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Why should a manger know about research when the job entails managing people, products, events, environments, and the like? Ans:The manager, while managing people, products, events, and environments will invariably face problems, big and small, and will have to seek ways to find long lasting effective solutions. This can be achieved only through knowledge of research even if consultants are engaged to solve problems.
The primary purpose for applied research (as opposed to basic research) is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so. The goal of the research process is to produce new nowledge, which takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries research, between which them develops may solutions to be a fuzzy): problem Exploratory research, which structures and identifies new problems Constructive Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence. The research room at the New York Public Library, an example of secondary research in progress. Research can also fall into two distinct types: 1) Primary research 2) Secondary research In social sciences and later in other disciplines, the following two research methods can be applied, depending on the properties of the subject matter and on the objective of the research: Qualitative research Quantitative research
Research is often conducted using the hourglass model Structure of Research. The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information through the methodology of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and results. Research and development is nowadays of great importance in business as the level of competition, production processes and methods are rapidly increasing. It is of special importance in the field of marketing where companies keep an eagle eye on competitors and customers in order to keep pace with modern trends and analyze the needs, demands and desires of their customers. Unfortunately, research and development are very difficult to manage, since the defining feature of research is that the researchers do not know in advance exactly how to accomplish the desired result. As a result, higher R&D spending does not guarantee "more creativity, higher profit or a greater market share.
Q 2. a. How do you evolve research design for exploratory research? Briefly analyze. Ans:The central purpose is to formulate hypotheses regarding potential problems and opportunities present in the decision situation. The hypotheses can be tested at a later phase with a conclusive research design (Leinhardt and Leinhardt, 1980). Exploratory research design applies when the research objectives include the following: a. identifying problems (threats or opportunities) b. developing a more precise formulation of a vaguely identified problem(threat or opportunity) c. gaining perspective regarding the breath of variables operating in a situation
3 d. establishing priorities regarding the potential significance of various problems (threats or opportunities) e. gaining management and researcher perspective concerning the character of the problem situation f. identifying and formulating alternative courses of action; and g. gathering information on the problems associated with doing conclusive research. h. identification of problems (threats or opportunities) can be assisted through the following: i) Searching secondary sources ii) Interviewing knowledgeable persons iii) Compiling case histories.
Q 2 b. Briefly explain Independent, dependent and extraneous variables in a research design. Ans:Independent Variable: A variable that you believe might influence your outcome measure. This might be a variable that you control, like a treatment, or a variable not under your control, like an exposure. It also might represent a demographic factor like age or gender. Contrast this with the definition of the dependent variable. An independent variable is a hypothesized cause or influence on a dependent variable. One way to distinguish these variables is to ask yourself what you are want to learn from this research. The dependent variable is a variable you are trying to predict. Any variable that you are using to make those predictions is an independent variable. A recently published research study examined the relationship of dietary fat consumption and the development of ischemic stroke in a cohort of 832 men who were free of cardiovascular
4 disease at baseline (1966-1969) and who were followed for a twenty year period. In this study, the independent variables were:
• • •
percentage of total fat in the diet, percentage of saturated fat, and the percentage of monounsaturated fat.
Dependent variable: In a research study, the variable that you believe might be influenced or modified by some treatment or exposure. It may also represent the variable you are trying to predict. Contrast this with the definition of an independent variable. Sometimes the dependent variable is called the outcome variable. This definition depends on the context of the study. In a study of prenatal care, the birthweight is an outcome or dependent variable, but in neonatology, it is more likely to be an independent variable. A recently published research study examined the relationship of dietary fat consumption and the development of ischemic stroke in a cohort of 832 men who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline (1966-1969) and who were followed for a twenty year period. In this study, the dependent variable was:
incidence of ischemic stroke.
Extraneous variable: The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. For eg, if a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between children’s school
they have a number of differences with regard to approach and methodology. it would be known as extraneous variable.5 performance and their self-concepts. While both these two data-gathering methods essentially serve the same purpose. in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former is the dependent variable. as well as scope. These two . a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent independent variables. However. since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher. among others. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an ‘experimental error’. a. and educational issues. variable variable completely and any influences other the change in the or extraneous variable Q 3. This data is used by the federal and state governments in making numerous decisions with regard to various health care. housing. Therefore. In this context. intelligence may also influence the school performance. Ans: Difference between Census and Sampling Practically every country in the world conducts censuses and sampling surveys on a regular basis in order to get valuable data from and about their populations. Differentiate between ‘Census survey’ and ‘ Sample Survey’.
