This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
People no longer buy shoes to keep there feet warm and dry. They buy them because of the way the shoes make them feel masculine, feminine, rugged, different, sophisticated, young, glamorous, "in" buying shoes has become an emotional experience . Our business now is selling excitement rather than shoes. - Francis C. Rooney Modern Marketing Trends : Modern marketing calls for more than developing a good product it attractively and making it accessible to target customers. Companies must also communicate with their present and potential customers. Every company is inevitably cast into the role of communicator and promoter. What is communicated, however should not be left to change. To communicate effectively; companies hire advertising agencies to develop effective ads; sales promotion specialists to design sales incentive programmes and public relations firms to develop the corporate image. They train their sales people to be friendly and knowledgeable. For most companies, the question is not whether to communicate but rather what to say, to whom.
Promotion Technique :Promotion influences demand by communicating product and company message to the market. A promotion Techniques involves the co-ordination of all communication efforts aimed at a specific audience; consumer and shareholder. The most critical promotional question is the proper mix of advertising, personal selling, sales promotion and publicity. The promotion mix is usually co-ordinated on a campaign basis, taking the campaign may efforts include a total campaign with one unified theme. All promotion messages tie in to this theme in one way or the the, rather than conflicting with it. ADVERTISING What is Advertising :The word ‘Advertising’ has its origin from a Latin word ‘Adventure’ which means to turn to. The dictionary meaning of the word is ‘to announce publicity or to give public concerned to a specific thing which has been announced by the advertiser publicity in order to inform and influence them with the ideas which the advertisement carries. In business world the terms in mainly used with reference to selling the product of the concern. The advertising, as Jones defines it is "a sort of machine made mass production method of selling which supplements the voice and personality of the individual salesman, such as manufacturing the machine supplements the hands of the craftsman." It is thus a process of buying/sponsor/identified media space or time in order to promote a product or an idea. From a careful scrutiny of the above definition, the following points emerge :
it may persuade with emotion: more frequently. the resulting communication is propagandistic. (A) Radio : Advertisers National or advertising advertising using the medium of radio may also be classified as Local advertisers. Advertising promotes idea. It is directed at a mass audience and not directed at the individual as in personal selling. Advertising may persuade with information. Although most advertising is designed to help sell goods. It discloses or identifies the source of opinions and ideas. advertising is done in a non-personal manner through intermediaries or media whatever the form of advertisement (Spoken. It is important for us to emphasize that advertising may involve the communication of ideas or goods of service.V. . In a similar manner. If we eliminate the elements of the "paying sponsor" (The paid requirement) we would have the element of publicity left : For publicity is technically speaking. Aimed at mass audience 4. it is being used increasingly to further public interest goals. 3. radio or T. The radio is a prominent vehicle of in our country and accounts for a large sum of the total budget. Impersonal 2.Advertising is a paid form and hence commercial in nature. But we may overlook the more important fact that it often sells ideas. By a paying sponsor. The two forms of mass communication that are something confused with advertising are publicity and propaganda. goods and services. Advertising is non-personal. A communication of ideas. Advertising is identifiable with its sponsoring authority and advertiser. advertisement without payment. We are all aware that advertising attempts to sell goods and services. it endeavours to persuade with some mixture of both. This any sponsored communication designed to influence buyer behaviour advertising. Unlike personal selling. written or visual). Advertising thus is : 1. (1) Electronic Media Advertisers use two types of media to reach target consumers over the airwaves. If we eliminate the requirement of an "identified sponsor".
31% of our population lives. became a factor in the advertising scene. therefore it does not reach everyone. Moreover. The translation is limited. TV programmes in our country do not offer much selectivity. which appeal to local audience consumers have responded very favourably to this approach. (ii) Print Media The print media carry their massages entirely through the visual mode. Finally. This has not been so. newspaper offers several advantage. The advertisers may choose the specific area to be covered and the advertisement can be placed in newspapers at very short notice as compared with other media. in rural India where 76. From the viewpoint of the advertiser. Because newspapers supply news. they are local in content and appeal and provide opportunity for direct communication between a product and its local dealers or distributors. This is particularly advantageous for advertisers whose product require demonstration.V. marketers can easily use them to reach particular markets. they offer an atmosphere of factual information and of currency that may be favourable for some advertising situations. As a result is combines the two to produce high-impact commercials. a growing class of advertising media has been the TV. So do some large organizations.Advertising Media :Late in India. The pleasure derived from watching TV is at least potentially transferable to the advertising message delivered through the medium. Newspapers in our country virtually reach most of the homes in the cities. any centers do not have TV towers. In our country. TV advertising offers advantage of impact. .The radio serves principally local rather than national or large regional markets. mass coverage. This selectivity is easily rigorous. Moreover TV does not have much coverage in our country. There are hardly any TV sets. . repetition. These media consist of newspapers. Since newspapers are local. magazines and direct mail. Many small advertisers use the radio. The TV is a unique combination timing of sight and sound and achieves a deeper impact than the other media do. flexibility and prestigious. Moreover. (A) Newspaper : A sizable share of the total advertising budget is spent on advertising in newspapers. for radio operators have responded to the challenge by offering programmes that features music etc. When T. the fact that product or service is promoted on TV may build a prestigious image of the product and its sponsor.V. In our country not everyone has a TV set. Advertisers can reach a very broad audience through newspapers which offer great flexibility. TV appeals to both the senses of sound and of sight . commercial advertising on TV is severely limited because broadcast timings are only in the evenings. Some are in the twelve-hour range. except at the community centres where electricity is available. some industry observers felt that radio advertising might become insignificant or even disappear. (B) Television : T.
