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Seemous 2010|Views: 146|Likes: 6

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**Olympiad for University Students
**

Plovdiv, Bulgaria

March 10, 2010

Problem 1. Let f

0

: [0, 1] → R be a continuous function. Deﬁne the sequence of functions

f

n

: [0, 1] →R by

f

n

(x) =

_

x

0

f

n−1

(t) dt

for all integers n ≥ 1.

a) Prove that the series

∞

n=1

f

n

(x) is convergent for every x ∈ [0, 1].

b) Find an explicit formula for the sum of the series

∞

n=1

f

n

(x), x ∈ [0, 1].

Solution 1. a) Clearly f

n

= f

n−1

for all n ∈ N. The function f

0

is bounded, so there exists a

real positive number M such that |f

0

(x)| ≤ M for every x ∈ [0, 1]. Then

|f

1

(x)| ≤

_

x

0

|f

0

(t)| dt ≤ Mx, ∀x ∈ [0, 1],

|f

2

(x)| ≤

_

x

0

|f

1

(t)| dt ≤ M

x

2

2

, ∀x ∈ [0, 1].

By induction, it is easy to see that

|f

n

(x)| ≤ M

x

n

n!

, ∀x ∈ [0, 1], ∀n ∈ N.

Therefore

max

x∈[0,1]

|f

n

(x)| ≤

M

n!

, ∀n ∈ N.

The series

∞

n=1

1

n!

is convergent, so the series

∞

n=1

f

n

is uniformly convergent on [0, 1].

b) Denote by F : [0, 1] → R the sum of the series

∞

n=1

f

n

. The series of the derivatives

∞

n=1

f

n

is uniformly convergent on [0, 1], since

∞

n=1

f

n

=

∞

n=0

f

n

and the last series is uniformly convergent. Then the series

∞

n=1

f

n

can be diﬀerentiated term

by term and F

= F +f

0

. By solving this equation, we ﬁnd F(x) = e

x

__

x

0

f

0

(t)e

−t

dt

_

, x ∈ [0, 1].

1

Solution 2. We write

f

n

(x) =

_

x

0

dt

_

t

0

dt

1

_

t

1

0

dt

2

. . .

_

t

n−2

0

f

0

(t

n−1

) dt

n−1

=

_

. . .

_

0≤t

n−1

≤...≤t

1

≤t≤x

f

0

(t

n−1

) dt dt

1

. . . dt

n−1

=

_

. . .

_

0≤t≤t

1

≤...≤t

n−1

≤x

f

0

(t) dt dt

1

. . . dt

n−1

=

_

x

0

f

0

(t) dt

_

x

t

dt

1

_

x

t

1

dt

2

. . .

_

x

t

n−3

dt

n−2

_

x

t

n−2

dt

n−1

=

_

x

0

f

0

(t)

(x −t)

n−1

(n −1)!

dt.

Thus

N

n=1

f

n

(x) =

_

x

0

f

0

(t)

_

N

n=1

(x −t)

n−1

(n −1)!

_

dt.

We have

e

x−t

=

N−1

n=0

(x −t)

n

n!

+ e

θ

(x −t)

N

N!

, θ ∈ (0, x −t) ,

N−1

n=0

(x −t)

n

n!

→e

x−t

, N →∞.

Hence

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

x

0

f

0

(t)

_

N−1

n=0

(x −t)

n

n!

_

dt −

_

x

0

f

0

(t)e

x−t

dt

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤

_

x

0

|f

0

(t)|e

x−t

(x −t)

N

N!

dt

≤

1

N!

_

x

0

|f

0

(t)|e

x−t

dt →0, N →∞.

Problem 2. Inside a square consider circles such that the sum of their circumferences is twice

the perimeter of the square.

a) Find the minimum number of circles having this property.

b) Prove that there exist inﬁnitely many lines which intersect at least 3 of these circles.

Solution. a) Consider the circles C

1

, C

2

, . . . , C

k

with diameters d

1

, d

2

, ..., d

k

, respectively. De-

note by s the length of the square side. By using the hypothesis, we get

π(d

1

+ d

2

+· · · + d

k

) = 8s.

