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RETAINING WALLS
To hold back the masses of earth or
loose soil where conditions make it
impossible to let those masses
assume their natural slopes.
TYPES
GRAVITY WALLS
RETAINING WALLS
TYPES
RETAINING WALLS
CANTILEVER
TYPES
RETAINING WALLS
COUNTERFORT
TYPES
RETAINING WALLS
COUNTERFORT
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TYPES
RETAINING WALLS
BUTTRESS
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PARTS
CANTILEVER RETAINING WALLS
STEM
or
Wall Slab
TOE
HEEL
KEY
BACKFILL
FRONT
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EARTH PRESSURES
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Liquids are frictionless and
cohesion less. So in liquid
retaining structures the
pressures are directly related to
the density of the liquid and
head.
y
¸y
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EARTH PRESSURES
School of Civil EngineeringAIT
SIITThammasat University
However, this is not true for
soils:
Sand, for example, when dry,
acts as a frictional material
without cohesion and has a well
defined angle of repose .
EARTH PRESSURES
School of Civil EngineeringAIT
SIITThammasat University
If the same sand is now
moistened, it develops a
certain amount of cohesive
strength and its angle of
repose increases, somewhat
erratically.
EARTH PRESSURES
School of Civil EngineeringAIT
SIITThammasat University
Further wetting will break down
the internal friction forces until
the sand slumps and will hardly
stand at any angle at all.
EARTH PRESSURES
School of Civil EngineeringAIT
SIITThammasat University
Clay on the other hand when first
exposed in situ stands vertically
to considerable depths when
reasonably dry, but after time will
subside, depending on its
moisture content.
EARTH PRESSURES
School of Civil EngineeringAIT
SIITThammasat University
And clay, in dry seasons, gives up its
moisture to atmosphere with
subsequent shrinkage, so that at
depths less than about 1 or 2 m it may
be unreliable as a stop to react the
forward movement of a retaining wall.
EARTH PRESSURES
School of Civil EngineeringAIT
SIITThammasat University
Thus the lateral pressures from
soils can vary very widely
depending on the moisture
content.
EARTH PRESSURES
• PRESSURE AT REST
• ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE
• PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE
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PRESSURE AT REST
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When the soil behind the wall is
prevented from lateral movement
(towards or away from soil) of
wall, the pressure is known as
earth pressure at rest.
PRESSURE AT REST
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This is the case when wall has
a considerable rigidity.
Basement walls generally fall in
this category.
PRESSURE AT REST
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RIGID
ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE
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If a retaining wall is allowed to
move away from the soil
accompanied by a lateral soil
expansion, the earth pressure
decreases with the increasing
expansion.
ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE
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A shear failure of the soil is resulted
with any further expansion and a
sliding wedge tends to move forward
and downward. The earth pressure
associated with this state of failure is
the minimum pressure and is known
as active earth pressure.
EARTH PRESSURES
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H
H/3
o
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 o o
 o o
o
2 2
2 2
cos cos cos
cos cos cos
cos
÷ +
÷ ÷
=
a
C


sin 1
sin 1
+
÷
=
ah
C
H
H/3
o = 0
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PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE
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If a retaining wall is allowed to move
towards the soil accompanied by a
lateral soil compression, the earth
pressure increases with the
increasing compression in the soil.
PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE
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 o o
 o o
o
2 2
2 2
cos cos cos
cos cos cos
cos
÷ ÷
÷ +
=
P
C


sin 1
sin 1
÷
+
=
ph
C
o = 0
= 1/C
ah
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STABILITY
• OVERTURNING
• SLIDING
• BEARING
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OVERTURNING
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Highway Loading (Surcharge)
OVERTURNING
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Overturning Forces
No Surcharge Here
Full Surcharge Here
Active Pressure
Soil+Surcharge
OVERTURNING
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Restoring Forces
No Passive
Pressure
Weight of Soil
Weight of Wall
Weight of Soil
(with care)
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OVERTURNING
Restoring Moment
Overturning Moment
FOS vs OT =
A FOS = 2 is considered sufficient
SLIDING
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Sliding Forces
No Surcharge Here
Full Surcharge Here
Active Pressure
Soil+Surcharge
H1
SLIDING
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Resisting Forces
H2 + o E V
o=Coeff of Friction
No Surcharge Here
H2
V
s1
V
s2
V
c1
V
c2
V
c3
Resisting Forces
SLIDING without KEY
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Passive Earth Pressure Force+o E V
Active Earth Pressure Force
FOS vs Sliding =
A FOS = 1.5 is considered sufficient
SLIDING with KEY
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Sliding Forces
No Surcharge Here
Active Pressure
Soil+Surcharge
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Resisting Forces
No Surcharge Here
H
V
s1
V
s2
V
c1
V
c2
V
c3
SLIDING with KEY
Find Vertical forces
acting in front and
back of key
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No Surcharge Here
V
s2
V
c1
V
c2
V
s1
V
c3
RESULTANT
Active Pressure
Soil+Surcharge
SLIDING with KEY
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SIITThammasat University
Determine Pressure
Distribution Under Base
B
B/2
e
A=B
S=B
2
/6
2
6
B
Ve
B
V
+
2
6
B
Ve
B
V
÷
V
x
SLIDING with KEY
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Determine Force in Front of KEY
B
x1
P1
P2
y1
y2
y3
y3=y2+(y1y2) (Bx1)/B
P1=(y1+y3) x1/2
P2=VP1
SLIDING with KEY
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When Pressure Distribution Under
Base is Partially Negative
B
B/2
e
2
6
B
Ve
B
V
+
2
6
B
Ve
B
V
÷
V
SLIDING with KEY
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SIITThammasat University
B
x
e
2
6
B
Ve
B
V
+
2
6
B
Ve
B
V
÷
V
3x
2V
3x
Determine P1 and
P2 once again
P1
P2
SLIDING with KEY
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Total Sliding Force = H1
Total Resisting Force = P1 tan  + o P2 + H2
Force in Front of Key
Internal Friction of Soil
Passive Earth
Pressure Force
Force on and
Back of Key
Friction b/w Soil, Concrete
Active Earth Pressure Force
SLIDING with KEY
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BEARING
1. No surcharge on heel
2. Surcharge on heel
There are two possible critical conditions
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BEARING
No Surcharge on Heel
V
s2
V
c1
V
c2
V
s1
V
c3
RESULTANT
Active Pressure
Soil+Surcharge
This case has been dealt already
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BEARING
Surcharge on Heel
V
s2
V
c1
V
c2
V
s1
V
c3
RESULTANT
Active Pressure
Soil+Surcharge
Vs
DETERMINE THE PRESSURE
DISTRIBUTION UNDER BASE SLAB
School of Civil EngineeringAIT
SIITThammasat University
Determine Pressure
Distribution Under Base
B
B/2
e
A=B
S=B
2
/6
2
6
B
Ve
B
V
+
2
6
B
Ve
B
V
÷
V
x
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SIITThammasat University
Compare Pressure with
Bearing Capacity
B
2
6
B
Ve
B
V
+
2
6
B
Ve
B
V
÷
2
6
B
Ve
B
V
+
FOS vs Bearing =
Allowable Bearing
Max Bearing Pressure
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SIITThammasat University
ALTERNATELY
B
2
6
B
Ve
B
V
+
2
6
B
Ve
B
V
÷
FOS vs Bearing =
Allowable Bearing
Max Bearing Pressure
2V/3x
2V/3x
3x
END OF PART I
BENDING OF WALL
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DESIGN OF STEM
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CRITICAL SECTIONS
