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Banking has evolved a long way from the days of the medieval money lenders counting coins on the bench to the present scenario, where it is hard to trace the trail of money from the beginning to the end. The trail starts right from the small saver leaving a few rupees in his local bank to the billions of rupee loans raised by a syndicate banks and financial institutions, capable of financing projects in any country in the world. Still, these banking majors are heavily dependent upon their retail home base of savers and borrowers. Most of the bankers began focusing on this retail market segment as global competition intensified in late seventies and early eighties. The debit card has emerged from the shadow of its older sibling, the credit card. Over the past decade, debit card has grown from accounting for 274 million transactions in 1990 to 8.15 billion transactions in 2002, to challenge the credit card as the preferred payment card. As it stands, the debit card industry is a multi-billion dollar engine that helps drive bank profits and point-of purchase consumer sales - but is also beginning to redefine traditional payment options in the business and government sectors, such as food stamps, benefits, and payroll. The debit card has arrived and is here to stay. And yet, though it remains poised for growth, the debit card has also reached a crossroads. A recent settlement has cost VISA and MasterCard approximately $3 billion, and has dramatically reduced the fees they can charge for signature-based debit purchases. The effects of the settlement reach into every layer of the industry - from rewards incentives, to marketing programs, to future fee arrangements, and future growth. Consumer preferences for PIN- or signature-based debit will certainly influence how things unfold, and whether either debit card option will suffer or bloom in the short, mid, or long term. Credit cards, one of the banking products that cater products to the needs of retail segment has seen its number grow in geometric progression in recent years. This growth
has been strongly supported by the development in the field of technology, without which this could not have been possible. The history of phenomenal growth in the credit cards segment traces way back to in 1950, the time when “Dinar Club” was established .The card provided select members with credit at 22 restaurants in New York and collected a commission for paying the bills promptly. The credit card industry got a further boost with the arrival of American express began selling their card as a prestige to hotels,restaurants,shops or airlines in America and slowly expanded the network across the world. The success of these two players attracted many other banks to join the credit card business. The entire breed of new players saw a fresh opportunity of granting unsecured loans at high interest rates to those credit cardholders who did not pay their bills on time. These banks were not so concerned with collecting commissions from shops but were thriving on high interest income from those who did not pay their bills on time. It’s not that only the card numbers have increased, but even the types of cards on offer have seen a surge. Today the domestic card industry is flooded with different types of cards ranging from gold, silver, global, co-branded credit cards, smart to secure ….the list is endless. Foreign banks have shouldered the major responsibility of increasing the card base and adding value-added services to the card products in the past. This is also evident from the fact that the market share of these foreign banks is estimated to be well over 70%. But the scenario has changed dramatically in the last of couple of years with the entry of State Bank of India (SBI), a domestic major in the banking sector. More and more nationalised banks and private sector banks like ICICI and HDFC Bank are aggressively launching credit card with value added features. Although at present the card market is mainly limited to India’s relatively bigger cities and tourist locations only, there is also a potential in smaller cities. Domestic banks, owing to their vast network and reach to smaller cities, can easily tap this potential. They would be better off, penetrating into smaller cities and bringing credit card to the masses rather than cannibalising other foreign banks’ existing cardholder base.
The efforts of these banks to increase the card base is going to be wholeheartedly supported by the residents of these smaller cities with their higher disposable income, changing lifestyle, increasing travel and the growth in the entertainment sector. Over the years, Indians have been averse to credit cards. This is primarily because they believed that spending through credit is a sure shot way of getting into the debt trap. Of course, movies highlighting the sad state of a borrower did not exactly help matters. And even the local kirana shops have the famous lines Aaj Nagad, Kal Udhari (cash today, credit tomorrow). But the situation is not actually that scary. And it is all about right timing. Credit cards can be a useful tool at the hands of savvy consumers who can effectively use the benefits offered by cards. It is important to know that credit card is a financial tool that needs to be used responsibly. While it ensures cash flow, it is not advisable for customers to borrow for a longer period of time. Use it effectively and take good advantage of the time line and clear your debts, without any additional costs. Plastic Money: the Currency of Modern India Indian consumers have never had it so good. The soiled notes are definitely out. Carrying cash is no more `a pain in the neck' as consumers are relying more on the `plastic card' which gives them money on credit. Plastic money basically means debit cards and credit cards which is having a magnetic stripe, logo, signature of the cardholder made of plastic. Credit Cards have finally arrived in India. The card industry which is growing at the rate of 20% per annum is flooded with cards ranging from gold, silver, global, smart to secure….the list is endless. From just two players in early 80s, the industry now houses over 10 major players vying for a major chunk of the card pie.
According to bank officials. Stanchart follows way behind with 0. but the debit card seems to lend issuers and payment systems a cause for hope. The industry. The bank's credit card business has grown by 8 per cent over the last two years. According to a study conducted by State Bank of India.28 million cards. Indonesia. in a bid to move to greener pastures. Malaysia. Philippines and Thailand. SBI.3 million credit card customers. while Hongkong Bank has 0. followed by Bank of Baroda at 0. Among the nationalized banks.Currently four major bishops are ruling the card empire---Citibank. one of the late entrants in the card market. Eighty percent of those who participated in the survey were 5 . Standard Chartered Bank. is expected to double by the fiscal 2003.5 million cards so far. they are trying to tap the co-branded card market which has vast potential for growth. SBI is currently sharpening its marketing The bank is putting its best foot forward to compete with global card majors like Citibank and Standard Chartered Bank. Citibank is the dominant player. is on the verge of an unprecedented boom. Between 1987 and 2000. which is catering to over 3. HSBC and State Bank of India (SBI). Citibank. Plastic money is getting popular. However.22 million. SBI's card issue so far is to the tune of 0. the market has virtually grown to over 3.8 million cards with almost 25-30 % growth in new cardholders. ATM. The credit card market in India. has managed to grab over 8 per cent of the market share from the bigwigs like Citibank and Standard Chartered Bank. The global bigwigs have already established themselves as the `bankable brands' in the metros. having issued 1.debit cards are the flavour of the season The credit card business may have fallen short of expectations.28 million which is expected to In a bid to tap the lower middle class segment. which is leading the card empire recently launched a co-branded credit card in partnership with Indian Oil Corporation. SBI tops the list with 0.67 million. The card will offer its members reward points on every international spend which can be redeemed for free fuel in India. which started out in 1981. according to a survey conducted by MasterCard international in the Asia pacific region comprising of Korea.8 million card users.