Since d

i

≤ s for i = 1, . . . , k, we have

8s = π(d

1

+ d

2

+· · · + d

k

) ≤ πks,

which implies k ≥

8

π

∼

= 2.54. Hence, there are at least 3 circles inside the square.

b) Project the circles onto one side of the square so that their images are their diameters.

Since the sum of the diameters is approximately 2.54s and there are at least three circles in the

2

square, there exists an interval where at least three diameters are overlapping. The lines, passing

through this interval and perpendicular to the side on which the diameters are projected, are

the required lines.

Problem 3. Denote by M

2

(R) the set of all 2 ×2 matrices with real entries. Prove that:

a) for every A ∈ M

2

(R) there exist B, C ∈ M

2

(R) such that A = B

2

+ C

2

;

b) there do not exist B, C ∈ M

2

(R) such that

_

0 1

1 0

_

= B

2

+ C

2

and BC = CB.

Solution. a) Recall that every 2 × 2 matrix A satisﬁes A

2

− (trA) A + (det A) E = 0 . It is

clear that

lim

t→+∞

tr (A + tE) = +∞ and lim

t→+∞

det(A + tE)

tr(A + tE)

−t = lim

t→+∞

det A−t

2

tr (A + tE)

= −∞.

Thus, for t large enough one has

A = (A + tE) −tE =

1

tr(A + tE)

(A + tE)

2

+

_

det (A + tE)

tr (A + tE)

−t

_

E

=

_

1

_

tr(A + tE)

(A + tE)

_

2

+

_¸

t −

det (A + tE)

tr (A + tE)

_

2

(−E)

=

_

1

_

tr(A + tE)

(A + tE)

_

2

+

_¸

t −

det (A + tE)

tr (A + tE)

_

0 1

−1 0

_

_

2

.

b) No. For B, C ∈ M

2

(R), consider B + iC, B − iC ∈ M

2

(C) . If BC = CB then

(B + iC) (B −iC) = B

2

+ C

2

. Thus

det

_

B

2

+ C

2

_

= det (B + iC) det (B −iC) = | B + iC |

2

≥ 0,

which contradicts the fact that det

_

0 1

1 0

_

= −1 .

Problem 4. Suppose that A and B are n × n matrices with integer entries, and det B = 0.

Prove that there exists m ∈ N such that the product AB

−1

can be represented as

AB

−1

=

m

k=1

N

−1

k

,

where N

k

are n ×n matrices with integer entries for all k = 1, . . . , m, and N

i

= N

j

for i = j.

Solution. Suppose ﬁrst that n = 1. Then we may consider the integer 1 ×1 matrices as integer

numbers. We shall prove that for given integers p and q we can ﬁnd integers n

1

, . . . , n

m

such

that

p

q

=

1

n

1

+

1

n

2

+· · · +

1

n

m

and n

i

= n

j

for i = j.

In fact this is well known as the “Egyptian problem”. We write

p

q

=

1

q

+

1

q

+ · · · +

1

q

(p

times) and ensure diﬀerent denominators in the last sum by using several times the equality

1

x

=

1

x+1

+

1

x(x+1)

. For example,

3

5

=

1

5

+

1

5

+

1

5

, where we keep the ﬁrst fraction, we write

1

5

=

1

6

+

1

30

for the second fraction, and

1

5

=

1

7

+

1

42

+

1

31

+

1

930

for the third fraction. Finally,

3

5

=

1

5

+

1

6

+

1

7

+

1

30

+

1

31

+

1

42

+

1

930

.

3

Now consider n > 1.

Case 1. Suppose that A is a nonsingular matrix. Denote by λ the least common multiple of

the denominators of the elements of the matrix A

−1

. Hence the matrix C = λBA

−1

is integer

and nonsingular, and one has

AB

−1

= λC

−1

.

According to the case n = 1, we can write

λ =

1

n

1

+

1

n

2

+· · · +

1

n

m

,

where n

i

= n

j

for i = j. Then

AB

−1

= (n

1

C)

−1

+ (n

2

C)

−1

+· · · + (n

m

C)

−1

.

It is easy to see that n

i

C = n

j

C for i = j.

