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Bio Fuels1

Bio Fuels1

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Published by Sekhar Challa

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Published by: Sekhar Challa on Sep 21, 2011
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07/28/2015

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Tier 3 toxics include those toxic compounds for which the analyses described in Section
VI.B above are significantly in conflict with one another. The effect of biodiesel on toxics
cannot be determined quantitatively or qualitatively. The toxics which we have determined fall
into this tier include benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and toluene. A discussion of the analyses for these
tier 3 toxics is given below.

Benzene: The correlation between % change in benzene emissions and %
biodiesel in Table VI.B-3 was not statistically significant, suggesting that benzene
emission are not affected by the addition of biodiesel to conventional diesel fuel.
Ignoring statistical significance, this correlation suggests a small increase in
benzene emissions with increasing biodiesel concentration, consistent with the
(highly non-significant) binomial analysis. Table VI.B-4 shows that the
combination of the benzene/HC correlation from Table VI.B-2 with the basic HC
model from Section IV.A.1 indicates that benzene emissions decrease with
increasing biodiesel concentration, a result that is inconsistent with the trends
suggested in Tables VI.B-3 and VI.B-5. In addition, the mean effect at 20%
biodiesel is directionally opposite to the mean effect at 100% biodiesel (Table
VI.B-6). As a result, we cannot conclude with confidence that benzene emissions
are unaffected by biodiesel addition, nor can we discern a clear direction for the
effect.

98

1,3-Butadiene: The correlation between % change in 1,3-butadiene emissions and
% biodiesel in Table VI.B-3 was not statistically significant, suggesting that 1,3-
butadiene emissions are not affected by the addition of biodiesel to conventional
diesel fuel. Ignoring statistical significance, this correlation suggests a small
decrease in 1,3-butadiene emissions with increasing biodiesel concentration,
which is inconsistent with the (highly non-significant) binomial analysis. The
correlation between the mass ratio of 1,3-butadiene to HC and % biodiesel was
not significant, suggesting that the mass ratio should remain constant and
therefore that the correlation between % change in 1,3-butadiene emissions and %
biodiesel should not only have been statistically significant, but of a magnitude
close to that for the basic HC model from Section IV.A. This was, however, not
the case. With such conflicting results, we cannot conclude with confidence that
there is no effect of biodiesel on emissions of 1,3-butadiene, nor can we infer a
direction for any potential impact.

Toluene: The correlation between % change in toluene emissions and % biodiesel
in Table VI.B-3 was not statistically significant, suggesting that toluene emissions
are not affected by the addition of biodiesel to conventional diesel fuel. The
binomial analysis would support this conclusion. However, the mean % change
values at 20% biodiesel and 100% biodiesel are both positive (Table VI.B-6),
suggesting that toluene emissions should increase with increasing biodiesel
concentration. The correlation between the mass ratio of toluene to HC and %
biodiesel was not significant, suggesting that the mass ratio should remain
constant and therefore that the correlation between % change in toluene emissions
and % biodiesel should not only have been statistically significant, but also
negative. Table VI.B-4 shows that the combination of the toluene/HC correlation
from Table VI.B-2 with the basic HC model from Section IV.A.1 indicates that
toluene emissions decrease with increasing biodiesel concentration, a result that is
inconsistent with the trends suggested in Table VI.B-3.

99

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