anyone who does not complete a census form will be visited by a government representative who’s only job to is to gather census data. sex and language among others. mainly because the data used is drawn from the whole population. In most cases. The huge scope of a census also makes it harder to maintain control of the quality of the data. they are also a lot more timeconsuming than sample surveys. Adding considerably to the timetable is the necessity of gathering data from every single member of the population. there is a possibility of sampling variance. Scope A census involves the gathering of information from every person in a certain group.6 methods may also differ in terms of the variance in the data gathered. In addition. more precise detail can generally be gathered about smaller groups of the population. . This makes sampling a much less accurate form of data collection than a census. This may include information on age. since the data used is drawn from only a small section of the population. Cost And Timetable A census can be quite expensive to conduct. As for sampling. Sampling Variance The main advantage of a census is a virtually zero sampling variance. particularly for large populations. In addition. A sample survey on the other hand commonly involves gathering data from only a certain section of a particular group. For instance. the sample may be too small to provide an accurate picture of the population. as you will see later.
since data is gathered from only a small section of a group • • Q 3. b. there is no sampling variance Provides detailed information about smaller groups Can be quite costly. Analyze multi-stage and sequential sampling. sample surveys generally take a much shorter time to conduct.7 A sample survey for its part costs quite a bit less than a census. due to census tally workers as well as hiring temporary census home visitors Includes an uncomfortable visit from a government worker if the census is not filled out on time • • • Sampling • • Gathers information from only a section of the population May have a significant degree of sample variance. which in turn leads to better data monitoring and quality control. since the data is derived from only a small section of a population May not provide enough information about smaller groups or smaller geographical sections of a place Costs much less than a census. Summary Census • • Gathers information from every individual in a certain group Since data from the entire population is used. particularly for large populations. since data is gathered from a much smaller group of people. again given the smaller scope. This also means reduced requirements for respondents. Ans:- . In addition.
For example. multistage cluster sampling becomes useful. several levels of cluster selection may be applied before the final sample elements are reached. In remote areas. only for selected blocks. in order to reduce travel requirements. and some of these dwellings are selected (third stage). dwellings are listed within each selected block. and blocks are chosen from within each selected collection district (second stage). In some cases. an additional stage of clustering is used.8 Multistage sampling Multistage sampling is a complex form of cluster sampling. household surveys conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics begin by dividing metropolitan regions into 'collection districts'. where in cluster sampling only the selected clusters are studied. a random sample is drawn from all the strata. The selected collection districts are then divided into blocks. Under these circumstances. either in single stage or multi stage. and selecting some of these collection districts (first stage). Sequential sampling . they are substantially different. In stratified sampling. the researcher randomly selects elements from each cluster. Deciding what elements within the cluster to use is the second stage. Although cluster sampling and stratified sampling bear some superficial similarities. Using all the sample elements in all the selected clusters may be prohibitively expensive or not necessary. Constructing the clusters is the first stage. The technique is used frequently when a complete list of all members of the population does not exist and is inappropriate. Next. Instead of using all the elements contained in the selected clusters. This method means that it is not necessary to create a list of every dwelling in the region.
the mean of the numbers regardless of whether the numbers constitute the entire population or just a sample from the population. List down various measures of central tendency and explain the difference between them? Ans:Arithmetic Mean The arithmetic mean is the most common measure of central tendency. The symbol m is used for the mean of a population. Number of touchdown passes. shows the number of touchdown (TD) passes thrown by each of the 31 teams in the . example. This sampling technique gives the researcher limitless chances of fine tuning his research methods and gaining a vital insight into the study that he is currently pursuing. conducts his study. The table. It simply the sum of the numbers divided by the number of numbers.9 Sequential sampling is a non-probability sampling technique wherein the researcher picks a single or a group of subjects in a given time interval. The symbol M is used for the mean of a sample. The formula for m is shown below: where ΣX is the sum of all the numbers in the numbers in the As an sample and N is the number of numbers in the sample. analyzes the results then picks another group of subjects if needed and so on. Q 4.
if the term "mean" is used without specifying whether it is the arithmetic mean. the geometic mean.10 National Football League in the 2000 season. Therefore. For the data in the table. or some other mean. . Number of touchdown passes.4516 as shown below. it is by far the most commonly used. Median The median is also a frequently used measure of central tendency. The median can also be thought of as the 50th percentile. The 16th highest score (which equals 20) is the median because there are 15 scores below the 16th score and 15 scores above the 16th score. The mean number of touchdown passes thrown is 20. it is assumed to refer to the arithmetic mean. there are 31 scores. Although the arithmetic mean is not the only "mean" (there is also a geometic mean). The median is the midpoint of a distribution: the same numbers of scores are above the median as below it.
and 7 is 4. Computation of the Median: When there is an odd number of numbers. your score is above the median and therefore in the upper half of the distribution. Finally for Dataset 3. This means you are in the lower half of the class. For Dataset 2. For Dataset 1. the median of 2. the same as your score. When there is an even number of numbers.11 Let's return to the made up example of the quiz on which you made a three discussed previously in the module Introduction to Central Tendency and shown in Table 2. the median is the mean of the two middle numbers. Therefore. the median of the numbers Mode . the median is simply the middle number. 4. the median is 2. your score is below the median. the median is three. For this dataset. For example. the median is 4. Thus.