6 . Besides. However as the market get cracking. The concept of debit cards has been a slow starter in India. these fears are expected to be alleviated in future.either the owners of a card or desired to own an ATM card.000 points of sale. which has made availability low. the annual fee attached to these cards adds to the perception that consumers are asked to pay for their own money. the card is available through Citibank. Maestro is issued in 16 Asia Pacific markets and is accepted at over 35. In India. 50% owned one and 30% wish to own a card. According to Jeff Portelli. Times Bank and HDFC Bank. Maestro (MasterCard’s debit card offering) has grown from zero to 70 m cards in the Asia pacific region since its launch six years ago.000 ATMs and more than 220. Today. Debit cards are currently offered by only a handful of banks.
DEBIT CARDS A debit card is a plastic card which provides an alternative payment method to cash when making purchases. Working of Debit Card The user has to present the card to merchant who will swipe it through the electronic terminal and enter the amount of purchase. Depending on the store or merchant.3 lakh Visa/PLUS ATMs and equally strong Mastercard/ Cirrus ATMs in over 140 countries worldwide. by signing a sales receipt As it is popularly known. The customer need to sign the transaction slip. The Debit Card gives the freedom to access the Savings or Current Account at merchant locations and ATMs. the customer may swipe or insert their card into the terminal. one can always use it at any of the bank ATMs as a normal ATM card. its functionality is more similar to writing a cheque as the funds are withdrawn directly from either the cardholder's bank account (often referred to as a check card). Petrol Pumps and Restaurants and over 235 ATMs in India . however. Account will be automatically debited for the amount of the purchase and the transaction can be verified by entering the PIN. the amount will be instantly debited to the account. occasionally. Besides that. or they may hand it to the merchant who will do so. Physically the card is an ISO 7810 card like a credit card. Whenever to make payments. Department Stores. it is an ATM card on the move.It can also be used at over 4 million Visa Electron merchant locations and 7 . All the purchases and cash withdrawals will be in the currency of the country are in. Debit Card can be used to access the Account from over 5. There are around more than 5. The transaction is authorized and processed and the customer verifies the transaction either by entering a PIN or. So you needn't carry traveller's cheques or foreign exchange the next time you travel Debit Card can be used at any merchant location displaying the Visa or Mastercard logo or at any ATMs displaying the Visa/PLUS or Mastercard/Cirrus logo. or from the remaining balance on a gift card.000 Shops. while account will be debited in rupees.
• Bank fees—such as monthly service charges. Debit card processing fee for the merchant are generally lower than credit card fees. No interest charges are to be paid by debit cardholders. a checkbook or traveler's checks. 10. No need to carry cash.000 at merchant locations.equally strong Mastercard outlets. by filling an application form. don't work or were misrepresented. Two types of debit cards: There are currently two ways that debit card transactions are processed: online debit (also known as PIN debit) and offline debit (also known as 8 . • More chances of lose or misuse of debit card than a credit card. Debit cards are more readily accepted than checks. if something goes wrong with the purchase. This again is subject to the balance available in the account.. Once the amount is paid for purchase. It is necessary to have a savings or current account with the debit card issuer.000 at ATMs. 15. Bank won't put money back into your account for items that are never delivered. Advantages of Debit Card • • • • Debit Card is often easier to get than a credit card. especially at the time of traveling. If Debit Card ever gets lost or stolen. card companies protect from fraudulent usage at the loss. The Debit card does have a daily limit which could be somewhere around Rs. per-transaction costs or penalties— for dropping below the required minimum balance are charged by debit card holders. The card company then couriers the card across around a week’s time. Check approval or to show identification at store is not required. • • Disadvantages of a debit card • • Enough money is required in bank account to have debit card. and Rs.
When an improper charge occurs with a debit card. Debit Card Problems can be worse than Credit Card Problems When an improper charge appears on the credit card it can not automatically out the money and simply need to work with the credit card issuer to have the charge removed from the bill. they are often referred to at point of sale as "debit" and "credit" respectively. Check Cards These cards can be used to purchase products at any merchant that accepts VISA or MasterCard credit cards. make deposits. check cards cannot be used at automatic teller machines. for security. he may experience cash flow problems and the legitimate checks could bounce. 9 . they look exactly like ATM cards. Both Visa and Master Card have been popular in India and Amex a relatively new player in India as it issues its cards only through American Express ATM Cards These cards are typically used at automatic teller machines (ATMs) to withdraw cash. or PIN. BoB then issue these cards to the subscribers. or transfer funds between accounts. When using a check card no PIN is used. However. Instead. Participating banks like ANZ Grindlays. On the surface. In some countries including the United States and Australia. even though in either case the user's bank account is debited and no credit is involved. however.signature debit). The system checks the account for adequate funds before permitting any transaction. Master Card and Amex. the funds are automatically taken from the account and customer is burdened with attempting to get the money back. you will be asked to sign a transaction slip as would be done with a credit card. In India there are basically three types of cards namely Visa. Meanwhile. ATM card is used by inserting the card into an automatic teller machine and enter a personal identification number.
Debit card can be used at any ATM in the world as long as the ATM displays one of the same system names or symbols that is on debit card.. 10 . When obtaining funds at an ATM in a foreign country the funds dispersed will be in the currency of the country going to visit.Traveling with your Debit Cards The reverse side of the debit card will display the names or symbols of the various ATM systems that will accept the card.
In contrast. Credit card however became more popular with use of magnetic strip in 1970. the issuer lends money to the consumer (or the user) to be paid to the merchant.CREDIT CARDS A credit card is a system of payment named after the small plastic card issued to users of the system. The concept of credit card was used in 1950 with the launch of charge cards in USA by Diners Club and American Express. Credit cards in India is gaining ground. a credit card allows the consumer to 'revolve' their balance. It is also different from a charge card (though this name is sometimes used by the public to describe credit cards). Basically banks. which can be used more than once to borrow money or buy products and services on credit. which requires the balance to be paid in full each month. as specified by the ISO 7810 standard. at the cost of having interest charged. Credit card in India became popular with the introduction of foreign banks in the country. retail stores and other businesses issue these. A number of banks in India are encouraging people to use credit card. Most credit cards are the same shape and size. A credit card is different from a debit card in that it does not remove money from the user's account after every transaction. In the case of credit cards. Major Banks issuing Credit Card in India • • • • State Bank of India credit card (SBI credit card) Bank of Baroda credit card or (BoB credit card) ICICI credit card HDFC credit card 11 . Credit cards are financial instruments.