Outdoor advertising is particularly effective in metropolitan and other can use this medium to bring the products to the attention of consumers or to remaining them of the product. The primary advantage of magazine advertising are selectivity of market targets. Some magazines have prestige value. educational level and interest magazines. railways and other modes of passenger transportation. The highest showing is 100. Business World and Filmfare. The marketers may purchase billboards on the basis of showings. Advertisers may utilize this medium to economically reach a large mass of people or small local markets. while they are on shopping trips or area disposed towards shopping. Consumers sometime keep individual copies for long period of time. Sportsweek. industrial consumers. both original and matinal and of general and specific interest. posters or displays (such as those that appear on a building’s wall) and electric spectacular (large. Marketers may use transit advertisement to attain high exposure to particular groups consumers on theory way to and from work and tourists. The diversity of magazines is tremendous. (iii) OUTDOOR AND TRANSIT MEDIA (A) Outdoor Advertising : Outdoor Advertising :Outdoor advertising involves the use of sign and bill-boards. reread them or pass them on to other. India Today. Some marketers divide their market on the basis of such variable as age. Magazines generally offer high-quality printing of advertisement. technical or even exotic. Repeat exposure is possible for a majority of the people in our country use public transport basis. In general. Famina. quantity reproduction long life. A showing indicates the percentage of the total population of a particular geographic area that will be exposed to it during one month period. Others are highly specialised. The marketer can cover national or large regional markets at a low cost per contract (per individual reached). sometime animated sign and display). Here the number of billboards is would attract approximately 50% of the local population about 20 times during a month. (B) Transport Advertising : Transport advertising appears on the inside or outside of taxis. ladies. illuminated. Magazines are divided into those parts that serve business.(B) Magazines : Magazines are also mean of reaching different market. Transport advertising is useful in reaching consumers . magazines offer advertiser the opportunity to reach highly selective audience. Sings are usually smaller than billboards and are erected and maintained by the marketer rather than by the advertising media. This form of advertising has the advantage of communication quick and simply ideas of repetition and of the ability to promote products that are available for sales. and the extra service offered by many publications. The quality of magazines reproduction is usually high. buses. the prestige associated with some magazines. sports etc. An organisation may approach national markets through such publication as Business India. Some offer news or together "General Interest" content to huge audience.
Upon receiving a news release. Sales promotion activities are impersonal and usually non-recurring and are directed at the ultimate consumers. Some products and brands have received bad publicity. such as displays shows and expositions. The disposition of the news release is entirely in the hands of the media and cannot be dictated by the marketer. store displays are an important sales promotion device. artificial sweeteners have been branded unsafe or unhealthy in the publicity which they would rather have done without. Unlike advertising. These activities tend to supplement the advertising and personal selling efforts. The most common type of publicity are news release (also know as press release). for example cigarettes. Sales persons are in the position to tailor their messages according to the unique characteristics of each prospect. or print or broadcast it in the original form. Advertising aims at grouping the shotgun approach. Display exposes the promotion messages to consumers at the time and place of purchase. except that it is free. for instance. premiums. Marketers have less control over the nature of the publicity that their organisation and products receive than they have over their advertising. Many a companies and trade association officials attempt to develop favourable working relationships. sales persons receive . personal selling and sales promotions messages. PUBLICITY Publicity is a means of promoting the mass market and is similar to advertising. by observing and listening. coupons and trade shows. Examples of sales promotion are free product samples. For many organisations. Marketers of such items need effective display in order to distinguish their products from those of their rivals. industrial consumers and middlemen. including the marketers of food. Numerous consumers products are purchased in stores that use self-service selling method's. This medium is a low cost medium. with the media in order to minimise bad publicity. while personal selling aims at individuals the right approach. photographs and feature stories. wings. is found in the editorial portion of news media and pertains to newsworthy events. it involves personal interactions between the sources and the destination. Further. SALES PROMOTION According to the American Marketing Association. Sales Promotion consists of those marketing activities other than personal advertising and publicity that stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness. They realize that such communications to the public may have every adverse impact upon the image of the organisation. Publicity may be negative as well as positive. trading stamps. demonstration and various non-recurrent selling efforts not in the ordinary routine. store displays. Such exposure is especially important for items that are bought on impulse. PERSONAL SELLING Personal selling consists of persons to communication between the sales persons and their prospects.at an advantageous point which they are embarking on a shopping trip. toys and clothing. the editor or broadcast station programme director may choose to throw the release in the waste paper basket. change the hording.
