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Chapter 1. Introduction
2. Product lines and consumer behavior 3. Growth of the industry 4. Technology of production and distribution 5. Marketing 6. Innovation 7. Strategies and competition in the industry 8. Business environment 9. Critical success factors
INTRODUCTION Overview Of The Industry Printing is a process for reproducing text and image, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. It is often carried out as a large-scale industrial process, and is an essential part of publishing and transaction printing. Indian print media is one of the largest print media in the world. The history of it started in 1780, with the publication of the Bengal Gazette from Calcutta. James Augustus Hickey is considered as the "father of Indian press" as he started the first Indian newspaper from Calcutta, the Calcutta General Advertise or the Bengal Gazette in January, 1780. In 1789, the first newspaper from Bombay, the Bombay Herald appeared, followed by the Bombay Courier next year (this newspaper was later amalgamated with the Times of India in 1861). The first newspaper in an Indian language was the Samachar Darpan in Bengali. The first issue of this daily was published from the Serampore Mission Press on May 23, 1818. In the same year, Ganga Kishore Bhattacharya started publishing another newspaper in Bengali, the Bengal Gazetti. On July 1, 1822 the first Gujarati newspaper the Bombay Samachar was published from Bombay, which is still extant. The first Hindi newspaper, the Samachar Sudha Varshan began in 1854. Since then, the prominent Indian languages in which papers have grown over the years are Hindi, Marathi, Malayalam, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu and Bengali. The Indian language papers have taken over the English press as per the latest NRS survey of newspapers. The main reason is the marketing strategy followed by the regional papers, beginning with Eenadu, a Telugu daily started by Ramoji Rao. The second reason is the growing literacy rate. Increase in the literacy rate has direct positive effect on the rise of circulation of the regional papers. The people are first educated in their mother tongue as per their state in which they live for e.g. students in Maharashtra are compulsory taught Marathi language and hence they
are educated in their state language and the first thing a literate person does is read papers and gain knowledge and hence higher the literacy rate in a state the sales of the dominating regional paper in that state rises. The next reason is localization of news. Indian regional papers have several editions for a particular State for complete localization of news for the reader to connect with the paper. Malayala Manorama has about 10 editions in Kerala itself and six others outside Kerala. Thus regional papers aim at providing localised news for their readers. Even Advertisers saw the huge potential of the regional paper market, partly due to their own research and more due to the efforts of the regional papers to make the advertisers aware of the huge market. The Indian Newspaper industry is one of the largest in the world. It publishes the largest number of paid-for titles  in the world. In 1997, the total number of newspapers and periodicals published was 41705, which include 4720 dailies and 14743 weeklies. The highest numbers of newspapers was published in Hindi, 16864. Newspapers in India are measured on two parameters, circulation and readership. Circulation is certified by the Audit Bureau of Circulations which is an industry body. It audits the paid-for circulation of the member newspaper companies. Survey (NRS). List of players in the industry • • • • • • • • • • The Times of India Dainik Jagran Malayala Manorama The Hindu Deccan Chronicle Ananda Bazar Patrika Amar Ujala Dainik Bhaskar Hindustan Times Hindustan Readership is estimated by two different surveys, The Indian Readership Survey (IRS) and the National Readership
• • • • • Eenadu The Economic times The New Indian Express The Telegraph Deccan Herald Categorization of players in the industry Category Dailies Business dailies Monthlies Regional Andhra Pradesh: Deccan Chronicle. Voice & Data. Cyber India. Pioneer Maharashtra: Bombay Mid-day. Planet Bollywood. RedifIndia. Des Pardes. Loksatta Film related Computer related Others West Bengal: The Telegraph. Panchjanya weekly Brief profile of players in the industry The Times of India 6 . Teens Today. Indian Television. The Hindu. Showtime. Wow Hyderabad. Outlook. Business Standard Weeklies and The Week. Express Computer. Andhra Jyothi in telugu. India Talkies Players Deccan Chronicle. Screen. Asha kiran. Star Dust PC Quest. Zee Premiere. Lokmat Times. Asian Age The Economic Times. Computers Today. India Abroad. Arcade. India Today Plus. The Times of India. Hindi Milap Delhi: Hindustan Times. Silicon India The Onion. Data Quest. Indian Express Bollywood Scoop. Andhra Bhoomi. Film Trip. India Together. Aaj Tak. India Today. Business Line. JAM. Apun Ka Choice. Deepika Global. The Statesman Filmfare. The Financial Express. Sakaal .
TOI Online is the world's most-visited newspaper website with 159 million page views in May 2009. Mangalore. Bangalore Times. Nagpur Times. known as The Times Group. such as Delhi Times. Ranchi. Indore. Kanpur. Berliner and online). Bhopal Plus . Delhi. Ahmedabad Times and Chennai Times. Bengaluru. Coleman & Co. Kolkata. Daily Mail and USA Today websites. the Times of India is the most widely read English newspaper in India with a readership of 13. along with its other group companies. Guwahati. Hyderabad. According to the Indian Readership Survey (IRS) 2008. Goa. In 2008. The Sun. Mumbai. This ranks the Times of India as the top English newspaper in India by readership. The Times is self-declared as a liberal newspaper. The Times of Doon. Meerut Plus. Bombay Times. the Navbharat Times (a Hindi-language daily broadsheet). Pune Times. Ltd. Mysore. According to COM Score. Nagpur. Washington Post. Mumbai Mirror. Other regular supplements include: 7 . Lucknow. Coleman & Co. which is owned by the Sahu Jain family. The Times of India is published by the media group Bennett. Patna. Indore Times. Pune.000 copies Supplements The Times of India comes with several city-specific supplements.14 million) it was certified by the Audit Bureau of Circulations as the world's largest selling Englishlanguage daily newspaper. Hyderabad Times.The Times of India (TOI) is a popular English-language broadsheet daily newspaper in India. The Times of South Mumbai. Kanpur Times. The Times of India is printed from the following places: TOI press are in Sahibabad. Surat. ahead of the New York Times. Haridwar Plus . Bhubaneswar. Total Average Circulation for 2008: 3. the Maharashtra Times (a Marathi-language daily broadsheet). the newspaper reported that (with a circulation of over 3. Bhopal. Ahmedabad. It is owned and managed by Bennett. across all formats (broadsheet. and is sometimes described as irreverent. also publishes The Economic Times.3 million. Calcutta Times. Chennai. Chandigarh. Jaipur. It has the widest circulation among all English-language daily newspapers in the world. This company. Lucknow Times. placing as the 8th largest selling newspaper in any language in the world. compact. Ltd.433.
