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Seemous 2010

Seemous 2010

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South Eastern European Mathematical

Olympiad for University Students
Plovdiv, Bulgaria
March 10, 2010
Problem 1. Let f
0
: [0, 1] → R be a continuous function. Define the sequence of functions
f
n
: [0, 1] →R by
f
n
(x) =
_
x
0
f
n−1
(t) dt
for all integers n ≥ 1.
a) Prove that the series


n=1
f
n
(x) is convergent for every x ∈ [0, 1].
b) Find an explicit formula for the sum of the series


n=1
f
n
(x), x ∈ [0, 1].
Solution 1. a) Clearly f

n
= f
n−1
for all n ∈ N. The function f
0
is bounded, so there exists a
real positive number M such that |f
0
(x)| ≤ M for every x ∈ [0, 1]. Then
|f
1
(x)| ≤
_
x
0
|f
0
(t)| dt ≤ Mx, ∀x ∈ [0, 1],
|f
2
(x)| ≤
_
x
0
|f
1
(t)| dt ≤ M
x
2
2
, ∀x ∈ [0, 1].
By induction, it is easy to see that
|f
n
(x)| ≤ M
x
n
n!
, ∀x ∈ [0, 1], ∀n ∈ N.
Therefore
max
x∈[0,1]
|f
n
(x)| ≤
M
n!
, ∀n ∈ N.
The series


n=1
1
n!
is convergent, so the series


n=1
f
n
is uniformly convergent on [0, 1].
b) Denote by F : [0, 1] → R the sum of the series


n=1
f
n
. The series of the derivatives


n=1
f

n
is uniformly convergent on [0, 1], since

n=1
f

n
=

n=0
f
n
and the last series is uniformly convergent. Then the series


n=1
f
n
can be differentiated term
by term and F

= F +f
0
. By solving this equation, we find F(x) = e
x
__
x
0
f
0
(t)e
−t
dt
_
, x ∈ [0, 1].
1
Solution 2. We write
f
n
(x) =
_
x
0
dt
_
t
0
dt
1
_
t
1
0
dt
2
. . .
_
t
n−2
0
f
0
(t
n−1
) dt
n−1
=
_
. . .
_
0≤t
n−1
≤...≤t
1
≤t≤x
f
0
(t
n−1
) dt dt
1
. . . dt
n−1
=
_
. . .
_
0≤t≤t
1
≤...≤t
n−1
≤x
f
0
(t) dt dt
1
. . . dt
n−1
=
_
x
0
f
0
(t) dt
_
x
t
dt
1
_
x
t
1
dt
2
. . .
_
x
t
n−3
dt
n−2
_
x
t
n−2
dt
n−1
=
_
x
0
f
0
(t)
(x −t)
n−1
(n −1)!
dt.
Thus
N

n=1
f
n
(x) =
_
x
0
f
0
(t)
_
N

n=1
(x −t)
n−1
(n −1)!
_
dt.
We have
e
x−t
=
N−1

n=0
(x −t)
n
n!
+ e
θ
(x −t)
N
N!
, θ ∈ (0, x −t) ,
N−1

n=0
(x −t)
n
n!
→e
x−t
, N →∞.
Hence
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
x
0
f
0
(t)
_
N−1

n=0
(x −t)
n
n!
_
dt −
_
x
0
f
0
(t)e
x−t
dt
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸

_
x
0
|f
0
(t)|e
x−t
(x −t)
N
N!
dt

1
N!
_
x
0
|f
0
(t)|e
x−t
dt →0, N →∞.
Problem 2. Inside a square consider circles such that the sum of their circumferences is twice
the perimeter of the square.
a) Find the minimum number of circles having this property.
b) Prove that there exist infinitely many lines which intersect at least 3 of these circles.
Solution. a) Consider the circles C
1
, C
2
, . . . , C
k
with diameters d
1
, d
2
, ..., d
k
, respectively. De-
note by s the length of the square side. By using the hypothesis, we get
π(d
1
+ d
2
+· · · + d
k
) = 8s.
Since d
i
≤ s for i = 1, . . . , k, we have
8s = π(d
1
+ d
2
+· · · + d
k
) ≤ πks,
which implies k ≥
8
π

