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This colloquialism, which means, to; be in a very bothersome situation in which one might: sustain some pain or trouble, is a shortened form lof the saying '';[0 bring a hornets' nest about '.' .. n: one" sears ..A" 'h ',"',aornet IS a type' 0 f"- 1arge wasp, Whi h can mrnct a nc ;. ]!

savage snng, The expression "to stir up a hornets' nest' implies the same degree 0'£ trouble as the phrase above - and suggests perhaps deliberate provocation too,


according to plan. 'giddy:t. strengthening the sense of camaraderie among those who suffer from such plans. goats are noted for' their' frisky' nature. It derives from falsely upbeat: communiques issued during the' First WO'-~ d War.'mll' or 'f 1"h' since 'SIllilY 100 . the early Middle Ages.A familiar expression that is frequently' used ironically to describe things that did not g'o. often after a particularly' bloody or shamboli c operation. . In Latin..!. 'goat' is ·capeJr. I . 'To cut a caper' means 'to skip or leap about plaYfully~. to' cover up military eerence a Id confusion . . with tie result that: the phrase became associated with official attempts.e 'possessed d .IS d . by a grO' '" brut It hias b een use:' to mean . TO ACT THE GIDDY G'OAT To fool around. means {insane' or to b. In the literal sense.. Goats are known for their unpredictable behaviour'. Such inverted use of anguage creates a coded understanding between 'those 'in the know'.

but who missed the insect and instead . During the Augustan era. What will you do to yourself since you have added insult to injury?' ALIVE AND KICKIING Active and in good health.8. someone who has already suffered an act of violence lor inj ustice. peppering them 'with anecdotes of his own.-S60 BC) fables.ereupon the fly said. The expressio has. Live and Kicking became the title of a popular Saturday-morning BBC TV children's show in the ] 990.r a mere touch. He quotes the fable about a bald man who tried EO swat a fly that had bitten him on the head. either while still in the womb or just after birth. Phaedrus translated Aesop's (62Q. . been in use for centuries. the so-called ·Golden Agle of Latin literature (27 Be-AD 14). into Latin verse.. The expression was coi ned in the late eighteenth century and probably referred originally to a healthy 'baby.. Appropriately.TO ADD' INSULT TO INJURY To hurt. 'by' word or deed. Wh.. 'You wishedto kill me fo.gavehis pate a sharp slap.

non Iegirur' meaning 'It is Greek. . it cannot be read'. Letting 'I dare not' wait upon "I would'. It may have started.LL CATS. "k . in which Casca says. when Greek was fallin·gout of use . which was often used by monk scribes in the Middle Ages. It was probably popularized by Shakespeare's Julius Caesar (1599). Co "ill ALL GREEK TOI ME 'It's all Greek tO me' is used 'to mean that something is completely unintelligible to the speaker. LOVE FISH. it was Gree. dating back to at least the sixteenth century.A. BUT FEAR TO W-ET THEI'R PiAWS A traditional saying. phrase "Graecum est.h th Luce tne poor cal: 1 tea -d age. Greek being a particularly tricky language 'to grasp because of its different alp abet..k to. out as an Anglicized version of the Latin. but who is not bold enough to make the necessary effon or to take rhe risk. used to describe a person who is keen to obtain something' of value. 'For mine own pan-. It is to this saying that William Shakespeare (1564---1606) referred in Mac. me' ('1:2)~ J .bet·h (1:7): .

only the cheering of the crowd..print by nineteenth-century sportswriter 'Charles James Apperley (1777-1843) in 1842~It mea -IS that victory is in the bag.Av's WORK Said of an unusual or unexpected 'task that can be obffiigingl'Y included in the normal . It is also often applied to political elections in whi c . at the end of the game or contest being lacking. A character in Sir Wa tel"Scott's (1771.-1832) novel The M'onastery (1820) says. D.'.• . noon the next. even before the ballot papers have been counted.ALL IN A. The expression was common by the eighteenth century and may' stem from the nautical use of the term 'day's work'.. which referred to the reckoning of a ship's course during the rwentyfour-hour period from noon one day to.dai)y routi ne .e supporters of one of the boxers against the' referee's decision .' This expression is firmly rooted in the world of Sp10rt and was first used i .the outcome is certain.[he shouting being the noisy appeal from t . .. but it is al in the day's work. The phrase may perhaps be derived specifically 1 rom boxing . 'That will cost me a farther ride .