Usually this compartmentalization is the result of special incentive offers from the issuing bank. Wells Fargo or Bank of America. or to encourage more spending on the part of the customer. issues the credit. either to encourage balance transfers from cards of other issuers. and payments will therefore usually be allocated towards the lowest rate balances until paid in full before any money is paid towards higher rate balances. When a purchase is made. such as Chase. by signing a receipt with a record of the card details and indicating the amount to be paid or by entering a Personal identification number (PIN). Often a general bank issues the credit. and is given a credit card.• • • • • IDBI credit card ABN AMRO credit card Standard Chartered credit card HSBC credit card Citibank Credit Card How credit cards works A user is issued credit after an account has been approved by the credit provider. possibly with a single umbrella credit limit. or with separate credit limits applicable to the various balance segments. many merchants now accept verbal authorizations via telephone and electronic authorization using the Internet. payment allocation is generally at the discretion of the issuing bank. or it may become a complicated financial instrument with multiple balance segments each at a different interest rate. but sometimes a captive bank created to issue a particular brand of credit card. known as a Card not present (CNP) transaction. with which the user will be able to make purchases from merchants accepting that credit card up to a pre-established credit limit. the credit card user agrees to pay the card issuer. Interest rates can vary considerably from card to card. The credit card may simply serve as a form of revolving credit. Also. and the interest rate on a particular card may jump dramatically if the card 12 . In the event that several interest rates apply to various balance segments. The cardholder indicates their consent to pay.
• Transaction network: The system that implements the mechanics of the electronic transactions. American Express. Independent sales organization: Resellers (to merchants) of the services of the acquiring bank. or even if the issuing bank decides to raise its revenue. gift certificates. This bank bills the consumer for repayment and bears the risk that the card is used fraudulently. As the rates and terms vary. this is no longer the case. that set transaction terms for merchants. the consumer. services have been set up allowing users to calculate savings available by switching cards. Transaction processing networks include: 13 . and one company may operate multiple networks. card-issuing banks. credit providers often offer incentives such as frequent flyer points. • • • • • Merchant: The individual or business accepting credit card payments for products or services sold to the cardholder Acquiring bank: The financial institution accepting payment for the products or services on behalf of the merchant. Credit Card association: An association of card-issuing banks such as Visa. Discover. which can be considerable if there is a large outstanding balance Because of intense competition in the credit card industry. Parties involved: • • Cardholder: The owner of the card used to make a purchase. etc. and acquiring banks.user is late with a payment on that card or any other credit instrument. but in general is the organization that the merchant deals with. Merchant account: This could refer to the acquiring bank or the independent sales organization. or cash back (typically up to 1 percent based on total purchases) to try to attract customers to their program. American Express and Discover were previously the only card-issuing banks for their respective brands. May be operated by an independent company. MasterCard. Card-issuing bank: The financial institution or other organization that issued the credit card to the cardholder. but as of 2007.
Nova. 3.Cardnet. NDC Atlanta. It damages the credit rating if payments are late. and VisaNet. credit cards can 1. Vital. Competitive Weapon: Credit card customers are often less conscious of slight price differences and will seek out businesses that offer credit card payment options. Concord EFSnet. 2. 4. such as a line of credit or a personal loan. 14 . Impulse Buying: Credit cards give customers freedom to spend for previously unplanned purchases. credit card customers buy whenever the need arises • Customer Loyalty: Research shows customers who spend more on credit tend to return to the same business again. • • • • Enhanced Advertising: Since customers are more likely to shop at businesses where they have credit card acceptance. they tend to look for and read those ads first. Allow to build up more debt than actually handled by customer. • Steadier Sales: Credit smoothes out business peaks. if not paid on time. Cash shoppers buy heavier on paydays and just before holidays. Disadvantages On the other hand. Nabanco. Omaha. More Expensive Merchandise: Credit cards entice customers to purchase more expensive merchandise than they had originally planned to buy. It has complicated terms and conditions. Cost much more than other forms of credit. Benefits of Accepting Plastic • More Sales: Studies show that credit card customers spend 2 1/2 times more than customers who only carry cash. Paymentech.
after using a charge card you will have to pay off the entire amount billed. • Amex card Amex stands for American Express and is one of the well-known charge cards. by the due date.DIFFERENT TYPES OF CREDIT CARDS • Charge card A charge card carries all the features of credit cards. At the time of using the card he is not declared not as a defaulter even if misses due date. A 2. This card has its own merchant establishment tie-ups and does not depend on the network of MasterCard or Visa. you are likely to be considered a defaulter and will usually have to pay up a steep late payment charge. If you fail to do so. However.95 per cent late payment fees (this differs from one bank to another) is levied in the next billing statement. • Smart card 15 .
in many cases. your photo card can function as your identity card as well. Besides. For instance. Currently this product is available only in very developed countries like the United States and is being used only sporadically in India. since this card is typically meant for high-income group categories. • Diners Club card Diners Club is a branded charge card. This is most useful when you have to pay for small purchases. it may not be acceptable at many outlets. signature or payment authorisation is required for using this card. No change is given. It would be a good idea to check whether a member establishment does accept the card or not in advance. No identification. 16 . Besides. as a cardholder you can set your own spending limit. • Global card Global cards allow you the flexibility and convenience of using a credit card rather than cash or travellers checks while travelling abroad for either business or personal reasons. the card has its own merchant establishment tie-ups and does not depend on the network of MasterCard or Visa. for example bus fares and coffee. and then you have what is known as a photo card. Doing this helps identify the user of the credit card and is therefore considered safer. The exact amount of purchase is deducted from the smart card during payment and is collected by smart card reading machines. There are a wide variety of special privileges offered to the Diners Club cardholder. • Photo card In this photograph is imprinted on a card.A smart card contains an electronic chip which is used to store cash. However.
• Affinity card The card issuer ties up with popular organisations/ institutions which are often non-profit organisations (Citi-WWF card or the Stanchart-Cricket cards) to offer an affinity card. . When the card is used. is an economic joint venture of 21. California.. USA. commonly called VISA. The company was originally named Visa International Service Association. The name change occurred in the fall of 2007 as a part of Visa’s restructuring and IPO plan. The company is based in San Francisco. Operations Visa offers through its issuing members the following types of cards: • • • Debit cards (pay from a checking / savings account) Credit cards (pay monthly payments with interest) Prepaid cards (pay from a cash account that has no check writing privileges) 17 . Inc. Visa card: Visa. a certain percentage is contributed to the organisation /institution by the card issue • MasterCard and Visa MasterCard and Visa are global non-profit organisations dedicated to promote the growth of the card business across the world. They have built a vast network of merchant establishments so that customers world-wide may use their respective credit cards to make various purchases.000 financial institutions that issue and market Visa products including credit and debit cards.• Co-branded card Co-branded cards are credit cards issued by card companies that have tied up with a popular brand for the purpose of offering certain exclusive benefits to the consumer.