= 2.54. Hence, there are at least 3 circles inside the square.
b) Project the circles onto one side of the square so that their images are their diameters.
Since the sum of the diameters is approximately 2.54s and there are at least three circles in the
2
square, there exists an interval where at least three diameters are overlapping. The lines, passing
through this interval and perpendicular to the side on which the diameters are projected, are
the required lines.
Problem 3. Denote by M
2
(R) the set of all 2 ×2 matrices with real entries. Prove that:
a) for every A ∈ M
2
(R) there exist B, C ∈ M
2
(R) such that A = B
2
+ C
2
;
b) there do not exist B, C ∈ M
2
(R) such that
_
0 1
1 0
_
= B
2
+ C
2
and BC = CB.
Solution. a) Recall that every 2 × 2 matrix A satisfies A
2
− (trA) A + (det A) E = 0 . It is
clear that
lim
t→+∞
tr (A + tE) = +∞ and lim
t→+∞
det(A + tE)
tr(A + tE)
−t = lim
t→+∞
det A−t
2
tr (A + tE)
= −∞.
Thus, for t large enough one has
A = (A + tE) −tE =
1
tr(A + tE)
(A + tE)
2
+
_
det (A + tE)
tr (A + tE)
−t
_
E
=
_
1
_
tr(A + tE)
(A + tE)
_
2
+

t −
det (A + tE)
tr (A + tE)
_
2
(−E)
=
_
1
_
tr(A + tE)
(A + tE)
_
2
+

t −
det (A + tE)
tr (A + tE)
_
0 1
−1 0
_
_
2
.
b) No. For B, C ∈ M
2
(R), consider B + iC, B − iC ∈ M
2
(C) . If BC = CB then
(B + iC) (B −iC) = B
2
+ C
2
. Thus
det
_
B
2
+ C
2
_
= det (B + iC) det (B −iC) = | B + iC |
2
≥ 0,
which contradicts the fact that det
_
0 1
1 0
_
= −1 .
Problem 4. Suppose that A and B are n × n matrices with integer entries, and det B = 0.
Prove that there exists m ∈ N such that the product AB
−1
can be represented as
AB
−1
=
m

k=1
N
−1
k
,
where N
k
are n ×n matrices with integer entries for all k = 1, . . . , m, and N
i
= N
j
for i = j.
Solution. Suppose first that n = 1. Then we may consider the integer 1 ×1 matrices as integer
numbers. We shall prove that for given integers p and q we can find integers n
1
, . . . , n
m
such
that
p
q
=
1
n
1
+
1
n
2
+· · · +
1
n
m
and n
i
= n
j
for i = j.
In fact this is well known as the “Egyptian problem”. We write
p
q
=
1
q
+
1
q
+ · · · +
1
q
(p
times) and ensure different denominators in the last sum by using several times the equality
1
x
=
1
x+1
+
1
x(x+1)
. For example,
3
5
=
1
5
+
1
5
+
1
5
, where we keep the first fraction, we write
1
5
=
1
6
+
1
30
for the second fraction, and
1
5
=
1
7
+
1
42
+
1
31
+
1
930
for the third fraction. Finally,
3
5
=
1
5
+
1
6
+
1
7
+
1
30
+
1
31
+
1
42
+
1
930
.
3
Now consider n > 1.
Case 1. Suppose that A is a nonsingular matrix. Denote by λ the least common multiple of
the denominators of the elements of the matrix A
−1
. Hence the matrix C = λBA
−1
is integer
and nonsingular, and one has
AB
−1
= λC
−1
.
According to the case n = 1, we can write
λ =
1
n
1
+
1
n
2
+· · · +
1
n
m
,
where n
i
= n
j
for i = j. Then
AB
−1
= (n
1
C)
−1
+ (n
2
C)
−1
+· · · + (n
m
C)
−1
.
It is easy to see that n
i
C = n
j
C for i = j.
Case 2. Now suppose that A is singular. First we will show that
A = Y + Z,
where Y and Z are nonsingular. If A = (a
ij
), for every i = 1, 2, . . . , n we choose an integer x
i
such that x
i
= 0 and x
i
= a
ii
. Define
y
ij
=
_
_
_
a
ij
, if i < j
x
i
, if i = j
0, if i > j
and z
ij
=
_
_
_
0, if i < j
a
ii
−x
i
, if i = j
a
ij
, if i > j.
Clearly, the matrices Y = (y
ij
) and Z = (z
ij
) are nonsingular. Moreover, A = Y + Z.
From Case 1 we have
Y B
−1
=
k