pitch ~~~they think it's allover .making the final score 4 2 and S'eal£n. every kind of .9~1~) scored a last goal for England .'It is' now!" I 1 __ ALL SINGING. the BBe's football commentator at tbe 1966 World C:u.. as Geoff Hurst (1. which was advertised with poste '5 proclaiming: The New Wonder of the Screen! AL.mid 19805.L TALKING ALL SINGING ALL DANCING The phrase caught on immediately. in 1929 . and two rival studios used the same sales:pitch in the same year for Bro. said towards the end of tbe game. an excited Kenneth I Wolstenholme (1920-2OQ'2)..In a famous reference to the phrase.... so that by the . era in the 1 ". the computing world adopted the phrase to hype up' new software.. BrQadway Melody. ALL DAN'CING This piece of popular phraseology was inspired by the first Hollyvro·od musical.}He then added.'hich sound first came to the movies..gthe West Germans' [ate .pfinal at Wemhley.adway Babes and Rio Rita'i In about 197'0. 'There are people on the.

the stock market at the time of the' 'Big Bang' (the major modernizatio of the London Stock Exchange that came into effect in October 1986)~ Subsequently. A saying with a similar meaning is the o der phrase 'AI! bells atnd whistles'.ib. Concurrently. the expression has been linked with anythi Ig from savings plans.• organization seemed to boast that their computers and systems packages had some quality that was 'all singing" ail dancing'.I. pensions and. the financial world embraced the phrase with enthusiasm 11:. The phrase' is now often used when people Ieel they have belen lumped in with others and judged unfairly as a result.0 describe. 13 ~ . ALL TARRED 'WITH THE SAME BRUSH Everyone in the group shares the same failings. I' ongages to machines= especially electronically controlled machines . I dipped in tar was of branding. old saying alludes to the methods used by farmers to mark their sheep. .of almost any' kind. A bros applied to me' wool as a form . which also describes that all-important 'wow' factor. they're all sheep of the same flock~ This.

_' -'. [ Many other writers have referenced it. G'"LITT. This implies that the proverb dates from earlier wisdom.' '" _ 'All that :gJittef'5 is sold as gold.<: at Y D id Ch .. Often have you heard that told . all that 'glitters is not gold. . And that"g the truth. 'Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat.. but perhaps the most [cynical use is that of Ogden Nash (19Q2=-72)" who o b servec i 'L00'.I-5' :. 1 Modem transla tion by Nevill Coghill.7)~he wrote: However.'ERS.. certainly it was used by Geoffrey Chaucer (C4 1343-..2:7): All.'.OU . It is a well-known note of prudence in Shakespeare's The MeTchan~tof Yenice (1596.'.eoften told . I T' HAT . as we~r..old.400) in The Canterbury Tales" for in 'The Canorr's Yeoman's Tale" (c l3S. is not :g. that glisters. 1951. . ._ _' - . it is thought to be Latin in ori gin. Drowned in a Tub of Gold Fishes' (1747). including Thomas Geay (I716~71) in his.1 [. A saying that must have been in use for a thousand years or more and a favourite of poets." .ALL -- '.": .nstoph er: d in ' k 'Wh '...1. ' ' NOT GOLD Appearances are not what they seem.