Visa card Credit vs. The debit protocol involves using the card at a point of sale terminal (POS) or automated teller machine where the PLUS or Interlink logo is shown. A PIN (personal identification number. which facilitate the "debit" protocol used with debit cards and prepaid cards. depending upon the type of card marketed. its principal business is to process payments between the banks of merchants and the banks of purchasers that use its "MasterCard" 18 . known by its acronym) is used to identify the cardholder. USA. New York. The credit protocol involves using the card at a POS or a banking center where the Visa logo is shown. Holders of any Visa card may use the credit protocol even if the card is marketed as a debit card or prepaid card (basically since it has the Visa logo on the front of the card) MasterCard: MasterCard Worldwide is a multinational corporation based in Purchase. often together with the cardholder's civic registration number or ID card/passport. the end result is standardized for consumers by the Visa International Association." The names of the two protocols use the arbitrary "debit" and "credit" from accounting meaning left and right. Throughout the world.Visa operates the PLUS ATM network and the Interlink EFTPOS network. The cardholder's signature is generally used for identification. debit Even though the service is offered by thousands of banks. Two protocols are used. The money is deducted from the attached checking account or prepaid account (which is similar with no paper checkwriting capability). and they originally had the meanings (and still do to many people) that with credit the cardholder pays later for the purchase. often called "credit" and "debit. with a Visa card that has the PLUS or Interlink logo on the back of the card. and with debit the cardholder pays immediately.
Prior to its initial public offering. Cardholders in the region made more than 667 million purchase transactions in the first quarter of 2007 and could use their MasterCard cards at 25. MasterCard assists banks along with merchants raise by enabling fast acceptance of new ways to disburse and offering modified solutions that bring importance in the course of technology 19 . MasterCard Worldwide has been a publicly traded company since 2006. The company does not issue credit or its namesake cards. establishes guidelines for use. It was originally created by United California Bank (later First Interstate Bank. suitable and satisfying payment results. As a significant link between monetary institutions plus millions of businesses. and consistency. MasterCard Worldwide was a membership organization owned by the 25. Serving nearly 25. lone of the biggest VPNs in the globe. Crocker National Bank (also subsequent .1 million acceptance locations worldwide. it markets the MasterCard (credit and debit cards) and Maestro (debit cards) brands. It is found on a supple network. combination. over 187 million MasterCard cards (excluding Maestro® and Cirrus) had been issued by MasterCard customer financial institutions across APMEA. dealing out billions of expenses flawlessly transversely the globe.000+ financial institutions that issue its card. which presents unmatched speed.brand debit and credit cards to make purchases. and structuring fiscal connections that speed up business. MasterCard also operates the Cirrus ATM network. mastercard card provide services in further than 210 countries along with territories. Wells Fargo. rather. subsequently merged into Wells Fargo Bank).000 member financial institutions worldwide.As at 31 March 2007. The mastercard com modernized and smart approach to dealing out enables competent trade on a global level. MasterCard is the #2 payment system in the US. The company provides services in more than 210 countries and territories. provides the transaction authorization network. its cards are accepted at more than 23 million locations around the globe. and collects fees from members. Debit mastercard plus credit mastercard moves forward trade worldwide by increasing extra secure. cardholders and traders globally.
" then enter 20 . and going forward trade transversely the world. The credit card company sets the total amount that can charge based on your credit history. Customer have to pay back the credit used each month. If you select "debit. At check-out. he is to pay interest on the amount not paid back. you "pay later. Using a credit card is somewhat like taking out a loan from a bank or other financial institution. it works more like cash or a personal check.” pay now. The money in bank account limits how much the customer can spend. Before swiping the card through the reader." In case of debit card the amount is automatically subtracted from checking or saving account. he can over withdraw the account.As it seems to the prospect. income. but as well to helping the benefits of electronic payments. This can result in hefty overdraft fees. credit cards are used in stores for purchases. select a "credit" or "debit" button on the reader." Debit means "subtract." With a credit card. if the customer is not careful in watching the daily account balance. MasterCard launched free tools that are designed to be easily understandable for consumers in order to help them manage personal finances DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A DEBIT CARD AND A CREDIT CARD A debit card looks like a credit card. However. If he pays back less than the full amount owe each month. debts and ability to pay. To help educate consumers on financial management. Some cards are dual-purpose credit/debit cards. MasterCard are dedicated not just to ongoing to distribute value to its clients and further stakeholders. the card reader electronically contacts the bank and subtracts the amount from the account. speeding up the dislocation of cash as well as checks. Some systems will allow to use the debit card even when don't have enough money in the account to cover the purchase.
anywhere in the world. These benefits range from life time free cards. Insurance 21 . convenience and a range of benefits. Various Products • • • • • The ICICI Bank Private Banking Debit Card The ICICI Bank Gold Debit Card The ICICI Bank HPCL Debit Card The ICICI Bank Ncash Silver Card The ICICI Bank Ncash Debit Card CREDIT CARDS ICICI Bank Credit Cards give you the facility of cash. If select "credit." the credit receipt is given to sign and credit charges will appear on the next charge account bill. the ICICI Bank Debit Card is the most convenient accessory. Only more comfort and convenience in the debit cards provided by ICICI.your Personal Identification Number (PIN). No more searching for the nearest ATM. No more fear of overspending. ICICI DEBIT CARDS Combining the wide acceptability of a credit card and the thoughtful prudence of an ATM card.
TYPES OF CARDS • • • • • • Premium Cards Classic Cards Value for Money Cards Co Branded Cards Affinity Cards EMI Card HDFC DEBIT CARD HDFC BANK Debit Cards give you complete and instant access to the money in accounts without the risk or hassle of carrying cash. TYPES OF CREDIT CARDS OF HDFC BANK • CLASSIC CARDS 22 . travel discounts and much more. discounts. TYPES OF DEBIT CARDS Easy Shop International Debit Card Easy Shop International Gold Debit Card Easy Shop International Business Debit Card Easy Shop Woman's Advantage Debit Card Kisan card CREDIT CARD: HDFC bank credit card provide a facility of easy availability of cash and convenience to the cardholder.benefits. utility payments. global emergency assistance service.