Some supplements offered by the Dainik Jagaran are: Jhankaar. More than 55. Jharkhand. Josh. Himachal Pradesh. Bihar. In this new. discussing. Gwalior. ZIG WHEELS – ZigWheels. dynamic world of Indian media Dainik Jagran is an iconic brand. On the website the latest news in Hindi more than 30 times a day. Times Ascent (Wednesdays) – Editorial of Times Ascent. Sangini. Indore.com has various channels on its website focusing on different information needs of its users. Ratlam. Delhi.7 million people reach out for Dainik Jagran making it the largest read daily of India. Satna & Saugor) along with the states of Uttar Pradesh. E . counselor and adviser. West Bengal and Jammu & Kashmir . Times Life (Sundays) – Times Life is the supplement which is feature driven What's Hot (Fridays) – Focus on latest happenings/events. Centers on human resource development and the impact and implications on business and society. features and interviews on Indian vehicles. In addition to news. they also have more than 30 other channels on their website including: 8 . Dainik Jagran Dainik Jagran is the Worlds Largest Read Newspaper and the Number One Hindi Newspaper in India. Uttarakhand.com is an automotive website reviewing. Puranchandra Gupta.PAPER Jagran. It was the brainchild of the aggressive freedom fighter Mr. Jabalpur. It is the world’s largest read news paper and is one the largest newspapers in the world. Special pages created for channels and details of programmes Rouge (Saturdays) – Concentrates on women's interest areas. Haryana. as a career guidance. The first edition was launched in Jhansi in 1942 and in 1947 Dainik Jagran shifted its headquarters to Kanpur and thus launched its second edition. Dainik Jagran’s 37 editions carve a huge swathe across eleven states – Madhya Pradesh (Bhopal. Punjab. Nai Rahein.Times Wellness (Saturdays) – Times Wellness focuses on solutions to health issues and guidance to better living Education Times (Mondays) – Education Times caters to the ever-expanding student community and learning experience. Yatra.
Box office hits. Khana Khazana . fact files of actors and actresses with biographies and latest releases. Kochi. in 1995. Thiruvananthapuram. Cine Maza. Delhi. especially Tamil Nadu headquartered at Chennai (formerly called Madras). The Hindu was published weekly when it was launched in 1878.First to introduce colour 9 . weekly tabloid catering to the taste of the youngsters and teenagers of 13–19 years age group. It has its largest base of circulation in South India. and slightly ahead of The Economic Times. the first Indian newspaper to offer an online edition. and updates on science and technology. The Hindu is the third most-widely read English newspaper in India (after Times of India and Hindustan Times) with a readership of 5. bilingual. which include the following 1940 .Bangalore. Mangalore. Hyderabad.A colored. Channel Sakhi . The Hindu is published from 13 locations .com giving information on Bollywood.A cookery channel targeted at household women who cherish cooking. and started publishing daily in 1889. Madurai. Jagran Yahoo! Khana Khazana is a complete resource of multi cuisine recipes and quick cooking tips. The channel highlights the role of women in modern times and helps them in coping with the outside world. The Hindu The Hindu is a leading English-language Indian daily newspaper with a circulation of 1. personality development.A monthly supplement of jagran.2 million. top 5 releases. Josh . The Hindu became. According to the Indian Readership Survey (IRS) 2008. Tiruchirapalli.45 million and is the second-largest circulated daily English newspaper in India after Times of India.A popular Bollywood news and reviews channel of Jagran. Chennai. Coimbatore. Kolkata.The Sakhi is a premium women’s channel targeted at upwardly mobile and outgoing women in the upper socio-economic class.Junior Jagran . career related queries.com which is concentrating on educational content. Achievements The Hindu has many firsts in India to its credit.
India 1.959 Daily www. Sudoku Online presence.349. Karnataka and Tamil Nadu states of India. Deccan Chronicle Type Format Owner Editor Founded Language Headquarters Circulation Website Daily newspaper Broadsheet Deccan Chronicle Holdings Ltd. The newspaper's name derives from the originating place Deccan regions of India. A T Jayanti 1938 English Hyderabad. Improve Your English.Becomes India national news paper Supplements and features Mondays .deccanchronicle. Engineering.Job Opportunities. It is published in English.This day that age.First to adopt facsimile system of page transmission 1980 . The Hindu Crossword. Literary Review Daily features .Friday Features. Science.First newspaper to go on Internet 1999 . Wednesdays . Book Review.First to use satellite for facsimile transmission 1994 .First to adopt wholly computerized integration of text and graphics in page makeup and remote imaging 1995 . Friday .Weekly Magazine. The Hindu was the first newspaper in India to have a website.Metro Plus. Religion. Business Review.Metro Plus Weekend. Tuesday . Technology & Agriculture.First to own fleet of aircraft for distribution 1969 . Other supplements by it 10 .1963 . Sunday .First to use computer aided photo composing 1986 .Metro Plus.Young World. Thursdays . launched in 1995. Open Page.com The Deccan Chronicle is a daily newspaper published through the Andhra Pradesh. Education. Saturday .
Mr. Eenadu managed to achieve its target of becoming a daily publication. He is an inspiration for many young business people. is amazing. Teen Chronicle. However. 11 . and Andhra Jyoti. Ramoji rao's growth from no where to every where. Eenadu Eenadu. it was popular in regions and rivalry was still an issue. it wasn't able to sell more than 3. highly circulated newspaper. Sunday chronicle. Though Eenadu is a highly circulating news paper. By 1975.000 copies a week. Chennai and Bengaluru Chronicle. film production (Usha Kiran Films).are TV Guide.000 and is the third most circulated regional language daily and 10th most circulated daily in India. and a group of television channels (ETV). It has played a role in either crowning or dethroning governments in Andhra Pradesh. they have a healthy competition with other circulating news papers Vaartha. is the largest circulated Telugu news daily in the state of Andhra Pradesh. When launched in Vishakapatnam. Eenadu too had its share of struggles.134. India. Every one in Andhra Pradesh knows Ramoji Rao. Eenadu's rapid expansion enabled diversification of its portfolio by venturing into numerous other markets such as finance and chitfund (Margadarsi chits). According to NRS (National Readership Studies) 2005 it has got a readership of 1. Eenadu (meaning "Today" in Telugu) was founded by the Indian media baron Ramoji Rao in 1974. All the businesses are organized under Ramoji Group. His name became a household name. headquartered in Hyderabad. In a period where the company needed vision to drive and expand it any further. film distribution (Mayuri Films). It also supplies other weekly features like School chronicle. Sunday Chronicle. It has also successfully adapted the latest publishing and communication technologies into the Telugu language. Eenadu found itself struggling to become a daily publication ranked amongst other popular rival publications. Eenadu hired a new set of directors to be part of its key decision and management group which drove it towards what it is today being the top read. History As with any other publication. foods (Priya Foods).Sakshi (magazine). etc.
