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Introduction Organizational Behavior is the study of what people think, feel & do in and around of an Organization. Organizational Behavior investigates systematically study individual team & structural characteristics that influence behavior within the Organizations through their study. Expertise of Organizational Behavior can try to recognize & forecast how these behaviors help an Organization to meet its achievement. Organization Behavior emerged as a distinct field around 1940’s. However its origin can be traced much further back in time Plato, a Greek philosopher wrote first time about equity in working environment. The writings of the 16th century, Italian philosopher Niccolo Machiavelli laid the base for contemporary work on Organizational Power & Politics. In 1776 Adam Smith, the father of the Modern Management promoted a new form of Organizational Structure based on the Labor Division. After about hundred years a renowned German sociologist Max Waber wrote about Rational Organizations & took initiative discussion of fascinating leadership. Reasons for studying Organizational Behavior Actually Organizational Behavior is very useful to any of the Organization / Company, even in a sole trader-ship company. There are much more expediency in Organizational Behavior. Some of the very vital reasons are mentioning below : i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) To understand Organizational events Organizational Behavior research Influence Organizational events Predict Organizational events Globalization Implication for Organizational Behavior The changing workforces Emerging Employment relationship Contingent workforces Information Technology & Organizational Behavior Teams and more teams.
What are Organization Organizations are as old as the human race. They are groups of people who work enter dependability towards some purpose. Organizations are not building or other physical structures. Rather, Organizations are people who work together to achieve a set of goals. An organizations mission statement may be different from its true goals. Also they question the assumption that all Organizational members believe in the same goals. These points are supposing apparently true, but imagine an Organization without goals; it would consist of a mass of people wandering any around aimlessly without any logic of direction. Reasons for studying Organizational behavior The key elements in organizational behavior are people, structure, technology, and environment in which the organization operates. When people join together in an organization to accomplish an objective. Some kind of structure of is required. People also use technology to help get the job …. So there is an interaction of people structure and technology in addition. These elements are influenced by the external environment. Each of the four elements of organizational behavior will be consideration briefly.
People make up the internal social system of the organization. The consistent of individuals and group. And large groups as well as small ones. The human organization today not the same as it was yesterday. Or the before. People are the living, thinking, and feeding being who work in the organization to achieve their objectives. Structure defines the former relations of the people in organizations. Different jobs are required to accomplish all of an organizations activity. There are Managers and employees, accountants and assemblers. These people have to be related in some structural way so that their work can be effectively coordinated the tasks that they perform. They cannot accomplish much with their bare hands, so they build buildings, design machines, create work processes and assemble resources. The technology used has significant influences on working relationship.
Technology Technology provides the resources with which people work and affects
Technology All organization operates with an external environment. A Single
organization does not exit along. It is part of a larger system that contains many other elements, such as government, the family, and other organizations. All of these mutually influence each others in a complex system.
3 01) 02) 03) 04) 05) 06) 07) 08) 09) 10) 11) To understand organizational even Organizational behavior research Influence organizational events Predict organizational events Globalization Implication for organizational behavior The changing workforce Emerging Employment relationship Contingent work force Information technology and Organizational behavior Team and more teams
Levels of analysis There are generally 3 (three) levels of analysis in Organizational Behavior. Such as : 1) 2) 3) Motivation As managers, we are interested in productivity. Therefore, we are interested in knowing how to improve the productivity of our employees. This productivity is a human behavior and, as such, is influenced by a number of factors. First, productivity is a function of each of the employees' unique personalities. Second, employees' behaviors are influenced by the environments in which they find themselves. For example, an employee's behavior (and productivity) will be influenced by a dirty, hot, noisy, or dangerous worksite. Finally, an employee's behavior will be a function of that employee's innate drives or felt needs and the opportunities he or she has to satisfy those drives or needs in the workplace. Individual Process Team Process Organizational Process
Employees' performance is, of course, partially determined by the opportunities given them to demonstrate their abilities. If employees are never given opportunities to utilize all of their skills, then the employer may never have the benefit of their total performance. Work performance is also contingent upon employee abilities. If employees lack the learned skills or innate talents to do a particular job, then performance will be less than optimal. A third dimension of performance is motivation.