I n t he ni e nineteent h' century.A particularly bad or miserable year.. ANNUS HORRIBILIS I ..the year which saw the' divorce of the' L Princess Royal. 'One's Bum Year' . It owes its popularity to Queen Elizabeth II (1926-).i the poor that could be exchanged for SOUp 'I clothing and coal.ext day. who used it in a speech at a banquet in r e Guild Hall. ch"·' rarities Issue": ticktets to . and that it may be an Angliic·zed version of the Hindi phrase' tikai b'abu" which means "it's all right. as in 'that's icket'v d nc t h e nc et'. Other sources suggest 'mat 'the p rase has its origins with the British Army i India. phrases fOlr t is e thusiastic statement that everything is "'fine and dandy' ~ 'Tickety-boo' may come from. and of Duke and Duchess of YOfLk. and the devastating fire at Winds:or Castle . the phrase being Latin for 'horrib e year}. in 1 992 . the punning headline writers had a Seld day (see page 86). sir'. the separations of the Prince and Princess of Wales. The -. me ~t5·~ . with The Sun proclaiming on the frol It page.There are many synonymous. the word 'ticket'. London.

to hasten his dismissal.een used to describe particular . . 1759 is also lenoum as the {Year of Victori'es ').lears-full of wonders or acbieuements. a situation progressively worse. 1759 was one such fOT the British. which was first used' as thle title of a poem by John Dryden (1631--1700) to describe th'e year 1666.'Annus horribilis ' was a play on a pbrase with the opposite l meenmg . in which they achieved a string of military successes (in British naval history. which is applied to a development that makes. ANOTHER NAIL IN THE COFFIN A depressing phrase.. which he sa·w as an example of miraculous intervention by God~ It bas ever since b. one more factor to plunge a per-son into greater disfavour.annus mirabilis.

.(cancer sticks')'..I downfall or death". as an. The pupil he' 'I'"~ . they' soere referring to tbe hazards of a smoker's cough.. at a straw. page 62)~ Peter Pindar (Dr J. andthis expression became the stock: response whenever someone accepted yet another cigarette. APPLE OF ONE'S EYE 'The apple of one's eye' is what one cherishes most.ks between s. the' lin.. endearment was. including: Keep me as 'the' apple lof the eye.1819) wrote in 0 .e of his Exposudery Odes (1782):' 'Care to our coffin adds a nail. cancer and beart disease were only recognized later (when cigarettes earned another niclename .. 1 " " '. someone who was called this. win clutch. As early as the 1920's" they referred to cigarettes as 'coffin nails'. 1738 _... . no doubt.moking. hide me under the shadow of thy wings.e t eye has 1 iong b -een re ferre d toas tile app: e . o fh '~. Psalms 17:8 . The h' al nail can be compared with the 'last straw' (see a drowning man. perfectly round and was originally thought to be solid.W'oleot. The Bible employs the phrase many times.ecause it s '. Because sight is so precious. with the result that the phrase took OlD the' figurative sense we still retain . Tbe pbrase was also adopted by smokers. At the time. similarly precious.

dati g from the enid of the ninth century. meanwhile.~18~ .:ppeared in En.glish in the sixteenth century. 'pupil'} comes from. It is figurative in origin.. Our modern word for tbe physical 'apple of one '5 eye'.self that can be seen when looking into another person's eye. 'little doll'~ The word might bas:« been applied to the dark central portion of the eye within tbe iris because of the tiny doll~like. . can be found in the works of King Alfred (849-. Latin and . image of one.899).The' earliest recorded examples of the saying's use' in Britain. the late Latin originsl was pupilla.

but now means.l'72).05 in the Rt\F.thought to have originated in the music-hall era..-...45 and other documents kept. when the staple fare of stand-up comedians included many stories of potentially scandalous couplings between bishopsand act res ses.c-A"D'D'-:""5-'" . In a sporting extension o. please you.. ...AS.' TO ASK FOR (OR BE GIVEN) a_'" . Beryl Reid as Monica used an alternative version of the phrase: "As the art mistress said to the gardener. ]i dismissed from . Typical comments that might encoura. '.r ~ ( see page. ' from or b'e T o as k f or be ei c tor r e given one's earns i 'to resign f . by one's employer as a record of income tax and insurance contributions. .' or 'I'd bend over backwards to. he is in breach of the rules.ge such a retort would be.. your P.•.of the 1950s..al job.•. In Ed:uca.' 'The phrase was popular in the] 94. is shown a card by [hie. ON' E'S'.. the popular BBe radio show' .6eld to take an early bath . the phrase originally referred to' your employment card.. .£'this phrase... if a player. Used since the 19208.HE BISH'OP A rejoinder to a perfectly innocent statement" used to create sexual double entendre. particularly in football. 'c:_"" ds IS .I.'':: _ . although a" it its. .. 'I didn't know I had it in me. a yellow card represents a warning and a red card means the player is sent off the .'. referee. THE AC'TRESS SAID TO T.ting Archie.