Later in year 1957. Dainik Bhaskar Group publishes a varied range of magazine helpful in many ways. There were only 100 prints of the news paper on the first day of its publication. Dainik Bhaskar is published from many cities of North and Central India: Bhopal. Its current editor is Ramesh Chandra Agrawal. by the name Subah Savere in Bhopal and Good Morning India in Gwalior.5 million prints daily in 2008. Raipur. it was renamed as Samachar Kranti. New Delhi. like 'Aha zindgi' a magazine based on highlighting the positive features of life. Indore. Akola. Chapter-2 12 . Lucknow. Gwalior. In Gujarat. it was published as Dainik Bhaskar. and then again in year 1958 as Bhaskar Samachar. The company also runs English newspaper DNA in partnership with Zee Group. Finally in year 1960. It was started in year 1958 from Bhopal. The newspaper was launched in year 1956 to fulfill the need for a Hindi language daily. Ahemedabad. Satna. History Dainik Bhaskar was first published in Bhopal and Gwalior of the central province. the capital city of Madhya Pradesh. Jabalpur.Dainik Bhaskar Dainik Bhaskar is a Hindi-language daily newspaper of India. a figure which increased by 69566 within a week and rose to over 2. Jabalpur. Varanasi. and Western Madhya Pradesh the Gujarati Version of the newspaper is also published as Divya Bhaskar. Ajmer. Nagpur. Jaipur.
Product Lines And Consumer Behavior PRODUCT LINES AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR Complimentary and substitutes products 13 .
while others have eight or nine which affects the size. shape. online newspaper. e-papers. and costs of an ad. television. and pamphlet distribution. door to door campaigns. Newspaper space rates vary with an advertiser’s special requests. exhibition. Some have six columns per page. 14 . such as preferred position or color. Substitutes for print media are radio.Complimentary good for print media is advertisements as it gives high revenues. Product description and range of products Newspapers uses column of varying width.
Chapter-3 Growth Of The Industry GROWTH OF THE INDUSTRY 15 .
entry of DTH players the success of many small budget movies. Head Information. pattern of growth. with a strong emphasis on profitable growth in the current scenario. Regionalization. the industry is projected to grow at a CAGR (compound annual growth rate) of 12. while continuing to innovate. The focus of industry players too is changing. innovate and re-examine their existing business models. especially in the last quarter of 2008. Internationalization.6% in 2008 and reaching around INR 172.6 16 . on the back of economic slowdown and the consequent slowdown in advertising revenues. The Indian Print Media industry is estimated to have grown by 7. and the rising competition in the regional market were some of the key highlights of the previous year. Print. Growing acceptance of the digital TV distribution technology. Factors like Narrowcasting. it is expected to exhibit a robust growth rate at CAGR of 12. expected rise in advertising to GDP ratio compared to developed economies and increasing media penetration. Advertising spends grew at CAGR of 17.” The projected 12.Rate of growth. The report however.5% to reach the size of Rs1052 bn by 2013. KPMG India said. media companies are increasingly concentrating on strengthening existing operations and assessing options for growth through consolidation.4% over the next five years. Digitization and Deregulation have become the ‘buzzwords’ in the industry. Over the next five years. Rajesh Jain.1% in the past three years. growth determinants The Indian Media and entertainment industry stood at Rs584 bn in 2008.4% over the previous year. Communication & Entertainment. Players need to draw upon new capabilities to survive in this environment. media corporate is likely to focus more on operating margins. Hence. “Media companies are under pressure to change. highlights that the market environment has become increasingly challenging for the sector. Organized Funding.5% growth for the sector will be driven on the back of factors like favorable demographics. Potential upsides could take this higher. strong long term fundamentals of the Indian economy. says a FICCI & KPMG report on the sector release. Going forward. while building on core strengths. a growth of 12. Radio and Outdoor which depend on advertising revenues were largely affected and this is estimated to continue into the current year too. In the immediate future. and assess opportunities for consolidation. Sectors like TV.
especially in regional media to attract advertisers. Growth drivers Higher literacy levels: In 2006. The industry needs to invest in quality improvements. more launches in the niche segment. collective negotiations and bulk purchase of newsprint.6% CAGR. like newspaper supplements and specialty magazines. by players.billion in size. Currently Indian print media is estimated to reach over 220 m people.3%. Organized Retail and Telecom. While the newspaper industry is estimated at Rs 112 bn.8%. The Indian print media segment primarily comprises newspaper and magazine publishing. urban literacy touched 85. the print industry is expected to grow from Rs 128 bn in 2006 to Rs 232 bn by 2011. Growth in the Print media industry is achievable through sustained growth in advertisement revenues due to increased advertising spends from emerging sectors such as Education.1% as compared to 69. at 12. and has immense growth potential since close to 370 m literate Indians are believed to not be served by any 17 . optimization of cover prices leading to improved penetration and growth in sales volume. The structure of the Indian print media industry is highly fragmented with importance to regional dominance.9% in 2005. While rural literacy is at 64. constitute forums to encourage and promote regular reading habits among youth. the magazine segment is valued at Rs 16 bn. As per PwC report. The industry is projected to grow at a CAGR of 9% over the next five years and reach around INR 266 billion in size by 2013. improving literacy levels in the country. the literacy levels increased to 71. adopting innovative practices like trading media space in publication platforms in return for equity and improve organizational ability to attract and retain talent.