Ans: Primary Sources of Data .12 The mode is the most frequently occuring value. the mode is 18 since more teams (4) had 18 touchdown passes than any other number of touchdown passes. Number of touchdown passes.5. With continuous data such as response time measured to many decimals. Therefore the mode of continuous data is normally computed from a grouped frequency distribution. Q. the mode is the middle of that interval (650).For the data in the table. the frequency of each value is one since no two scores will be exactly the same. Select any topic for research and explain how you will use both secondary and primary sources to gather the required information. Since the interval with the highest frequency is 600-700. The Grouped frequency distribution table shows a grouped frequency distribution for the target response time data.
g. from a sample of consumers by interviewing them. for the purposes of the project immediately at hand. and brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behavior. minutes of meetings and other information that is available within the firm. sales reports. reports of government departments).). compared to gathering information from available sources 2 Data collection is a time consuming process 3 It requires trained interviewers and investigators 2 Secondary Sources of Data These are sources containing data. Primary data is first hand information collected through various methods such as surveys.. trade organizations such as the UN. They may also be external sources. . e. World Bank and International Monetary and financial journals. which has been collected and compiled for another purpose. census reports. such as annual reports. published sources (annual reports of currency and finance published by the Reserve Fund. in the form of a marketing information system. financial statements.g.13 Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that has not been previously collected. The advantages of primary data are – 1 It is unique to a particular research study 2 It is recent information. Secondary sources may be internal sources. experiments and observation. publications of international etc. unlike published information that is already available The disadvantages are – 1 It is expensive to collect. inventory records. brand preference. collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness. such as government agencies (e. Bank trade of India.
marketing research. Primary data has to be gathered in cases where the available data is inappropriate.14 associations (e. A survey involves the following steps - . opinion polls. But the collection of primary data is costly and time consuming. inadequate or obsolete. A survey has certain characteristics: 1 It is always conducted in a natural setting. observation and experiments. Yet. viewing surveys. knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies. farm management studies. social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal communities. It includes: socio economic surveys. 4 It may include an extensive study or an intensive study 5 It covers a definite geographical area. for several types of social science research. It is a field study. Chambers of Commerce) and commercial services (outside suppliers of information). In this case. 1 Survey Research A survey is a fact-finding study. Methods of Data Collection: The researcher directly collects primary data from its original sources. 3 It can cover a very large population. leadership studies. the researcher can collect the required data precisely according to his research needs and he can collect them when he wants and in the form that he needs it. 2 It seeks responses directly from the respondents. required data is not available from secondary sources and it has to be directly gathered from the primary sources. radio listening and T. sociological studies of social problems and social institutions. audits and panels.V. attitudinal surveys. business management studies etc. including surveys. It is a method of research involving collection of data directly from a population or a sample at a particular time. There are various methods of primary data collection.g.
Interviewing may be used either as a main method or as a supplementary one in studies of persons. which include: 1 Personal interview 2 Telephone interview 3 Mail survey and 4 Fax survey Personal Interview Personal interviewing is one of the prominent methods of data collection. facial expressions and pauses. values. but also learning from the respondent’s gestures. It involves not only conversation. It is useful for collecting a wide range of data. and his environment. initiated for obtaining information relevant to a specific study. or probing is necessary to draw out the respondent fully. It may be defined as a two-way systematic conversation between an investigator and an informant. Interviewing is the only suitable method for gathering information from illiterate or less educated respondents. Interviewing is appropriate when qualitative information is required. attitudes. Where the area covered . beliefs.15 1 Selection of a problem and its formulation 2 Preparation of the research design 3 Operation concepts and construction of measuring indexes and scales 4 Sampling 5 Construction of tools for data collection 6 Field work and collection of data 7 Processing of data and tabulation 8 Analysis of data 9 Reporting There are four basic survey methods. experiences and future intentions. from factual demographic data to highly personal and intimate information relating to a person’s opinions.