Case 2. Now suppose that A is singular. First we will show that

A = Y + Z,

where Y and Z are nonsingular. If A = (a

ij

), for every i = 1, 2, . . . , n we choose an integer x

i

such that x

i

= 0 and x

i

= a

ii

. Deﬁne

y

ij

=

_

_

_

a

ij

, if i < j

x

i

, if i = j

0, if i > j

and z

ij

=

_

_

_

0, if i < j

a

ii

−x

i

, if i = j

a

ij

, if i > j.

Clearly, the matrices Y = (y

ij

) and Z = (z

ij

) are nonsingular. Moreover, A = Y + Z.

From Case 1 we have

Y B

−1

=

k

r=1

(n

r

C)

−1

, ZB

−1

=

l

q=1

(m

q

D)

−1

,

where

Y B

−1

= λC

−1

, λ =

k

r=1

1

n

r

and ZB

−1

= µD

−1

, µ =

l

q=1

1

m

q

,

C and D are integer and nonsingular. Hence,

AB

−1

=

k

r=1

(n

r

C)

−1

+

l

q=1

(m

q

D)

−1

.

It remains to show that n

r

C = m

q

D for r = 1, 2, . . . , k and q = 1, 2, . . . , l. Indeed, assuming that

n

r

C = m

q

D and recalling that m

q

> 0 we ﬁnd D =

n

r

m

q

C. Hence ZB

−1

= µD

−1

=

µm

q

n

r

C

−1

,

and then AB

−1

= Y B

−1

+ ZB

−1

= λC

−1

+

µm

q

n

r

C

−1

=

_

λ +

µm

q

n

r

_

C

−1

. We have λ +

µm

q

n

r

> 0,

and C

−1

is nonsingular. Then AB

−1

is nonsingular, and therefore A is nonsingular. This is a

contradiction.

4

Solution.54. Ck with diameters d1 . we have 8s = π(d1 + d2 + · · · + dk ) ≤ πks.. dtn−1 x x x = 0 x f0 (t) dt t dt1 t1 dt2 . Since di ≤ s for i = 1. a) Consider the circles C1 . . x − t) . . Hence. . there are at least 3 circles inside the square. N −1 n=0 N → ∞. . .. . 0 f0 (tn−1 ) dtn−1 = . Since the sum of the diameters is approximately 2.≤tn−1 ≤x x x f0 (t) dt dt1 . 0≤t≤t1 ≤. By using the hypothesis. Denote by s the length of the square side. . We write x t t1 tn−2 fn (x) = 0 dt 0 dt1 0 dt2 ... we get π(d1 + d2 + · · · + dk ) = 8s. . . π b) Project the circles onto one side of the square so that their images are their diameters. ≤ |f0 (t)|ex−t dt → 0. a) Find the minimum number of circles having this property. respectively. . We have e x−t N −1 = n=0 (x − t)n (x − t)N + eθ . tn−3 dtn−2 tn−2 dtn−1 = 0 f0 (t) (x − t)n−1 dt.... Hence x N −1 f0 (t) 0 n=0 (x − t)n n! x x dt − 0 f0 (t)ex−t dt ≤ 0 |f0 (t)|ex−t 1 N! x (x − t)N dt N! N → ∞.54s and there are at least three circles in the which implies k ≥ 2 . . k. .≤t1 ≤t≤x f0 (tn−1 ) dt dt1 . C2 . 0 Problem 2. . 0≤tn−1 ≤. (n − 1)! x N Thus N fn (x) = n=1 0 f0 (t) n=1 (x − t)n−1 (n − 1)! dt. n! N! (x − t)n → ex−t . .. ..Solution 2. Inside a square consider circles such that the sum of their circumferences is twice the perimeter of the square. d2 .. dtn−1 = . n! θ ∈ (0. . dk . b) Prove that there exist inﬁnitely many lines which intersect at least 3 of these circles. 8 ∼ = 2.. .

