnt by the Persians. between Olympus and Os?a. said to have given the island its name. 137 Terillus.E. restored by the Persians to the government which his father Inaros had lost by rebellion. n. 93 i. Teian ships in the Ionian fleet. 194 Thannyras. in. desertion of a Tenian ship to the Greeks at Salamis. vn. one of the Cyclades. 97 . 122. 173 Tenedos. father of Sitalces. vi. Teucrian invasion of Europe before the Trojan war. king of Thrace. flight of Delians thither. iv. vii. . vi. 168. tribute. 178. flight of Tei'ans to Thrace. 118. vi. place for lonians. (1) off Thrace. 37 rrSswnilae. at the mouth of the Caicus in Mysia. I. 170.

with Athens. 59. on the S. vni. . a Theraean trader. 143. 52. . vi. 143 single instance of rain at Thebes. Herodotus' inquiries at Thebes. 56-63. i. . n. n. vm. 15. (1) in Upper Egypt (modern Luxor). 205. vii. 50 Themiscyra. ix. Thebes once called Egypt. a Samian artist. breadth of the sea measured thence. an Athenian. between the temple at Thebes and Dodona. in. . a custom of the temple there. proposed retreat of Persians to Thebes. I. 108-112. v. 143 144. (2) . vm. Mardonius in Theban territory. Theban feud i. 19. vm. secret message to Persians. 154 Themistocles. A plain in Mysia. sacred snakes. iv. vm. alleged connection ii. n. 132. advice to Greeks to stay at Salamis. 92 . ix. Thebans and oracles of Amphiaraus. his policy after Salamis. 9. in. vm. legendary daughter of Asopus and sister of Aegina. 41 (1) v. Thebaiic province. iv. (2) In Boeotia. 28. vii. ix. . 79. 15. Athens. Phoenician inscriptions at Thebes. I. 79. ix. 80. 118. bribery of Greeks to stay at Artemisium. . on Xerxes' route. n. 11. 42 Thebes. his bargain with Etearchus of Crete. 166. 25 distance from Thebes of the temple of Ammon. 4 his efforts to detach lonians from Xerxes. v. his interpretation of the Delphic oracle given to his creation of the Athenian navy. 392 . 3. n. 74 Hecataeus' investigations at Thebes. 51 . 91 inhabited by one of the warrior tribes. 2. 108. 86-88 Themis. 134. 69 . vii. interview with Aristides. vm. Theban advice to Mardonius. 42. iv. vm. u. n. n. Syene and Chemmis in it. 83. 75. 182. in. distance from Heliopolis. for Polycrates. 173. surrender of Thebes to Greek army. 54-56. 123-125 Theocydes. 65 Theodoras. in command of a force in Thessaly. meeting with Polycritus of Aegina. crocodiles held sacred there. 61 . temple of Apollo there. I.INDEX Thebe. 86 Themison. coast of the Euxine. 92 . vii. honours paid him by Greeks after Salamis. 67 . 10 Cambyses there. Theban assistance to Pisistratus. vm. 27 . Croesus' gifts there. 81-89. 11. vi. ix. submission to Xerxes. ix. a deity in Greece but not in Egypt. vii. 80. and extortion of money from islanders. 58 Theban valour on Persian side. Theban recovery of an image of Apollo. vm. story of Polynices' attack on Thebes. rules of abstinence there. his work at Delphi. vm. secret message to Xerxes. exhortation before Salamis. 22. vii. . The bans unwillingly at Thermopylae.

despot of Acrugas. 16 Thespia. story of Battus of Thera. 30 Thesprotians. allies of Pisistratus. description of the pass. 131 Thera. 1 1 0. one of the Cyclades. a Cadmean of Sparta. their refusal to submit to Xerxes. ix. 123 Therapne. (1) son of Polyriices. 51 Theoporapus. 226 . . his presence at a Persian banquet at Thebes. story of the battle. neighbours of the Ampraciots. ix. his services to the Persians at Salamis. vi. a temple of Helen there. Aleuadae of Thessaly at Xerxes' court. (2) A river in Cappadocia. 176 there. n. 147. 155. a Greek festival in honour of Demeter. 86. 57. 147. near Themiscyra. vi. vui. vii. their practice of necromancy. visit of Persian forces to the field of Thermopylae. iv. 85. and ix. . a town in Boeotia. Theraeans with Dorieus in Libya. 104. ib. a Spartan king. n. 132. its celebration by Ephesian women. in N. v. burnt by the Persians. Pelasgians formerly tribute from nations east of it. victory on it of Greeks over Amazons. 6. 393 . 129. 73 Thesmophoria. Darius' European Thessaly. . 47 from Thesprotia. Sicinnus made a Thespian. his expulsion of Terillus from Himera. 42 Therambos. v.INDEX Theomestor vui. vii. iv. 210-225. iv. 92 Thessalians vui. (1) a river in Boeotia. 16 Theseus. its submission to Xerxes. victory with Gelon over Carthaginian confederacy. a festival at Delphi. vii. 222. iv. Greece. his abduction of Helen into Attica. vii. vii. (2) A man of Orchomenus. 171. i. 27 Thermopylae. of Samos. Thespians in Pausanias' army. Thessalian Lacedaemonian invasion of Thessaly. 166 Thersandrus. vii. its original settlement. iv. 96. 52. in Attica in the autumn. 147.W. vii. 24. vi. vui. ancestor of Theras. i. 61 Theras. description of Thessaly. 75 . once called Calliste. 165. vin. iv. 202. near Sparta. 108. 63 vi. 43. 72. Thespians allies of Thebans. their steadfastness at Thermopylae. ix. v. 50. iv. 176. near Tanagra. vii. 79. 90 Theophania. vii. 198-200. . vii. in. 25 (other mentions in vui. ix. v. vii. a town in Pallene. reason of its sending a colony to Libya. ix. ix. ix. despot of Samos. his colonisation of Thera. 151. 148 Thermodon. refer to the battle) Theron.