Active Pressure
Soil+Surcharge
Critical Section
Moment
Critical Section Shear
d
DESIGN OF STEM
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Design Moment
=1.6 (H1 y1 + H2 y2)
H1=Ca s h
Surcharge = s N/m
2
H2=0.5 Ca ¸
s
h
2
y1
y2
h
DESIGN OF STEM
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Design Shear=1.7(H '1+H '2)
H'1=Ca s (hd)
Surcharge = s N/m
2
H'2=0.5 Ca ¸
s
(hd)
2
d
h
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
÷
+
÷
2
2 1 7 . 1
h
d h
H
h
d h
H
DESIGN OF TOE SLAB
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CRITICAL SECTIONS
Critical Section
Moment
d
Critical Section (Shear)
DESIGN OF TOE SLAB
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Design Loads
1.6Soil Pressure
0.9 Self Wt
0.9 Soil in Front
(may be neglected)
TOE : DESIGN MOMENT
1.6(0.5 T y3) T/3
+1.6(0.5 T y1) 2T/3
0.9 w
c
T
2
/2
0.9 w
s
T
2
/2
T
y1
y3
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TOE : DESIGN SHEAR
1.6(0.5 T
s
) y3 T
s
/T
+1.6(0.5 T y10.5 d [y1/T] d)
0.9 w
c
T
s
0.9 w
s
T
s
Ts=Td
y1
y3
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DESIGN OF HEEL SLAB
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CRITICAL SECTIONS
Critical Section
Moment & Shear
TENSION FACES
DESIGN OF HEEL SLAB
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DESIGN LOADS
1.6s + 1.2 ¸
s
+1.2 ¸
c
Soil Pressure Neglected
BENDING OF WALL
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MAIN REINFORCEMENT
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Minimum 75 mm Clear Cover
ACI CODE
SECONDARY STEELS
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ACI Minimum SLAB
ACI 14.3.3
ACI 14.3.2
END OF PART II
DRAINAGE
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Sand + Stone Filter
Weepers
Or
Weep Holes
DRAINAGE
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Drainage Pipes
f
100200 mm @ 2.5 to 4 m
DRAINAGE (Alternate)
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Perforated Pipe
Suited for short walls
END OF PART III
End of Part III
FUNCTION
To hold back the masses of earth or
loose soil where conditions make it
impossible
to
let
those
masses
assume their natural slopes.
RETAINING WALLS
TYPES GRAVITY WALLS
RETAINING WALLS TYPES CANTILEVER .
RETAINING WALLS TYPES COUNTERFORT .
SIITThammasat University RETAINING WALLS TYPES COUNTERFORT School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University RETAINING WALLS TYPES BUTTRESS School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University CANTILEVER RETAINING WALLS PARTS STEM or Wall Slab BACKFILL FRONT TOE KEY HEEL School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
School of Civil EngineeringAIT . So in liquid retaining structures the pressures are directly related to the density of the liquid and head.SIITThammasat University EARTH PRESSURES Liquids are frictionless and cohesion less.
SIITThammasat University y gy School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University EARTH PRESSURES However. when dry. for example. acts as a frictional material without cohesion and has a welldefined angle of repose . School of Civil EngineeringAIT . this is not true for soils: Sand.
somewhat erratically. School of Civil EngineeringAIT . it develops a certain amount of cohesive strength and its angle of repose increases.SIITThammasat University EARTH PRESSURES If the same sand is now moistened.
School of Civil EngineeringAIT .SIITThammasat University EARTH PRESSURES Further wetting will break down the internal friction forces until the sand slumps and will hardly stand at any angle at all.
School of Civil EngineeringAIT .SIITThammasat University EARTH PRESSURES Clay on the other hand when first exposed in situ stands vertically to considerable depths when reasonably dry. depending on its moisture content. but after time will subside.
gives up its moisture subsequent to atmosphere so with that at shrinkage. School of Civil EngineeringAIT . depths less than about 1 or 2 m it may be unreliable as a stop to react the forward movement of a retaining wall.SIITThammasat University EARTH PRESSURES And clay. in dry seasons.
