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Bio Fuels1

Bio Fuels1

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Published by Sekhar Challa

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Published by: Sekhar Challa on Sep 21, 2011
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07/28/2015

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We intended to correlate emissions as a function primarily of biodiesel concentration.
Although it may have been ideal to include other fuel properties for biodiesel or the base fuel as
independent variables, few of the studies which comprised our database included measurements
of all relevant fuel properties. However, the category of "biodiesel" itself was considered to be a
reasonable surrogate for the missing biodiesel fuel properties in light of the fact that biodiesel
properties appeared to be largely constant across the studies in our database. In addition, we
were able to investigate the impacts of base fuel properties in a general fashion based on a
qualitative scale of "cleanliness," described more fully in Section III.C.2.e below.

While biodiesel fuel properties generally fell within a narrow range, natural cetane
number was an exception; it varied significantly from one batch of biodiesel to another. Cetane
number was measured for nearly every biodiesel and base fuel, providing a means for its
inclusion in our analysis. However, since in the field the cetane number of a given batch of
biodiesel or the base fuel to which biodiesel is added is not always known, correlations which
include cetane number as an independent variable may not be the most user friendly. Therefore,
although cetane number was not included in our final correlations, it was used in several other
aspects of our analysis, such as:

Establishing differences between animal and plant based biodiesel, as described in
Section II.E.1

Along with other fuel properties, categorizing base fuels as either "Clean" or
"Average" emitting, as described more fully in Section III.C.2.e

21

Determining whether EGR-equipped engines are likely to respond to biodiesel in
a similar fashion to engines not equipped with EGR, as described in Section
IV.B.5

One common technique in multivariable regression analysis is to standardize the
independent variables. Standardization involves subtracting the mean from every observation,
and then dividing the result by the standard deviation. It is useful for comparing the regression
coefficients of the different independent variables to determine relative importance. However, in
our approach we included only a single independent variable, the biodiesel concentration. Also,
through preliminary regressions we determined that a squared biodiesel term was not necessary.
As a result, we did not standardize the independent variable in our analysis.

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