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: - IIMM/DH/1/2007/5516
: - Shekhar Sharma :-RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Answer 1. (a)
Definition of Social Research: The term ‘social research’ has been defined by different scholars differently. The few definitions are as follows: (1) Prof. C.A. Moser defined it as “systematized investigation to give new knowledge about social phenomena and surveys, we call social research”. (2) Rummel defined it as “it is devoted to a study to mankind in his social environment and is concerned with improving his understanding of social orders, groups, institutes and ethics”. (3) M.H. Gopal defined it as “it is scientific analysis of the nature and trends of social phenomena of groups or in general of human behavior so as to formulate broad principles and scientific concepts”. (4) Mary Stevenson defined it as “social research is a systematic method of exploring, analyzing and conceptualizing social life in order to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aid in the construction of a theory or in the practice of an art. A broad comprehensive definition of social research has been given by P.V. Young which is as follows: “Social Research may be defined as a scientific undertaking which by means of logical and systematized techniques, aims to discover new factor verify a test old facts, analyze their sequence, interrelationship and causal explanation which were derived within an appropriate theoretical frame of reference, develop new scientific tolls, concepts and theories which would facilities reliable and valid study of human behavior. A researcher’s primary goal distant and immediate is to explore and gain an understanding of human behavior and social life and thereby gain a greater control over time”. Steps in Social Research: Although different methods are used in social science research, the common goal of a social research is one the same, i.e. furthering our understanding of society and thus all share certain basic stages such as: (1) Choosing the research problems and stating the hypothesis. (2) Formulating the Research Design. (3) Gathering the Data (4) Coding and Analysis the Data (5) Interpreting the results so as to test the hypothesis Each of these steps is dependent upon the others. The researcher needs to have adequate knowledge of the later stages before he undertakes research. Chart Research is thus a system of interdependent related stages. These stages are shown in fig.
Choosing the Problem and stating Hypothesis
Coding and Analysis data
Data collection Results
The research process is best conceived as circle. The researcher has to select suitable research design among different designs. Thereafter he has to collect the data (primary as well as secondary data). Once the data are collected those have to be coded and analyzed and finally the researcher in social science has to interpret the data so collected.
Objectives of Social Research: Social Research is a scientific approach of adding to the knowledge about society and social phenomena. Knowledge to be meaningful should have a definite purpose and direction. The growth of knowledge is closely linked to the methods and approaches used in research investigation. Hence the social science research must be guided by certain laid down objectives enumerated below: (1) Development of Knowledge: As we know ‘science’ is the systematic body of knowledge which is recorded and preserved. The main object of any research is to add to the knowledge. As we have seen earlier, research is a process to obtain knowledge. Similarly social research is an organized and scientific effort to acquire further knowledge about the problem in question. Thus social science helps us to obtain and add to the knowledge of social phenomena. This is one of the most important objectives of social research. (2) Scientific Study of Social Life: Social research is an attempt to acquire knowledge about the social phenomena. Man being the part of a society, social research studies human being as an individual, human behavior and collects data about various aspects of the social life of man and formulates law in this regards. Once the law is formulated, then the scientific study tries to establish the interrelationship between these facts. Thus, the scientific study of social life is the base of the sociological development which is considered as the second best objective of social research. (3) Welfare of Humanity: The ultimate objective of the social science study is often and always to enhance the welfare of humanity. No scientific research makes only for the sake of study. The welfare of humanity is the most common objective in social science research. (4) Classification of facts: According to Prof. P.V.Young, social research aims to clarify facts. The classification of facts plays important role in any scientific research.
(5) Social control and Prediction: “The ultimate object of many research undertaking is to make it possible, to redict the behavior of particular type of individuals under the specified conditions. In social research we generally study of the social phenomena, events and the factors that govern and guide them.” In short, under social research we study social relation and their dynamics.