A generalized model of motivation posits a set of innate drives and felt needs for each employee. The employee brings these drives and needs to the workplace and they influence the employee's workplace behavior and productivity. These drive and needs create a tension within the employee if left unsatisfied. This tension may be both physical (manifested through the symptoms of stress) and psychological. The employee thus engages in whatever behaviors are necessary to reduce this tension. If the behavior undertaken is appropriate, it may be assumed that the tension is reduced and that tension-reducing behaviors are ceased.
As seen in the discussion above, motivation is a dynamic process; people may be motivated by different things (needs and drives) during different periods of their lives. Managing Employee Motivation and Performance Process perspectives on motivation deal with how motivation occurs. Expectancy theory suggests that people are motivated to perform if they believe that their effort will result in high performance, that this performance will lead to rewards, and that the positive aspects of the outcomes outweigh the negative aspects. Equity theory is based on the premise that people are motivated to achieve and maintain social equity. Attribution theory is a new process theory. The reinforcement perspective focuses on how motivation is maintained. Its basic assumption is that behavior that results in rewarding consequences is likely to be repeated, whereas behavior resulting in negative consequences is less likely to be repeated. Reinforcement contingencies can be arranged in the form of positive reinforcement, avoidance, punishment, and extinction, and they can be provided on fixed-interval, variable-interval, fixed-ratio, or variableratio schedules. Two newly emerging approaches to employee motivation are goal-setting theory and the Japanese approach. Managers often adopt behavior modification, modified workweeks, work redesign, and participation programs to enhance motivation. Organizational reward systems are the primary mechanisms managers have for managing motivation. Properly designed systems can improve attitudes, motivation, and behaviors. Effective reward systems must provide sufficient rewards on an equitable basis at the individual level. Contemporary reward systems include merit systems and various kinds of incentive systems. There are generally 3 (three) gears determine individual performance
1) 2) 3)
Motivation : the desire to do the job. Ability : the capability to do the job The work environment : the tools, materials, and information needed to do the job.
Managing Leadership and Influence Processes As a process, leadership is the use of no coercive influence to shape the groups or organization's goals, motivate behavior toward the achievement of those goals, and help define group or organization culture. As a property, leadership is the set of characteristics attributed to those who are perceived to be leaders. Leadership and management are often related but are also different. Managers and leaders use legitimate, reward, coercive, referent, and expert power. The trait approach to leadership assumed that some basic trait or set of traits differentiated leaders from nonreaders. The leadership-behavior approach to leadership assumed that the behavior of effective leaders was somehow different from the behavior of nonreaders. Research at the University of Michigan and Ohio State identified two basic forms of leadership behavior-one concentrating on work and performance and the other concentrating on employee welfare and support. The Managerial Grid attempts to train managers to exhibit high levels of both forms of behavior. Situational approaches to leadership recognize that appropriate forms of leadership behavior are not universally applicable and attempt to specify situations in which various behaviors are appropriate. The LPC theory suggests that a leader's behaviors should be either task-oriented or relationship-oriented depending on the favorableness of the situation. The path-goal theory suggests that directive, supportive, participative, or achievement-oriented leader behaviors may be appropriate, depending on the personal characteristics of subordinates and the environment. Vroom's decision tree approach maintains that leaders should vary the extent to which they allow subordinates to participate in making decisions as a function of problem attributes. The leader-member exchange model focuses on individual relationships between leaders and followers and in-group versus out-group considerations. Related leadership perspectives are the concept of substitutes for leadership, charismatic leadership, and the role of transformational leadership in organizations. Political behavior is another influence process frequently used in organizations. Impression management, one especially important form of political behavior, is a direct and intentional effort by someone to enhance his or her image in the eyes of others. Managers can take steps to limit the effects of political behavior.