9 Any Hindi Daily 62.9 7. as compared to the global average of 50%. Urban & Rural Base Population (m) % Any Publication 184 23.publication.1 4. Lower cover prices: Earlier.6 0.3 Rural (m) % 84.1 Any English Daily 17.6 Any Daily 170 21.9 m copies per day.5 bn advertising spend in the country. With rising consumerism and growing interest from domestic and global brands in Indian market.2 93.7 m copies a day.5% in China.1 1.2 Any Magazine 58. second only to China with 98. with increasing competition and venture into newer regions the companies have reduced the cover prices to augment more sales. 1. the ad spend in India is just 0.7 33.2 27. there were approximately 6.529 daily newspapers as of March 2005.9 6.6 Urban (m) % 99. due to strong hold over a region. Bihar.3% in the US and a world average of nearly 1.8 39. the growth in ad segment is expected to be strong.0%.9 42. the reach of newspapers is only 27%.9 8. However.4% of GDP as against 0. The initial subscription offers of ‘DNA’ and ‘Hindustan Times’ (HT) in Mumbai. Jharkhand Andhra Pradesh Chennai 18 .6 35. further reduced the cost of the newspaper to around 50 paise for an average issue Higher ad spends: Print media accounts for 48% of the total Rs 137. As per the registrar of newspapers.6 76.3 15. In 2006.6 Newspaper Jagran Prakashan Times of India HT Media Deccan Chronicle The Hindu Place of strong hold Uttar Pradesh and Uttaranchal Mumbai Delhi. the newspaper had higher cover charges.3 5. No single newspaper had a national circulation. during their launch period.3 25. Many English dailies are sold for as low as Re 1 or Rs 2. India had the second largest circulation of newspapers with 88.6 14.4 2. However.8 14.6 15 15. Also.
Times of India follows strong brand loyalty in Mumbai and it was difficult for Hindustan Times to enter Mumbai. Hindi and vernacular language newspapers offer a local and regional flavor to their readers. Of the daily newspapers. The newspaper industry has relatively high entry barriers due to the strong brand equity of existing players. are largely focused on the primary urban centers. with existing players enjoying strong brand loyalty. Also. Currently. The print media is further divided on the basis of the languages. with a readership of approximately 15% and 5% of persons in urban and rural areas. For e. about 46% are vernacular. In non-news publications. Since the changes in the regulation 19 . up to 26% foreign direct investment (FDI) is permitted in newspapers and periodicals dealing with news and current affairs. in addition to their strong presence in urban areas. Hindi-language newspapers have a proportionately larger readership in rural areas. Attracting foreign investment Most Indian print players continued to dominate the local regions and did not enter new territories.The Telegraph Deccan Herald Punjab kesari Kolkatta Bangalore Punjab Fragmented industry The regionalism aspect is clearly visible in the newspaper sector. The newspaper industry is regionally divided. 100% foreign investment is permitted. respectively. on the other hand.g. foreign investment regulations were relaxed in 2002. The content and circulation of English-language newspapers. However. existing players have strong control over the distribution network. compared to a readership of only 0. Approximately 7% of the population in urban areas read English-language newspapers. (Source: IRS 2005) In contrast to this. making it difficult for new players to enter.3% of the population in the rural areas. mainly due to lack of funds. 44% are in Hindi and 10% are English.
with newspaper companies entering into newer regions and segments would lead to stronger growth. Chapter-4 20 . literate population on the rise. entry of global brands in the country and opening of the sector to foreign investors would drive the growth in print media.many foreign investors have taken strategic stakes in the domestic print media companies. Also. increasing consumerism. Going forward A booming Indian economy.
The current cost structure leaves revenue generation sectors well under funded with content creation and advertising sales receiving just 14 percent and 16 percent of the cash operating costs respectively. On the other hand. 70 percent of costs are devoted to print distribution and corporate expenditure.Technology Of Production And Distribution TECHNOLOGY OF PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION Cost structure The nature of the newspaper industry's cost structure is causing the field's current woes and will require transformation in order to reduce fixed costs by outsourcing printing. 21 . As revenue from advertising continues to decline the large cost of outsourcing printing is causing huge cash flow problems for newspapers.
Circulation. Hindustan. but any increase in circulation does not decrease per unit cost. Print media industry desperately needs to increase their cover price. given the conditions across all platforms. The circulation revenue recovers only a part of the cost of producing a newspaper. If circulation falls. Dainik Jagran. Prabhat Khabar and Hindustan raised their cover price by 50 paise to Rs 4. Hence.50 to Rs 3. but the only reason for pegging the cost at ~10% of the cost of production is due to the fear that no one will buy them because rival papers may become cheaper. English dailies.50. The bonus of making a profit after all costs is on the advertising revenue.50 and those in Rajasthan to Rs 3.More recapitalization and closures are imminent unless newspapers can begin to better monetize digital content and cut structural costs to rival increased competition in the news industry. in Bihar and Jharkhand. Dainik Jagran and Amar Ujala raised their cover price in Meerut and Dehradun to Rs 3 from Rs 2. too. It's bleeding. 22 . The economic downturn appears to have taken a severe toll on the Indian print media industry. 2. The cover price of Hindi dailies in UP and Uttarakhand are expected to go up to Rs 3. though Delhi seems to be unaffected as of now but for The Hindu which raised the price from Rs 2. Advertising and Circulation Revenue There are two basic sources of revenue for the newspapers: 1. Layoffs and salary cuts may become a necessity for many businesses to survive as they have added substantially to their capacities. On the other hand increases in circulation to take reflect on ad revenue takes time. many newspapers revised cover prices. advertisers shy away from using the medium. Also any marginal increase in advertisement revenue due to increase in circulation is not apparent in the short run. Similarly. Advertising. have raised their cover price in many markets. Newsprint account for about 70% of the cost of production. Recently. With dipping Ad revenues due to the slowdown and high cost structure. the print media industry will continue to face pressure for the next two to three quarters. they are heavily dependent on advertising to take care of costs and generate revenue.