programme. this would be terribly inefficient. ignore a store display. employees. Effectiveness of which cannot be measured with a mathematical or empirical formula some advertisers argue that advertising efforts go to waste. Personal Selling :Personal selling may be a very intense means of promotion. will lead advertisement testing must be done either before or after the ad has done in the media. PUBLIC RELATIONS Marketers engage in public relations in order to develop a favourable image of their organisation and products join the eyes of the public. Testing for the effectiveness of ad. has been launched and one is referred to as cost testing which is done after launching the advertising campaign. whether or not it has a formalized (organised. ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS Advertising is an art not a science. the press and environmental groups. Public relations activities include sponsoring. effectiveness feed back is always useful even if it costs some extra expenditure to the advertiser. personal selling is very important in industrial marketing. they employ mass marketing techniques such as advertising. The basic purpose of advertising effectiveness is to avoid costly mistakes. the sales person may quickly adjust it or the method of its presentation. suppliers. In measurement of ad. If feedback indicates that the message is not getting across. the general public and the society in which the organisation operates. Consumers can easily leave the room-during a TV commercial. The most effective method of promotion probably is to have sales person call upon every target consumers. for many institutions.immediate feedback on the extent to which their messages are getting across. The most effective method of promotion probably is to have sales person provided that the organisation has sufficient funds. They direct this activity to parties other than target consumers. but every advertiser is keenly interested in measuring or in evaluation of ad. The term public relations refers to a firm's communication and relationships with the various sections of the public. What sales are generated by an ad that increases brand . effectiveness. lobbying and using promotion message to persuade members of the public to take up a desired position. should be concerned about its public relations. the government. has been launched and one is referred to as cost testing which is done before the ad. Public relations programme may higher be formal or informal. especially those that appeal to the mass market. The critical point is that every organisation. As a result. It is of two types. These "other" include the public at large labour unions. These sections include the organisation customers. Sales-Effect : Communication-effect advertising research helps advertisers assess advertising's communication effects but reveals little about its sales impact. share holders. pretesting which is done before the ad. to predict the relative strength of alternative strength of alternative advertising strategies and to increase their efficiency.
Sales Results Tests : The additional sales generated by the ads are recorded. we have considered advertising influence as the only factor which results in a purchase. Measuring Sales Response to Advertising : Though increase in sales in the true measure of advertising effectiveness. the experiment can be carried on the two groups of consumers. The difference is attributed to ad impact. Instead of two markets. in reality it is difficult to measure the increase that is due to a particular advertisement. The element's presence observance is a reason for difference in sales. They are called sales effect tests. any one element of marketing mix is changed. other variables which affect purchases. There may be. The Netapps Method : The term Netapps has been framed from the term net-ad-producepurchases. availability and competitors' actions. It is rather difficult to correlate the response in sales with the advertising programme. the easier it is to measure advertising's effect on sales. such as the product's features. taking several routes. a few methods have ben discalled in the following paragraphs which are generally used to measure the sales response to advertising. The fewer or more controllable these other factors are. and often are. The inventory audit is dealers inventory before and after the ad is run. But the method is subject to a high level of false reporting and open to interviewer bias. effort. buying intention and the actual purchase in relation to ad. which has been developed by Daniel Starch and Staff company. This method. preference. PROGRESS TESTS These assess the various stages of buyer awareness. The sales impact is easiest it is to measure in direct-marketing situations and hardest measure in brand or corporate-image-building advertising. However. Sales are influenced by many factors besides advertising. The netapps method is useful in the relative measurement of the saleseffectiveness of various advertising approaches. requires the measurement of both readers and non-readers who purchased and who did not purchase the brand under investigation. The sales impact is easiest to measure in direct-marketing's effect on sales. Past Sales before the ad and sales after the ad are noted. It is compared with the sales of another similar market.awareness by 20% and brand preference by 10%? Advertising's sales effect is generally harder to measure than its communication effect. price. . Moreover. Controlled Experiment : In experimental market.
The assumption is that favourable attitude towards the product may lead to purchases. Most ads are designed to either reinforce or change existing attitudes. The change in attitude as a result of advertising is assessed.Attitude Tests This is an indirect measurement of the post-testing effects of ads on attitudes towards the advertised product or brands. . An attitude is a favourable or unfavourable feeling about a product.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.