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Sarmiento, Chermilyn J. C#31 2007106244 MAS-4 ENG13-A10 (7:30-9:00 AM)
Introduction of Macro Skills
In learning, there are four macro skills that we must deal with in order to communicate effectively. Macro skills refer to the primary, key, main, and largest skill set relative to a particular context. It is commonly referred to in English language. The four macro skills are reading, listening, writing, and speaking. Each skill has its reasons of why we should be knowledgeable on how to communicate using the four macro skills. These skills are essential for communicating. It is tough to study a balance of the four macro skills which are writing, reading, writing, and listening. Being good at only one of these communicative skills will not help us smooth away the difficulties in communicating. With these four macro skills, it can make a big difference in your work place in social situations and personal achievements. Learning and consistently seeking to improve these macro skills are important for effective communication and to be successful in many different perspectives. Ideas, emotions, opinions and feelings need to be conveyed in different manners and in a variety of ways. To know when to use which macro skill to acquire, access, encounter, and evaluate information and ideas is a higher order of thinking skill that can be learned over time with much practice and strategies.
In each skill, it is equally vital as each is related. These can be divided into receptive; reading and listening, and productive skills which are speaking and writing. Within each skill, there are sub skills, for example, in writing there are specific
information, there is reading for the main or essential part of a matter. In listening, one must be attentive and active to follow instructions. People with good communication skills are better to use them creatively and responsibly and to evaluate its worth. Without having communication, we would never be done as far as what we have today. Everyday is learning opportunity. The four macro skills is in our everyday life.
Speaking Speaking is the direct and useful form of communicating. This is one of the main macro forms of communication as it is physically interacting with another person through a certain language. To speak helps us to communicate our thoughts, ideas, suggestions, comments, etc in the most natural and reliable way without much distortion of information. It requires resources that are naturally available to every living thing by nature. Communication is very important to have fair and justified decisions and various levels of society, governance, and information sharing growth. Speaking, being the most important, reliable and easy means of communication derives its importance in that manner. In speaking, one needs not only to learn its vocabulary and grammar, but also the context in which words are being used. It is a vocalization of human communication. Being able to express and iterate an idea, a concept, or an opinion through speech or speaking is essential in the communicative process. Being able to create relativity on what we are thinking in effective and direct manners which allows us to communicate
effectively with others in a variety of situations. With these definitions, it helps us to avoid the element of confusion which might lead us to conflicts. It also helps us for our self development and growth in our work place. In this case, speaking can also provide an element of control to any situations given. In our work place, we used to talk to express our ideas, concepts, comments, and suggestions. We are speaking when we disagree or when we agree. Speaking is a complex where we connect to one another. It is a process in which we discuss our knowledge through subjective or objective. Speaking helps you to expand the knowledge using minimal responses and recognizing scripts. In this case, our individual ideas will elevate and improve by connecting to other ideas. To speak is to facilitate. Speaking can be an intimidating experience. When speaking, two things are being delivered. First is the meaning that is taken from it. Second is on how you deliver the words with emotions and right dictions. In speaking, it is very important for the comprehension that occurs through connection to its experiences, feelings and its ideas. It is also the part where we think out loud and share all the ideas that we have for changes, for instructions, and to lead us in creative thinking. Upon practicing and learning, communication is a complex process where you will figure out that it is not easy skill to perfect. Speaking is a state of being connected, one with another. It is also the way of transferring meaning from one individual to another. It is also the expression of oneself in such a way that one is readily and clearly understood. There are skills that can be implemented in speaking; to appropriately accomplish communicative functions according to situations, participants, and goals. To
use appropriate styles, registers, redundancies, pragmatic conventions, conversion rules, interrupting, and other sociolinguistic features in face-to-face conversations. In conveying links and connections between events and communicate such as relations as focal and peripheral ideas, events and feeling, new information and given information, generalization and exemplification. Conveying facial features, kinesics, body language, and other nonverbal cues along with verbal language is also implemented in speaking. Developing and using the battery of speaking strategies, such as emphasizing key words, rephrasing, providing a context for interpreting the meaning of words, appealing for help, and accurately assessing how well your interlocutor is to understand you.