etter th th em.a fool with groundless aspirations to wisdom.) AN ASS IN A LION'S SKIN An old saying to describe a cowardly person who blusters or ..in other words. a very close range. "' .able of the ass that dressed in a lion's.ETH'ING :POI'NT BLANK TirO ask a direct question. so the arrows were pointed at the white. tries to b 11 otf e:rsy actmg as 1f'... The ass or donkey is often used figuratively tO symbolize J . "point blank' is a range' at which there is no fall of shot due to gravity . and especially artillery usage. which ~n turn means that the further the target. (Any projectile' from a 'firearm 'drops' from the point IO~ aim as the range increases. tha t is point blan c.h e IS b. b . and this phrase is an allusion to m-e legendary f. This is at sixteenth-century phrase from the spon of archery. skin. nu 11y h 'an I "I - otherwise. the higher the weapon has to be aimed above it. In military. The targets had a white (blanc in French) central spot. ignorance or stupidity.TO ASK SOM. but betrayed itself by braying.

. all Australian expression. '_ ". nineteenth century in origin.":. BA" CK T'O'" 'S"'Q-"U'A-' R"E-' 0-'N"'E" I . reduced from 'back country' ... through bad .•• :" . in which players.ernment into blocks' for settlement. .:.•. is the outlying territory behind the settled regions'. a.. -_".•••• (IJlI.•• I. games like snakes and ladders.. I.'·". I . but 'which originally referred to the' vas! spac. which is now commonly used to describe any remote area. " ~ .J sunshi ~ t' Thi S co IIocui ali"' P0 !.-" . '~Inrnl._..THE BACK OF BEY'ON'D This is.\ .. less formally. o. The 'back'.' To begin again." -- . "" o rd ..r.l~_ bly d erives em' e ~._'." . __ ~ . referring to those territories of Australia split :up 'by the gov. and the term 'backblock' is found in ] 850.... JQI . ."vd ..es. 1 b.'\:.-.·· .i-.: f'-r' 'om . "Back to where you started._.." '. l_ • . of 'the interior of the country the Great Outback...•...

two figures. he ·. hold in Britain.Over 'time.stl.. dirviae d.ancial North Americanism that has taken. A ballpar ..': . 'the projected and the real figure. fB. l. . were prln.mto numnereu d squares.re". Another suggestion is that it comes from the early days of radio football commentaries" 'when diagrams. magazines so that listeners could fo low the game. .. have to move their pieces back to the starting pOllnt.. to t. d- board'. Aircraft designers du.g the Second World War used this phrase wh'en a concept OT euen ttl tobole design for a new machine proved unworka..a large stadium in Ameri ca built specifically for the gam:e of baseball" and the phrase 'in the same b'altpark' was originally used whe . or' a budget figure.. were reasonably close'.. the term has eva ved so that the estimated figure itself is now known as a 'ballpark figu.ble and had to be sta.··'rawzng · be' expression s meansng. ~ . . is.rin..luck or poor judgement._j' I -e • ~l~.rted all over' again~ BALLPARK FJIGURE A fin. ts stmua»~ to Bee!k. this is an estimate. of the pitch. which might: better be described as a 'guesstimate'...ngs '"d · b · . . .te d r ramo Ji<1. . . wh'ic:h means to go back and rethink a complete project tOT scheme.

stem from the American sport of raccoon hunting. and then to' howl at its base until their master arrives to shoot the' animal The hounds .himself a great raccoon hunter ~ and Albert Pike (18'(l9-91)~ . The phrase dates back to the 180iOs an. to waste energy' following 'the wrong course of action. Its ori gi 8.~ . of the hunting pack are trained to mark the tree in which the raccoon th. appearing in the wor ks of james Hall (1793~ 1868). Davy Crockett (17.86-1836) .may bark 'UP' at the wrong tree. or to have one's attention diverted off the subject in hand. TREE To be total y off the mark. if the raccoon has .~23. The expression first became popular in the early nineteenth century. 'The hounds.ey are pursuing takes shelter.TO BARK UP THE WRONG. however.a neatly puns' a" dog's bark 'with tree bark.manag.ed 'to evade them.

