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History of soap Although no one really knows who or when soap was discovered, there are various legends surrounding it’s beginning. According to Roman legend, soap was named after Mount Soap, an ancient site of animal sacrifices. After an animal sacrifice, rain would wash the animal fat and ash that collected under the ceremonial altars down the slopes to the banks of the Tiber River. Women washing clothes in the river noticed that if they washed their clothes in certain parts of the river after a heavy rain their clothes were much cleaner. Thus the emergence of the first soap – or at least the first use of soap. A soap-like material found in clay cylinders during the excavation of ancient Babylon is evidence that soap making was known as early as 2800 B.C. Inscriptions on the cylinders say that fats were boiled with ashes, a soap-making method. Moses gave the Israelites detailed laws governing personal cleanliness. Biblical accounts suggest that the Israelites knew that mixing ashes and oil produced a kind of hair gel. Soap is mentioned twice in the Bible, but it is generally agreed that the Hebrew word “borith”, which has been translated as soap, is a generic term for any cleansing agent. By the second century A.D., the Greek physician, Galen, recommended soap for both medicinal and cleansing purposes. Bathing habits all over Europe rose and declined with Roman civilization. When Rome fell in 467 A.D., so did bathing. It’s said that the lack of cleanliness and poor living conditions contributed to the many plagues of the Middle Ages. Not until the seventh century did soap makers appear in Spain and Italy where soap was made with goat fat and Beech tree ashes. During the same period, the French started using olive oil to make soap. Eventually, fragrances were introduced and specialized soaps for bathing, shaving, shampooing, and laundry began to appear. King Louis XIV of France apparently guillotined three soapmakers for making a bar that irritated his very sensitive Royal skin. The English began making soap during the 12th century. In 1633 King Charles I granted a 14 year monopoly to the Society of Soap makers of Westminster. In the reign of Elizabeth I, soap consumption in England was greater than in any other European country. It seems that Queen Bess set the fashion herself, for it was reported that the Queen took a bath every four weeks "whether it was necessary or not." Just as the soap industry was gaining momentum in England; it became the subject of a series of restrictions and crippling taxation. It was not until 1853 that Gladstone abolished the tax on soap. It wasn't until the 18th century that bathing came into fashion. In 1791, the French chemist Nicolas Leblanc discovered how to extract soda from common salt. Around the same time, Louis Pasteur proclaimed that good personal hygiene would reduce the spread of diseases. By the beginning of the 19th century, soap making was one of the fastest growing industries in the U.S. Rural Americans made homemade soap using a process from the Colonial times. They would save ashes from their fires for months. When they had enough fat left over from butchering hogs they would make soap. Some soap makers used an ash hopper for making lye instead of the barrel method. Using the same basic process, the lye dripped into a container located underneath the hopper.

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Old fashioned lye was made using hardwood ashes, a barrel or ash hopper, and rainwater. Holes were drilled in the bottom of a barrel. The barrel was placed on a grooved stone slab which rested on a pile of rocks. A layer of gravel was placed over the holes. Then a layer of straw, twigs, and sticks was placed on top of the gravel as a filter to prevent the ashes from getting in the solution. After filling a barrel with hardwood ashes, rainwater was pored through the ashes to leach out the brown lye liquid. The most difficult part of early soap making was determining if the lye was the correct strength. The “lye water” was considered the proper strength to make soap when an egg or small potato placed in the solution floated about halfway beneath the surface of the solution. If the egg or potato floated on top, the lye was too strong. If it sank quickly, the lye was too weak. Some early soap makers used goose or chicken feathers to test their lye. If a feather inserted in the lye water began to dissolve in it, then the lye water was at the right strength. Since there was no accurate way to measure the lye concentration, this old fashioned method often resulted in harsh soap, which has given lye soaps an undeserved bad reputation? Early soap makers often had to make many batches of soap before one was suitable to be used by their family. During World War I, commercial soap, as we know it today, came into existence. The injuries of war brought an increased need for cleaning agents. However, at the same time, the ingredients needed to make soap were scarce. German scientists created a new form of "soap" made with various synthetic compounds and as a result detergents were born. Much commercial soap available today are actually detergents, which are made with petroleum by-products. Since these "soaps" are detergents, by law cannot be called soap. Chances are that when you see a soap called a "body cleanser", it is not soap at all. After the Great War and until the 1930's, soap was made by a method called batch kettle boiling. Commercial soap makers had huge three story kettles that produced thousands of pounds of soap over the course of about a week. Shortly thereafter, an invention called continuous process was introduced and refined by Procter & Gamble. This process decreased soap making production time to less than a day. Large commercial soap manufacturers still use continuous process. Today there is a heightened awareness of the possible adverse effects of many of the synthetic additives and chemicals in commercial soap. Educated consumers are turning to all natural products like ours. Even large companies are starting to advertise "natural ingredients" in their products. BUT BEWARE! The addition of one or two natural ingredients does not make a product "all natural.” It is virtually impossible for large companies to create natural, handmade soaps. Soaps Soap is a mixture of sodium salts of various naturally occurring fatty acids. Air bubbles added to a molten soap will decrease the density of the soap and thus it will float on water. If the fatty acid salt has potassium rather than sodium, a softer lather is the result. Types of Soap: The type of fatty acid and length of the carbon chain determines the unique properties of various soaps. Tallow or animal fats give primarily sodium stearate (18 carbons) a very hard, insoluble soap. Fatty acids with longer chains are even more insoluble. As a matter of fact, zinc stearate is used in talcum powders because it is water repellent.

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Coconut oil is a source of lauric acid (12 carbons) which can be made into sodium laurate. This soap is very soluble and will lather easily even in sea water. Fatty acids with only 10 or fewer carbons are not used in soaps because they irritate the skin and have objectionable odors. What Is Soap? The first step in understanding soap requires that we be clear about just what soap is. Soap is a cleaning product made from natural ingredients. These ingredients may include both plant and animal products, including such items as: • animal fat, such as tallow or vegetable oil, such as castor, olive, or coconut oil. • plants such as soapwort or Western soapberry (aptly named!). • rainwater. • fragrances such as cinnamon, rose water, oil of bergamot or cloves. Detergent, on the other hand, is a synthetic product. It often has petroleum-based ingredients, although there are plant-based detergents available as well. Some Types of Soap One way of looking at types of soap is by origin. There are handmade and commercially made soaps. Another way to look at soap is by its use. Soap is available for personal use, laundry use, and dishwashing, and pet cleaning products that are soaps can also be found. • Novelty soaps include the soap in the shape of a rubber ducky and the soap-on-a-rope, made not only to clean, but for enjoyment as well. Soaps may be made novel by their shape and/or coloring. There are novelty soaps for children, for example, a bar of soap can have a toy inside or be formed like a crayon and used to draw on the tub. As with other types of soap, you can purchase novelty soaps or make your own. Many specialty soap molds are available in a vast array of ethnic, holiday, and other shapes. • Beauty soaps are likely to feature attractive fragrances, and ingredients to address a variety of skin types. Beauty soaps may feature glycerin, or special oil blends, for example, combining Shea butter, with coconut palm oil and other oils. • Guest soaps are usually miniature soaps, molded into attractive shapes and designed for use by guests in the main bathroom, or in a separate guest bathroom. Popular shapes are flowers, sea shells, and rounds. • Laundry soap is specially formulated to clean clothes. Be sure to follow package directions for best results. • Dish soap is the counterpart of dish detergent and comes in a variety of scents. As with laundry soap, be sure to follow package directions, and do not use dish soap in a dishwasher. Medicated soap. Chemistry of Soap

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While we usually think of "soap" as a cleaning agent that bubbles and lathers, there are actually a number of different substances that are technically soap - it just depends what they are made of. In this article we will mainly deal with the chemistry of the bubbling, cleaning kind of soap. Soap, Technical Definition Soap, technically, is defined as: the alkali salt of a fatty acid. It is the product that results from the reaction of a fatty acid and a strong base (alkali). In cleansing soaps, the fatty acids come from oils and fats; the strong alkali base is sodium hydroxide, also known as "lye", (for hard soaps) or potassium hydroxide, also known as "potash", (for soft soaps). The Components of Soap In order to understand the chemistry of soap, it is first necessary to take a look at the chemistry of the component parts. Fatty Acids A fatty acid is made up of a long chain of hydrogen and carbon atoms, with an extra hydrogen atom at one end and a special group of atoms called a "carboxyl group" (made up of two oxygen, one hydrogen and one carbon atom) on the other end.