Listening Listening is one of the most important skills you can have. Perhaps it is the most critical element in language learning, for it is the key for speaking and the basis for the other two, reading and writing. When learning a new language, the best way to do is to engage in a balance of each of these areas, as they are all interconnected. If these skills are not practiced it will end up being weaker. Clearly, listening is a skill that we can all benefit from improving. By becoming a better listener, it will improve your productivity. You will also avoid conflict and misunderstandings. There are number of ways of listening, Passive Listening, Active Listening and Competitive Listening.
Active Listening, considered as the most effective because the listener is not only listening with interest, but with actively acknowledging listening by brief responses. One way to become a better listener is to practice this mode. To hear not only the words that the other person is saying, but also more importantly, you try to understand the complete message what is being said. The listener must pay attention to the person very carefully. Active listeners really concentrate on the content of the lecture and not on the lecturer or any random distinctions in the room of their mind. People who are active listeners do more focus on facts, figures and ideas actively associate the material presented with their own experiences. You cannot allow yourself to become distracted when listening. You must not also speak right away or argue that makes the other person stops in speaking. And do not lose your focus in listening. These are example of lack of listening and understanding. Active listening within the workplace aims to ensure understanding between colleagues, including supervisors or managers, to reduce potential misunderstanding, confusion and conflict. Some people had a hearing difficulties, the task of active listening can be challenging to them. A Passive Listener, can be compared to a rock. You know it is there, you can see it, but it just seem that its not absorbing anything that the speaker is saying. A passive listener is mechanical and effortless. It does not give any feedback from the speaker. These are listeners who are basically interested in what the other person is saying and tend to pay attention. They are attentive but don’t necessarily interact verbally.
It is important to use effective listening skills with your family, friends and coworkers. Both active and passive listening are essential to accurately hear a speaker’s words to assure the speaker you are paying attention. When active listening involves verbal confirmation, passive listening is just as important. It allows the speaker to completely divulge what he needs to say. A Competitive Listeners are those people who are only half-listening to what is being said, because they are more focused on how will they respond. Competitive listeners are good listeners but when they had the chance to jump right in, they will now tell their own argument, opinion or thought. Usually they do more talking than listening. Competitive sometimes called as Combative Listening happens when we are more interested in promoting in our own point of view than in understanding or exploring someone else’s view. Either we listen for opening to take the floor, or for flaws or weak points then they now go to speak and take the floor.
Listening effectively is difficult because some people vary in their communication skills and in how clearly they express themselves. They often have different needs, wants and purposes for interacting. To enhance you listening skills, you need to let the person know that you are listening to what he or she is saying. Acknowledgement can be something as simple as a nod of the head. Nodding isn't already agreeing of what the person is saying but it is a sign that you are listening to them. You should also respond to the speaker to encourage them to continue speaking, so that you can get the information you needed.
A person is listening when he understands the message of what the speaker's intended to. It is not just hearing the words but listening for the message. We listen effectively, if we understand what the person's is thinking or feeling, as if we are standing in the speaker's shoes. We see what are the speaker's perspectives. We can say that the person is listening effectively if he/she is actively involves in the communication process, and is not just listening passively.
Pay attention to the speaker. Make an eye contact with the speaker to indicate that you are listening to what they are saying. Do not look somewhere else around you. it will let you wander other things rather than the message of the speaker. Also use body languages, it is also a sign that you are participating with them. Respond and ask questions if you think you don't understand the message. Allow the speaker to finish. Do not interrupt with counter arguments. And most of all, listen for the main ideas. It is the most important points the speaker wants to get across.
When having a meeting with your co-workers, you must listen very well in every person in their every message. You must understand first the message before you respond.
Being active listener or effective listener, is the key to success in your workplace. You will not have a conflict with other employees and with your given tasks. It will help you finish your workload without having a hard time thinking what your boss wants you to do because you did not understand what he said.
Good communication in your team or workplace will lessen your difficulties to finish all of your given tasks. What’s more, you’ll avoid conflict and misunderstandings. All of these are necessary for workplace success.
Reading Reading is the 3rd of the four-macro skills. Reading is a complex skill that is taught when you're still young as it's essential for learning and development and vocabulary. It is also an act or activity of rendering aloud written or printed material. Reading is also an ability to understand reading material in a form of a paragraph or a sentence. We used the skill reading for scanning information and understanding what the writers want to tell and evaluate what we read and incorporate information from multiple sources. When you learned the different macro skill including reading it is very helpful in the workplace. And there are many advantages associated in reading like learning vocabulary in a context, seeing correct structure in English, and to it will improve your personal interest in reading. When you read you usually encounter new word and things. It can help high your vocabulary skill and apply it when you are communicating to other people.
