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red, 30 white, 20 blue and 15 orange marbles. Find the

1. If three cards are drawn at random from a pack of 52 probability that it is (I) red or orange, (ii) neither red nor

cards what is the probability that all the three will be blue, (iii) not blue (iv) white, (v) red, white or blue.

kings?

20. Out of 80 students in a class, 30 passed in

2. Find the probability that at least one head appears in Mathematics, 20 passed in Statistics and 10 passed in

two tosses of a coin. both. One student is selected at random. Find the

probability that he has passed, (I) at least in one of the

3. A ball is drawn at random from a box containing 6 red subjects, (ii) none of the subjects, (iii) only in

balls, 5 white balls and 3 blue balls. Find the probability Mathematics, (iv) only in Mathematics or only in

that it is (i) red; (ii) white; (iii) blue, (iv) not red; (v) red

or white. Statistics .

4. A box contains 8 red and 3 white balls. If 3 balls are 21. A die is thrown twice. Find the probability that the score

drawn at random, find the probability that (i) all the in the first throw is 6 and the score in the second throw

three are red; (ii) all three are white; (iii) 2 are red and is 5 or 6.

1 is white.

22. Suppose two dice are cast. Find the probability that the

5. A bag contains 3 white balls, 4 black balls and 5 red number on the uppermost face of the first die is even

balls. If 3 balls are drawn at random find the probability and that of the second is odd.

that (I) all 3 are red; (ii) all 3 are black' (iii) 2 are red

and 1 is black; (iv) 1 of each colour. 23. A fair die is tossed twice. Find the probability of getting

4, 5 or 6 on the first toss and 1, 2, 3, or 4 on the

6. If four coins are tossed, find the probability of the second toss.

occurrence of 2 heads and 2 tails.

24. A card is drawn at random from a full pack of cards

7. Five cards are drawn from a pack of 52 well shuffled under the assumption that the card drawn is a spade.

cards. Find the probability that (i) 4 are aces; (ii) 4 Find the probability that it is a face card i.e. King,

are aces and 1 is a king; (ii) 3 are tens and 2 are Queen or jack.

jacks; (iv) at least one face card us obtained.

25. Two cards are drawn are from a well shuffled deck of

8. A committee of 4 boys and 3 girls is to be formed by 52 cards. Find the probability that they are both aces if

lots from 8 boys and 5 girls. One of the boys is brother the first card is (i) replaced, (ii) not replaced.

of one of the girls. Find the probability that both are

included in the committee. 26. One bag contains 4 white and 2 black balls, another

contains 3 white 5 black balls. If one ball is drawn from

9. Three groups of children contain (i) 3 girls and 1 boy; each bag. Find the probability that (i) both are white,

(ii) 3 girls and 3 boys; (iii) 2 boys and 1 girl. One child (ii) both are black

is selected at random from each group. Find the

probability that the three selected children comprise of 27. A box contains 8 tickets bearing the numbers 1, 2, 3, 5,

1 girl and 2 boys. 7, 8, 9, 10. One ticket is drawn at random and kept

aside, then the second is drawn. Find the probability

10. Five coins are tossed simultaneously. Find the that the both the tickets show odd numbers.

probability that all of them do not give heads.

28. P can hit a target 4 times in 5 shots, Q, 3 times in 4

11. If out of 100 tosses of a coin, 56 were heads, find the shots and R, twice in 3 shots,. They fire

probability that a tail appears in the next toss of the simultaneously. What is the probability that at least 2

coin. shots hit?

12. Ninety balls are numbered from 1 to 90. Five balls are 29. A box contains 10 radio valves of which 4 are

taken at random. What is the probability that there is at defective. Find the probability that if two valves are

least one ball with a one-digit number? taken from the box, they are both defective.

13. Two dice are thrown. Find the probability that the sum 30. A purse contains 2 silver coins and 4 copper coins and

of the numbers on the uppermost faces is either even another contains 4 silver coins and 3 copper coins. If a

or perfect square. coin is selected at random from one of the two purses

what the probability that it is a silver coin?

14. A bag contains 6 red, 5 blue, 3 white and 4 black balls.

A ball is drawn at random. Find the probability that the 31. The probability that A can solve a problem is 4/5, that B

ball drawn is red, blue or black. can solve it is 2/3 and that C can solve it is 3/7. If all of

them try independently, find the probability that the

15. Not scored. problem will be solved.

16. One ticket is drawn at random from a lot of 20 tickets 32. The odds that a book will be favourably reviewed by

numbered from 1 to 20. What is the probability that the three independent critics are 3 to 2, 4 to 3 and 2 to 3

number on the ticket drawn is divisible by (I) 2 or 3 respectively. What is the probability that of the three

(ii) 3 or 7 reviews majority will be favourable?

17. A card is drawn from an ordinary deck of 52 well- 33. The odds against A solving a problem are 8 to 6 and

shuffled cards. Find the probability that it is (i) odds in favour of B solving the same problem are 14 to

neither red nor an ace; (ii) neither the ten of clubs nor 16. If both of them try the problem, what is the

an ace. probability that (i) the problem will be solved, (ii) both A

and B will solve the problem?