momentary experience for them. They are: 1. The interview is a mode of obtaining verbal answers to questions put verbally. The participants – – are the interviewer and the the respondent strangers. The interaction between the interviewer and the respondent need not necessarily be on a face-toface basis. It permits probing into the context and reasons for answers to questions. It permits the investigator to seek clarifications and brings to the forefront those questions. Interview can add flesh to statistical information. or when a sufficient number of qualified interviewers are available. even confidential information may be obtained. Interviewing as a method of data collection has certain characteristics. which for some reason or the other the respondents do not want to answer. The relationship between the participants is a transitory one. 5. personal interview is feasible. It has a fixed beginning and termination points. The interview proper is a fleeting. investigator has to get himself/herself introduced to the respondent in an appropriate manner. obtaining information relevant to a study.. 3. People are usually more willing to talk than to write. The interview is not a mere casual conversational exchange. . 4. 2. but a conversation with a specific purpose. because the interview can also be conducted over the telephone. It enables the investigator to grasp the behavioral context of the data furnished by the respondents. Interview is often superior to other data-gathering methods. viz. Once rapport is established. hence.16 for the survey is compact.
between the interviewer and the respondent depends upon how they perceive each . 7. it is rather a flexible. psychological process. The interview is an interactive process. When the universe is composed of those e. business houses. 3 Telephone Interviewing Telephone interviewing is a nonpersonal method of data collection. or a group of children. doctors and other professionals.g. As far as possible. the interviewer should try to be closer to the social-economic level of the respondents. gestures. It can also be conducted with a group of persons. executives. such as family members. behavior. 9. Although the interview is usually a conversation between two persons.17 6. facial expression and intonation. The interaction other. It will be useful in the following situations: 11. This poses a problem 10. The investigator records information furnished by the respondent in the interview. his perception of the thrust of the questions and his own personal needs. depending on the requirements of the study. it need not be limited to a single respondent. of seeing that recording does not interfere with the tempo of conversation. The respondent reacts to the interviewer’s appearance. business persons whose names are listed in telephone directories. Interviewing is not a standardized process like that of a chemical technician. It may be used as a major method or as a supplementary method. 8. or a group of customers.
The discussion leader stimulates the group members to interact with each other. In a personal interview. the interviewers look for evidence of common elements of attitudes. the flow of information is multi dimensional. he must be aware that a single comment by a member can provide important insight. Samples for group interviews can be obtained through schools. 15. e. a survey relating to a profession conducted association. Free discussion is encouraged on some aspect of the subject under study. The interviewer acts as the discussion leader.g. a radio or television program survey. by the concerned professional . The group may consist of about six to eight individuals with a common interest. 13. with the discussion serving as a guide to ensure consideration of the areas of concern. 14.g.18 12. clubs and other organized groups. When the respondents are widely scattered and when there are many call backs to make. In particular. The desired information may be obtained through self-administered questionnaire or interview. e. When the survey must be conducted in a very short period of time. At the same time. a survey relating to trade conducted by a trade association or a chamber of commerce. beliefs. When the subject is interesting or important to respondents. intentions and opinions among individuals in the group. 4 Group Interviews A group interview may be defined as a method of collecting primary data in which a number of individuals with a common interest interact with each other. provided the units of study are listed in the telephone directory. When the study requires responses to five or six simple questions.
the researcher can expect the return of completed ones from them. The sponsor’s identity may be revealed. The progress in return may be watched and at the appropriate stage. In this case. by collecting the addresses from the telephone directory of the association or organization to which they belong. The distinctive feature of the mail survey is that the questionnaire is self-administered by the respondents themselves and the responses are recorded by them and not by the investigator. it is not desirable to reveal it. conversation between investigator and Communication is carried out only in writing and this requires more cooperation from the respondents than verbal communication. This method involves sending questionnaires to the respondents with a request to complete them and return them by post. It must explain to the respondent the purpose of the study and the importance of his cooperation to the success of the project.19 5 Mail Survey The mail survey is another method of collecting primary data. However. a disguised organization name may be used. It should preferably contain mostly closed-ended and multiple choice questions. A self-addressed stamped envelope should be enclosed in the covering letter. as in the case of personal interview method. Anonymity must be assured. The following procedures should be followed – a covering letter should accompany a copy of the questionnaire. when such information may bias the result. the It does not involve the face-to-face respondent. The mail questionnaires should be simple so that the respondents can easily understand the questions and answer them. 1 After a few days from the date of mailing the questionnaires to the respondents. The researcher should prepare a mailing list of the selected respondents. follow-up efforts can be made. so that it could be completed within a few minutes. . This can be used in the case of educated respondents only.