A fatty acid can be "saturated" or "unsaturated". In a saturated fatty acid, the carbon atoms are bonded with single bonds; they share one set of electrons. As a result, saturated fatty acids have two hydrogen atoms for each carbon atom. Palmitic Acid, pictured above, is a saturated fatty acid. In an unsaturated fatty acid, there is at least one double bond where one set of carbon atoms is bonded by sharing two sets of electrons, instead of each being connected to a hydrogen atom. Oleic Acid, below, is an unsaturated fatty acid.

Fatty acids are found in fats and oils. Oils and Fats There is no sharp distinction between a fat and an oil. "Oil" commonly means a liquid which at ordinary temperature will flow as a slippery, lubricating, fairly thick fluid. "Fat" normally implies a greasy, solid substance slippery to the touch. It is necessary to differentiate the oils and fats used in the manufacture of soap.

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Hydrocarbon (petroleum-based) oils or paraffins, while included in the general term "oil," do not contain fatty acids and cannot be used to make traditional soap. Animal- and vegetable-based oils and fats do contain the necessary fatty acids, in the form of triglycerides. Triglycerides When the carboxyl group ends of three fatty acid molecules combine with one molecule of glycerol it produces a triglyceride.

This is what we usually think of as "oil" or "fat". The actual physical characteristics of the oil depend upon which fatty acids have attached to the glycerol and whether they are connected to the top, middle or bottom of the glycerol molecule. If primarily unsaturated fatty acids are contained in the triglyceride, then the oil is considered to be an "unsaturated fat". The type of fatty acids also determines whether the triglyceride is solid or liquid at room temperature, how thick it is, the nutritional value and - for soapmakers - the qualities the oil will impart to the soap and its lather.

Definition: Saponification is an exothermic (gives off heat) chemical reaction that occurs when fats or oils (fatty acids) come into contact with lye (a base.) Saponification literally means "turning into soap" from the root word, "sapo", which is Latin for soap. The by-products of the saponification reaction are glycerin and soap.

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Oils + lye (dispersed into water) = soap + glycerin Oils and fats each have what is called a “saponification value”, which is the amount of lye needed to completely neutralize them into soap with no lye left over. Each oil has a different value Saponification

Saponification of a triglyceride with sodium hydroxide. Saponification is a process that produces soap, usually from fats and lye. In technical terms, saponification involves base (usually NaOH) hydrolysis of triglycerides, which are esters of fatty acids, to form the sodium salt of a carboxylates. In addition to soap, such traditional saponification processes produces glycerol. "Saponifiable substances" are those that can be converted into soap.

Saponification of triglyceride Main article: soapmaking Vegetable oils and animal fats are the main materials that are saponified. These greasy materials, triesters called triglycerides, are mixtures derived from diverse fatty acids. Triglycerides can be converted to soap in either a one- or a two-step process. In the traditional one-step process, the triglyceride is treated with a strong base (e.g., lye), which accelerates cleavage of the ester bond and releases the fatty acid salt and glycerol. This process is the main industrial method for producing glycerol. If necessary, soaps may be precipitated by salting it out with saturated sodium chloride. The saponification value is the amount of base required to saponify a fat sample. For soap making, the triglycerides are highly purified, but saponification includes other base hydrolysis of unpurified triglycerides, for example, the conversion of the fat of a corpse into adipocere, often called "grave wax." This process is more common where the amount of fatty tissue is high, the agents of decomposition are absent or only minutely present, and the burial ground is particularly alkaline. Mechanism of base hydrolysis The mechanism by which esters are cleaved by base involves nucleophilic acyl substitution. The hydroxide anion adds to (or "attacks") the carbonyl group of the ester. The immediate product is an orthoester:

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At this stage, the orthoester has a choice: Reforming the carbonyl can be accompanied by expulsion of either the hydroxide or the alkoxide. The former leads back to the starting materials and is unproductive (explaining why saponification is in fact an equilibrium). On the other hand, expulsion of the alkoxide generates a carboxylic acid:

The alkoxide is more basic than the conjugate base of the carboxylic acid, and hence proton transfer is rapid:

In a classic laboratory procedure, the triglyceride trimyristin is obtained by extracting it from nutmeg with diethyl ether. Saponification to the sodium salt of myristic acid takes place with NaOH in water. The acid itself can be obtained by adding dilute hydrochloric acid. oil or fat (acid) avocado oil coconut oil castor oil olive oil palm oil peanut oil soybean oil sweet almond oil jojoba oil kukui nut oil lard tallow SAP 133.7 191.1 128.6 135.3 142 137 135.9 137.3 69.5 135.5 138.7 140.5 Hard/Soft soft hard soft soft hard soft soft soft soft soft hard hard cleansing fair great fair good great fair good good fair good good good fluffy lather yes yes yes no no no no no no no no no stable lather no no yes no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes skin care amazing! fair great great fair great fair amazing! great great fair fair

Keep in mind that most saponification tables merely reveal the Saponification value (more on this later) and not the characteristics of oils in soap; but for your convenience, I've added the 5 most important attributes that are contributed to your finished product by using a specific fat or oil:

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1. Hard/Soft - This column will tell you if a specific acid will produce a hard or soft bar of soap. If a bar of soap is too soft it will dissolve prematurely and become a mushy mess; so make sure that your soap has a certain level of hardness by combining hard oils with soft oils. 2. Cleansing - This column will tell you how well an acid cleans. Keep in mind that all soaps clean relatively well, but some oils produce a soap that is more harsh then others. For the best results, try to combine oils that are mild when saponified with oils that are more harsh when saponified for a balance between a cleansing and conditioning bar. 3. Fluffy Lather - This column will tell you whether or not a specific acid will produce a fluffy lather. A fluffy lather is thick and bubbly but washes away easily. 4. Stable Lather - This column will tell you whether or not an acid will produce a stable lather. A stable lather has very little substance but is harder to wash away. In general, you want a combination of ingredients that produce both fluffiness and stability to your soap's lather. Again, your goal here is balance. 5. Skin care - This column will tell you how beneficial a soap produced by a specific acid is to the skin. It depends mostly on the presence of nourishing vitamins, its mildness and moisturizing abilities. The SAP column (Saponification value) reveals simply how many milligrams of base is required to completely saponify 1 gram of an acid (oil or fat). This number usually tells you how much potassium hydroxide (potash) is needed instead of how much sodium hydroxide (lye) is needed.

 Ingredients
                            Sodium tallowate Sodium cocoate Sodium laureth sulphate Cocamidopropyl betaine Glyceryl laurate Curcuma aromatic Alpha isomethyl Sodium palmate Sodium palm kernelate Water perfume glycerin Pko fatty acid Sodium chloride Titanium dioxide Etidronic acid Lactis protenium Prunus amygdalus dulcis protein Prunus persica fruit extract Sodium alkonate tricarbon citric acid sodium citrate pentasodium pentate tetrasodium etidronate disodium distyrylbiphenyl disulfonate coumarin linalool

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        

benzyl benzoate geraniol Alpha isomethyl Sodium tallowate Sodium cocoate Sodium laureth sulphate Cocamidopropyl betaine Glyceryl laurate Curcuma aromatic

Handmade soap and other natural body products are only as good as the ingredients used to produce them! We chose our ingredients with the intention of creating very high quality, wholesome, handmade products! At Chagrin Valley Soap, when we say ALL NATURAL, it means ALL NATURAL! Also...nestled among the ingredient information are "beauty secret" recipes that you can make from readily available items. Why pay a fortune for synthetic commercial products? Our goal is to provide you with the most skin softening, luxurious lathering, naturally wholesome handmade soaps for all skin types. Chagrin Valley Handcrafted Soaps and Shampoos are made with natural plant oils and botanicals, which are absorbed into the skin naturally, creating healthy skin the way nature intended. Since no artificial ingredients are used in any of our soaps, you will actually feel the difference immediately. They have an amazing effect, not only on your skin, but also on your spirit. Each oil is chosen for the special characteristic it gives to the soap. For example olive is gentle and moisturizing; coconut and palm kernel provide creamy lather; canola conditions skin; castor bean creates fluffy lather; and palm oil creates a hard bar with good cleansing properties. These oils are carefully blended together to produce a superior handcrafted soap. At Chagrin Valley Soap and Craft, we chooseevery soapmaking ingredient with one end-result in mind....the BEST possible natural skincare for YOU! Individual soaps are uniquely crafted with the addition of special oils and butters like sweet almond oil, avocado oil, cocoa butter, jojoba oil, shea butter, and many others. Some soaps contain other natural ingredients like cucumbers, avocados, carrots, oranges, herbs, flower petals, spices, or grains. Since everything that comes in contact with our body affects our general health as well as the condition of our skin,

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choosing natural skin care products and natural ingredients is important. Avocado Oats & Shea Soap (Made with real avocadoes) There are four basic natural ingredients used in Chgarin Valley Handcrafted Soaps; base oils, natural additives, herbal infused oils, and pure botanical essential oils. Click on each box to learn more! If you are taken Base Oils & Butters The science of soap making lies in the selection of the base oils and butters used to create each recipe. Individual oils and special oil blends lend unique properties to the finished soap. Much experimentation has gone into finding just the right mixtures of oils and butter to create our fabulous soaps and shampoos. customers. Our recipes are meticulously developed to produce a mild, rich, soothing soap that feels creamy in your hands, offers a magnificent long-lasting lather, and leaves your skin and hair feeling clean, soft, silky, and radiantly healthy.