SIITThammasat University EARTH PRESSURES Thus the lateral pressures from soils can vary very widely depending on the moisture content. School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University EARTH PRESSURES • PRESSURE AT REST • ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE • PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University PRESSURE AT REST When the soil behind the wall is prevented from lateral movement (towards or away from soil) of wall. the pressure is known as earth pressure at rest. School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
Basement walls generally fall in this category.SIITThammasat University PRESSURE AT REST This is the case when wall has a considerable rigidity. School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University PRESSURE AT REST RIGID School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE If a retaining wall is allowed to move away from the soil accompanied by a lateral soil expansion. the earth pressure decreases with the increasing expansion. School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE A shear failure of the soil is resulted with any further expansion and a sliding wedge tends to move forward and downward. School of Civil EngineeringAIT . The earth pressure associated with this state of failure is the minimum pressure and is known as active earth pressure.
SIITThammasat University EARTH PRESSURES School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University d H H/3 Ca cosd cosd cos d cos 2 2 cosd cos d cos 2 2 School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University d0 H H/3 Cah 1 sin 1 sin School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
School of Civil EngineeringAIT . the earth pressure increases with the increasing compression in the soil.SIITThammasat University PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE If a retaining wall is allowed to move towards the soil accompanied by a lateral soil compression.
SIITThammasat University PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University C P cosd cosd cos d cos 2 2 cosd cos d cos 2 2 d=0 C ph 1 sin 1 sin = 1/Cah School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University STABILITY • OVERTURNING • SLIDING • BEARING School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University OVERTURNING Highway Loading (Surcharge) School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University OVERTURNING Full Surcharge Here Overturning Forces No Surcharge Here Active Pressure Soil+Surcharge School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University OVERTURNING Weight of Wall Restoring Forces No Passive Pressure Weight of Soil (with care) Weight of Soil School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University OVERTURNING FOS vs OT = Restoring Moment Overturning Moment A FOS = 2 is considered sufficient School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University Sliding Forces No Surcharge Here SLIDING Full Surcharge Here H1 Active Pressure Soil+Surcharge School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University Resisting Forces Resisting Forces H2 + a S V a=Coeff of Friction No Surcharge Here SLIDING Vs2 Vc1 Vs1 H2 Vc2 Vc3 School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
5 is considered sufficient School of Civil EngineeringAIT .SIITThammasat University SLIDING without KEY FOS vs Sliding = Passive Earth Pressure Force+a S V Active Earth Pressure Force A FOS = 1.
SIITThammasat University Sliding Forces SLIDING with KEY No Surcharge Here Active Pressure Soil+Surcharge School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University Resisting Forces SLIDING with KEY No Surcharge Here Vs2 Vc1 Vs1 H Vc2 Vc3 School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University Find Vertical forces acting in front and back of key SLIDING with KEY No Surcharge Here RESULTANT Vs2 Vc1 Vs1 Active Pressure Soil+Surcharge Vc2 Vc3 School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University SLIDING with KEY Determine Pressure Distribution Under Base x V e A=B S=B2/6 V 6Ve 2 B B B B/2 V 6Ve 2 B B School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University SLIDING with KEY Determine Force in Front of KEY y1 P1 P2 y2 y3 y3=y2+(y1y2) (Bx1)/B B x1 P1=(y1+y3) x1/2 P2=VP1 School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University SLIDING with KEY When Pressure Distribution Under Base is Partially Negative V e V 6Ve 2 B B B B/2 V 6Ve 2 B B School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University V e SLIDING with KEY V 6Ve 2 B B B V 6Ve 2 B B x 2V 3x P1 3x P2 Determine P1 and P2 once again School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University SLIDING with KEY Active Earth Pressure Force Total Sliding Force = H1 Total Resisting Force = P1 tan a P2 + H2 Force in Front of Key Internal Friction of Soil Friction b/w Soil. Concrete School of Civil EngineeringAIT Passive Earth Pressure Force Force on and Back of Key .