7 Leadership As a process, the use of no coercive influence to shape the group's or organization's goals, motivate behavior toward the achievement of those goals, and help define group or organization culture; as a property, the set of characteristics attributed to individuals who are perceived to be leaders. Organizational Behavior as Job Design Autocratic
Basic of model Managerial Orientation Employee Orientation Employee Psychological Result Employee Needs met Performance Result Power Authority Obedience Dependence on boss Subsistence Minimum
Economic Resources Money Security & Benefit Dependence on org. Security passive cooperation
Leadership Support Job performance Participation Partnership Teamwork Responsible behavior Self discipline
Trust Community Caring Compassion Psychological ownership Self-motivation
Status Recognition Awakened drives
Selfactualization Moderate enthusiasm
Wide range Passion & Commitment
Models of Organizational Behavior There are four major models or frameworks that organizations operate out of: Autocratic - The basis of this model is power with a managerial orientation of authority. The employees in turn are oriented towards obedience and dependence on the boss. The employee need that is met is subsistence. The performance result is minimal. Custodial - The basis of this model is economic resources with a managerial orientation of money. The employees in turn are oriented towards security and benefits and dependence on the organization. The employee need that is met is security. The performance result is passive cooperation. Supportive - The basis of this model is leadership with a managerial orientation of support. The employees in turn are oriented towards job performance and participation. The employee need that is met is status and recognition. The performance result is awakened drives. Collegial - The basis of this model is partnership with a managerial orientation of teamwork. The employees in turn are oriented towards responsible behavior and self-discipline. The employee need that is met is self-actualization. The performance result is moderate enthusiasm. Although there are four separate models, almost no organization operates exclusively in one. There will usually be a predominate one, with one or more areas over-lapping in the other models.
8 The first model, autocratic, had its roots in the industrial revolution. The managers of this type of organization operate out of McGregor's Theory X. The next three models begin to build on McGregor's Theory Y. They have each evolved over a period of time and there is no one "best" model. The collegial model should not be thought as the last or best model, but the beginning of a new model or paradigm. Individualization in Organization A social system is a complex set of human relationships interacting in many ways. Within an organization, the social system includes all the people in it and their relationships to each other and to the outside world. The behavior of one member can have an impact, either directly or indirectly, on the behavior of others. Also, the social system does not have boundaries...it exchanges goods, ideas, culture, etc. with the environment around it. Culture is the conventional behavior of a society that encompasses beliefs, customs, knowledge, and practices. It influences human behavior, even though it seldom enters into their conscious thought. People depend on culture as it gives them stability, security, understanding, and the ability to respond to a given situation. This is why people fear change. They fear the system will become unstable, their security will be lost, they will not understand the new process, and they will not know how to respond to the new situations. Individualization is when employees successfully exert influence on the social system by challenging the culture.
The above chart shows how individualization affects different organizations :
9 Too little socialization and too little individualization create isolation. Too high socialization and too little individualization create conformity. Too little socialization and too high individualization creates rebellion While the match those organizations want to create is high socialization and high individualization for a creative environment. This is what it takes to survive in a very competitive environment...having people grow with the organization, but doing the right thing when others want to follow the easy path. This can become quite a balancing act. Individualism favors individual rights, loosely knit social networks, self respect, and personal rewards and careers. It becomes look out for number 1! Socialization or collectivism favors the group, harmony, and asks "What is best for the organization?" Organizations need people to challenge, question, and experiment while still maintaining the culture that binds them into a social system Successful Organizational Models for Main Street Programs While a Main Street program can be housed in a number of agencies or organizations, one of the most common and successful ways is to establish an independent, private nonprofit organization whose express purpose is to revitalize the commercial district. As a separate organization, the Main Street program can : Bring together public and private interests in an objective environment unhampered by the constraints of local politics. Establish an agenda exclusively for the revitalization of the commercial district. Maintain a clear focus on issues that affect the district. Serve as a visible symbol of new activity and a new future for the commercial district
Conclusions This paper reviews previous research on organizations and IT, value chain analysis and business process and points out that the existing studies do not provide adequate understanding and guidance towards virtual organization and its design. As a result, a new organizational model that consists of five variables: people, business processes, technology, connectivity and boundary were presented. The model depicts process relationships within the organization and provides a framework for overall organizational design that may include relationships among different design variables and external relationships with organizational environment. The paper made an attempt to define virtual organizations a type of organizations that are formed through business processes, people and technology with high degree of connectivity and levels of boundary. In addition, the new organizational model provides guidance for identifying information technology applications that are intricately linked with business processes such as interorganizational systems, and suggests a guideline for designing virtual organizations and transforming existing organizations in the context of knowledge-based business practice. No matter whether we are building virtual organizations or not, we can not afford not to see the closely intertwined organizational design with information technology and
11 the virtual aspect of doing business within market space. Forward looking organizational designers should consider the possibilities and challenges brought upon by ever changing information technology in the design or re-design of their organizations.
This assignment was made possible with the generous support of the following(s) WebPages. http://www.mainstreet.org/content.aspx?page=3329§ion=2 http://www.geocities.com/Athens/forum/1650/htmlobtoc02.html http://www.geocities.com/Athens/forum/1650/htmlmotivation1.html