(Sweet) Almond Oil, Prunus dulcis, cold pressed from the dried kernels of the almond tree, is an excellent emollient (softening and soothing to the skin) and is known for it's skin nourishing properties. It is a great moisturizer, makes a stable luxurious mild lather and helps condition the skin. This oil has a fine texture and is easily absorbed, leaving the skin soft and smooth without a greasy feel. Not only does this oil help protect the skin's surface, but it also acts as a conditioner to help promote a clear, clean, young looking complexion. It is rich in essential fatty acids, vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, and E and is said to relieve dry, itchy skin. In hair care, sweet almond oil helps condition, nourish, and soften hair.

Aloe Vera Butter, Aloe barbadensis, is an extraction of the healing aloe gel into a solid fraction of coconut oil so that it can be used like a butter. Aloe Butter melts on contact with the skin and is wonderful for treating dry skin, eczema, psoriasis, rosacea, sunburn and chapping. This great product moisturizes and also includes all of the wonderful healing properties of aloe.

Apricot Kernel Oil, Prunus Armeniaca, is expeller pressed from the fruit of the apricot fruit. It is a light oil rich in vitamins A, D & E and in both oleic acid and linoleic acid. Non-greasy and easily absorbed into the skin, apricot kernel oil is frequently used in massage. A great moisturizing and conditioning oil for mature and sensitive skin and skin that is inflamed and dry. It has been said to aid in the repair of the skins elasticity in prematurely aged skin.

Avocado oil, Persea gratissima, expeller pressed from the pulp of the avocado fruit, is a highly therapeuticexotic oil. Wonderfully rich in vitamins A, D, and E, avocado oil is an ingredient in expensive skin care products and shampoos. Avocado oil is very penetrating and imparts valuable nutrients to the skin while it softens, increases elasticity, moisturizes and leaves no greasy residue. Avocado oil is classified as a mono-unsaturated oil and is used for dry or mature skins. It is not only a good moisturizer, but it is believed

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to be very therapeutic for dry skin and eczema because it is a penetrating substance rich in vitamins A, B1, B2 panthothenic acid, E and lecithin and fatty acids. It is also used to treat sun damaged skin that is dehydrated and under nourished. Avocado oil, said to help with the regenerating of skin cells, is often found in products for damaged hair and is believed to be a good hair stimulant and an excellent protein conditioner for the hair & scalp. Avocado oil helps restore luster and hydrate dry and damaged ends. Our pure avocado butter is expeller crushed from the fresh flesh of the avocado fruit and then hydrogenated to yield a creamy, soft butter that has excellent penetrating properties. Avocado butter is a very rich, moisturizing treatment for the hair and skin.

Babassu oil, Orbignya Oleifera, expeller pressed from the seeds of the native Brazilianbabassu palm, is estimated to be worth five times as much as the coffee crop to the Brazilian economy. The major factor affecting the cost is the difficulty of cracking open the fruits to obtain the seeds. Each fruit, weighing up to 8 ounces, has a tough woody shell that may be 1 inch thick. It is cold pressed from the kernel and is produced without chemicals. Babassu has been used for generations by indigenous cultures of South America as a natural moisturizer. A fast penetrating oil, Babassu is one of nature’s richest emollients and is beneficial for either dry or oily complexions. It gently moisturizes, conditions and adds luster to the skin with no greasy after-feel. This skin-nourishing oil contains glycosides, vitamins and minerals that help soften skin and make it supple. It It is especially good for eczema, itchy , dry and inflamed skin. In hair care babassu oil is believed to nourish, moisturize, and restore hair strength, giving you shiny, healthylooking hair.

Beeswax, Cera Alba, produced by the (female) worker honeybees, is secreted from wax glands on the underside of the bee's abdomen. The bees mold the wax into six-sided cells which are filled with honey and then capped with more wax. When honey is harvested, the top layer of wax that covers the cells, called the cappings, must be removed from each hexagon-shaped cell. The beeswax, which contains some honey and propolis, is strained to remove impurities. Unrefined beeswax will vary in color from yellow through brown to black and retain a unique sweet odor. We use unrefined beeswax with the sweet smell of honey, which nourishes and soothes the skin. Skin-nourishing propolis and trace amounts of vitamins and minerals are found in unrefined beeswax. Beeswax also forms a lovely, light barrier on your skin that prevents the loss of moisture from dehydrated skin and helps to seal in the moisturizing oils and butters, without clogging pores. In HAIR CARE Beeswax adds moisture, hydration, and softness to hair and can add shine and glossiness to dull hair.

Interesting Facts About Beeswax It has been estimated that bees must fly 150,000 miles to produce one pound of wax. Bees must eat about six pounds of honey to secrete a pound of wax. For every 100 pounds of honey a beekeeper harvests, only one to two pounds of beeswax are produced. Now you know why beeswax is expensive.

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Today’s phrase “mind your own Beeswax” was coined centuries ago when women used Beeswax to soften the skin on their face. When they would catch another woman staring, they would use the phrase. Of course, when the women smiled, the Beeswax would crack. Thus, the popular phrase "crack a smile” was born.

Beeswax that is thousands of years old differs little from new Beeswax. It does not oxidize and is unaffected by mildew, salt water and other elements.

Camellia Oil, Camelia sasanqua, also known as Tea Oil Camellia in other parts of the world, is expeller pressed from the seeds of an evergreen, flowering, tea tree originally found in the mountains of southeast Asia. Camellia is cultivated in western Japan where the winters are dry and cold. This oil has been used by the Japanese women for skin, hair and scalp care for many years. The camellia plant has been known as a symbol of wealth and happiness in many Asian cultures. Camellia oil is a nongreasy oil excellent for use in skin and hair products as it contains skin restructuring and moisturizing properties. Cold pressed from the seeds of the fruit, camellia oil is high in oleic acid, and vitamins A, B and E. It's antioxidant properties make it a great oil for anti-aging products, as it rejuvenates and restores, giving the skin a radiant glow. Often used in fine facial creams due to its rapidly absorbing property, it is believed to promote the healing of scars, and lighten freckles and age spots. In hair care camellia oil, which has has excellent hair conditioning properties. The components of camellia oil moisturize, soften, and protect hair, and provide it with luster and shine. The Japanese have always used Camellia Oil for hair and scalp care. Women from the island of Oshima, where Camellia tress are very abundant are said to have the most beautiful hair. Camellia makes nourishing shampoos for dry and damaged hair. A shampoo formulated with camellia oil may help with dandruff and hair loss.

Candelilla Wax, Euphorbia antisyphillitica, is derived from the evergreen shrub Candelilla native to the Chihuahuan Desert of northern Mexico. The hard brownish wax, which helps the plant retain moisture, forms as the outer coating on the stems of the plant. The wax is best known as the ingredient in chewing gum giving it its chew and ability to hold the flavor. It is a good alternative to beeswax and is popular among individuals who choose not to use animal derived products.

Canola Oil, Brassica napus canola, is a moisturizing oil that promotes healthy skin. It is nutritious, conditioning, and penetrating for all skin types. Rich in essential fatty acids, especially omega-3 (linolenic acid) and omega-6 (linoleic acid) and high percentage (66%) of oleic acid, canola oil is noted for its conditioning qualities. This medium light oil contains the essential fatty acids, plus vitamins, specifically vitamin E, and minerals. Effective in preventing evaporation of moisture from the skin, canola oil helps to soften and smooth the skin in the same way as other emollients. It is a fabulous oil in soaps and also adds a silkiness to the lather. We use expeller pressed (non GMO) or Organic canola oil. In HAIR CARE, canola oil revitalizes and softens hair as it imparts shine.