if the required sample size is 1000. or by a letter. 7 Q 6. stamps for collection and other incentives are also used to induce respondents to complete and return the mail questionnaire. Covering letter: The covering letter should be couched in a pleasant style. 55. Explain the role of Graphs and Diagrams? Ans:- .20 The response rate in mail surveys is generally very low in developing countries like India. 33. they may be approached through someone in that organization known as the researcher. a sample of 1500 may be drawn. so as to attract the attention of the respondent. a. Incentives: Money. Larger sample size: A larger sample may be drawn than the estimated sample size. Advance information: Advance information can be provided to potential respondents by a telephone call. Quality printing: The questionnaire may be neatly printed on quality light colored paper. so as to attract and hold the interest of the respondent. They are: 11. Follow-up-contacts: In the case of respondents belonging to an organization. Certain techniques have to be adopted to increase the response rate. 22. It must anticipate objections and answer them briefly. 44. or advance notice in the newsletter of the concerned organization. For example. 66. Such preliminary contact with potential respondents is more successful than follow-up efforts. This may help the researcher to secure an effective sample size closer to the required size. It is desirable to address the respondent by name.
representing or various kinds of quantitative information and relationships. As in mathematics. A graph data structure consists of a finite (and possibly mutable) set of ordered pairs. of certain entities called nodes or vertices. By using graphs. as a curve. or may be external entities represented by integer indices or references. The graphs which are most commonly used in visual aids are Bar graphs. broken line. called edges or arcs.y) is said to point or go from x to y. or series of bars. Pie Charts. The nodes may be part of the graph structure. Line graphs and Scatter diagrams. Graphs also help in determining the relationship between variables. . They are useful in presentations also because they can summarize large amounts of data and can convey the basic idea of the research. such as the successive changes in a variable quantity quantities. Graphs really help the audience in absorbing the data as they are simple to interpret and are appealing. an edge (x.21 Roles of Graphs Graph is a diagram. Graphs play a very important role during presentations because they make the data easier to understand and interpretations and comparisons can be made quickly. A graph is an abstract data structure that is meant to implement the graph and hypergraph concepts from mathematics. variations and trends in data can be showed clearly and they show how the values of particular variables change over time.
The guide will show you that Role Activity Diagrams are a reasonably simple diagramming technique. to decide on the level of interest and to determine the boundaries of each role in a diagram. This experience will teach how Role Activity Diagrams can best be used. the creation of Role Activity Diagrams relies upon an ability to scope a study. and as they might be in the future. b. What are the Types and General rules for graphical representation of data? . Role Activity Diagrams (RADs) are a useful way of describing processes.). In reality the reader will rely upon experience gained through using Role Activity Diagrams in projects. This is syntactic guidance. This is where the real skill of using Role Activity Diagrams comes in but such issues are addressed only partially in this report. In addition to these syntactic skills. It is not difficult to learn how to draw them and it is not difficult for most people to interpret them. etc. The main part of the SPRINT BPR Methodology describes the ways in which Role Activity Diagrams can be used within a broader change project. Roles of Diagrams Diagram is a graphic representation of an algebraic or geometric relationship. giving advice about the drawing conventions.6. They are valuable in documenting processes as they are now. It describes these in turn. Q. This guide tells you how to draw Role Activity Diagrams. The guide progresses by introducing each of the main constructs of the Role Activity Diagram. and what they are most useful for. such as a symbolic label or a numeric attribute (cost. capacity.22 A graph data structure may also associate to each edge some edge value. length.
maps and charts is called representation of data. . are used to represent large volume of data. diagrams. such as maps. Selection of a Suitable Graphical Method Each characteristic of the data can only be suitably represented by an appropriate graphical method. occupational structure. It makes the comparisons easy. Besides. such methods create an imprint on mind for a longer time. They are necessary: If the information is presented in tabular form or in a descriptive record. It presents characteristics in a simplified way. The graphic method of the representation of data enhances our understanding. sex ratio. the data may also be presented in some graphic or diagrammatic form. It is a time consuming task to draw inferences about whatever is being presented in non–graphical form. graphs and diagrams. “The transformation of data through visual methods like graphs.23 Ans:REPRESENTATION OF DATA Besides the tabular form. etc. it becomes difficult to draw results. These makes it easy to understand the patterns of population growth. Diagrams and Maps 1.” The need of representing data graphically: Graphics. General Rules for Drawing Graphs. Graphical form makes it possible to easily draw visual impressions of data. distribution and the density. For example. age–sex composition.