Surcharge on heel School of Civil EngineeringAIT . No surcharge on heel 2.SIITThammasat University BEARING There are two possible critical conditions 1.
SIITThammasat University BEARING This case has been dealt already No Surcharge on Heel RESULTANT Vs2 Vc1 Vs1 Active Pressure Soil+Surcharge Vc2 Vc3 School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University DETERMINE THE PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION UNDER BASE SLAB BEARING Surcharge on Heel Vs RESULTANT Vs2 Vc1 Vs1 Active Pressure Soil+Surcharge Vc2 Vc3 School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University Determine Pressure Distribution Under Base A=B S=B2/6 V x e V 6Ve 2 B B B B/2 V 6Ve 2 B B School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University Compare Pressure with Bearing Capacity V 6Ve 2 B B B V 6Ve 2 B B Allowable Bearing FOS vs Bearing = Max Bearing Pressure V 6Ve 2 B B School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University ALTERNATELY V 6Ve 2 B B V 6Ve 2 B B B 2V/3x 3x Allowable Bearing FOS vs Bearing = Max Bearing Pressure 2V/3x School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
END OF PART I .
SIITThammasat University BENDING OF WALL School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University CRITICAL SECTIONS DESIGN OF STEM Critical Section Shear Critical Section Moment Active Pressure Soil+Surcharge d School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
6 (H1 y1 + H2 y2) Surcharge = s N/m2 h H1=Ca s h y1 y2 H2=0.5 Ca gs h2 School of Civil EngineeringAIT .SIITThammasat University DESIGN OF STEM Design Moment =1.
SIITThammasat University Design Shear=1.7 H 1 H 2 h h DESIGN OF STEM Surcharge = s N/m2 h H'1=Ca s (hd) H'2=0.5 Ca gs (hd)2 d School of Civil EngineeringAIT .7(H '1+H '2) 2 hd hd 1.
SIITThammasat University CRITICAL SECTIONS DESIGN OF TOE SLAB Critical Section (Shear) Critical Section Moment d School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
6Soil Pressure 0.9 Soil in Front (may be neglected) DESIGN OF TOE SLAB School of Civil EngineeringAIT .9 Self Wt 0.SIITThammasat University Design Loads 1.
SIITThammasat University
TOE :
DESIGN MOMENT
1.6(0.5 T y3) T/3 +1.6(0.5 T y1) 2T/3
0.9 wc T2/2
0.9 ws T2/2 y3
y1
T
School of Civil EngineeringAIT
SIITThammasat University
TOE :
DESIGN SHEAR
1.6(0.5 Ts) y3 Ts/T +1.6(0.5 T y10.5 d [y1/T] d)
0.9 wc Ts
0.9 ws Ts y3
y1
Ts=Td
School of Civil EngineeringAIT
SIITThammasat University
CRITICAL SECTIONS
DESIGN OF HEEL SLAB
Critical Section Moment & Shear
TENSION FACES
School of Civil EngineeringAIT
6s + 1.2 gs +1.SIITThammasat University DESIGN LOADS 1.2 gc DESIGN OF HEEL SLAB Soil Pressure Neglected School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University BENDING OF WALL School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University MAIN REINFORCEMENT Minimum 75 mm Clear Cover School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
3.3.2 ACI 14.SIITThammasat University ACI CODE SECONDARY STEELS ACI 14.3 ACI Minimum SLAB School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
END OF PART II .
SIITThammasat University DRAINAGE Weepers Or Weep Holes Sand + Stone Filter School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University DRAINAGE Drainage Pipes f 100200 mm @ 2.5 to 4 m School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
SIITThammasat University DRAINAGE (Alternate) Perforated Pipe Suited for short walls School of Civil EngineeringAIT .
End of Part III END OF PART III .
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