ABOUT THE BUSH To approach a matter indirectly or in a roundabout way.this assumption is inaccurate.. state. In fac .". who would [catch them with nets as they took off. this phrase is frequently shortened to simply 'barking.Used to suggest raving insanity. .ghpeople often 'believe it to. The expression has. its derivation stems from its rather more obvious link with rabid or-mad dogs" whose wild howls and yaps audibly betrayed their diseased.a lunatic asylum said to have been located there ~nmedieval times -. The expression em. This task of literal1y beating the bushes in which the' birds take shelter is still an important part of pheasant shooting I r today. evolved from early hunting methods for catching 'birds. One team of hunters would approach the 'b-rds hiding i the 'undergrowth from the sides" so as to drive them into the path of another 'team. be associated with the London suburb of Barking ~ partly because of .erged at the beginning of the twentieth century . AMthou. TO BEAT .

Siciiy.ns·1t' e..BETWEEN THE DEVIL AN'D TH. tbe ft.hirlpool.E D'E." along the waterline. from sohere she sucked in [and regorged the' sea} jarmin'g a treacherous w. C"'h' 'a''ry-h'tiis another mon-'S' ter.~' " ~ . the 'devu bel"no a ~ -"" "'. "'11' g term f' or a seam In 11:. .: tree.ship in the whir. . . A commonly used modern phrase with a similar meaning is 'between a rock and a hard place'.. -e.'.-' t..'.he h l'~0.. Scylla 'was a six-beaded monster I I wh'o lioedi» d. ...~ under a hu.. Odys'seus s.niy · d b I" '.'. ) ' "".n the 0":1J:"~".g to. The saying may be of nautical origin. ~.' sbe seizedsailors from levery p'llssing s'h. .Ve: ~"y ' Cllfl.. 'Betsoeen the devil and' the deep' blee sea'.. ro "t"k:.zp 'with each of her six mouths.EP BLUE SEA Caught between two evils or dang~ers. in a dilemma with nowhere to' turn.' could also haVE!' been in spired hy th'e ancient phrase {to steer or sail between Scylla an~d'Charybdis'r In Homer's Odyssey. " 1 _. '~ . 0.. cavern overloDking' a narrou: channel ~{f the I coast o:f. In the poem.' ~". "I' V~ ...gln.'.ailed between these tsuo perils. h~ '"g h e SUTVI.(p()ol and the' crew to Scy/l£ Q.a shi th ran I "UI 11 f ip "at I ~.ge fig tree. losing bis . . l'i~:~Dd-: v . '.

'9205 by John.n. The name was-first coined in the 1. who used it to refer to the city's race tracks and who claimed to have heard it used! by black stable hands in New Orleans in 1921~ Black jazz musicians in the' ]9 30s took up the name to refer 1 to the city" especially Harlem. nig ~t fell. which was left outside' the city gates. Aeneid. page 6. 29-19 sc).were' victorious. The Trojans mistakenly took the horse to 'be a tribute from their beatei enemy. The epithet was then revived in 19 71 as part of a publicity J campaign to attract tourists to New York. entry) devised an ingenious plan to invade the city. Fitz Gerald (1893-19'63). one of the remaining Greek besiegers (the Odysseus of the previous. Whe. He' hid all his men in a huge wooden horse.having the element of surprise . in the final battle. and in celebration took the gift to the heart of their stronghold. as the jazz capital of the world. a reporter for the Morning Telegraph. the Greek soldiers poured out of the horse and .BE'WARE GRE:EKS BEARING GIFTS Sometimes expressed as 'I fear Greeks even when they offer gifts' (Virgil [70-:90 BC].. this saying has its roots in the story of Helen ofTroy (see the face that launched a thousand ships.}. THE BIG' APPLE The well-known nickname for New York City. . a d 'then the Greeks abandoned their posts.8) and the Trojan War~ After a ten-year siege·of the city of Troy by the Greeks.