vin. 166 Thoas. 115. Darius in Thrace. ix. vii. Greek force there. his reception of Paris. Phocaean . vii. defeat there of Egyptians by Cyrenaeans. Artabazus' retreat harassed by Thracians.. Thessalians in his army. an Aleuad of Larissa. an Aleuad of Larissa. ix. Aristagoras killed by Thracians. 89 (other less VII. 132. population and customs of Thrace. 110. despot of Miletus. 114 Thriasian plain. 196. Magian sacrifice to her to abate a storm. 1. v. a Samian ix. Xerxes' route through Thrace. i. 90 . Mardonius' address to him. vii. ?'&. 58 Thrasylaus. 3-8.) Thessalus. vi. 191 Thmuite province of Egypt. in Xerxes' army. human vsacrifice there. vii. v. Thrace Persian conquered by Mysians and Teucrians. I. ix. 89-93. near Eleusis in Attica. in. 119 Thracians of Asia (Bithynians). Xerxes' march through it. 133. his deception of Alyattes. Mardonius' address to him. 103 . Thracian rivers. inhabited by one of the warrior tribes. of important reff. 27-32. killed by women. 191. 28 . iv. 116 Thonis. vm. 99 Thornax. n. vi. iv. supremacy. 113 Thorax. 173. conquest by Thracian contempt of peaceful occupations. Artabazus in Thessaly. 215. a mountain in Laconia. Thessalian cavalry inferior to Asiatic. n. v. 23. 172. use of hemp there. reverence of Thracians for road of Xerxes' army. 92 Thrasycles. 126. iv. Apollo's temple there. i. n. referred to in the Odysse}^ n. Histiaeus there. v. 89. ix. Dicaeus' vision there. an Athenian. 185. defeats Thessalians by Phocians. Thracian theft of Xerxes' chariot. 106. ib. 49. ix. ix. 31 . warder of the Nile mouth. his support of Mardonius. iv. 168. a spring in Libya. vn. Thrace. advice to Periander of Corinth. 45. IV. their attack on Mardonius. Thracians in his army. vii. v. 159 Thetis. and Thessalian revenge. 46 Theste. Mardonius in Thessaly. near Sunium. 74. vii. Thrasybulus. Sesostris. 394 . a derne of Attica. I.INDEX VII. 20-23 . 69 migration thither. 167. 58 Thoricus. vm. king of Lemnos. 90 Thrasydeius. 138 Thon. of Egypt. ix. 75 their former migration from Thrace into Asia. 115. a Spartan companion of Dorieus. vn. tribute to Persia. 20. vii. 113. n. danger to Phocis from Thessalians. their conquest by Croesus. vi.