Carnuba Wax, Copernica cerifera, is a very hard vegetable wax obtained from the leaves of a Brazilian palm tree. During the hot and dry season, the leaves exude a wax to help conserve moisture and

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thus protect the tree against dehydration. The wax coated leaves are collected individually (no more than 20 leaves are removed from from any one tree to ensure that the tree is not endangered), cut, sun-dried and then thrashed to remove the wax. It is a good alternative to beeswax and is popular among individuals who choose not to use animal derived products.

Carrot Root Oil, a rich golden oil obtained from infusing carrots, is not the same as Carrot Seed Essential Oil. We make our own carrot root oil by drying grated carrots, steeping them in sunflower oil for about a week, and then filtering out the liquid carrot oil. Carrot Root Oil, high in Vitamin A and BetaCarotene, is wonderfully rich and healing, especially for mature, sensitive, or sun-damaged skin, and for skin irritations and rashes. It has been used for hundreds of years for healing the skin. Carrot oil is used in products for premature aging, dryness and scarring. It is claimed to be a beneficial skin tonic used to facilitate healing, sooth itching skin, replenish elasticity, and help psoriasis and eczema. Carrot root oil is sometimes used in sun-screen because it is a source of beta-carotene, a natural antioxidant which is believed to reduce the damaging effects of UV rays. In HAIR CARE carrot root oil helps to balance the moisture and conditions the hair.

Castor Bean Oil, Ricinus communis, also known as Palma Christi oil is expeller pressed from the castor bean plant. It has been in use by many cultures for thousands of years as a folk medicine, being first recorded by the Egyptians as medicinal oil. Rich in fatty acids, it is a soothing, lubricating oil that is readily absorbed by the skin. It moisturizes by acting as a humectant which means it attracts and locks moisture to the skin, creating very emollient bar of soap. Castor bean oil adds mildness and richness to soap and provides a conditioning, fluffy lather with thick, large bubbles. In HAIR CARE: castor oil is great in shampoo bars and is commonly used in hair conditioners and in hot oil treatments for brittle, damaged hair or hair loss. Castor oil coats the hair shaft and smoothes the cuticle layer, sealing in moisture and leaving the hair feeling soft and silky. Since it is easily absorbed by the hair, it allows deeper penetration into the hair shaft for greater hair conditioning and hair stimulant properties. We have received e-mails from concerned customers who have read that castor bean oil is poisonous. Click here to read our response!

Cocoa Butter, Theobroma cacao, a prime pressed creamy yellow butter from the seed of the Cacao Tree, has the distinct aroma of chocolate. Cocoa butter is an excellent all over the body moisturizer as it acts as an emollient (softening and soothing to the skin)that aids in preserving the skin by providing a protective layer that locks in natural moisture. It soothes and softens dry, itchy skin. It is good for all skin types and is particularly excellent for dry skin. The natural emolliency, moisturizing and antioxidant characteristics of cocoa butter make it an excellent choice to rejuvenate the skin. Cocoa butter is often found in products that claim to reduce the appearance of stretch marks and scars. In soap, cocoa butter helps make a hard, very moisturizing bar - great for very dry skin. In HAIR CARE cocoa butter easily absorbs into the hair and imparts sheen. It locks in moisture and helps protect the hair shaft. Plus, it smells good enough to eat! Beauty Secret Cocoa Butter Dry Ends Cream Although nothing mends split ends once they form, use our Three Butter Lotion Bar to temporarily seal split ends and discourage the hair from splitting further. To use, rub a small amount of the lotion bar between the fingertips and apply sparingly to dry ends between shampoos.

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Coconut Oil, Cocos nucifera, one of the main soapmaking oils, comes from the fruit of the Coconut Palm. This oil gives soap cleansing properties and makes a rich creamy lather with big, fluffy bubbles. It is a great moisturizer which is quickly absorbed by the skin and never leaves a greasy feeling. This is one of the best oils known for its lathering and moisturizing properties. It even produces an incredibly rich, creamy, fluffy lather in cold seawater!! Coconut oil is also great in lotion bars, creams, and hair care products. It is used in India as a hair tonic to stimulate hair growth, stimulate the scalp, and prevent graying of hair.

Coconut Oil, Virgin, Cocos nucifera, is a light, penetrating oil extracted directly from freshly cut coconuts. The fresh coconut meat is grated and then expeller pressed to produce the coconut milk. This milk is centrifuged to separate the milk into coconut solids, water and oil. This result is a very creamy coconut oil that retains the smell of fresh coconut milk. This cold process extraction takes place within hours of opening the coconuts and thus conserves the nutritive components of coconuts such as squalane and vitamin E. We use certified organic virgin coconut oil.

Coffee Bean Butter, Coffea arabica, is produced by hydrogenating the cold pressed oil from roasted coffee beans resulting in a butter with a smooth, silky feel with a coffee scent. It is believed that coffee oil may offer natural protection from ultraviolet light and is becoming a popular ingredient in sunscreen products. Coffee butter, rich in phytosterols, provides excellent moisture retention and is easily absorbed by the skin. There is no caffiene in coffee oil, since caffeine is a water soluble component of the coffee bean, but the aroma of coffee butter is fabulous!

Evening Primrose Oil, Oenothera biennis, expeller pressed from the seeds of the Evening Primrose Flower, is rich in vitamins and minerals and is a rich source of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, including gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), which promote healthy skin by conditioning and restoring moisture to dry or rough areas. Gamma-Linolenic acid is a choice ingredient in cosmetic products due to the fact it maintains the skin elasticity. It is particularly recommended for dry and devitalized skin. Evening Primrose has beenused in folk medicine for its skin soothing properties to help with skin conditions like eczema. An excellent oil for dry, aging or chapped skin, evening primrose is often used as a body message oil. Evening primrose oil soap gives a thick creamy lather which cleans and moisturizes dry skin.

Grapeseed Oil, Vitis vinifera, is extracted from the seeds of wine producing grapes. It is a gentle lightweight oil that absorbs into the skin quickly without leaving a greasy feeling. It is very rich in linoleic acid, (also known as Omega 6), an essential fatty acid quite important for the skin and the cell membranes. Oils rich in linoleic acid provide the best moisturizing properties. Grapeseed Oil is believed to have skin cell regenerative properties. It is good in massage oils for those whose skin does not seem to absorb easily and does not aggravate acne. In hair care, grapeseed oil promotes healthy hair and has been used in conjunction with jojoba oil and essential oils as an anti-hair loss massage. It also has good slippage for detangling hair.

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Hazelnut Oil, Corylus avellana, expeller pressed from the hazelnut kernel, resembles olive oil in its characteristics and composition and has long been used for treatment of dry and damaged skin. It absorbs quickly into the skin, not leaving a greasy feel. It is high in oleic acid and has great moisturizing qualities. It is a wonderfully light, penetrating oil with slight astringent qualities believed to help to tone and tighten the skin. Hazelnut oil is high in essential fatty acids and is soothing and healing to dry, irritated skin. Studies have shown that it can filter sun rays and is commonly used in sun care products. Hazelnut oil is a great oil for massage and hair care.

Hemp Seed Oil, Cannabis sativa, is not, as so many people assume, the same plant as marijuana. It is a non- narcotic variety. Medicinal uses for hemp plant seed oil extend as far back as the Ming Dynasty. Hempseed oil is expeller pressed from a tiny nut, rather than a seed, that contains about 20 to 35 percent protein. Hemp seed oil is one of the world's richest sources of polyunsaturated fats and contains more naturally occurring essential fatty acids (EFA) than any other plant-derived oil. Hemp oil is high in both of the essential fatty acids (Omega 3 and Omega 6) and GLA (gamma Linolenic acid), which make it an excellent natural emollient and moisturizer. Hemp seed oil, contains 50%-60% linoleic acid. Oils rich in linoleic acid provide the best moisturizing properties. It is rich in vitamins, such as the natural anti-oxidant vitamin E. Hemp seed oil, which easily penetrates the skin, is believed to reduce skin discomfort by soothing and restoring dry or damaged skin and increasing the natural moisture retention capacity. It leaves skin smooth and moisturized. Hemp oil creates a silky nourishing bar of soap and a nourishing lotion bar. In hair care products, hemp seed oil imparts gloss and manageability to hair, bringing relief from dry scalp or hair damage by blow-dryer heat, chemical perms, coloring or sunlight. The essential amino acids in hemp seed oil aid in keratin formation. Keratin is the principal protein of hair (and nails). It helps increase volume, comb ability and shine. Hemp seed oil smoothes down the cuticle of the hair, which reduces the scattering of light and improves the luster and feel of the hair. Do not confuse hemp seed with its distant cousin, marijuana. Hemp seed oil is drug-free.