.. The phrase crap.... he named his estate at Twicke. l 'THE BIG ENCHILADA The leader.e writer and politician Horace Walpole .'...".n.u1 In 'me mia ] 970 s.' .27~."'p'P le ... Y" m b o'1 0 f'l the b est as I~ the' ap' ple of 0 n e's e. In' the . G.tb. up in the infamous Watergate tapes. 'r- itlo· .d there the Strawberry Hill Press.t. a group of them may sometimes be facetiously described esles grands fr(j'mages~ I_ oib hil d' . " .The sentiment behind "The Big Apple' is likely to be the idea of' an .•. U' "::' _.'. su Ch as h ar .een.'e. L i. meaning' someone or something that is very precious.0 is at rna did 'he l . Mitchell (]9]3!~88)." ana was 1'" mcncte d 1". d' t. the top man or woman. " .be'rry Hill. . '!i:Th bi encr aaa . . campalgn In 11 '9"]'2. rer 'bi gun s or n-e h _.J -: tat b ecame p op. being impr'ess'ea ..• '.. j.th century.lg bi cneese ')b h or W : . th. the 'boss".(17'17--97) r~Je'"edto London as 'Tbe Strasaberry'. and fOlunde.ate complex in Washington" DC" and.ham..oj 'ii U ~'_- .. I hi' . .' ~ _ ~'.He led President Nixon's. in business.'. John.-5 n ·ye ..s.'.g h aot f" .1.:' rater d" _on cnarges t 'hat he h ao he d . - conspired 'to plan the burglary of the Democratic National Committee's headquarters in the Waterg.'S. referring to the then LlS Attomey-General.. (19i3-94) re-election . had then obstructed justice and perjured himself during the subsequent cover-up. he was convicted in I9i4~ o f ear }" p h"rases.. I~ .. (see page 17).-.-C' are usee to d h d aescr ib VIP'" especiauy III l.Ig ernizec version ~ .eigh. R:. Middlesex~ Straw.I . .by its fres:hnes$ and' cleanliness compared 'with /or'eign cities.

The term was brought to public attention in 1901 when then US Vice-President Theodore Roosevelt (1 85. ('Let.an proverb 'Speak softly and carry a big stick. Even educated fleas do it.. as a means of avoiding dangerous words like "sex' or 'sexual intercourse'..4).. you 'will gOI far"~(Later'. Let's do it" ler's fall in love. are backed up by the threat of military force . thanks to his 1954 composition. . 'President. . which was probably inspired 'by songwriter Cole Porter (1891-196.. he used such practices successfully in the Alaskan boundary dispute o-f 1902-4.g Do It': Birds do it.8_. BIG-:STICK D~IPLOMAICY A political catchphrase which describes diplomatic negotiations that. or teachers.1'919) revealed in a speech his fondness for the W'est AErie. it tends to be used ironically.) THE BIRDIS AND THE BEES A euphemism for human procreation. nowadays. The phrase was used. as. bees do it. often by embarrassed parents.