recommended as a battle-field by the Athenians. 123 Thyssus. a priestess at Paros. legendary daughter of Cephisus. 86 Timagoras. 33-35. vi. (1) an Elean diviner in the service of the Spartans.E. 38. 22. vj. I. vn. a battle near it between Argos and Sparta. their tiibute to Persia. 78 Tibisis. vin. Thyia. a Delphian. ix. 69 Timarete. IT. 102 ix. grandson of (2) A Polynices. vn. a people N. 52 395 . and subsequent acquittal. 147. a town in the peninsula of Athos. 20 I. Tigris. n. Ampe on it. vi. 94. Tritantaechmes his death at Mycale. vi. a Cyprian officer in Xerxes' army. 128 Tiryns. vii. her attempted betrayal of a temple to Miltiades. 28. 98 Timandrus. . Cleomenes and his army there. a Delphian ally of Isagoras at Athens. vin. 168 Timo. 193. vn. 135 Timodemus of Aphidnae. ix. 7 65. IX. 77. 98 Timoxenus of Scione. his advice to Mardonius. vii. ix. 96 a canal. coast of the Euxine. a northern tributary of the Danube. Theban. surrender and execution. 76 Thyssagetae. vn.INDEX vm. vin. 62 his dictum about the Olympian games. the river. his advice to the Athenians about an oracle. 125 Timon. vii. his five victories. junction with the Euphrates by Ninus on it. 141 Timonax. in Argolis. iv. 52. 150. living by hunting. a Theban. his attempted betrayal of Potidaea. an officer in Xerxes' army. his attack on Themistocles. in. occupied by the Argives' slaves. his reputation as a fighter. . his settlement at Abdera. . 134. 22 Tiarantus. in Xerxes' army. a Cyprian. altar of the winds erected in her precinct (also called Thyia) at Delphi. 83. I. i. a town taken from the Argives by the Lacedaemonians. 82. v. ix. a priestess at Dodona. of Scythia. ix. 49 Tigranes. Tirynthians in Pausanias' army. ix. named with Bithyni as Thyreae. his Timagenides. 28 Thracians Thyni. v. vi. 55 Timasitheus. 178 " " in Asia. 189. a Theban. vi. a southern tributary of ti_ Danube. 48 Tibareni. iv. 26 (unless " " be the right reading) his personal beauty. 31 Tisamenus. 72 Timesius of Clazomenae. iv. iv. a people on the S. son of Artabanus. I.

178. 396 . a town in Achaea. i. 105 Triballic plain (in . father of Hippoclides. 145 Tritantaechmes. the lake itself. " Tritonid lake. Troezenians in the battle of Mycale. his betrayal of Aphidnae. vin. vi. 22. Xerxes' passage from Trachis into Doris. point of Asia Minor. a town on the S. the coastal region closed to the E. his strength and solitary habits. 133 Titacus. to it. rv. 72 in Pausanias' army. 43. 84. (1) an Athenian. and iv. vin. 174. a gold-producing mountain in Lydia. 205. vin. 102.E. son of Artabazus. one of the generals ship of Assyria. its town of the same name. a legendary Athenian. iv. i. Triton. on the Sithonian peninsula. 31 Trapezus (later Trebizond). vii. 1. his cult in Libya.INDEX Tisandrus. I. ix. iv. I. (2) An alleged river in Libya. 32 Titormus. vn. a river in Thrace flowing into the Bistonian lake. 121 a Phocian town burnt by the Persians. of Xerxes' army. 127 Tmolus. 88 Tithorea. 175-22(3. queen of the Massagetae. 49 Triopian promontory. 188. i. 192. 100 Tomyris. entrusted with the island of Hydrea." iv. vin. 73 Tithaeus. a Scythian tribe. 109 modern Serbia). mother-city of Halicarnassus. vii. 122 Trachis.. v. her proposal to the invading Persians. a cavalry officer in Xerxes' army. vii. 206. an Aetolian. vi. v. near Sardis. a town in Chalcidice. 82. v. vi. by Thermopylae. 37. 31 . i. 199. its contingent in the Greek fleet. vi. 127 Traspies. iv. (1) a Persian. coast of the Euxine. S. vn. 3 Travus. vin. I. vii. several unimportant reff. iv. a Thracian tribe. a peak of Parnassus. father of Isagoras. 6 Trausi. temple of Apollo there. her victory over Cyrus and revenge for her son. 127 Tisias. 99. in the force at the Isthmus. 144 Tritaea. retreat of Delphians thither. 28. 33 Triteae. 179.W. (2) An Athenian. 186 (neither river nor lake is identified) Troezen. ix. ix. (1) a deity of the sea. 03. 93. his governor(2) A Persian. his guidance of Jason. flowing into the ib. in Argohs. 59. in. 212-214 Tororie. vii. a Parian.