Silver Credit Card Value plus Credit Card Health Plus Credit Card Gold Credit Card Titanium Credit Card Platinum Plus Credit Card Visa Signature Credit Card
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Cunningham Julie (Nov 98), Kansas state university in the study “College Student Using The Credit Card” stated that there is a need to determine whether college students are responsible with their credit cards. This study was concerned with the problem faced by the credit cardholders. Consumer perception regarding credit cards and debit cards is very much different as it is precisely in a defined sector. Role of online commerce or payment over the internet .it future prospects of credit card and debit card in India. It also includes consumer preference among debit card and credit card, consumer satisfaction level in case of both cards. Loebecke S .Elliot (Jan 98) in his article “Smart Card Based Electronic Commerce: Characteristics And Roles” stated that the origin of smart cards began when consumer requirements for convenience and security out spaced the capabilities of magnetic stripe cards. Providing increased data storage and added security, smart cards were introduced in Europe in the early 1970’s as stored value cards for payphones. These early smart cards were disposable and were an effective means to reduce losses. Today's advanced contact less and dual-interface
smart card technologies - together with emerging digital signature laws and the development of biometric techniques - can bring a range of services to life on a single piece of silicon. Swift, Kevin (May 1998) in his article “Credit Card And Debit Cards: What New? Where To?” stated that trends have changed and forces have impact on the card issuer, and forecasting its future and the resulting impact on the card economy through the year 2002.The report takes a different viewpoint from many studies of the industry which examined trends from the issuers viewpoint. This study takes those trends as the end –point, and looks at the forces that will impact the card issuers. It offers insight into the combination of industry, economic, demographic, and technological changes that will have an effect on credit and debit card products, and how together they will reshape the industry landscape and result in a credit/debit card industry that will look far different in the year 2002 that it does today. The convergence of the internet and various consumer and other electronic technologies in combination with a desire on the part of companies in a number of industries to forge new alliances and offer enhanced services has established a role for electronic cash. Hayashi, Fumiko and Weiner Stuart E. (sept 2005) in their article “Competition and Credit and Debit Card Interchange Fees” stated that there is a bridge between the theoretical and empirical literatures on interchange fees. Credit and debit card industries are examples of two-sided markets. The distinguishing Feature of twosided markets is they contain two sets of end users, each of whom needs the other in order for the market to operate. In the case of credit and debit cards, the two end-user groups are cardholders and merchants. Payment card systems take one of two principal forms. They may be three-party systems: Cardholders, merchants, and a single financial institution that offers proprietary network services, for example, American Express. Alternatively, they may be four-party systems: cardholders, merchants, card-issuing banks, and merchant acquiring banks, using the services of a multi-party network such as MasterCard, Visa, or a domestic debit card
it typically takes a day or two for the transaction to clear. He focused on general-purpose credit cards. Funds are then immediately withdrawn from the associated bank account. for example Star. Focusing on interrelated bilateral transactions. Such transactions are called PIN debit transactions because the cardholder must enter a four-digit personal identification number (PIN) to authorize the transaction. We do not discuss department store cards. or bankcards when they are used at ATMs Debit cards allow customers to pay for goods and services at the point of sale by authorizing a withdrawal from their checking or savings account.network. such as Visa or MasterCard.7 transaction. Most ATM cards can be used at the point of sale as debit cards. the interchange fee is an instrument that networks can use to achieve a desired Balance of cardholder. and debit cards. several theoretical models have been constructed to study the implications of several business practices of credit card networks Hunt. a signature debit transaction does not immediately remove funds from the cardholder’s account. These differences have implications for when. why. credit card networks have come under scrutiny from regulators and antitrust authorities around the world. Robert in this article “An Introduction to the Economics of Payment Card Networks” stated that how payment cards work and explains how the market for consumer payment methods differs from most other markets economists study. oil company cards. 26 . The transaction itself is routed through an electronic funds transfer (EFT) network.Sujit (June 2003) in his article “ Theory of Credit Card Networks: A Survey of the Literature” stated that Credit cards provide benefits to consumers and merchants not provided by other payment instruments as evidenced by their explosive growth in the number and value of transactions over the last 20 years. In four-party systems. Recently. NYCE. Chakravorti . MasterCard must also accept the comparable brand of debit card. and Pulse. and how the rules of antitrust law – which regulate how firms may exercise market power – should be applied to this industry.
The South Korean credit industry and the economy suffered a painful blow in 2003.credit card companies have to focus on the security and ethical issues related to credit cards. Credit cardholders have the fear of loosing the card and the card is being misused by other person. This study attempts to find out why the credit cards have been a disaster in South Korea in 1999. the Korean policy makers came up with some revolutionary changes in the policy and law that stepped up the usage of credit cards. The credit card is stolen or lost and being misused . Chartered financial analyst (Nov 2007) in the article “Ethical Issues And Challenges” stated that the credit card company has to take into consideration the challenges which are their in the markets. 27 .it was a major credit card fiasco throughout the country with thousands of citizens committing suicide to avoid the burden of debt & fear of bankruptcy. Chartered financial analyst in the article “Credit Card Crisis In South Korea” stated that in the aftermath of the economic crisis of 97-98 South Korea has undertaken several measures to deal with prudential problem relating to credit cards. Banks and credit card companies started issuing credit cards without properly assessing the credit capacity of the customer.
Cops and robbers. Utility payments will soon be made 29 . Bankers and analysts see tremendous scope for growth in debit cards. Reputation boosting. Scope of study: the following are the areas covered by plastic money: ATM cards are slowly being transformed into value-added debit cards. Corporate might. That’s why study is focused on consumer perception regarding the plastic money. People are using these cards on a vast scale. But after considering the review of literature it is seen the whole payment process of processing these cards is not safe and customer are facing many problems relating to plastic money. "There is tremendous potential for debit cards. It will soon be substituting cheques.NEED AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY Need of the study It is rightly said the plastic money is need of hour. The float. Need of the study is to get to know about the comparative analysis of plastic money. This study is concerned with the Seven perks of plastic money Convenience. Openness to negotiations. There are many ethical issues and challenges in the market of plastic money which is required to be studied. Budgeting technology.