Reading comprehension involves decoding symbols with the intention of deriving meaning from the text. This can be used for further processes such as sharing knowledge, self-development or simply relaxation and escapism into the realms of fiction. Reading can also significantly improve other micro skills such as spelling,
evaluative processes and the imagination.
Reading more will help you a lot to expand your vocabulary. Especially when you are at your workplace like business terms. Read and fully understand workplace documents, including information and details, ideas (both explicit and implied), technical information and writer requirements.
Workplace reading includes the ability to understand and interpret various documents including diagrams, directories, correspondence, manuals, records, charts, graphs, tables and specifications.
Make sure to surround yourself with English newspapers or read websites online to get yourself used to reading the language. if you do not understand a particular word, keep reading and you can always then come back to the word at the end if you still don't know what it means. Record any new vocabulary in a notebook as you come across it.
Most important thing is that reading and listening are inputs whereas speaking and writing are outputs. In other words, if you want to improve your speaking and writing skills you should first master the skills of reading and listening.
Writing Writing is defined as the act or the art of forming letters and characters on paper,
wood, stone or to other material, for the purpose of recording the ideas and information in which characters and words express of communicating to others by visible signs. Writing is also anything written or printed that expressed in characters and letters.
Writing is the last thing you could learn in the four-macro skill but it is the most complex skill in communication. Some people are having a hard time and striving in expressing their ideas and though in textual form it will need time to practice and willingness to learn new things in other to master the skill. It 's one way to express you ideas and feelings in the way you want it. .
When writing any kind of business document or paper, you want to include adequate backup for your arguments in the form of facts, studies, or statements from experts. Papers that lack supporting evidence for your central idea can seem vague, meandering, or ineffectual.
A strong outline will aid you un seeing what kind of support you need for your central idea and how to organize them effectively into a cohesive whole. Writers usually run into trouble with paragraph breaks when they do not plan out their writing carefully in advance. With a strong outline it will help you organize your paragraphs in advance according to your topics. Following your outline while you write will help you break your paragraphs in logical ways.
Sentences that are overly long or awkward make your arguments difficult to
follow and can muddy your great ideas. Other people use their sentence with many extra words for them to show that their sentences or works are long, so that they can say they know more about it. But others just prefer simpler, short and concise explanations. The simpler the word is the better choice, shorter and more concise. Whenever you omit needless words and simplify sentence structure, you can avoid awkwardness and wordiness in your sentences and paragraphs.
Needless words are like redundant that can and should be cut to get to the topic at hand. Wordiness complicates sentence structure and requires more work on the part of the reader to tease out the writer’s true meaning. Writers usually run into trouble with paragraph breaks when they do not plan out their writing carefully in advance. It is like that in a formal essay, the audience is the professor, but many of the writing assignments you’ll receive as a student.
When you are writing especially if it is about business, you should avoid using “informal language”. Words that you usually use in your everyday life, like, major, total, are not appropriate to the tone you want to set as a business professional. Also, you should always check that you want to make sure that your arguments and statements are as clear as possible by not overusing jargon, even if it may be endemic to the industry. If you assume you know more than the person to whom you’re writing, your arguments and explanations will be as clear as possible.
A strong beginning means writing a dynamic introduction that both underscores the reason for writing and leads up to your thesis statement, which will then explain the topic you’ll discuss, what your central argument will be, and how you’ll support that argument. A strong conclusion is the place to underscore the points you’ve made and expound one last time on what you want the reader to remember after having read your paper.
Writing is one of the helpful skill in the workplace in doing reports, answering emails and writing memos and taking down some notes coming from you boss in a meeting. But writing in the workplace is differs from the other writing format. There are issues which arises in the business context and it will making a good and effective elements of business writing can lead you to is more on business context, focus more in the audience and one way to remember thins is when you write it. Taking down notes is very helpful in your workplace. so that you wouldn't miss what your boss asks you to do.
Reference: http://www.workplacebasicskills.com/frame/workplace_skills/skills.htm http://www.enotes.com/business-finance-encyclopedia/reading-skills-business http://www.sabes.org/curriculum/instruction/workplace-writing-skills1.pdf http://www.ehow.com/info_8313176_four-macro-skills-communication.html
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