000 23 .000-500. Newsprint prices. while papers in the 100.The print media industry will continue to face pressure for the next two to three quarters. Relief on newsprint costDue to the current economic slowdown impacting the print media industry. all ministries. which constitute more than 70% of the cost of producing a newspaper. the Government has announced special customs duty exemptions for the newspaper & magazine publishing industry. as per the analysts. a custom duty of 3% was applicable on newsprint and 5% on lightweight coated paper. Till now. departments and subordinate offices of the Government of India can issue tender notices directly to empanelled newspapers at DAVP rates. A special additional duty of 4 per cent was also levied. Layoffs and salary cuts may become a necessity for many businesses to survive as they have added substantially to their capacities. 35 per cent of DAVP advertisements in rupee terms will be given to regional and other language newspapers against the existing limit of 30%. • It increased the advertisement quota of the Directorate of Audio Visual Publicity (DAVP) for small papers from 10% to 15% and for medium newspapers from 30% to 35%. The concessions announced by the Finance Ministry include: • Full exemption in customs duty on newsprint and glazed newsprint used for printing newspapers • Full exemption in customs duty on lightweight coated paper used for printing magazines. • Information and Broadcasting ministry came to the rescue of small and medium newspapers by announcing a revised policy of releasing Government advertisements. These exemptions will reduce the price burden to some extent and so too the reduction in imported newsprint prices from its peak. • Under the new policy. Economies of scale and economies of scope A survivor analysis for daily newspapers from 1964 to 1981 indicates that papers with 5. which has now been waived. shot up last year by around 60-65%.000 or less circulation are withering away. Under the new policy.
Finally.000 plus circulation size class is difficult to interpret.100.000. Competitive advantage by identifying issues and providing fast resolutions or actions related to: 24 . the second smallest size category. these results are consistent with the conjecture that the new technology of daily newspapers has reduced first copy costs and lowered the minimum efficient scale.000. the 500. The performance of the 500. while not experiencing a statistically significant increase in the number of firms. birthday wishes and anniversaries. the log odds ratio of increased national and local market share is greatest for this size class.001 .000-100. Value added. festival wishes. The increased number of firms in these classes represents a statistically significant shift in the size distribution of firms.10. On the other hand. This conclusion is buttressed by the performance of firms in the 10.000 plus circulation size class has experienced an increase in market share and an increase in the number of firms. Moreover. did demonstrate a high log odds ratio of increased market share when demographic variables are included in the analysis. The value added advertisements are commercial ads. and taking intercity shifts in demographic factors into account. once intercity shifts in demographic variables are considered.000 size classes. While the shift in the size distribution of firms is not significant.001-500. Except for the very largest class. The economies of scope increases with increase in number of advertisers where they get high return and in turn help in reduction in cost of the newspaper as the processes utilize the same resources. logistics and labor The value added for newspapers and magazines are advertisers and readers who are capable of attracting higher revenues or adding to its differentiation.000 circulation size range in both national and local markets. 5.000 circulation size classes have experienced substantial increases in the number of firms and in market share.circulation size range are less likely to have gained local or national market share. no statistically significant increase in the distribution of firms in these ranges is evident. and the log-odds ratio of increased national or local market share for existing papers in this size range substantially exceeds that for papers in the 100. the 10.
inventory management. with on-demand information about past performance. roll and supplier. costs. track inventory cost and availability and evaluate of risks/what-if-analysis and their impact on inventory. all financial flows within the newspaper supply chain are either discretionary (how much newsprint and ink inventory is carried). and the current state of available paper and demand. news. Efficient distribution involves the use of market expertise to negotiate freight rate and logistics services. storage. Alert and informed about faults such as tearing and missprints during set-up and production. and overall compilation or management and organization of products and distribution. Optimize planning. package design & flow 25 . editorial. The primary components affecting the total supply chain cost for a newspaper are: • Inbound Information: advertising. Today the distribution in print media industry is viewed as a value added or ancillary service. The primary supply chain flow for newspapers is the outbound product flow and its associated information flow. production quality and efficiency. As such. for recycling). • Sell waste/defect paper. routing. supplier short list. fulfillment and kit packing. Distribution is a customer service offering that starts when the job is scheduled. human errors. • Paper Procurement.g. printer and type of paper. • Paper Quality and Faults. or direct costs resulting from the supply chain in place. grade. and price negotiation. insertion. shift. Identify faulty paper.• Raw Paper Inventory. and financial flows to be adapted to supply chain and other quantifiable management programs. Newspapers have successfully separated subscriber and advertiser cash flow timing from product delivery. Match faults to paper type. Newspapers require unique definition of their product. Identify opportunities and track metrics related to selling waste paper (e. pagination • Press Operations: plate making through pressing • Packaging Operations: handling. Ancillary services have been identified a challenge in printing industry for growth opportunity. • Production Performance. Other aspects of distribution include warehousing. information. Track printers’ production activity by facility. shipping. Real-time visibility of paper inventory in warehouses.
locations.• Distribution Operations: transport mode. 26 . Balancing time and workflow across the supply chain will yield the largest results. A dynamic cost and process flow model of the newspaper supply chain will be essential in keeping pace with changing needs and demands within the newspaper industry. and handling. timing.
Chapter-5 Marketing 27 . HR. web manager. general manager. reporter. publisher. editor. journalist. promotion manager. information system analyst. Number of employees is the sole basis of the industry. librarian. sales supervisor.In print media industry the labor market is highly skilled. Skilled labors required are press operator.
with each player constantly trying to increase its market dominance. The market for print media can be segmented based on geography. Many players are well established in their respective regions and it is difficult for new players to penetrate the market. the print media industry is in the growth phase. Promoting. There are a few well-established players in the industry. advertising. Many players used technology and marketing strategies to emerge as global giants. The print media industry has low entry and exit barriers. there is intense competition for market share in the industry. In India. marketing strategies. 2000 has been wreaking havoc with traditional approaches to marketing and promotion. and marketing products or services are the most basic ways to drum up new business. The decision of the Indian government to allow 26% FDI in Indian print media has received mixed response from media houses. A partial list of the media available to marketers includes. demographics and psychographics.Marketing Market segmentation. But it should come as no surprise that the vast proliferation of media seen since circa. However. marketing practices and marketing concepts specific to the industry. Some players strongly opposed the move while others welcomed it. but is not limited to: 28 .
newspapers) Web sites Web advertising (banners and other ads) e-mail direct mail/e-letters search engine marketing (sponsored links on Google. which all intermingles to create a dense wall of background noise. fleet graphics). The Industry Measure has conducted extensive research into media channels and the ways in which those channels are changing. rich media. 45% currently use outdoor/display advertising (signs.g. e.). In a recent survey of ad agencies.) broadcast/satellite radio broadcast/cable/satellite TV billboards/posters/outdoor advertising point of sale/point of purchase displays word of mouth/so-called “viral” marketing computer desktop “wallpaper” advertising on mobile phones/other portable devices ring tones for mobile phones blogs social networking sites (like MySpace) online video (like You Tube) in-game advertising (for videogames) And on and on and on… Part of the marketing problem is that. it was found that: • 70% of ad agencies currently use print direct mail (not variable) to market and promote their and their clients’ services or products. posters. and 29 • • . etc.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • print direct mail print catalogs print advertising (magazines. almost any surface can be a marketing vehicle. After all. thanks to inexpensive electronics and display technologies. consumers are awash in advertising and marketing messages. for example. 52% currently use Web advertising (banners.