30 . To study the satisfaction level of consumers towards plastic money.through debit cards. Visa and MasterCard both confirmed yesterday that they had been notified of the breach and had in turn notified several banks and credit card companies of the potential data compromise. credit cards offer consumers an easy way to track expenses. Credit cards As well as convenient.r. either at the ATMs or at the counters. OBJECTIVES OF STUDY Primary objectives • To know the perception of people towards plastic money. To study the benefits of debit card and credit cards. The debit card can be used to withdraw cash from ATMs of other banks depending on whether the debit card-maker has a Visa or a Maestro tie-up. They declined to say how many companies have been notified. accessible credit. To find out the market leader among the various banks/ companies issuing credit and debit cards To know the problems faced by respondents using plastic money. Secondary objectives • • • • • To know the importance of plastic money in the daily life of consumers’ w. which is necessary for both monitoring personal expenditures and the tracking of work-related expenses for taxation and reimbursement purposes.t credit and debit cards.
RESEARCH DESIGN: Research design states the conceptual structure within which research is to be conducted. 32 .e. it consists of defining and redefining the problems. It is the careful investigation and enquiry in a systematic manner in order to find solution to find problems in research. A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collections and analysis of data in a manner that aims of data in manner that aims to combine relevant the research purpose with economy in procedure. It’s more qualitative rather than quantitive.collecting data and evaluating the data and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit he formulated hypothesis or not.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology deals with the method of study i. formulating the hypothesis or suggestions solutions . how the study can be carried out and what techniques can be used. The different research designs available are: • Exploratory research: it generally emphasis on discovery of ideas and insights.
Sampling technique: the technique used for my study is convenient sampling that consists of questionnaire. which are given to respondents who are the regular users of plastic money. In the study. So the sample size of 100 respondents was taken into consideration in case of research work. primary data will be collected from direct source of information like customers with the help of questionnaire survey and personal interview. This study will be having an exploratory research which is based on discovery of ideas and insights. which includes both debit and credit card holders. SECONDARY DATA: 33 . Various questions regarding the purposes of plastic money and the various procedures for obtaining credit cards. market leader among various companies issuing credit and debit cards. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION: PRIMARY DATA: Primary data is that data which is collected for the first time and thus happens to be original in character. SAMPLING PLAN:Universe: the universe consists of all people who are using plastic money for different purposes. Sampling unit: sampling unit implies that who are the respondents. Large samples gives more reliable results than the small samples. increasing relevance of plastic money among consumers. the necessity of credit cards. In this sample all those who are using debit cards and credit cards.• Descriptive research: it is concerned with determining the frequency with which something occurs or extent relationship between two variables. Questionnaire: The second tool used for study is questionnaire. Sample size: this refers to the number of respondents to be selected from the universe to constitute a sample.
34 .Secondary data are those which have already been collected by some one. Formula for calculating weighted average is ∑WiXi/Wi. Websites Magazines Articles And Newspapers Books TOOLS OF ANALYSIS: Diagrams and Tables: Various graphs and tables are used to describe the performance of different credit cards and debit cards. Weighted Average: Weighted average method is also used to analyze the comparison between plastic money. LIMITATIONS The limitations of a study are: The result are based on primary data. Pie chart and percentage: Pie charts and percentage are also used as a tool for analysis. measurement and analysis of data. Weighted average means finding out the average by assigning the weights to different factors. The present study is based on the data from jalandhar city only and thus might not be true for all other areas. The accuracy of the result is also limited to the reliability of methods of investigation. The data collected may or may not be accurate because of the biasness from respondent side. There was lack of time. For this study there will be following secondary data.
so its very difficult to decide which bank has upper edge in plastic money. 35 . Findings are not justified because each market player have their unique characteristics of debit cards and credit cards.
5.DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 1: To know about respondents who are using the plastic money.1 Use of plastic money by the respondents.The results are as follows: Table no. No. of respondents 100 0 %age of respondents 100% Options Yes No 36 . Respondents were asked whether they use plastic money or not .
2 Card possessed by respondents Options Debit card Credit card Both No.Figure 5. of respondents 58 28 14 % age of respondents 58% 28% 14% 14% Both Figure 5.2 Card possessed by respondents Credit card 38% 37 Debit card 48% Debit card Credit card Both . Respondents were asked to explain that which card they possess and the results are as follows: Table 5.1 Use of plastic money by the respondents. 2: Card possessed by respondents. Yes 100% Interpretation: From the above figure it can be interpreted that 100 respondents who are taken for the study are using plastic money and hence it can be said that majority respondents now a days are using plastic money.
of debit cards of different companies owned by respondent Options 1 2 3 None No. of debit card owned by them and the results are as follows: Table 5. as credit card is little expensive than debit card so people mostly prefer debit card.No.Interpretation: From the above data collected we can interpret that that people mostly have debit card. of respondents 56 26 12 6 %age of respondents 56% 26% 12% 6% Figure 5. of debit cards of different companies owned by respondent 38 . Respondents were asked to explain that how many no. Some people have both debit card and credit card 3: Debit cards of different companies/banks owned by respondents.3 No. but still people have applied for their credit card also.3.
4 No.its clear that people are satisfied with their debit card.12% 6% 1 2 3 26% 56% None Interpretation: The above chart reveal that mostly people have one debit card. of credit cards of different companies owned 39 . of respondents 46 22 10 22 %age of respondents 46% 22% 10% 22% Figure5.4 No. about 26% of the respondent are using two debit cards from different companies. 4: No. Respondents were asked to explain that how many no. of credit card owned by them and the results are as follows: Table 5. of credit cards of different companies owned Options 1 2 3 None No. of credit cards of different companies/banks owned by respondents.
But still people have knowledge about these cards. of respondents 22 28 12 6 22 10 %age of respondents 22% 28% 12 % 6% 22% 10% 40 .None 22% 1 46% 1 2 3 3 10% 2 22% None Interpretation: From the above information it can be interpreted that 46% of the respondent have one credit card from different companies.5: Companies /bank card most preferred Options HDFC Bank ICICI Bank IDBI Bank CBOP Any other (PNB) (SBI) No. 5: Companies /bank card owned by the respondents. and 22% have don’t own credit card. The result are as follows: Table 5. Respondents were asked to explain which company/bank card owned by them.
after that respondent prefer PNB and HDFC bank.Figure 5.6: Time period of using the card Options Less than 1 yr Between 1yr-3yr Between 3yr-5yr More than 5 yr No. 6: Time period of using the debit card/credit card/both. The result are as follows: Table 5.people usually like to have credit card with whom they have account. of respondents 22 26 34 18 % age of respondents 22% 26% 34% 18% Figure 5.5 Companies /bank card most preferred 10% 22% 22% 6% 12% 28% HDFC Bank ICICI Bank IDBI Bank CBOP PNB SBI Interpretation: From the above data it’s clear that people mostly prefer ICICI bank to get the plastic money.6 Time period of using the card 41 . Respondents were asked to explain the time period for which they are using them.