I" •• 1.idely used by manual )....' _~ Ill._ y _ __..:.IL. " !y A -_ I.:HI _.arigin411.1! H''to.-"S-'H.. fortitude..e eh 3. a.Om crstract hOO f rum rrom ..___ _ _ less likei.. """:y 'J'·UIS' t as u: ''-::.u.'.]i . __ W' ork ers :-1.O '_ '. B':. so d'· 1'..-. quickly and ef6cien1l:1y~It was later shortened to 'b' osh " an-.C" ~ A-" sureeon 'a" out ~O' 'op"erate on a.as.n p-rofessional'..':- . .. ' '__ __' I A yuppie phrase..'.a._.. ..d w-.. ~-' ~. of a feat of endurance.W" 0. a-n'd is often app..':!.. tJO face' danger with courage and.:J~'... .'c.who arei 'on..t~ or_".."I" ~'.-..".. .1 .'.1 It gained mass circulationin the 1990s thanks to the comedian Harry Enfield (1'9'61-)."." ..j. knuckle down to some' .ji1~. coined in the 198as~'to describe something done well. " l .. _.-rt e~i!i il' . made: it: the catchphrase of one of his characters._. hi :U Iet oite 1. b .". .nd '[0 make him ~ '_ re oain -~ __ _ __ . 'Yuppie'is another phrase that emerged in the 1980s!J~it w. a twisted acronym of ''yo.:IO. The expr-ession originated in field surgery 'before the use of ana est h ~". who.I!I. to behave stoically or to.k.. gl __-.... .difficult or unpleasant task. It is still used tOlday to describe w'ell=-paid' middle-class workers .'.. to disi c .ngurb.U' nd:ed ~old ' e r h: L wou ld grve nun a b l'~ '[0 hi' on. oiiiiiiiiiB_' BIIS~.. • _...Ii.lield to those employed in the' City.to cry out. ' 1"'1 'th- _ e p_.~H' A-_S.... a loutish 'but high-earning plasterer called 'Loadsamoney'.-~. the tep' in their careers. . TOI BITE ITHE BULLET To undertake the most challenging part.

today.' rOUR:: h'" 11 uying d mn.61.Iliad Achilles. pJlan or task than death or injury.'lick the dust' +had the same meaning and appeared in the original (1.Rene Le Sage' s (I 668-1747) Adoenteres of Gil Blas of Santdlane. An affliction can be 'borne until the bitter end. Another version of the phrase .pe or chain secured in a vessel's .n 1'750'" in his translation of. TO THE BITT'ER END 'To the last extremity.ai defeat.y pierce the shin of Hector about his heart..mid-nineteenth-century nautical term for the end of a co.ey. while in Samuel Butler's (1835--1'9'02) ] 898 translation of Homer's The' .rld War.~. used to describe the failure of an idea.To fall down dead.a.more often. The Scottish author Tobias Smollett (17. to the fin. it is. especially in the RAP'. such cables are fastened to bitts ~ ~·30~· .I) edition of the Ki.f-'au d .21~71) was: the first to put this: expression in print i. Alain .ng James Bible. has the line Grant that my sword ma. and that full many of his comrades may bite the d US! as t h. \When there is no windlass (winch).ehain locker. The phrase was in common use during the Second Wo. lor to the death. 'Bitter end' is. meaning to the last stroke of bad fortune.

t.. __ :t_ aI·J . more remains..and when the rope is let out until no.':''' -. the phrase a1&0 became a metaphor for tills specific form of mental illness. L'~ . 'black dog' is eighteenth-century slang for a" counterfeit silver coin made of washed peW1:e:r~ ven then.'If' .g r-h IS anat-h e:rphr~. ~-h -ere · . ana oae the Devil has frequently been symbolized. the phrase appeare in the 'OI·d Testament in the context that we use today.ogwrtn i pups was a bad omen. 'to ill-begotten m. to the deck. black dog.'to b~l-uSJ].. ..Q. .3.e a b.asf'. Proverbs 5:4 The metaphorical 'black dog' has various personalities. After British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (18'74-19..oney was a familiar term. ' It.. However.. Horace ith its d wrote that to see a 'b~ kd~ oraca '. by . ~_ Ii . . 'to .k . and some etymologists believe that this is the true' source of the' expression.. '_ . E 'black' when applied. . Her end is bitter as wormwood. ac ~ .that is. sharp as a two-edged sword. In addition. 1l1·_. the end is at the hilts: hence the' 'bitterend'.la k de ~.:t a.:___. W'miC~_ 1 me·a·ns· n'·'ot "'0· blush .65) referred to his' depression as his 'black dog'. pairs of bollards fixed.

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