These are written with different font sizes and thickness. The title. both human and livestock.24 To show the data related to the temperature or growth of population between different periods in time line graph are used. Direction the maps should show the direction North and properly placed on the top. S 3. o Reference year of the data used and o The caption of the diagram. 2. Design The diagram or map should have following design: Title: The title of the diagram/map must be clear and include o The name of the area. The scale must cover the entire data that is to be represented. Types of Diagrams . Selection of Suitable Scale Each diagram or map is drawn to a scale which is used to measure the data. The scale should neither be too large nor too small. symbols and signs used in the map and diagram. it is necessary and important to select suitable graphical method to represent data. The population density can be shown by choropleth maps. A legend is shown either at the lower left or lower right side of the map sheet. shades. subtitle and the corresponding year is shown in the centre at the top of the map/diagram. Thus. bar diagrams are used for showing rainfall or the production of commodities. Similarly. The population distribution. or the distribution of the crop producing areas are shown by dot maps. Legend or Index: The index must clearly explain the colours.
etc. Line Graph The line graphs are usually drawn to represent the time series data related to the temperature.25 The diagrams and the maps is of following types: (i) One-dimensional diagrams such as line graph. . birth rates and the death rates. mark the location of the plotted values by a dot and join these dots by a free hand drawn line. population growth. 4th step: Plot the data to depict year/month-wise values according to the selected scale on Y-axis. (ii) Two-dimensional diagram such as pie diagram and rectangular diagram. If the data involves a negative figure then the selected scale should also show it. poly graph. The most commonly drawn diagrams and maps are: • Line graphs • Bar diagrams • Pie diagram • Wind rose and star diagram • Flow Charts 1. histogram. (iii) Three-dimensional diagrams such as cube and spherical diagrams. 2nd step: Draw X and Y-axis. age. rainfall. sex. Mark the time series variables (years/months) on the X axis and the data quantity/value to be plotted on Y axis. 3rd step: Choose an appropriate scale to show data and label it on Y-axis.. pyramid. Construction of a Line Graph 1st step: Round the data to be shown upto the 1 digit of even numbers. bar diagram.
Construction of a Polygraph. ☞ Example variables. wheat. Sex ratio in different states or countries in one diagram. But different lines are drawn to indicate different variables. It helps in comparing the data. Examples which can be shown as polygraph are: The growth rate of different crops like rice. The birth rates. death rates and life expectancy in one diagram. All steps of construction of polygraph are similar to that of line graph. pulses in one diagram. Polygraph Polygraph is a line graph in which two or more than two variables are shown on a same diagram by different lines. 2: Construct a polygraph to compare the .26 ☞ Example 1: Construct a line graph to represent the data 2.
Simple Bar Diagram A simple bar diagram is constructed for an immediate comparison.27 3. Three types of bar diagrams are used to represent different data sets: The simple bar diagram Compound bar diagram Polybar diagram. (b) All the bars should are placed on equal intervals/distance. It is advisable to arrange the given data set in an ascending or descending order and plot the data variables . (c) Bars are shaded with colours or patterns to make them distinct and attractive. The bar diagrams are drawn through columns of equal width. Bar Diagram It is also called a columnar diagram. Following rules were observed while constructing a bar diagram: (a) The width of all the bars or columns is similar.
☞ Example 4: Construct a Line and bar Graph. Construction Steps: Draw X and Y-axes on a graph paper.28 accordingly. ☞ Example 3: Construct a simple bar diagram. 4. Line and Bar Graph The line and bar graphs as drawn separately may also be combined to depict the data related to some of the closely associated characteristics such as the climatic data of mean monthly temperatures and rainfall. time series data are represented according to the sequencing of the time period. Take an interval and mark it on Y-axis to plot data. The actual values will be plotted according to the selected scale. Divide X-axis into equal parts to draw bars. . However.
5. select a suitable scale with equal intervals on the Yaxis and label at its left side. For example. tube well and well irrigation in the total irrigated area in different states. rural and urban population or the share of canal.29 Construction: (a) Draw X and Y-axes of a suitable length and divide X-axis into parts to show months in a year. a multiple bar diagram may be constructed to show proportion of males and females in the total. . (b) Select a suitable scale with equal intervals on the Y-axis and label it at its right side. (c) Similarly. (d) Plot data using line graph and columnar diagram. Multiple Bar Diagram Multiple bar diagrams are constructed to represent two or more than two variables for the purpose of comparison.
☞ Example 5: Construct a Multiple bar Diagram. different variables are shown in a single bar with different rectangles. (b) Plot the data in closed columns. 6. . Compound Bar Diagram When different components are grouped in one set of variable or different variables of one component are put together.30 (a) Mark time series data on X-axis and variable data on Y-axis as per the selected scale. In this method. their representation is made by a compound bar diagram.
(b) A single bar will depict the set of variables by dividing the total length of the bar as per percentage. ☞ Example 6: Construct a Compound Bar Diagram. Dividing the circle into corresponding degrees of angle then represent the sub– sets of the data. Hence. The angle of each variable is calculated using the following formulae. 7. it is also called as Divided Circle Diagram. It is drawn to depict the total value of the given attribute using a circle. .31 Construction (a) Arrange the data in ascending or descending order. Pie Diagram Pie diagram is another graphical method of the representation of data.