r=1
(n
r
C)
−1
, ZB
−1
=
l

q=1
(m
q
D)
−1
,
where
Y B
−1
= λC
−1
, λ =
k

r=1
1
n
r
and ZB
−1
= µD
−1
, µ =
l

q=1
1
m
q
,
C and D are integer and nonsingular. Hence,
AB
−1
=
k

r=1
(n
r
C)
−1
+
l

q=1
(m
q
D)
−1
.
It remains to show that n
r
C = m
q
D for r = 1, 2, . . . , k and q = 1, 2, . . . , l. Indeed, assuming that
n
r
C = m
q
D and recalling that m
q
> 0 we find D =
n
r
m
q
C. Hence ZB
−1
= µD
−1
=
µm
q
n
r
C
−1
,
and then AB
−1
= Y B
−1
+ ZB
−1
= λC
−1
+
µm
q
n
r
C
−1
=
_
λ +
µm
q
n
r
_
C
−1
. We have λ +
µm
q
n
r
> 0,
and C
−1
is nonsingular. Then AB
−1
is nonsingular, and therefore A is nonsingular. This is a
contradiction.
4

Solution.54. Ck with diameters d1 . we have 8s = π(d1 + d2 + · · · + dk ) ≤ πks.. dtn−1 x x x = 0 x f0 (t) dt t dt1 t1 dt2 . Since di ≤ s for i = 1. a) Consider the circles C1 . . x − t) . . Hence. . there are at least 3 circles inside the square. N −1 n=0 N → ∞. . .. . 0 f0 (tn−1 ) dtn−1 = . Since the sum of the diameters is approximately 2.≤tn−1 ≤x x x f0 (t) dt dt1 . 0≤t≤t1 ≤. By using the hypothesis. Denote by s the length of the square side. . We write x t t1 tn−2 fn (x) = 0 dt 0 dt1 0 dt2 ... we get π(d1 + d2 + · · · + dk ) = 8s. . . π b) Project the circles onto one side of the square so that their images are their diameters. ≤ |f0 (t)|ex−t dt → 0. a) Find the minimum number of circles having this property. respectively. . We have e x−t N −1 = n=0 (x − t)n (x − t)N + eθ . tn−3 dtn−2 tn−2 dtn−1 = 0 f0 (t) (x − t)n−1 dt.... Hence x N −1 f0 (t) 0 n=0 (x − t)n n! x x dt − 0 f0 (t)ex−t dt ≤ 0 |f0 (t)|ex−t 1 N! x (x − t)N dt N! N → ∞.54s and there are at least three circles in the which implies k ≥ 2 . . k. .≤t1 ≤t≤x f0 (tn−1 ) dt dt1 . C2 . 0 Problem 2. . 0≤tn−1 ≤. (n − 1)! x N Thus N fn (x) = n=1 0 f0 (t) n=1 (x − t)n−1 (n − 1)! dt. n! N! (x − t)n → ex−t . .. ..Solution 2. Inside a square consider circles such that the sum of their circumferences is twice the perimeter of the square. d2 .. dtn−1 = . n! θ ∈ (0. . dk . b) Prove that there exist infinitely many lines which intersect at least 3 of these circles. 8 ∼ = 2.. .