Illipe butter, Shorea stenoptera, is obtained from the nuts of the Shorea stenoptera, a magnificent tree that grows in the forests of Borneo. For centuries, the inhabitants of the island have been using butter extracted from the fruits of the tree as a treatment for skin problems. Illipe butter is very similar in nature to cocoa butter, but it has a higher melting point. It has a mild characteristic odor and is creamy white in color. Illipe butter moisturizes the skin, reduces degeneration of skin cells, and restores skin flexibility and elasticity. Many believe it to be the most nourishing of the healing butters. It is used in skin and sun care products, massage creams, and soap. Illipe has great moisturizing properties.

Jojoba Oil, Buxus Sinensis, expeller pressed from the jojoba bean, has been used for skin and hair care for hundreds of years. It's humectant properties help the desert jojoba plant retain water during drought. In reality jojoba oil is not an oil but a liquid wax, and is pronounced "ho-ho-ba." Because the structure of jojoba oil closely resembles that of your own skin sebum (the oil your skin produces), its is considered nature's most effective natural moisturizer. It penetrates the skin easily, is an excellent moisturizer and is ideal for all skin types. It contains myristic acid which also has anti-inflammatory actions. Jojoba oil is believed to rebalance, repair, lubricate, moisture, soften and trap bacteria which is then washed away. It can be used on acne without any problems. It is believed to be great for mature, aging skin and has excellent mildness for sensitive skin. In hair care products, the cleaning properties of jojoba have been well documented. Jojoba is believed to promote hair growth and improve the overall health of the scalp and hair. Jojoba, one of the most easily absorbed oils actually creates a protective film over the skin and hair that keeps moisture in and provides fabulous shine and softness. It does not clog pores.

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Kokum Butter, Garcinia indica, a highly prized butter obtained from the Indian tree Garcinia indica, is a naturally white and incredibly smooth butter. It has enormously high compositions of beneficial materials to help regenerate tired and worn skin cells and further supports elasticity and general flexibility of the skin wall. Kokum Butter is a non-comodegenic (non pore-clogging), high in vitamin E, and rich in essential fatty acids, which aid in cell oxygenation and make nutrients more readily available for use by skin tissues. It has been used traditionally in India to soften skin and restore elasticity and as a balm for dry, cracked, rough and calloused skin. It is a great ingredient to add to healing creams and body butters because of its ability to soften and heal chapped dry skin.

Macadamia Nut Oil, Macadamia ternifolia, expeller pressed from the macadamia nut, is a luxurious oil that easily absorbs into the skin and acts as an emollient moisturizing your skin cells. Since it is believed to be an antioxidant, protecting cell membranes from deterioration,it is great for dry and aging skin. It's properties are very similar to mink oil and to the natural oil (sebum) of human skin. Its high palmitoleic acid content protects the skin just like human sebum--no other known plant oil has a similar composition. It penetrates quickly and hydrates the skin . Mango Butter, Mangifera indica, is an extremely gentle exotic butter that is obtained from the fruit kernels of the Mango tree. The mango tree, is a sacred tree for Hindus, cultivated in India for over 4000 years. Mango butter is rich in high quality essential fatty acids necessary to restore skin tone, elasticity and flexibility, and reduce degeneration of skin cells. It is a great moisturizer and is soothing, softening, and nourishing to your skin. It is non-greasy, absorbs easily into the skin and provides a natural protective effect against UV radiation. Mango butter has been traditionally used in the tropics for its skin softening, soothing, moisturizing and protective properties. An ideal moisturizer for all skin types, Mango butter is believed to prevent drying and formation of wrinkles. Mango butter has been used to provide relief from the dryness of eczema and psoriasis. In hair care, mango butter replaces moisture, adds softness, elasticity and shine to your hair. It is also believed to heal and regenerate hair cuticles. Morwah Butter, Madhuca latifolia, also known as mahua butter, is an exotic, very emollient butter obtained from the seeds of the Madhuca (or Butter) tree native to central India. In India, the butter has both cosmetic and edible uses. Morwahbutter is soft solid at room temperature and melts immediately upon contact with your skin. It is known to reduce the degeneration of skin cells, prevent wrinkles and restore skin elasticity.

Neem Oil, Azadirachta indica, cold pressed from the fruit of the Neem or Margosa tree, is an excellent moisturizing oil whose medicinal use can be traced back to the Indian Harappa culture, 4,500 years ago. In India it is known as “the village pharmacy." Neem was used to treat a wide range of ailments and to this day, the plant plays an essential role in Ayurvedic medicine, the Indian system of natural healing. For centuries the Neem tree, known as the wonder tree of India was commonly called the "Friend and Protector of the Indian Villager.” Traditionally used in Ayurvedic remedies as an antiseptic to fight viruses and bacteria, Neem's skin rejuvenating and skin soothing qualities have been celebrated for centuries. This oil is cold pressed from the Neem or Margosa tree, which bears a fruit that contains a substance with a garlicky odor that has been used as a medicinal treatment of skin diseases and in the manufacture of medicated soap. Due to neem's antibacterial and antifungal properties, it is effective in fighting many skin aliments such as

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acne, psoriasis and eczema. It is especially gentle and nourishing when used for itchy, sensitive or dry skin conditions. In hair care, this oil, derived by crushing the seeds of the Indian Neem, or Margosa Tree, is used to treat itchy, irritated scalps, other scalp problems.

Olive Oil, Olea europea, the queen of oil for soapmaking, has been treasured for centuries for its ability to nourish the skin. It is an extremely mild oil packed with vitamins, minerals and proteins. Olive oil, obtained from cold pressed olives, prevents the loss of skin's natural moisture. It attracts external moisture, holds the moisture close to the skin, and forms a breathable film to prevent loss of internal moisture. Since the fat composition of olive oil is very similar to that of human skin, it rarely causes allergic reactions and does not block the natural functions of the skin. In addition, it’s absorbed quickly and helps lock in moisture and soothe sensitive skin. Olive oil is believed to have healing properties, as well as being an excellent moisturizer. It helps keeps skin soft, supple and younger looking. True old world style Castile soap is made exclusively with olive oil and produces an extremely mild low lathering soap with fine silky bubbles. In hair care, Olive oil has been used for centuries in hot oil treatments. Olive oil helps repair split ends, heals dandruff, and makes your hair shiny, silky, and lustrous.Our pure olive butter is cold pressed from olives and then hydrogenated to yield a rich, creamy emollient. It is a nutrient-rich butter that can help to improve skin elasticity, and reduce the appearance of fine lines. For those with a sensitivity to shea butter, olive butter is a great substitute. Containing natural essential fatty acids and unsaponifiables this butter is an ingredient often used for anti-aging products.

Olive Oil Tutorial: To make olive oil, the ripe olives and pits are crushed. From the olive mash comes olive oil. The method by which the oil is extracted determines the quality of that oil. • • The first light pressing yields extra virgin or virgin olive oil. A second pressing, with a bit more pressure yields "grade A" olive oil.

• After the second pressing, little if any oil can be obtained by adding more pressure to the leftover fruit. To extract more oil a solvent called hexane is usually used to remove the remaining oil from the olive. This oil is considered "grade B" olive oil. • Pomace oil is the lowest grade olive oil of all as it is the oil from the pomace (pits) of the olive.

Our regular grade A olive oil is often called "Pure" Olive oil. It is a mixture of extra virgin olive oil and olive oil obtained from the second pressing of the olives. There are no solvents used in extraction. The organic extra virgin olive oil we use in our products is cold pressed, certified Organic, certified Kosher and made in Italy. Olive Squalane: Olives have the largest percentage of vegetable squalane. Olive squalane is a natural botanical lipid that is similar to the squalane produced by our skin’s sebaceous glands. Human skin naturally produces squalane, which helps protect and lubricate skin. Squalane production increases during adolescence, when it composes up to 15% of skin fats, and peaks around age 25. As we age, our skin produces less and less squalane and by the time we are 50 it can be as low as 5%. Olive squalane is a unique emollient that penetrates quickly and absorbs deeply. Squalane is believed to help to promote cell growth

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and help with dry, rough skin, and skin irritations like eczema and psoriasis. Squalane is often found in anti-aging and wrinkle reducing products. Years ago squalane used in cosmetics was derived from shark liver. Squalane is also found in small quantities in wheat germ oil and rice bran oil.