(c) Plot the data by dividing the circle into the required number of divisions to show the share different regions/countries Construction (a) Select a suitable radius for the circle to be drawn. . A radius of 3.6 as derived by dividing the total number of degrees in a circle by 100. 4 or 5 cm may be chosen for the given data set.32 If data is given in percentage form. 360/100. i. e. the angles are calculated using the given formulae. Calculation of Angles (a) Arrange the data on percentages in an ascending order. (b) Calculate the degrees of angles for showing the given values (b) It could be done by multiplying percentage with a constant of 3.
starting with smaller angle. The legend mark be chosen for each variable/category and highlighted by distinct shades/colours. Precautions (a) The circle should neither be too big to fit in the space nor too small to be illegible. which shows number of passengers. and the legend. The number and frequency of the vehicles as per the direction of their movement 2. Flow Maps/Chart Flow chart is a combination of graph and map. Requirements for the Preparation of a Flow Map: (a) A route map depicting the desired transport routes along with the connecting stations. These charts are drawn using lines of proportional width. etc. sub – title. The number of the passengers and/or the quantity of goods transported. The flow maps/ charts are generally drawn to represent two the types of data as given below: 1. 8. . Transport map. is the best example of a flow chart. (c) Measure the angles from the arc of the circle for each category of vehicles in an ascending order clock-wise.. vehicles. (d) Complete the diagram by adding the title. It is drawn to show the flow of commodities or people between the places of origin and destination. It is also called as Dynamic Map.33 (b) Draw a line from the centre of the circle to the arc as a radius. Many government agencies prepare flow maps to show density of the means of transportation on different routes. ☞ Example 7: Construct a Pie Diagram. (b) Starting with bigger angle will lead to accumulation of error leading to the plot of the smaller angle difficult.
along with the point of origin and destination of the movements.2 mm thick lines respectively on the map. (c) The selection of a scale through which the data related to the quantity of passengers and goods or the number of vehicles is to be represented.34 (b) The data pertaining No. Construction (a) Take an outline map of Delhi and adjoining areas in which railway line and the nodal stations are depicted. number of vehicles. etc. of trains of selected routes of to the flow of goods. (d) Draw a terraced scale as legend and choose distinct sign or symbol to show the nodal points (stations) within the strip. . If we select a scale of 1cm = 50 trains. Delhi and adjoining areas services. the maximum and minimum numbers will be represented by a strip of 10 mm and 1. Here.. (c) Plot the thickness of each strip of route between the given rail route. (b) Select a scale to represent the number of trains. the maximum number is 50 and the minimum is 6.
These maps are also called as statistical maps. Requirements for Making a Thematic Map (a) State/District level data about the selected theme. . Rules for Making Thematic Maps (i) The drawing of the thematic maps must be carefully planned. signs. etc. For example. colours. classified into quantitative and non-quantitative maps. (b) Outline map of the study area along with administrative boundaries. maps depicting areas receiving more than 200 cm. (c) Physical map of the region. shades. The final map should properly reflect the following components: a. Source of the data and year d. For example. 100 to 200 cm.35 ☞ Example 8: Construct a Flow Map of Train movements in and around Delhi. Classification of Thematic Maps based on Method of Construction The thematic maps are generally. Thematic Maps Varieties of maps are drawn to understand the patterns of the regional distributions or the characteristics of variations over space these maps are known as the distribution maps or thematic maps. Title of the subject-matter c. Name of the area b. e. The quantitative maps are drawn to show the variations within the data. Indication of symbols. 50 to 100 cm and less than 50 cm of rainfall are referred as quantitative maps. Scale (ii) The selection of a suitable method to be used for thematic mapping. physiographic map for population distribution and relief and drainage map for constructing transportation map.
These maps are also called as qualitative maps. (b) Statistical data on selected theme for the chosen administrative units.e. (d) Physiographic map of the region especially relief and drainage maps. Requirement (a) An administrative map of the given area showing state/district/block boundaries.36 The non-quantitative maps. Dot Maps The dot maps are drawn to show the distribution of phenomena such as population. (b) All dots should be of same size. i.. on the other hand. etc. total population. The dots of same size as per the chosen scale are marked over the given administrative units to highlight the patterns of distributions. types of crops. cattle etc. Precaution (a) The lines demarcating the boundaries of various administrative units should not be very thick and bold. cattle. The construction of quantitative maps: There are three types of quantitative maps (a) Dot maps (b) Choropleth maps (c) Isopleth maps 9. depict the non– measurable characteristics in the distribution of given information such as a map showing high and low rainfall-receiving areas. (c) Selection of a scale to determine the value of a dot. .