Answer. 1 (b) Significance of Social Research: Within the last 20 to 25 years, courses in methods of social research have come to occupy an increasingly important role in sociological curricula. It likely that at present every major university offers such courses. This is because growing significance of social research and also growing job opportunities in this field. The market analysis, the public opinion expert, the investigator of communication and propaganda all are growing facts for governmental and business needs. Knowledge of social research is useful for interpreting and weighing such reports. In the present age, social science are accruing a scientific method of study for this method, research is an important factor. In the last two or three decades, social research has become an important subject of the curriculum of Sociology. In fact almost all the universities, where sociology is taught, social research is a part of the curriculum of the sociology. Social research has therefore, assumed greater importance. Apart from this, the social science research is essential for proper understanding of the society and proper collection and analysis of social facts. The social research is an effective method. Research Laboratory techniques are helpful in finding further knowledge, about the subject. Through research only it has been possible to make progress and reach further. It is part of man’s nature. The important saying goes, necessity is the mother of invention and invention is the result of research. So long as necessity exists the research shall be this social science and particularly sociology has come to occupy an important place for us. In fact, research is an organized effort to acquire new knowledge. It is based on the past experience and past knowledge. The richer the past knowledge, greater the surely of the results. In science sociology is assuming a scientific base, research has become a part of study, and it is not an easy task to predict social behavior because the human nature is ever changing. Problems of Scientific Social Research In fact, social research deals with social a phenomenon which is quite different than the natural phenomena. Hence, there are fundamental difference between research in social sciences and that of physical or natural sciences. (1) Complexity of Social Data: It is a well-known that social science studies the human behavior which depends on several factors such a physical, social, temperamental, psychological, geographical, biological socio-cultural etc. Because of these factors a researcher is generally confused. It is therefore said that because of this complexity of social fata human beings cannot be put to scientific test. (2) Problems of Concepts: In social science research, one has to face number of problems among which of a) abstraction, and b) faulty reasoning, plays major role in formulating and defining the concepts and law. Abstraction is both the central strength and one of the weaknesses of economics, for example full-employment or perfect competition and pure competition. Faulty reasoning leads to wrong conclusion, for example classical theory of employment was based on a faulty reasoning that wage cut will increase employment was based on a faulty reasoning that wage cut will increase employment opportunities, however later on J.M.Keynes proved the faulty reasoning of this classical theory and presented alternative theory.
(3) Problems in Interpreting Relationship between Cause and effect: In social science research, we generally find interdependent relationship between cause and effect. The cause and effect are one and the same, for example, in underdeveloped countries, the economic development cannot be accelerated due to lack of technical know how and capital cannot be obtained due to underdevelopment of the country. (4) Dynamic Nature of Social Phenomena: Man is a social animal and the human societies undergo constant change. What is true today may be not useful tomorrow. The techniques used in past may prove useless for present and future studies. On account of this dynamic nature of social phenomena our task of analyzing data becomes very much complicated and the inferences drawn may be misleading. (5) Problem of maintaining objectivity: The problem of impartiality is in part a problem of objectivity. It is generally argued that the social scientists are less objective than natural scientist because their own interest affected by the findings of their studies, hence leading to prejudice and bias. (6) Unpredictability: Predictability is one of the most important characteristics of science. In case of physical science, high degree of predictability is possible but it is not so in case of social data. But this statement is also partially true; the social scientist can roughly estimate the behavior of the group. (7) Difficulty in the Verification of the Inferences: In social science research, the events of social sciences are non repetitive and the social scientists are ill-equipped with their tools to verify inferences. (8) Difficulty in the Use of Experimental Method: In case of social science research, its product being a human being cannot be put to laboratory test. Even if it is done, their responses wouldn’t be natural but subject to the awareness of the artificial condition. Thus the social scientist has to watch them in wide world. (9) Incapability of being dealt through empirical method: An empirical method cannot be applied in case of social science research as repeated experiment is not possible, for example, the problem of unbiased sampling, selection of data etc. (10) Problems of inter-disciplinary research: Social science being, inter-disciplinary one related with, Economics, Political Science and Sociology, we cannot draw water-tight compartments for each other social sciences.