Palm Oil, Elaeis guineensis, is produced from the pulp or fleshly portion of the fruit of the palm. It makes a nice hard bar of soap that cleans well when used in combination with other oils such as coconut and olive oil. It lends hardness and smooth creamy bubbles to soap. Palm oil is universal and used in many luxury soaps. Organic Virgin Palm Oil, has a rich orange color from the Beta-Carotene content which is 15 times more than that found in carrots. Rich in Vitamins A & E, virgin palm is excellent for skin nutrition and protection. This unrefined organic oil retains all of its natural vitamins and antioxidants. The nutrients in virgin palm oil can help minimize the signs of aging, soothe and heal acne, fight fine lines and wrinkles and help maintain a healthy complexion. Virgin palm oil has been shown to heal scars from acne and may helprelieve psoriasis and eczema. In hair care, virgin palm oil conditions and is great for dry hair. Packed with vitamin A and vitamin E, may help help with hair loss.

Pecan oil, Algooquian Paccan, is light oil, but rich in nutrients. This natural moisturizing oil nourishes and softens dry, chapped skin. It is a soothing emollient, perfect for dry, damaged, or mature skin and is a favorite among massage therapists. The pecan, native to North America and belongs to the walnut family and is the official tree of Texas. The nuts were a food staple of American Indians. The name "Pecan" comes from the Native American word pacane, meaning "nut so hard as to require a stone to crack."

Pumpkin Seed Oil, Cucurbita pepo, derived from the Styrian pumpkin, is rich in Vitamin A and betacarotene. Styrian pumpkins, which originated in Austria, have a yellowish green skin and light orange flesh. The dark green pumpkin seeds do not have an outer shell so they can be easily processed into pumpkin seed oil. We use virgin pumpkin seed oil, cold pressed from the seeds, with a naturally a dark green color and a nutty aroma. This highly nourishing and emollient oil is rich in vegetable protein and contains many valuable nutrients such as Vitamins A, B, C, D, E and K, zinc, calcium, magnesium, Omega 3 and Omega 6, essential fatty acids, antioxidants, and phytosterols. Pumpkin seed oil, particularly good for dry, damaged skin, may be helpful for eczema and psoriasis. Because of its high protein, zinc, and fatty acid content, it is especially good to combat fine facial lines and dryness Rice Bran Oil, Oryza sativa, expeller pressed from the rice barn, is rich in anti-oxidants, has long been used in Japan to protect and moisturize the skin, but is a relatively new discovery here in the USA. In Japanese, Komen Nuka Bi Jin means 'rice bran beautiful person.' In 1987, it was accidentally discovered that the factory workers handling rice hulls in a sake factory had beautifully soft and supple hands. Rice bran oil is rich in gamma-oryzanol, making it a wonderful oil for itchy "alligator" skin. It also contains squalene which is believed to improve skin tone and delay wrinkle formation. Rice bran oil also contains natural antioxidants like tocophyerol (Vitamin E). Rice bran oil, good for mature, delicate or sensitive skin, softens, moisturizes, and promotes regeneration of healthy skin. It is especially good for face and hair care products. It adds sheen and manageability while moisturizing and conditioning the hair without weighing it down. Rice bran oil imparts shine and texture and leaves hair easy to style. Rice bran also contains proteins that help strengthen the hair shaft and prevent split ends

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Rosehip Oil, Rosa rubiginosa, cold pressed extracted, has been used for centuries byEgyptian, Greek and Ayurvedic physicians to treat wounds and inflammation. Rose hips are the seed pod left after the rose petals fall off. The oil, rich in beta-carotene, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, omega fatty acids, and antioxidants, encourages skin regenerationwhich helps to delay the effects of skin aging. The retinoic acid found in Vitamin A helps improve fine lines and wrinkles, while the antioxidants and omega fatty acids protect cells from damage. It easily penetrates dry skin to restore needed moisture. When used as an ointment or topical cream, rosehips oil promotes healing of eczema, rosacea, dermatitis and burns, including radiation and sunburn. It has been known todiminish stretch marks and sunspots (hyper-pigmentation) and work wonders on scars from surgery and acne (even old chicken pox scars). Safflower Oil, Carthamus tinctorius, is expeller pressed from the seeds of the safflower. Since it is a very light and quick to absorb oil, it is becoming a favored oil in the skin care field. Safflower was mentioned in ancient Egyptian texts and was used to heal old wounds. Safflower oil is great addition to skin care products because it has one of the highest linoleic acid (over 70%) contents of all oils and therefore helps to moisturize, nourish and restructure the skin. It's high in vitamin E, a natural antioxidant, which is believed to help keep the skin tissue younger making it especially helpful for delicate, dry or mature skin. It is one of the most moisturizing vegetable oils. We use cold pressed (non GMO) or Organic safflower oil.

Seabuckthorn Oil, Hippophae rhamnoides, fruit comes from a deciduous shrub native to Europe and Asia. The entire berry, fruit and seeds, is cold pressed resulting in a resulting in a deeply colored oil packed with nutrients. The oil is very costly since it takes about ten pounds of berries to produce one pound of oil. The berries have high levels of Vitamin C, omega-3 oils, palmitoleic acid, antioxidants (like vitamin E), B vitamins and beta-carotene, which gives the berries their characteristic color. The high levels of nutrients help improve skin elasticity, repair damaged and dry skin, and combat symptoms of aging skin such as wrinkles. Seabuckthorn has anti-inflammatory and anti-microbiological activity that helps promote wound healing and reduce scarring by encouraging tissue regeneration. When used as an ointment or topical cream, seabuckthorn oil promotes healing of eczema, rosacea, and burns, including radiation and sunburn. There are claims thatseabuckthorn oil kills demodex mites that often cause rosacea. The oil is so concentrated that it may temporarily stain the skin. We use virgin unrefined Shea Butter that is naturally cultivated and naturally processed and certified organic! Shea Nut Butter, Butyrospermum Parkii, also known as African Karite Butter, is obtained from the nut of the Mangifolia Tree. Shea butter has a wide range of amazing properties stemming from its physical make up of vitamins A, E, and cinnamic acid, just to name a few. Shea Butter, containing a natural UV protection, was used for centuries by the natives of the Ivory Coast and Senegal to heal and protect skin due to its anti-inflammatory capabilities. It has been shown to increase the healing of wounds and improve scars. It is used to heal eczema, burns, rashes, severely dry skin, and to lessen the irritation of psoriasis. Shea Butter penetrates deep into your skin, gives back its elasticity and helps dry aging skin. It moisturizes and nourishes your skin and is excellent for dry, damaged and maturing skin. Shea butter contains unsaponifiable fats, which do not turn to soap and thus supply wonderful moisturizing properties in a bar of soap. In hair care Shea Butter provides deep nourishment for the hair shaft, and moisturizes dry, dull hair resulting in improved luster and manageability. An excellent treatment for dry scalp, it absorbs quickly and

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penetrates into the scalp to rehydrate. It is particularly beneficial for processed and heat-treated hair and is also believed to help promote new hair growth.

Liquid Shea Butter Oil (Shea Olein), Butyrospermum Parkii, is true liquid shea butter, not a solvent extracted shea oil. The two most prevalent natural fatty acids in shea butter are stearic acid and oleic acid. Stearic acid is solid at room temperature and oleic (the major fatty acid in olive oil) is liquid at room temperature. If cold pressure or gentle heat is applied, the oleic portion will melt first and can be separated out. Much more solid shea butter is produced than liquid shea oil, thus the liquid shea is a precious commodity. Shea Olein is a valuable ingredient in cosmetics due to its high content of unsaponifiables, the most healing fraction. Liquid Shea Butter penetrates quickly and is great for for dry skin and damaged hair. It is believed to have exceptional nourishing, protective and reparative properties, which may help with aging and/or irritated skin. It also makes an excellent massage oil and leaves hair feeling healthier and more manageable.

Shea butter contains natural latex--people suffering from latex allergies shouldpatch test any shea butter product before using it. Although many people with latex allergies are not effected by shea butter, some are, so it is better to be safe than sorry!