18. In a class of 100 students, 60 drink tea, 50 drink coffee

and 30 drink both tea and coffee. A student from this 34. The Probability that a man will be alive after 25 years is

class is selected at random. What is the probability that 3/5 and the probability that his wife will be alive after 25

the student takes (i) at least one of the two drinks, years is 2/3. Find the probability that (i) both will be

(ii) only one of the drinks? alive, (ii) only the man will be alive, (iii) only the wife

will be alive, (iv) at least one will be alive.

in 1500. Doctors often use the 'protein bound iodine

35. A and B play games of chess. A wins 6, B wins 4 and 2 test' to determine whether or not a person has

games are drawn. They, then agree to play 3 more myxoedema. When the test is used on people who

games. Find the probability that (i) A wins all the 3 have myxoedema, it shows the presence of the

games, (ii) 2 of the 3 games end in a draw. disease in 90% of those tested. In the remaining 10%

the test yields a false negative result. When the test is

given to people who do not have myxoedema it show

36. The probability that a 50-year old man will be alive at the absence of the disease in 99% of those tested. In

60 is 0.83 and the probability that a 45-year old woman the remaining 1% the test yields a false positive result.

will be alive at 55 is 0.87. What is the probability that a If the test is used on a hospital patient chosen at

man who is 50 and wife who is 45 will be alive 10 years random, and the result is positive indicating that the

hence? patient has myxoedema), what is the probability that

the patient really has myxoedema?

37. There are 50 tickets in a lottery in which there is a first

and a second prize. What is the probability that a man 49. A box contains 3 red, 4 green, 2 black and 1 white

possessing 5 tickets wins a prize? marbles. A man is blind folded and asked to select a

marble. If he selects a red marble he gets Rs. 3, for a

38. A man draws from an urn containing two balls, one green one he wins Rs.2, for a black one Rs. 7 and for a

white and one black. If he draws a white ball he wins. If white one Rs. 10. What is his mathematical

he fails to draw a white ball, the draw is replaced, expectation?

another black ball is added and he draws again. If he

fails to draw a white ball in the next draw, the process 50. A die is tossed twice. If it shows the same number

is repeated. What are his respective chances of twice, Mr. A gets Rs. 100, otherwise he loses Rs. 5.

winning at 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 10th try. What is the mathematical expectation of Mr. A?

39. An urn contains four white and five black balls, a 51. A wheel of fortune at an amusement park is divided

second urn contains five white and four black balls. into five colours, red, blue, green, yellow, brown. The

One ball is transferred from the first to the second urn, probabilities of the spinner landing in any of these

then a ball is drawn from the second urn. What the colors are 3/10, 3/10, 2/10, 1/10, 1/10 respectively. A

probability that it is white? player can win Rs. 5 if it stops on red, Rs. 3 if it stops

on blue, Rs. 4 if it stops on green, and lose Rs. 2 if it

40. In the example No. 39 suppose that two balls are stops on yellow and Re. 1 if it stops on brown. M wants

transferred from the first to the second urn. Find the to try her luck. What is her mathematical expectation?

probability that a ball then drawn from the second urn

will be white. 52. Three envelopes are placed on a table. One contains a

Rs. 10 note, the second a Rs. 20 note and the third

41. Not scored. Rs. 50 note. A and B decide to play the following game.

A will guess what is in the middle envelope. If he

42. Not scored. guesses correctly he gets the content of the envelope.

Otherwise he pays B the amount equal to the amount

43. Three units of A, B, C of a factory produce 25%, 25% in the envelope. What is his mathematical expectation

and 50"% of its production respectively. If the if he guesses that the middle envelope contains Rs. 50

percentages of defective items produced by the three note?

units A, B, C are respectively 1%, 2% and 3% and an

item selected at random is found to be defective, find 53. A bag contains 10 coins. Of these 4 are 25 p. coins, 5

the probability that it is produced by the unit (i) A; (ii) B. are 20 p. coins and one X p. coin. A person draws out

a coin from this bag and his mathematical expectation

is given to be 25 p. Find the value of X.

44. In a class of 100 students there are 60 boys and 40

girls, 20 boys and 10 girls failed in Mathematics. A roll

number selected at random is found to be that of a 54. If a man purchases a raffle ticket he can win a first

student who has failed in Mathematics. What is the prize of Rs. 5000 or a second prize of Rs. 2000 with

probability that it is of a girl? probabilities .001 and 0.003. What should be a fair

price to pay for the ticket.

45. The chance that a female worker in a chemical factory

will contract an occupational disease is 0.04 and the 55. A bag contains 2 white balls and 3 black balls. Four

chance for a male worker is 0.06. Out of 1000 workers persons A, B, C, D in that order each draws one ball

in a factory 200 are females. One worker is selected at and does not replace it. The first to draw a white ball

random and the worker is found to have contracted the receives Rs. 10. Determine their expectations.

disease. What is the probability that the worker is a

female? 56. A coin is tossed until a head appears. What is the

expected number of tosses?

46. Suppose we have two machines I & II that produce

shoes. Machine I makes 60% of shoes. The remaining 57. In a business venture a man can make a profit of Rs.

are made by machine II. 10% of the shoes made by 2, 000 with a probability of 0.4 or have a loss of Rs.

machine I are defective and 20% of the shoes made by 1000 with a probability of 0.6. What is his expected

machine II are defective. A shoe was selected at profit.

random and was found to be non-defective. What is

the probability that it was manufactured by machine I?

elder brother Frank does them 5 times a week.

Johnny's two days are chosen at random each week.

The probability that Johnny will break one or more

dishes during a washing is 0.1. The probability that

Frank will is 0.02. One evening as the dishes were

being washed their father heard a dish crash, He said.

'Apparently this is Johnny's dish day'. What is the

probability that he was right ?

gland) among people admitted to hospitals is about 1

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