the method we will be discussing is based on our knowledge of Statistics. Though this method has restricted use in the corporate world, it is useful because it enables at least and assessment of n. In most research studies, it is left to the ‘Judgment’ of the researcher when deciding about the sample size. For using the concept of probability, we need to know some population parameters. Let us say that the research objective is to find the average consumption of fruit juices per month per person in the middle-income group. Calculating the Sample Size The method we will be discussing is based on our knowledge of Statistics. Though this method has restricted use in the corporate world, it is useful because it enables at least an assessment of n. In most research studies, it is left to the ‘Judgment’ of the researcher when deciding about the sample size. For using the concept of probability, we need to know some population parameters. Let us say that the research objective is to find the average consumption of fruit juices per month per person in the middle-income group. We know that for a Type I error of 0.05, the confidence interval constructed lies between -1.96 and +1.96 standard errors away from the population mean. Let us fix an acceptable level of deviation between what we get as the sample mean consumption and the true population average. Let us assume that a deviation of 0.05 liters is acceptable. This implies that if the true population mean consumption of fruit juices is µ, we are comfortable if we get a sample mean of µ ± 0.05 liters. Let us recollect the z equation: Z= (X - µ) (Õ/ √n) Z a/2 = ±1.96 (on the right tail it is +1.96 and -.196 on the left tail) Z a/2 = ±1.96 = ±0.05 (the difference we accept between X, the sample mean and µ) ± 1.96 = ± 0.05 / 1.5 √n Solving this equation for n, we get √n = (1.96 * 1.5)/0.05 = 3457.44 ~ 3458, i.e. we have to choose 3458 people from the middle-income household in our sample. Types of Sampling These may be broadly classified as Purposive sampling and Probability Sampling. In Purposive Sampling, a desired number of units are selected deliberately. It is highly subjective. Probability Sampling provides scientific techniques of drawing samples from populations by making use of the laws of probability. In this, each unit of the population has a pre-assigned probability or chance of getting picked up into the sample. I. Probability Sampling Traditionally, this is synonymous with Simple Random sampling, though there are other methods, which are also considered as falling within the scope of Probability sampling. 1. Simple Random Sampling (SRS) In this method, each unit of the population is assigned EQUAL chances of being picked up into the sample. For example, if there are 1200 students in a batch and we want to measure
the average height using a sample of 30 students, each student has a change of 1/1200 = 0.008 probability of being sampled. This chance is consistent for all students only if the sampling is With Replacement. If a population consists of N units and a sample of n units is to be drawn in SRS with replacement, and unit ‘I’ continues to have the same chance 1/N of selection in each draw. It is possible that the same unit is drawn again. The same student who was drawn the first time and his height measured, could be drawn in the sample again. We will treat the same person as another unit and count his height once again. Each student has the chance of being selected all 30 times! Therefore P (x = one particular student) = (1/N) ³º 2. Stratified Sampling In this method of Probability sampling, we first divide the population units into strata based on some parameters. Example in a batch of students, we have girls and boys. Boys tend to be taller than girls. So we can expect a greater degree of accuracy in calculating the sample mean if we separate the two into different groups or strata and then take a sample. Here, we can make use of Stratified Sampling. The advantage of this method over SRS is that it tends to lower the sampling error. If we do not use groups, then there is the probability that all the students we select in the sample are boys, in which case, the average height will be higher than the true population mean. Busing Stratification, we ensure that some girls and some boys will be in the sample. The disadvantage is that in addition to knowledge about N, we need information about each strata with N. We need to know the ratio (which may be available in real life also, government statistics publications could tell us men: women ration in the middle class) as well as the total number. To assign equal probabilities to all boys of (1/N1), in our example the probability for first draw will be 1/800, one needs to know N1 = 800, where N1 is total number of boys in the batch and for girls one needs to know N2, where N2 = 400 is the total number of girls in the batch. 3. Systematic Sampling Another variation of the SRS, which is also considered as a method of Probability Sampling is Systematic Sampling. In this method, we first arrange the elements of the population in some order not unrelated to the attribute we are measuring. This arrangement is not physical but instead a list which will help us to select a sample. Let us say that the 5th student in the very first group, N1, gets picked up in the sample. The next element that we will chose in our sample is 5+I = 5+40 = 45th student. The third element in our sample will be 45+I = 45+40 = 85 th student and so on. The last or the 30th element in our sample will be the 1165th student. What will be the second element in the sample if the first selection using SRS is the 22nd student. It will be 22+40 = 62nd student. In systematic sampling, only the first group elements have equal probabilities of being selected in the sample. All other elements in the rest of the intervals have a probability of either 0 or 1. If the element selected is the 5 th in the first group, then it is a certainty that the 45 th student will also be samples. And none of the others in the second group i.e. from the 41 st to the 44th and from 46th to 80th students will be drawn in the sample, giving them an automatic 0 probability of being chosen.