Sunflower Oil, Helianthus annuus, expeller pressed from the seeds which contain 30% of the oil, contains vitamins A, C, and E. It is also very high in essential fatty acids and helps to moisturize, regenerate and condition the skin. This oil is easily absorbed and can be used on all skin types. Its high in tocopherols (vitamin E), a natural antioxidant, which is believed to help keep the skin tissue younger making it especially helpful for delicate, dry or mature skin. It is known to be one of the most moisturizing vegetable oils. In hair care,nutrient-rich sunflower oil moisturizes, nourishes and protects for silky, strong, healthy hair. Sunflower oil is said to be a hair strengthener and prevent aging of the hair follicle. We use cold pressed (non GMO) or Organic sunflower oil.

Walnut Oil, Juglans nigra, expeller pressed from the walnut, is an excellent moisturizer and a great emollient. It absorbs quickly into the skin. Walnut oil is rich in vitamins A, C, and linoleic acid. It is a deep penetrating, very nourishing oil. Walnut oil has a mild astringent action which stimulates circulation. It is believed to have anti-aging, regenerative and skin toning properties, which makes it wonderful for damaged or maturing skin. Walnut oil is an excellent hair care oil. It helps condition your hair and to provide flowing, smooth, and manageable hair. Wheat Germ Oil, Triticum vulgare, expeller pressed from the germ (fertile part) of the wheat kernel. High in Vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, and E, as well as phosphorus, zinc, iron, sulphur, potassium, carotene and vegetable lecithin, wheat germ oil is a highly nutritive ingredient in skin care products. It soothes and nourishes irritated skin and may be helpful with eczema. We use virgin wheat germ oil. It is particularly high in vitamin E, a natural antioxidant, which is believed to promote skin elasticity, nourish skin cells, and prevent moisture loss resulting in smoother, younger looking skin. Mature skin, in particular, will benefit from wheat germ oil. In hair care, the powerful anti-oxidants in wheat germ oil improve the scalp’s ability to utilize oxygen, leaving the scalp healthy. Hair needs oxygen to grow and excessive hair thinning may be due to poor circulation (lack of oxygen) to the affected area. Poor circulation, lack of stimulation, adverse scalp conditions and clogged follicles can all result in less oxygen to the hair follicle. Scientists have found that people with stunted hair growth have up to 38% less oxygen at the hair's root. Wheat germ oil also softens hair.

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Herbal Infused Oils We have been making herbal infused oils for years to impart special flavors in our kitchen never realizing that we were also receiving other benefits from the herbs. Now we use herbal infused oils in our soap to add natural colors, and scents, as well as the beneficial properties of the herbs. We use herbal infused oils in some of our lotion bars, whipped butters, and our salves. To make an infused oil we start with plain oil in a glass jar or casserole. Then we place a bunch of dried herbs in the oil. We slowly and gently warm the oil in the Sun (or a Crockpot in winter) until the wonderful healing properties of the herbs have been infused into the oil. It is like making sun tea, only we use oil instead of water. Then we strain out the herbs, add a fresh batch of dried herbs and continue the process until we have a rich, nourishing, and healing oil. We use a variety of herbs, depending on the properties we are looking for. Someof the herbs we use are harvested from our own organic herb garden or that grow wild in our yard. We also maintain a small herb garden in our greenhouse in order to have fresh herbs all year round. Herbs originated from the ancient Chinese, Greek and Roman civilizations and were passed down through Elizabethan English to the earliest settlers in the New World. Most plants historically categorized as herbs contain some substance in the root, leaf, bark or flower that at one time had been used in medicines. Herbal oils, with their wide range of nutrients, antioxidants and vitamins, have been traditionally utilized to nourish and revitalize the skin, reverse skin aging processes, promote healthy scalp and hair, and combat hair loss. Herbal oils have been used for centuries as a medicines to treat skin problems, help heal skin injuries, and nourish the scalp and hair. The properties of each infused oil depend on the properties of the herb or flower use for the infusion. For example, the therapeutic use of the calendula flower originated in ancient Egypt, where it was prized for its ability to treat wounds, skin abrasions, and skin infections. Calendula is remarkably non-irritating and soothing and is often used in products for newborn babies. Calendula flower petals in oil yield Calendula Infused Oil. Calendula Infused Oil is known for its skin-care properties and is believed to have regenerative and anti-inflammatory properties that help soften and soothe dry, chapped skin. Since the properties of each infused oil depend on the properties of the herb or flower used for the infusion, take some time to learn about individual herbs. There are many books and websites that offer good information on herbs. We have some basic information on our "Natural Additives" webpage.

How Soap Cleans.
Soap is an Emulsifier
A soap micelle has a hydrophilic head that is in contact with the water and a center of hydrophobic tails, which can be used to isolate grime. Soaps are sodium or potassium fatty acids salts, produced from the hydrolysis of fats in a chemical reaction called saponification. Each soap molecule has a long hydrocarbon chain, sometimes called its 'tail', with a carboxylate 'head'. In water, the sodium or potassium ions float free, leaving a negatively-charged head. Soap is an excellent cleanser because of its ability to act as an emulsifying agent. An emulsifier is capable of dispersing one liquid into another immiscible liquid. This means that while oil (which attracts dirt) doesn't naturally mix with water, soap can suspend oil/dirt in such a way that it can be removed. The organic part of a natural soap is a negatively-charged, polar molecule. Its hydrophilic (water-loving) carboxylate group (-CO2) interacts with water molecules via ion-dipole interactions and hydrogen bonding. The hydrophobic (water-fearing) part of a soap molecule, its long, nonpolar hydrocarbon chain, does not interact with water molecules. The hydrocarbon chains are attracted to each other by dispersion forces and

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cluster together, forming structures called micelles. In these micelles, the carboxylate groups form a negatively-charged spherical surface, with the hydrocarbon chains inside the sphere. Because they are negatively charged, soap micelles repel each other and remain dispersed in water. Grease and oil are nonpolar and insoluble in water. When soap and soiling oils are mixed, the nonpolar hydrocarbon portion of the micelles break up the nonpolar oil molecules. A different type of micelle then forms, with nonpolar soiling molecules in the center. Thus, grease and oil and the 'dirt' attached to them are caught inside the micelle and can be rinsed away. Although soaps are excellent cleansers, they do have disadvantages. As salts of weak acids, they are converted by mineral acids into free fatty acids: CH3(CH2)16CO2-Na+ + HCl → CH3(CH2)16CO2H + Na+ + ClThese fatty acids are less soluble than the sodium or potassium salts and form a precipitate or soap scum. Because of this, soaps are ineffective in acidic water. Also, soaps form insoluble salts in hard water, such as water containing magnesium, calcium, or iron. 2 CH3(CH2)16CO2-Na+ + Mg2+ → [CH3(CH2)16CO2-]2Mg2+ + 2 Na+ The insoluble salts form bathtub rings, leave films that reduce hair luster, and gray/roughen textiles after repeated washings. Synthetic detergents, however, may be soluble in both acidic and alkaline solutions and don't form insoluble precipitates in hard water. But that is a different story...

Soaps, Detergents and Cleaning
Fats are isolated from plants and animals. The properties such as solubility relate to their chemical structures. Fats are heated with a strong base to convert them into soaps. The fat you use to make soap, reacts with potassium hydroxide to produce a potassium soap, the potassium salt of the fatty acid. One typical animal fat, stearol, reacts with KOH to form potassium stearate, a soap. Most naturally occuring fats produce a mixture of different salts of fatty acids when they are converted to soap.

The potassium soap formed from your fat is converted to a sodium soap by replacing the potassium ions with sodium ions. A large excess of sodium chloride supplies the sodium ion. You may also notice that the potassium soap is softer than the sodium soap. In addition there is a difference in the way the sodium and potassium soaps behave in water.

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Both potassium and sodium soaps dissolve in water and are effective as cleaning agents. Each has a polar end to the molecule identified by the negative charge and an end that is primarily carbon and hydrogen. The polar end attracts polar water molecules. The other end, hydrocarbon end, attracts oils and other water insoluble materials like fat or grease. Water is a polar solvent and dissolves polar and ionic molecules. Gasoline is nonpolar and dissolves nonpolar materials such as fat or oil. A way to remember this behavior is the simple axiom; "Like dissolves like."