are the required lines. b) No. . Then we may consider the integer 1 × 1 matrices as integer numbers. . Solution. where we keep the ﬁrst fraction. t→+∞ tr(A + tE) t→+∞ tr (A + tE) lim Thus. We shall prove that for given integers p and q we can ﬁnd integers n1 . 5 5 6 7 30 31 42 930 3 . It is clear that t→+∞ lim tr (A + tE) = +∞ and det(A + tE) det A − t2 − t = lim = −∞ . consider B + iC. For B. C ∈ M2 (R) such that A = B 2 + C 2 . a) Recall that every 2 × 2 matrix A satisﬁes A2 − (trA) A + (det A) E = 0 . 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 = + + + + + + . nm such 1 1 that p = n1 + n2 + · · · + n1 and ni = nj for i = j. Prove that: a) for every A ∈ M2 (R) there exist B. and Ni = Nj for i = j. . We write p = 1 + 1 + · · · + 1 (p q q q q times) and ensure diﬀerent denominators in the last sum by using several times the equality 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 x = x+1 + x(x+1) . . there exists an interval where at least three diameters are overlapping. . m. q m In fact this is well known as the “Egyptian problem”. Denote by M2 (R) the set of all 2 × 2 matrices with real entries. The lines. 5 = 5 + 5 + 5 . For example. Suppose ﬁrst that n = 1. b) there do not exist B. where Nk are n × n matrices with integer entries for all k = 1. Suppose that A and B are n × n matrices with integer entries. If BC = CB then (B + iC) (B − iC) = B 2 + C 2 . Solution. and 5 = 7 + 42 + 31 + 930 for the third fraction. . . Problem 3. Problem 4. we write 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 = 6 + 30 for the second fraction. for t large enough one has A = (A + tE) − tE = = 1 tr(A + tE) 1 tr(A + tE) 1 (A + tE)2 + tr(A + tE) 2 det (A + tE) −t E tr (A + tE) 2 (A + tE) 2 + det (A + tE) t− tr (A + tE) det (A + tE) t− tr (A + tE) (−E) 2 = (A + tE) + 0 1 −1 0 .square. C ∈ M2 (R) such that 0 1 1 0 = B 2 + C 2 and BC = CB. C ∈ M2 (R). B − iC ∈ M2 (C) . Prove that there exists m ∈ N such that the product AB −1 can be represented as m AB −1 = k=1 −1 Nk . Thus det B 2 + C 2 = det (B + iC) det (B − iC) = | B + iC | which contradicts the fact that det 0 1 1 0 = −1 . Finally. and det B = 0. . 2 ≥ 0. passing through this interval and perpendicular to the side on which the diameters are projected.

We have λ + µmq nr > 0. if i = j aii − xi . if i < j 0. if i > j aij . Denote by λ the least common multiple of the denominators of the elements of the matrix A−1 . Deﬁne if i < j aij . 2. . This is a 4 . mq C and D are integer and nonsingular. . xi . n1 n2 nm YB where YB −1 −1 = r=1 (nr C) −1 . Case 2. Now suppose that A is singular. Hence ZB −1 = µD−1 = nrq C −1 . where Y and Z are nonsingular. From Case 1 we have k l 1 1 1 + + ··· + . if i > j. µ= q=1 1 . 2. . 2. First we will show that A = Y + Z. k = λC −1 . λ= r=1 1 nr l and ZB −1 = µD −1 . A = Y + Z. It remains to show that nr C = mq D for r = 1. ZB −1 = q=1 (mq D)−1 . and therefore A is nonsingular. Clearly. . Hence. . . and one has AB −1 = λC −1 . k l AB −1 = r=1 (nr C)−1 + q=1 (mq D)−1 . . if i = j yij = and zij = 0. . q and then AB −1 = Y B −1 + ZB −1 = λC −1 + and is nonsingular. assuming that µm n nr C = mq D and recalling that mq > 0 we ﬁnd D = mr C. Then AB −1 = (n1 C)−1 + (n2 C)−1 + · · · + (nm C)−1 . for every i = 1. Case 1. l. . n we choose an integer xi such that xi = 0 and xi = aii . . If A = (aij ).Now consider n > 1. . Hence the matrix C = λBA−1 is integer and nonsingular. C −1 AB −1 µmq −1 nr C = λ+ µmq nr C −1 . It is easy to see that ni C = nj C for i = j. According to the case n = 1. Suppose that A is a nonsingular matrix. Indeed. k and q = 1. is nonsingular. we can write λ= where ni = nj for i = j. Moreover. the matrices Y = (yij ) and Z = (zij ) are nonsingular. . Then contradiction.

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