their recovery of Helen from Attica. 68 gulf. 11. their images with Lacedaemonian armies. 22 Tyrsenus.INDEX Troglodytae (cave-dwellers). Xerxes' commissariat there. iv. ix. 44. a tribe in Xerxes' on the Persian army. Tyrrhenia a synonym for Italy. his oracular shrine consulted by Croesus. n. 156 Horus' victory. father of Pericles. 47. rv. II. tb. 73 Typhon (or Typhos). war between Egypt and Tyre. vii. 183 Trophonius. u by its it. vm. vi. ix. Tydeus. his slaying by Melanippus. Cimmerian graves iv. 93 . abduction of Europa thence. v. 67 Tyrodiza. 135 his imXanthippus. Etruscans). i. i. his bringing of Rhodopis to Egypt. 57 discovered by Phocaeans. 33. father of Diomedes. 166. 67 Tymnes. mark of Heracles' foot on I'M. i. 94 Utii. vi. and banishment of Typhon to the Scrbonian lake. settlements of dispersed Trojans. 112. n. father of Helen. I. 112 Tyndaridae (Castor and Polydeuces). an Ethiopian tribe. Athenian general after Salamis. i. iv. a Samian. 5 . 75. his search for Horus. vni. vn. identified with the Egyptian Set. its source. 145. v. v. 120 . Tyrseni (Tyrrhenians. in central Itaty. iv. n. 171.ian river (Dniester). 122. 114. Trojan war. 46. in. 144. n. n. his story of Anacharsis. by Mardonius. in. vii. 37 Tyndareus. vm. father of Histiaeus of (2) A Termera. 131 j in command on the Hellespont. vii. vi. Tyrrhenian attack on Phocaeans. (1) vice-gerent of Ariapithes king of Scythia. 136. 76. I. Tyrian settlement at Memphis. Tyras. v. 397 . vn. their habits. 43. 20. their Pelasgian their Lydian origin. 82 Tyre. temple of Heracles there. i. their tribute to Persia. 120. 94 . Tyrian king with Xerxes. iv. 131 peachment of Miltiades. 145. a Boeotian god or hero. their voyage in the Argo. 191. an Athenian. 163. a town near Perinthus. leader of the Lydian settlement in Italy. 2.} bank. 161. 13. Tyrrhenian sea neighbours. 91 v. 51. Xanthes. 25 . ix. iv. rv. vn. Carian. n. 134 Troy and the Troad. 27. n. 26.

Xerxes' visit to the Peneus. 37 Zalmoxis. 27. 128130. 181. 141. death of Hegesistratus in Zacynthus. 55. ix. connected with some particular place or function (Zeus Lacedaemon. his council of war after the battle. vi. description of a pool there. and colloquies with Artabanus. vin. vin. in. i. 234-237. iv. vn. 209. 127. 29. advice given to Xerxes by Artemisia. vi. 193 Zeus. 178. of Sataspes. resistance of the i. 100-102 vni. 46. 28. 180. 3. i. 65. 68. of Halicarnassus. 90 his fear of the Greeks. vn. Demaratus' escape there. vn. vi. attack by Hippocrates of Gela. his passion for his brother's wife and her daughter. 61. 164. 187. intended expulsion of Zacynthians by Samians. 119. 88. 136. vii. succession to the throne. in. vn. 32. 59. etc. 398 . vn. father of Ion.i Persians. 1. vn. 195. Zeus Catharsius. its seizure by Samians. 77. 56. 108-113 Xuthus. 35. in Lycia. king of Sparta. vi. with Demaratus. (I) a Persian. 107 Xerxes for mentions of him as leader of the Persian forces in the invasion of Greece. 116. and delivery of Babylon to Darius. 174. son of Leutychides. 142. vn. 136. 101-104. I. 221. son of Megabyzus. Zacynthus. Ill and IV of this translation. 141. a legendary hero. Xerxes a spectator of the battle of Salamis. vii. 18. Xanthians to the Cilicia for and their defeat. vin. vn. 8-18. 122. vin. 13. 38. his personal beauty. 89. story of his danger of shipwreck in his return. 81. 43. 59 . in. ix. 83. vn. a tribe in western Libya. iv. 207. in. made governor of the life of : Masistes. further colloquy with Artabanus. 203. 2. 23. west of Greece. 54. 181-183. 7. 158. identified with foreign deities. n. 56. 5. 131. 118. vii. 124. 71 Zopyrus. vi. 66. 39. ix. v. Zancle (later Messene. and its consequences. 171. see Salmoxis. vn. 146. 56. ix. vengeance on the vii.). iv. 68. generosity to two Spartans. 176 saving Xenagoras. 55. 40 Zeuxidemus. 74. his council. 154 Zaueces. treatment of Pythius. . 94. modern Messina). n. 67. 203 . iv. 238 . his early death. 44 . a tow. in. 119. Principal references to Xerxes personally: his execution of a Babylonian priest. his pretended desertion to the Babylonians.INDEX Xanthus. dead Leonidas. 46. vin. vii. ii. 70 . 183. see the tables of contents in Introductions to Vols. 44. iv. 46-52. ix. vin. 131. 197. vn. 42. 143. scourging of the Hellespont. 69.

(2) 399 . rocks near it taken for ships by the Persians. Grandson of the above.INDEX Darius' esteem for him. 107 153-159 . rape of his daughter. in. vm. his migration from Persia to Athens. 160 Zoster (Girdle). iv. 43. 160 . a promontory on the coast of Attica. in.

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