The nonpolar ends of the molecule associate with the fat, grime or dirt which is also nonpolar, The polar or ionic end of the molecule attracts the water molecules. A spherical structure with the polar portions of the molecule on the surface and the nonpolar parts of the molecule in the center is attracted to the water and carries the non-water-soluble material away with it. This spherical shaped unit of soap and grime is a micelle. Magnesium and calcium salts of the same fatty acids that make up potassium and sodium soaps are not water soluble. When sodium or potassium soaps are put into water containing calcium and magnesium ions, the cloudyness, scum or curds consist of less soluble calcium and magnesium soaps. To achieve the same washing or cleaning action, more soap must be added.

There are other materials that also have cleaning capacity like soaps. The molecules of detergents also have polar and nonpolar ends. They clean like soaps except that their calcium and magnesium salts are generally more soluble in water than their soap counterparts. In recent years many different detergents have been introduced for use in cleaning. The conversion of one alkyl sulfate into a detergent is shown below.

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Soap ingredient disrupts testosterone activity

The innocuous bar of soap is the latest product to be at the centre of a chemical controversy, in the wake of a study by researchers at the Center for Health and the Environment, University of California Davis, US. Bill Lasley and his colleagues discovered that triclocarban (TCC) - an antibacterial agent commonly included in soaps and other cleaning products - can disrupt the activity of natural hormones. In tests on cultured human cells and in vivo studies in rats, Lasley's group showed that the chemical amplified the effects of the androgen testosterone and enlarged the sexual organs of rats - including their prostate gland[1]. The team fed the chemical to the rats, mixing doses of 3 micrograms per litre into their food - around three times the amount estimated to be absorbed through the skin during a shower. 'The incidence of enlarged prostate (or benign prostatic hyperplasia) is increasingly common in the US what we need to ask is could it be exposure to this chemical that is inducing it?' said Lasley. "The incidence of enlarged prostate is increasingly common in the US - what we need to ask is could it be exposure to this chemical that is inducing it?" - Bill Lasley TCC has been in use for around 45 years and has raised concern in the past when it was found to persist in effluent from sewage treatment plants[2]. But Lasley's study is the first to identify a mechanism for its effects and bestow it with the infamous title of 'endocrine disrupter'. 'This is a new type of endocrine disrupter - we see a mechanism we didn't recognise before,' Lasley told Chemistry World. 'It's fair to suggest that the chemical may have much more power in a rat than in a human, since the TCC was in their food, whereas humans are exposed to it through their skin. But since we've seen this new mechanism, we need to look at population-based studies and find out how much TCC is in people.' But Lanxess, a German chemical company that manufactures TCC, disputes the value of the study. The company referred to a 2005 evaluation by the European Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP), which reviewed toxicological data on the chemical. 'TCC did not cause carcinogenic or reproductive or developmental effects in in vivo animal studies,' the company said in a statement, adding that according to the evaluated data, the chemical could not be classified as an endocrine disrupter.

Triclocarban, an antibacterial agent used in soap, amplifies the effects of testosterone, researchers have found Lingering risk

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Rolf Halden from Arizona State University's Biodesign Institute, US has studied the environmental persistence of TCC. In a study yet to be published, Halden examined samples from water courses throughout the US, and found traces of chemical in sediment in more than half of them. 'We found contaminated samples at a much higher rate than we expected,' he said. 'We're finding it in parts per million-scale concentrations in the sediment and much higher concentrations in solid waste.' Halden raised concern about secondary exposure to TCC through the recycling of municipal sludge - the solid waste extracted from treated water - which is returned to the environment as agricultural fertiliser. 'Because so much by weight of soap is TCC and it's so persistent, 50-75 per cent of it ends up in agricultural soils,' he told Chemistry World. 'Since this doesn't go away, we must consider if [it] causes harm, not just to us, but to other organisms in the food chain and environment.' The Soap and Detergent Association (SDA), the body representing manufacturers, stressed that it welcomed more research, but called Halden's conclusions 'misleading'. 'Many chemicals used to make everyday products, including those used in laboratory research labs, can be found in the environment in trace amounts. But the mere presence of a chemical does not signify a health risk,' it said in a statement. 'And we have seen no reliable data suggesting TCC poses a health risk.' But Halden is convinced that there is sufficient evidence to warrant the elimination of TCC from personal care products. 'With knowledge of this environmental persistence and the animal study evidence, these chemicals would not be licensed for use today,' he said. 'This chemical doesn't serve any purpose and it's disappointing that regulatory steps have not been taken to remove it from circulation.' Medicated Soaps

Types of Medicated Soaps
There are many types of medicated soaps that can be helpful to us such asanti-bacterial soap that generally helps to relieve various skin problems. Then there are anti fungal soaps having therapeutic effects that reduce the discomfort and relieve the symptoms caused by various fungal infections. One of the very popular types of medicated soaps include the anti acne soap that help in getting rid from acne and pimples. The anti cellulite soap are the medicated soaps for reducing cellulites that are the dimpled skin in such areas of body as hips, thighs and buttocks as a result of deposition of fat. The anti mosquito soapis used to dispel mosquitoes, mostly in mosquitoe-infested areas. There are certain medicated soaps that not only have therapeutic effects but are beauty treatments too such as anti aging soapthat are useful for both cleansing the outer body as well as to slow down the signs of aging. There are many other types of medicated soaps likesensitive skin soap which is gentle to the skin and maintains it properly. Anti itch soap is for relieving skin problem of itching. Anti chlorine soap is used while swimming to keep the harmful effects of chlorine at bay.

Ingredients of Medicated Soaps
Although the basic ingredients of soaps are

similar, there are certain added ingredients of medicated soaps

through which the all the problems are tried to be solved. Antibacterial soap- The medicated antibacterial soaps contain antibacterial chemicals such as triclosan which is

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alcohol. Apart from triclosan, triclocarban/trichlorocarbamide and PCMX/chloroxylenol, tetrasodium EDTA are generally used for antibacterial effect in these soaps. However, it must be remembered that since there are various types of bacteria, effectiveness against any given type of bacterium does not ensure that it is effective against other unrelated types too. The ingredients of antibacterial soaps are generally only contained at preservative level unless the product is marked antibacterial, antiseptic, or germicidal. Antifungal soap- Antifungal soaps are made by adding organic medicinal plant extracts, vitamin E, essential oils, natural glycerin, sulphur and zinc oxide, tea tree oil (melaleuca alternifolia) etc. into the soap. Medicated soaps for skin problems- Medicated soaps for different skin problems have different ingredients. For example, exfoliating soaps for unclogging skin pores sometimes have oatmeal, pine and eucalyptus. Oatmeal opens the pores and deep cleans and removes excess dirt and oil. Pine and eucalyptus cleanse, moisturize and fragrance the skin. Anti cellulite soaps have many natural ingredients, main being seaweeds that can be used alone or in combination with other agents like ivy extract, juniper, aminophylline, coffee bean extract, fennel seed extract, aloe, hyaluronic acid, ginko biloba, horse chestnut, bentonite etc. Many anti acne soaps or oily skin soap have natural ingriedients like neem leaves (azadirachta indica) for extra care and protection for oily skin that mostly suffer from acne and pimples. The best medicated soaps are those that have the exact ingredients that target at the problem for which they are made or bought. So, before buying your medicated soap, check the ingredients and then use it for the best results.

Medicated

Soap Ingridient:

* Kitoconazole * Aloevera * Silicon Oil (i) T.C.C (Trichloro Carbinilide) (ii) T.C.S (Trichlosan) (iii) Chlorhexidine Gluconate (iv) Sulphur (v) Permethrin (vi) Kita-Kinazole Ketoconazol IP * Zinc Pyrithione * Aloevera * Glycerin IP ……..and many more Medicated Soaps

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Medicated Soaps that are used to cure various types of skin diseases. These Soaps are formulated using arnica, hamam oil, calendula, rose merry, exezema, echinacea and jambonndi. Medicated Soaps are very useful to fight against germs and result in healthy skin. With increasing pollution in the environment, there are many skin diseases caused and this can be prevented by the use of our medicated Soaps. Specifications: more...

DISHWASHING SOAP Disliquid (BrE: washing-up liquid), also known as dishwashing soap and dish soap, is a detergent used to assist in dishwashing. It is usually a highly-foaming mixture of surfactants with low skin irritation, and is primarily used for hand washing of glasses, plates, cutlery, and cooking utensils in a sink or bowl. The reduced surface tension of dishwashing water, and increasing solubility of modern surfactant mixtures, allows the water to run off the dishes in a dish rack very quickly. However, most people also rinse the dishes with pure water to make sure to get rid of any soap residue that could affect the taste of the food. Ingredient Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate – Na Salts Cocoamidopropyl Betaine Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulphate + 2EO Cocamide DEA