“it’s all good. Relying on just a print direct mail campaign may garner some new business. This is why a judicious combination of media is the best approach. etc..” While new media are important to the overall media mix. gender. some advertisers and marketers are jumping onto whatever new medium comes down the pike. “Less important” shouldn’t be construed as meaning “unimportant. radio spots. Using the same logo and logo colors. the same or similar text.” In print media industry. income.• 45% also currently use broadcast radio. combine media. or some other combination of media will help build brand awareness. even geographical location) have different media habits. the same tagline phrasing. in all your media permutations. At the same time. There are certain guidelines marketers can take to ensure that their media rupees are not spent in vain. First. 30 . older established media are often still the most effective. response rates and profits may be lower than in other media.” In today’s media mix. while the Internet may not be the best way to reach certain other groups. but combining that with a direct e-mail blast. Third. identify the target audience and think carefully about the best medium/media to reach them. Different demographic groups (age. Second. Print may not be the best way to reach certain groups. the adoption of “design-once-reuse-many” strategy helps save costs on design and lets you get more “bang for your buck. fearful perhaps of missing out on the “next big thing. newspapers and magazines are difficult to use for direct marketing because the ads have to compete with the clutter of other ads and because the space is relatively expensive. to keep the advertising message and design elements consistent across media.” At the same time. an outdoor advertising campaign. This helps with branding and reinforcing the message. the same fonts.
Chapter-6 Innovation 31 .
source of innovation. 32 . concepts of innovation relevant to the industry. Types of innovation The Concepts in innovation relevant to the industry are disruptive innovation. business model innovation. rate of innovation and economies of scale.Innovation Types of innovation. process innovation.
historically even the best-run companies typically end up in the loser's column. It seems clear that newspaper companies must reimagine their content and business models if they hope to succeed. convenience. Some can't match a newspaper's broad distribution network. Force the disruptive initiative into the existing business model and product concept Most newspaper companies still focus a disproportionate share of time and attention on their print product. Market leaders tend to dismiss early disruptive developments because they just don't affect their core business. While newspaper readership is declining. eBay. While not ignoring that product.The newspaper industry is going through a "disruptive" change. Google. blogs. however. information consumption is increasing. Almost every 33 . Disruptive innovations typically offer lower performance along dimensions that firms consider critical. 2. a phenomenon that has transformed industries such as retailing. In exchange. and freely distributed commuter papers each fit the pattern of disruptive innovation. 3. In the media industry. airlines and automobiles.com. there are signs of hope. or low price. The bad news is that when the dust of disruptive change settles. Each emerging competitor lacks something that is core to most newspaper companies' value proposition. Companies find it hard to prioritize spending time and money on disruption when they have seemingly attractive opportunities in their core business. compete along dimensions of performance that are different than the traditional metrics emphasized in the print newspaper business. Monster. computing. Others can't compete with the newspaper's detailed reporting capability or local reach. Fail to spot the disruptive change early enough: Disruptive change tends to start innocently at a market's fringes. All. new benefits are introduced along dimensions such as simplicity. Fail to allocate sufficient resources towards disruptive offerings: Disruptive innovations often have lower performance and lower prices than established offerings. Despite the sense of doom and gloom that pervades the industry today. allocating more resources towards new disruptive products makes sense. ease of use. Three barriers typically make it difficult for market-leading incumbents to get disruption right: 1.
This is because: Firstly. two questions need to be tackled: How to cut media consumer cost. the interactive nature of the Web allows forward-thinking companies to completely change the way they interact with readers and advertisers. This deduces the total operation cost of the media organization. Readers can become content creators and community builders. its pinpointing skills will increase and thus can better satisfy the media users’ needs. The cost advantage the media product innovation want to realize include low media consumer cost and low media product cost. scale economy. Increased targeting skills will consequently reduce the redundancy in the content it produces and increase the efficiency as a media user fulfills its needs while using the content in a given time span. Given that. a media product innovation 34 . the above-mentioned two costs are in a zero-sum relation -. Newspaper companies should look at their local market to identify jobs that people can't get done well today. They should think of the great assets they have at their disposal — top-flight journalists. before media cost innovation can be realized. companies are experimenting with new approaches. Meanwhile. increased accuracy in information collection and processing will greatly cut resources consumed by the reporting and editing team. economy of scope and innovation method. Additionally. and how to cut media product cost thus caused. and the media’s attraction to ads increases accordingly. However. strong brands. as a media organization gains experience in its targeted market. under the usual circumstances. the media can offer more space for advertisements. healthy balance sheets — and think how they could reconstitute those assets to address important. Dozens of companies have launched free papers targeted at young readers or recent immigrants. The Cost dimension in media product innovation requires a media organization to obtain a cost advantage through product innovation. In fact. Media Product Cost is closely related to the learning curve. The Value Analysis Model sees “cost” as the “fee incurred in a product’s life circle”. unsatisfied jobs. experience curve.newspaper company has made the transition to the Web. with their properties attracting new audiences and new advertisers.A decrease of one of them will inevitably cause an increase in the other. As the content redundancy is cut. in-depth local knowledge. As we can see. Web sites can serve advertisers that would eschew the static nature of print. thus enhancing the probability a media product is chosen.