7: Purpose for using the card.More than 5yr 18% Less than 1yr 22% Between 3yr-5yr 34% Between 1yr-3yr 26% Less than 1yr Between 1yr-3yr Between 3yr-5yr More than 5yr Interpretation: The above data reveals that mostly people are using plastic money from last 3 to 5 yrs and rest are using it for less than one yr. Options Shopping Withdrawal of money Hotel & restaurant Petrol filling Any other(like going for movies etc) No. Respondents were asked to explain the purpose of using the card. respondents 36 24 20 14 4 of %age of respondents 36% 24% 20% 14% 4% 42 .7: Purpose for using the card. plastic money become a trend from the last few years. The results are as follows: Table 5.
Respondents were asked to explain which card is more beneficial according to them. 4% 14% 36% Shopping Withdrawl of money Hotel &restaurant Petrol filling Any other purpose 20% 24% Interpretation: It is clear that mostly people use the card for the shopping purpose.Figure 5.8 Card which is more beneficial 43 . The result are as follows: Table 5. 8: Card which is more beneficial. So the plastic money is used by the respondent everywhere.7 Purpose for using the card.8: Card which is more beneficial. Options Debit card Credit card Both No. 20%use it for going for hotel and restaurants. of respondents 36 34 30 % age of respondents 36% 34% 30% Figure5. and then for withdrawal of cash.
of agree average respondents (No. of ) respondent respond respondents) s 44 . of (No.9: Benefits provided by debit card Wi Options (Xi) 1 Strongly 2 Disagree 3 Neither agree 4 Agree 5 Strongly Weighted Disagree (No. about 34% of the respondents feel that credit card is more beneficial than debit card and some feel that both are beneficial. 9: Benefits provided by debit card Respondents were asked to rank the benefits provided by debit card on a scale.30% 36% Debit card Credit card Both 34% Interpretation: From the above table it is clear people mostly prefer debit card but credit cards are not far behind. The result are as follows: Table 5. of respondents No.0f Nor disagree No.
ents ) Security Free from fraud No interest charges Anytime access Easy to carry 40 42 30 36 32 22 2 4 12 12 28 10 10 20 14.4 14.4 Figure 5.16 12 8 10 12 2 - 44 36 32 44 25 26.9 Benefits provided by debit card 45 .4 19.
4 19.4 no interes t any tim e c harges ac c es s 19.4 average) free from fraud 14.4 14.16 25 14. After calculating the weighted average it is clear that mostly respondents believed that it is easy to carry but they are highly dissatisfied with security and frauds 10: Benefits provided by credit cards.4 Interpretation: From the above collected data it is clear that respondents are highly dissatisfied with the security matters relating to debit card. 46 .16 25 26.4 eas y to c arry 26.30 25 20 weighted avg 15 10 5 0 s ec urity no of res pondents (weighted 14.
4 2 disagree (no.10: Benefits provided by credit cards Wi Options 1 (Xi) Strongly disagree (no. of responden ts) Easy carry Convenient pay Overdraft facility Prestige holder to to 2 14 10 4 24 8 4 2 42 36 44 52 22 36 27 22 25 to 8 12 36 44 26. of respondents) (no. The result is as follows: Table 5.Respondents were asked to rank the benefits provided by credit card on a scale.10 Benefits provided by credit cards 47 . of respondents ) Weighted average Figure 5. of responden ts) 3 Neither agree Nor disagree (no. of responden ts) 4 agree 5 Strongly agree (no.
4 convienent to pay 27 overdraft facility 22 prestige to holder 25 no of respondents(weighted average) Interpretation: from the above study it can be seen that respondents agreed that credit card is easy to carry and it give prestige to the holder. 11.30 25 weighted avg 20 15 10 5 0 26. Problems faced in processing the card 48 . After calculating weighted average it is clear that convenient to pay is the most preferred benefit among respondents.4 27 22 25 easy to carry 26.
of responden ts) Weighte d Average Figure 5. The result are as follows: Table 5.11: Problems faced in processing the card Wi Options (Xi) 1 Strongly disagree (no.11 Problems faced in processing the card 49 .Respondents were asked to rank the problems provided by card. of respondents) (no. of respondents ) 4 agree 5 Strongly agree (no. of respondents ) Feeling of insecurity Fear of loosing card Unnecessary formalities High fee charged by bank 8 8 8 10 12 6 4 36 36 32 46 40 54 25 22 28 10 12 2 38 38 25 2 disagree (no. of respondents ) 3 Neither agree Nor disagree (no.
Future prospects of plastic money. They also face the problem of loosing the card and being misused by some other person.According the weighted average the problem which is faced by most of the respondents is the high annual fee charged by the banks.30 28 25 25 22 Weighted avg 25 20 15 10 5 0 Feeling of Fear of loosingUnneceesary High fee Insecurity the card Formalities Charged by bank No of respondents (weighted average) 25 25 22 28 Interpretation: From the graph it is clear that that the cardholders have the problem in processing the card . 50 . 12.
The results are as follows: Table 5.12: Future prospects of plastic money.12 future prospects of plastic money No of respondents 60 50 40 32% 30 20 10 0 Rapid growth Steady growth Stagnant Can’t predict 4% 6% 56% No. Options Rapid Growth Steady Growth Stagnant Can’t Predict Declining Figure 5. 56% believe that their will be steady growth and 32% are of the view of steady growth. 51 . of respondents 56 32 4 6 2 %age of respondents 56% 32% 4% 6% 2% 2% Declining Interpretation: It is clear from the graph mostly people believe that the future of plastic money is at boom.6% can’t predict anything.Respondents were asked to explain to future prospects of plastic money.
FINDINGS Following are the findings that are drawn from the study: 52 .