37 Construction (a) Select the size and value of a dot. as the . It may be rounded to 968. number of dots in Maharashtra will be 9.247/100.52.67. For example. (b) Determine the number of dots in each state using the given scale.52.000 = 967.
desert. (d) Patterns. (c) Place the dots in each state as per the determined number in all states. Choropleth Map The maps choropleth are maps used are to also drawn to depict the data of characteristics as they are related to the administrative units. Requirement for drawing Choropleth Map (a) A map of the area depicting different administrative units. Steps to be followed (a) Arrange the data in ascending or descending order. 10. (d) Consult the physiographic/relief map of India to identify mountainous. (b) Group the data into 5 categories to represent very high. ☞ Example 9: Construct a Dot Map. sex-ratio. These represent the density population.5. Range/5 and Range = maximum value – minimum value. medium. (b) Appropriate statistical data according to administrative units. shades or colour to be used to depict the chosen categories should be marked in an increasing or decreasing order. low and very low concentrations.e.38 fraction is more than 0.literacy/growth rates. (c) The interval between the categories may be identified on the following formulae i. . and/or snow covered areas and mark lesser number of dots in such areas. etc. high.
the states recording the lowest and highest literacy rates are Bihar (47%) and the Kerala (90.0 . Hence. In the present case.9%) respectively.0 = 44.0 – 47.39 Construction (a) Arrange the data in ascending order as shown above. the range would be 91. (b) Identify the range within the data.
Andhra Pradesh. Isohyets (equal rainfall). Chhattisgarh) 65 – 74 Medium (Nagaland. Assam.40 (c) Divide the range by 5 to get categories from very low to very high. Maharashtra. (g) Complete the map with respect to the attributes of map design. . Meghalaya. may be represented by drawing the lines of equal values on a map. Arunachal Pradesh. Jammu and Kashmir) 56 – 65 Low (Uttar Pradesh. Add 9. Isobar (equal pressure). Manipur. The more frequently drawn isopleths include Isotherm (equal temperature). Delhi.0. Goa) 83 – 92 Very High (Mizoram. etc.Isobaths Isohaline (equal salinity). Uttaranchal. (d) Determine the number of the categories along with range of each category. Isonephs (equal (equal cloudiness). Jharkhand. West Bengal.0 as so on. (f) Prepare the map as shown in Fig. Gujarat. Rajasthan. Karnataka. occurrence of rainfall. Thus. Tamil Nadu) 74 – 83 High (Himachal Pradesh. Requirement (a) Base line map depicting point location of different places. Sikkim. The word Isopleth is derived from Iso meaning equal and pleth means lines. Isopleth Map Variations in the degrees of slope.0/ 5 = 8.80). Tripura. temperature. We can convert this value to a round number 9. Kerala) (e) Assign shades/pattern to each category ranging from lower to higher hues. All such maps are termed as Isopleth Map. an imaginary line. Isohels (equal (equal depths). Haryana.0 to the lowest value of 47. We will finally get following categories: 47 – 56 Very low (Bihar.Punjab. (44.Madhya Pradesh. sunshine). contours heights). Orissa. which joins the places of equal values. 11. ☞ Example 10: Construct a Choropleth Map. is referred as Isopleth.
10. (b) Calculate the range of value i. or 20 is supposed to be ideal. For example. 15. drawing of isopleths joining the places of same value is also termed as interpolation. measure the distance between the two points. follow the following steps: (a) Firstly. Generally. Rules to be observed (a) An equal interval of values be selected. etc. pressure. (c) The value of Isopleth should be written along the line on either side or in the middle by breaking the line. etc. (b) Interval of 5. The exact point of drawing an Isopleth is determined by using the following formulae. Interpolation Interpolation is used to find the intermediate values between the observed values of at two stations/locations. (c) Drawing instrument specially French Curve. in an Isotherm map of two places show 28º C and 33º C and you want to draw 30ºC isotherm.41 (b) Appropriate data of temperature. rainfall.e. (c) Based on range. 10. over a definite period of time. The interval is the difference between the actual value on the map and interpolated value. determine the interval in a whole number like 5. determine the minimum and maximum values given on the map. Range = maximum value – minimum value. etc. Suppose the distance . Method of Interpolation: For interpolation.
42 is 1cm or 10 mm and the difference between 28 and 33 is 5. ☞ Example 11: Construct an Isopleth Map. thus. . exact point of 30 will be plotted 4mm away from 28ºC or 6mm ahead of 33ºC.
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