a media product innovation should be carried out on the basis of a media organization’s core resources and center on competence strengthening. So in the media product innovation process. In summary. thus obtaining a sustainable competition advantage. with each of them having a different cost-saving ability. Secondly. Fourthly. But essentially an influence economy. efforts in the four aspects discussed above can. independent innovation is most expensive. as the scale expands. Only when this condition is met can a cost cut be realized. while the latter two are more cost-efficient. to be cost-saving. In this approach. through reorganizing its production elements. An 35 . otherwise the so-called diseconomies of scope will appear. Expanding the scale in a free rein will very likely impoverish the media organization. So. Therefore. The overall goal of the innovation is to realize media expansion at a low cost. therefore.based on collective intellect (core competence) can cut the cost it pays in learning and experience. launched at a very low newsstand price. according to the economy of scope. for example. Using this approach. a media product innovation should be conducted within a business scope where a coordination. the media organization should try to obtain a relatively efficient scale at a time spell shortest possible while decreasing the possibility of an inefficient scale. and its value increased. imitative innovation in particular. but can be very innovative in its outer appearance and other benefits it offers. mutual support and resources sharing are possible and efficient. exerting a cost control in both aspects. Among the three. according to the scale economy theory. and as whole the product life cycle cost is reduced. help a media organization obtain higher production efficiency and cut media product unit cost. cost-centered media product innovation tends to adopt the imitative innovation approach or even a complete imitation in order to reform the media product line. the media economy generally operates at a loss at the early stage. Beijing Times. what it needs is a relative scale advantage rather than an absolute one. the consumer cost is transferred. Thirdly. the media product will see a cost cut. but latter increased it three times within one year of the launch in order to cut cost in the most. emulation innovation and cooperative innovation. the media product innovation encompasses independent innovation. the core product a media organization offers should be uniform with that of its competitor’s.
Therefore. and few were on the second aspect. to cut the media users cost while ignoring media product innovation is too naive and detrimental both to a media’s growth and the nurture of its all-around ability.examination of the newspaper competition in Nanjing in 1999 shows the cost innovation by some of the competing newspapers in the city was still on the first aspect. thinking about media competition as merely a competition of “burning money”. Chapter-7 Strategies And Competition In The Industry 36 .
It was found. size of the ad and the location of the ad on the newspaper as some of the key factors of determination. Porter’s generic strategies model. the impact deduced was on a smaller scale. Brand image. the English dailies are seen as premium and the ad space in these is sold to clients. The pricing of ad space in newspapers has always been tricky. 37 . The model developed to identify pricing strategy of dailies used circulation. concept of generic value chain. dummy variables were assigned and regression of these multi variables was done using SPSS. To understand these factors which affect the pricing strategies of dailies and bundles of dailies models were created during the course of the study based on rate cards of Indian newspapers. Since these variables were qualitative.Strategies and competition in the industry Strategies used in the industry. The model was developed by regressing ad rates with the above mentioned factors. swot analysis. But on a practical case. In India. porter’s five forces model and analysis using it. element of industry structure. concept of growth share market matrix. porter’s value chain model analysis. that are into high end products and hence the ad spaces in English dailies always sells at a premium. duplication of readership and area of circulation were some of the additional factors that were considered while developing a model for the pricing of bundled services. company position . The models developed helped in identifying the intensity of impact of each factor on ad rates and the discounts offered.
Innovation Growing mass media Value adding Online newspapers THREAT Economic downturn. Circulation. WEAKNESS Skilled labor Short life span of the product. that client relationship actually plays a key role than the above mentioned factors. Consumer migration to TV media. Revenue increases with increase in number of advertisements. Service and flexibility. SWOT Analysis STRENGHT Supply creates its own demand. Thus the empirical model developed helped identify the correlation between the factors mentioned and the ad rates and the base rate on which all these factors are applied depends in personal relationship between the publisher and the advertiser. OPPORTUNITY Digital space technology. Radio 38 . Products can easily be recycled.through interviews. High degree of market coverage.
Porter’s generic strategies model Generic strategies were used initially in the early 1980s. Thus Niche channels are the only way to maintain viewer loyalty. This is to increase the probability of the media users to choose the product. and 3. The clutter of ads has now spilled out on the number of channel availability due to which people are spoilt for choice. Porter’s five force model 39 . 3. A media organization with a target user loyalty can concentrate more on how to fully meet the target user’s needs rather than on product cost saving. Some premium-branded newspapers. Focus 1. a bit like The Sunday Times is more niche-orientated. and seem to be even more popular today. the unique benefits the media products offer can over-offset the premium. Cost leadership. Cost leadership In the case of media products. Focus Focus strategy is also known as a 'niche' strategy. They outline the three main strategic options open to organization that wish to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. 2. means they should be offered at a price lower than their competitors’ but with as good benefits. Differentiation. or. The generic strategies are: 1. 2. Differentiation Differentiation in media refers to when a media organization provides unique benefits to the media users through product innovation.
firms within an industry may have to coordinate for collective good. firms need to coordinate. if the firms want to avoid costly price wars which will ultimately reduce profits for all firms. In other words. They are also shown in the diagram below. the threat of substitute products or services. and the threat of new entrants (also known as barriers to entry). It is common sense to assume that if the rivalry is intense. the Five Forces framework has been accepted as a strategic framework which one can apply to analyze any industry. For example. Frequently. to increase profitability. the bargaining power of suppliers. this is easier said than done.The five forces which one must consider to analyze any industry are the rivalry between the firms within the industry being analyzed. Initially propounded by Harvard Business School Professor Michael Porter. 40 . the bargaining power of buyers. However. average profitability will reduce. Let's consider rivalry within the industry first.
marketing and sales (demand). not the divisional level or corporate level. The business unit is the appropriate level for construction a value chain. The "primary activities" include: inbound logistics. The chain of activities gives the products more added value than the sum of added values of all activities. and ultimately larger firms follow. Products pass through all activities of the chain in order and at each activity the product gains some value. traditional media like print and TV are under attack. and services (maintenance). The threat of substitutes is important while analyzing an industry.in an industry comprising of firms large and small. Online advertisers like Google and Yahoo!. In short. at the cost of print and TV advertising. Concept of generic value chain A value chain is a chain of activities for a firm operating in a specific industry. are ensuring that more and more advertising move to the World Wide Web. It is important not to mix the concept of the value chain with the costs occurring throughout the activities. operations (production). smaller firms tend to lower prices to increase market share. Currently. Bargaining power of suppliers and customers always needs to be considered. two well known Internet companies. with the onslaught of the Internet. The "support 41 . The value chain categorizes the generic value -adding activities of an organization. while analyzing any industry. the Internet and the mobile Internet have emerged as real substitutes to reading newspapers and magazines and watching TV. outbound logistics.