Credit card is convenient way to pay agreed by most of the respondents. People have less craze for credit card. The growth credit card in India is still very slow. 53 . Mostly people agreed that debit card provide the facility of anytime access.plastic money is mostly preferred at the time of shopping. Plastic money has a rapid growth in the coming years. Respondent taken for this study are those who are using the plastic money in their daily life. 34% using the cards for the last 3 years and the trend of plastic money have emerged from the last few years. 42% respondents are dissatisfied that debit card is free from fraud. 56% of respondents own one debit card and 26%owns two debit cards. Debit card don’t provide security to the cardholders. 62% of the respondents believe that plastic money is the currency of modern India. Respondents mostly prefer the plastic money of ICICI bank and PNB. Anytime you can withdraw your money. Credit card provide prestige to holders having the tie up with the famous card companies it provides the sense of pride. According to weighted average method the respondents highly satisfied that the debit card is easy to carry and credit card provide convenience to pay. Debit card is more beneficial according to 36% respondents. Only 46% of the respondents have credit card. Companies are going really hard to increase the sale of credit cars. 38% cardholder agreed that the plastic money holders have to tackle with the problem of insecurity. Cardholders have to fulfill the unnecessary formalities while obtaining the card. Mostly people use the cards for shopping and withdrawl of money .
CONCLUSION 54 .
There are many ethical issues and challenges for plastic money issuing banks/companies. played its part in bringing about such robust growth over the space of a single year. RECOMMENDATIONS 55 . in particular. The status symbol aspect of owning and using cards. Consumers are preferring these cards mostly for shopping online E-commerce has given a better way to use the plastic money. Fuel accounts for a very small portion of credit card purchases as these are largely paid through debit cards. the number of financial cards in circulation will register a compounded annual growth rate of nearly 51 per cent so the satisfaction of consumers has also increased. Consumers were not only more open to the possibility of owning a financial card. Two years ago. Debit cards.In the last two years. it was jewellery and apparel purchases that formed the largest chunk of purchases through plastic money. dining and jewellery are the top three purchases that Indians make through credit cards. According to projections for the 2003-2008 period. proved immensely popular. Travelling. too. but were also more than willing to use their cards to settle dues. spending pattern through plastic money has changed drastically. At last it is concluded that plastic money has a very bright future in the coming years because of the increasing trend of e-commerce. Security relating to card should be first priority for each bank/company.
Companies should provide security to the cardholders. Companies should reduce the amount of the annual fee charged on the cards. magazines and hoarding to have maximum reach because the respondents perceive these as important promotional tools. 56 . The whole procedure of obtaining the plastic money needs to be authentic. Various offers and discounts should be provided on the plastic money so that all the users feel satisfied with their card choice. More outlets should be provided where the cards can be easily accepted. Advertisements should be given through TVs. The unnecessary formalities should be reduced in order to obtain the plastic money. The interest charges on credit cards should be reduced so that people are encouraged to use it in regular routine More facility should be provided to the cardholder in order to satisfy them completely. There should be more sales executives to reinforce new customers.
article “Theory Of Credit Card Networks: A Survey Of Literature “June 03 2003 Hunt Robert . Vishwa Prakshan.au/PaymentsSystem/Publications/BISCommitteeOnPayment 58 .article “Competition And Credit And Debit Card Interchange Fees” . E.S Elliot.htm http://www.BIBLIOGRAPHY Kothari C.article “College Student Using The Credit Card” Nov’ 98 Loebecke. article “Credit Card and Debit Cards: What New? Where To?” . Kansas State University . Kevin.article “Ethical Issues And Challenges” . .pdf http://www.R.article “An Introduction To The Economics Of Payment Card Networks” Chartered financial analyst . Mumbai.gov/boarddocs/speeches/2001/20011205/default.Sujit . 5th edition. New Delhi.htm http://www. 4th edition. Financial Services.article “Credit Card Crisis In South Korea” 2003 Chartered financial analyst . Himalaya Publishing House.Nov 2007 • WEBSITES AndSettlementSystems/retail. article “Smart Card Based Electronic Commerce Characteristics And Roles” Jan’ 98 Swift.gov. “Research Methodology: Research and Techniques”.icicibank.com/pfsuser/cards/creditcard/cc_home.Sept’2005 Chakravorti . • ARTICLES Cunningham Julie.federalreserve.gordan and Natrajan. .May’ 1998 Hayashi fumiko and weiner Stuart E.rba.
gov.com/investment_in_india/plastic_money.direct.paypal. http://www.indiamart.com/cgi-bin/webscr? cmd=xpt/cps/account/VDCFrequentlyAskedQuestions-outside http://finance.uk/en/MoneyTaxAndBenefits/ManagingMoney/BankAcco untsAndBankingProducts/DG_10035158 http://www.html 59 .
Q1. I want your cooperation to fill this questionnaire related to my project.Do you use plastic money? (i) (ii) yes No Q2.How many no.A.V College Chandigarh and topic of my project report is “Comparative Study of Plastic Money with special Reference to Debit Cards and Credit Cards”.Which card do you have? (i) Debit card (ii) Credit card (iii) Both Q3. of debit cards of different companies owned by you? (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 1 2 3 None Q4 How many no.QUESTIONNAIRE Dear sir/madam I am the student of PGDMM in D. of credit cards of different companies owned by you? (i) 1 60 .
specify………………. (v) Any Other Q6: Since how long you have been using debit card/credit card/both? (i) Less than 1 yr (ii) Between 1yr-3yr (iii) Between 3yr-5yr (iv) More than 5 yr Q7: Normally for what purpose do you use cards? Rank according to your preference (i) (ii) shopping withdrawal of money (iii) Petrol filling (iv) Hotel & Restaurants (v) Any other (going to theater etc) Q8: Which card according to you is more beneficial? (i) Debit Card (ii) Credit Card (iv) Both Q9: What are the benefits provided by debit cards? Strongly disagree neither agree agree strongly 61 .(ii) (i) (ii) 2 3 None Q5: Which companies /bank card do you have? (i) HDFC Bank (ii) ICICI Bank (iii) IDBI Bank (iii) Centurion Bank If yes.
Disagree (i) Security (ii) Free From Fraud (iii) No Interest Charges (iv) Anytime Access (v) easy to carry nor disagree agree Q10: What are the benefits provided by credit cards? Strongly disagree neither agree Disagree nor disagree (i) Easy To Carry (ii) Convenient to Pay (iii) Overdraft Facility (iv) Prestige to Holder Q11: What are the problems you are facing in processing the card? disagree agree feeling of insecurity Strongly disagree neither agree agree strongly nor disagree agree strongly agree (i) (ii) fear of loosing the card (iii) Unnecessary formalities (iv) High fee collected by banks Q12::What are the future prospects of plastic money? (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Rapid Growth Steady Growth Stagnant Can’t Predict Declining Personal information: Name: 62 .
Address: Occupation: 63 .
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