are the required lines. b) No. . Then we may consider the integer 1 × 1 matrices as integer numbers. . Solution. where we keep the first fraction. t→+∞ tr(A + tE) t→+∞ tr (A + tE) lim Thus. We shall prove that for given integers p and q we can find integers n1 . 5 5 6 7 30 31 42 930 3 . It is clear that t→+∞ lim tr (A + tE) = +∞ and det(A + tE) det A − t2 − t = lim = −∞ . consider B + iC. For B. C ∈ M2 (R) such that A = B 2 + C 2 . a) Recall that every 2 × 2 matrix A satisfies A2 − (trA) A + (det A) E = 0 . 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 = + + + + + + . nm such 1 1 that p = n1 + n2 + · · · + n1 and ni = nj for i = j. Prove that: a) for every A ∈ M2 (R) there exist B. and Ni = Nj for i = j. . We write p = 1 + 1 + · · · + 1 (p q q q q times) and ensure different denominators in the last sum by using several times the equality 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 x = x+1 + x(x+1) . . there exists an interval where at least three diameters are overlapping. . m. q m In fact this is well known as the “Egyptian problem”. Denote by M2 (R) the set of all 2 × 2 matrices with real entries. The lines. 5 = 5 + 5 + 5 . For example. Suppose first that n = 1. b) there do not exist B. where Nk are n × n matrices with integer entries for all k = 1. Suppose that A and B are n × n matrices with integer entries. If BC = CB then (B + iC) (B − iC) = B 2 + C 2 . Solution. and 5 = 7 + 42 + 31 + 930 for the third fraction. . . Problem 3. Problem 4. we write 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 = 6 + 30 for the second fraction. for t large enough one has A = (A + tE) − tE = = 1 tr(A + tE) 1 tr(A + tE) 1 (A + tE)2 + tr(A + tE) 2 det (A + tE) −t E tr (A + tE) 2 (A + tE) 2 + det (A + tE) t− tr (A + tE) det (A + tE) t− tr (A + tE) (−E) 2 = (A + tE) + 0 1 −1 0 .square. C ∈ M2 (R) such that 0 1 1 0 = B 2 + C 2 and BC = CB. C ∈ M2 (R). B − iC ∈ M2 (C) . Prove that there exists m ∈ N such that the product AB −1 can be represented as m AB −1 = k=1 −1 Nk . Thus det B 2 + C 2 = det (B + iC) det (B − iC) = | B + iC | which contradicts the fact that det 0 1 1 0 = −1 . Finally. and det B = 0. . 2 ≥ 0. passing through this interval and perpendicular to the side on which the diameters are projected.

We have λ + µmq nr > 0. if i = j aii − xi . if i < j  0. if i > j aij . Denote by λ the least common multiple of the denominators of the elements of the matrix A−1 . Define   if i < j  aij . 2. . This is a 4 . mq C and D are integer and nonsingular. . xi . n1 n2 nm YB where YB −1 −1 = r=1 (nr C) −1 . Case 2. Now suppose that A is singular. Hence ZB −1 = µD−1 = nrq C −1 . where Y and Z are nonsingular. From Case 1 we have k l 1 1 1 + + ··· + . if i > j. µ= q=1 1 . 2. . 2. First we will show that A = Y + Z. k = λC −1 . λ= r=1 1 nr l and ZB −1 = µD −1 . A = Y + Z. It remains to show that nr C = mq D for r = 1. ZB −1 = q=1 (mq D)−1 . and therefore A is nonsingular. Clearly. . Hence. . . and one has AB −1 = λC −1 . k l AB −1 = r=1 (nr C)−1 + q=1 (mq D)−1 . . if i = j yij = and zij =   0. . q and then AB −1 = Y B −1 + ZB −1 = λC −1 + and is nonsingular. assuming that µm n nr C = mq D and recalling that mq > 0 we find D = mr C. Then AB −1 = (n1 C)−1 + (n2 C)−1 + · · · + (nm C)−1 . for every i = 1. Case 1. l. . n we choose an integer xi such that xi = 0 and xi = aii . . If A = (aij ).Now consider n > 1. . Hence the matrix C = λBA−1 is integer and nonsingular. C −1 AB −1 µmq −1 nr C = λ+ µmq nr C −1 . It is easy to see that ni C = nj C for i = j. According to the case n = 1. Suppose that A is a nonsingular matrix. Indeed. k and q = 1. is nonsingular. we can write λ= where ni = nj for i = j. Moreover. the matrices Y = (yij ) and Z = (zij ) are nonsingular. . Then contradiction.

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