and where best to allocate the resources. the higher proportion of the market one can control. The costs and value drivers are identified for each value activity. The Boston Matrix assumes that if one enjoy a high market share they will normally be making money (this assumption is based on the idea that you will have been in the market long enough to have learned how to be profitable. it provides a useful way of looking at the opportunities. and helps analyze which segments of the business are in a good position – and which ones aren’t. human resource management. shown on axes of Market Growth and Market Share: These are below: groups explained Dogs: Low Market Share / Low Market Growth 42 . measured either in revenue terms or unit volume terms. The higher the market share. The Boston Matrix categorizes opportunities into four groups.activities" include: administrative infrastructure management. Concept of growth share matrix (BCG model) Also called the BCG Matrix. one can decide on the most appropriate investment strategy for the business in the future. technology (R&D). That way. and will be enjoying scale economies that give you an advantage). and procurement. Market share is the percentage of the total market that is being serviced by the company. The value chain framework quickly made its way to the forefront of management thought as a powerful analysis tool for strategic planning.
so it's going to be difficult to make a profit. These opportunities need serious thought as to whether increased investment is warranted. Stars: High Market Share / High Market Growth Here they are well-established.In these areas. so it's easy to get attention and exploit new opportunities. one won't enjoy the scale economies of the larger players. They aren't generating much revenue right now because they don't have a large market share. 43 . However it's only worth expending a certain amount of effort. Also. market presence is weak. Cash Cows: High Market Share / Low Market Growth Here. and growth is exciting! These are fantastic opportunities. they are in high growth markets so the potential to make money is there. they are well-established. so it's going to take a lot of hard work to get noticed. Question Marks might become Stars and eventual Cash Cows. Question Marks (Problem Child): Low Market Share / High Market Growth These are the opportunities no one knows what to do with. but they could just as easily absorb effort with little return. But. because the market isn't growing and opportunities are limited. and one should work hard to realize them.
Chapter-8 Business Environment 44 .
Just as important. the paper's pricing power in both advertising and circulation was unleashed. Without government enforcement of copyright laws. the for-profit media industry would be unable to survive. After competition disappeared.Business Environment PESTEL Model Political factor To understand media. Thus. finance. newspapers reigned supreme. but in this case it certainly does want government intervention. we must understand the constitutional notion of “freedom of the press” in historical context. or politics. the one that pulled ahead usually emerged as the stand-alone winner. when two or more papers existed in a major city (which was almost universally the case a century ago). For owners this was economic heaven. and readers tended to want the paper with the most ads and news pages. Whether the subject was sports. their ads were the easiest way to find job opportunities or to learn the price of groceries at your town's supermarkets. we need to understand the political environment in which they operate. Economic factor For most of the 20th Century. Social factors 45 . rates for both advertisers and readers would be raised annually – and the profits rolled in. newspapers were the primary source of information for the public. but understandably most didn't wish to pay for two. The government’s protection of copyright is crucial to the continued functioning of the media industry. The media industry may not want government regulation in some matters. Advertisers preferred the paper with the most circulation. To make sense of it. The great majority of families therefore felt the need for a paper every day. Typically. the relationship between government and media is more complex than a simple “freedom of the press” slogan might suggest. Thus.
Social factors influence people's choices and include the beliefs. Thus it is for the newspapers to look at emerging options and to rework their traditional sources of revenue. in money terms. values and attitudes of society. Government has allowed Indian edition of foreign news magazines for facilitating wider readership at affordable prices. Such changes can impact purchasing behavior. Consumer attitude is very important social factor. So understanding changes in this area can be crucial. advertisement support has been increased from 10% to 15% for Small newspapers and from 30 to 35% for Medium newspapers. Government has recently announced facsimile edition of international news papers to be brought to be India. Also. Minimum publication period requirement drastically reduced from 36 months to 6 months for regional languages newspapers. 46 . Legal factor As a measure of policy liberalization. As per that policy. especially in the last quarter of 2008. Government has reviewed the print advertisement policy and brought about changes to support small and medium newspapers. It may now seem that the need of the reader to buy a newspaper for news and the need of the advertiser to advertise in it is slowly receding. Technological factor Technology is increasingly competing with print media by opening access to endless sources of news. Environmental factor Newspapers face significant challenges on the back of economic slowdown and the consequent slowdown in advertising revenues. Print media industry has to adapt to a fast-moving environment and players need to draw upon new capabilities to survive in this environment.
Chapter-9 Critical Success Factors 47 .
2. Pricing Prices in India whether it is for cable connection. and the expendable income. 4. prices will increase with increase in choice. Digital technology is increasingly competing with print media by opening access to endless sources of news. even for abroad. This in return means more revenues for the media companies fueling further growth. With increased purchasing power of the India urban class as well as the rural people. 3. Content Niche channels are the only way to differentiate content and have a captive audience. Regulations Print has already opened for FDI ranging from 26% to 100% equity stake. With more and more players jumping on the bandwagon. the regulations will be relaxed and the industry will be a much bigger one. Thus Niche channels are the only way to maintain reader’s loyalty. Technology Use of technology for special effects. 5. Consumerism Increased consumerism and Multiplication of players is leading companies to increase their ad spend to create brand recall. film tickets or newspapers remain one of the lowest in the world though huge volumes compensate for low prices.Critical success factors 1. It may now seem that the need of the 48 . animation and other creative work leading to better quality of media products. The clutter of ads has now spilled out on the number of players due to which people are spoilt for choice.
Thus it is for the newspapers to look at emerging options and to rework their traditional sources of revenue.reader to buy a newspaper for news and the need of the advertiser to advertise in it is slowly receding. Appendices 49 .
7 OUTDOOR6.Appendices SHARE OF ADVERTISEMENT IN DIFFERENT MEDIUM: MEDIUM 2008 TV 40.7 GROWTH RATE OF ADVERTISEMENT REVENUE IN DIFFERENT MEDIUM: Medium TV Press Radio Cinema Outdoor Internet Total Year of growth in 2008(%) 22 18 40 50 14 45 20 50 .9 RADIO 3.8 INTERNET1.2 CINEMA 0.7 PRESS 46.
scribd.4 9.4 4.8 10.quickmba.9 10.com 51 .in www.com www.indiastat.6 9.com www.docshoc.8 10.com www.allindianewspapers.2 21 13.1 Reference: Advertising and promotion by George & Michael Google Bibliography www.pluggd.4 7.economywatch.Leading newspaper in India Figure READERSHIP (MILLIONS) VERNACULAR DAINIK JAGRAN DAINIK BHASKAR EENADU LOKMAT AMAR UJJALA HINDUSTAN DINAKARAN RAJASTHAN PATRIKA ENGLISH TIMES OF INDIA THE HINDU 21.com www.com www.
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