The greatest advantage of Systematic Sampling over SRS is that it helps reduce Sampling Error. In SRS, one may, by sheer chance, select only the taller boys in my sample, thereby inflating the sample average. But, by using age as a parameter, one can ensure that the range is the sample is wide enough to encompass the heterogeneity. Of course, the selected parameter must be as close as possible to the attribute we are measuring. If we arrange the students in the batch according to the number of members in their family, we may get a list which does not reduce sampling error at all, and is only as good or bad as the SRS method. II. Purposive Sampling This method does not use the concepts of probability and is of greater application in the corporate world. Here, we are not concerned with assigning equal chances for each unit to be sampled. Traditionally, Purposive sampling is Judgment sampling, though over a period of time, there are other methods that fall under the scope of Purposive Sampling. 1. Judgment Samping: Judgment sampling, as the term suggests, is dependant on the experience and the judgment of the researcher. This is the reason why experienced researchers, people who have had previous experience with the product or the consumer segment are often left to decide by themselves what the ample size should be. The researcher also would decide from which city or state these sample units must be picked up. The greatest advantage of all Purposive Sampling Methods is that it is less time consuming and is free from data requirements about the total population, which is difficult to obtain. These methods are also far more accurate given an experienced researcher. Instead of depending on chance to obtain a representative sample, the researcher uses all his knowledge to ensure that the sample is representative. 2. Convenience Sampling: In this method, the researcher picks up sample elements as and how it is convenient to him. For example, if you have to study the expenditure pattern of middle-income household, you will select the appropriate households falling in that income segment within your city. Maybe, even within you locality. You may not travel all the way to another state or city for this study. What makes you choose this method of Convenience Sampling? It is the inherent assumption that all middle-income households would have a homogenous pattern of expenditure. If this assumption of homogeneity cannot be made, or is made erroneously, then convenience Sampling will not give a true picture of the population. The advantage of lower costs and time saved must not be given priority if the assumption about homogeneity cannot be made. 3. Quota Sampling: This method is similar to Stratified Sampling except that there is no SRS used to select the elements. Once the groups have been created based on some population parameter, referred to as Quotas in this case, we will choose the elements within each quota by using either Judgment Sampling or Convenience Sampling.
Scientific Method in Managerial Research The scientific method is a systematic method of investigation, evaluation, experimentation, interpretation and theorizing. It is characterized by critical discrimination generally and system, and empirical verification, according to wolfe. Generally speaking, the scientific method is characterized by a systematic study, based on theory and facts, universality or generality, objectivity of observation, predictability of results, and verifiability of the phenomenon. It consists of a number of formalities and procedures, which are time consuming. Time management is the basic requirement for the success of managerial decisions. Many management problems require timely solutions and decisions. In such situations, the management may not have adequate time at its disposal to make use of scientific studies before arriving at decisions. Laboratory experiments occupy a prominent place in the scientific method, which may not be useful in many situations of managerial decision-making. Physical science phenomena may be subjected to laboratory tests and physical control. Most of the managerial policies and decisions, however, affect human beings. An individual’s behavior differs substantially from that of another from time to time, place to place and environment to environment and it cannot be placed under absolute control, for it is very difficult to employ the scientific method is the practice of management. Despite the development of dynamic methods pf management information systems, many decision areas, such as those of labor productivity, materials handling, product planning and consumer behavior, require complex data to be analyzed as a part of the scientific method which may not be appropriate in quick managerial decisions. The greater the complexity of the data, the lesser is the possibility of accuracy and the lesser is its utility in the management process. Consumer behavior, a trade union’s behavior, workers’ behavior, the tastes, temperaments and fashions of the population at large, the demonstration effect in the market, technological development, political change, social change, geographic change, and such other forces influence business policy a great deal. Many of these forces, especially the human factor, are unpredictable. Despite a thorough scanning of the environment, a perfect prediction, on the basis of these variables, is just not possible, as it is in the physical sciences. The scientific method of research, therefore, has a limited applicability in such managerial decision areas. The scientific method is effective in the physical sciences, because physical phenomena can be verified and evaluated by the senses; but many managerial factors, like the behavioral aspects in organization, cannot be absolutely tested or verified physically. As a result, the scope of the scientific method in management is profoundly affected. Many management problems cannot be empirically tested, in spite of the extensive use of quantitative techniques in the latter half of this century. Though servicing, decision-making, marketing and promotional effectiveness, production planning the complexity of these techniques makes them unpopular with many practitioners. At the same time, the scientific method does not find favour with many organizations and functional executives because of the heavy demand it makes on their time, exposure, resources and manpower. Even in the science where quantitative, empirical and scientific methods are extensively employed, the qualitative approach is made simultaneously, thus limiting the importance of scientific method. The performance evaluation of the sales force is usually made by combining both quantitative and qualitative performance, though there is a possibility of making a quantitative analysis. The experimental method is seldom used in managerial analysis, unlike in the physical sciences, while the cause-effect relationship cannot be established beyond doubt in many cases. For example, there is a relationship between the sales revenue and the advertising budget; but it is not easy to establish which the actual cause of effect is because both are interlinked. The exact magnitude of the effect of each on the other cannot be easily determined, for various other factors-economic variables, market forces, changes in fashion, tastes, temperaments, and the competitors’ policies make a substantial impact on the sales volume. Similarly, business policies, marketing opportunities and product specifications attain dynamic dimensions in a dynamic economic, social and business environment. Evidently research, scientific methods and their results have very little policy implications in such situations; and
that is why the recourse invested on research do not yield any considerable returns. However, the scientific method that empirically tests a hypothesis has a far-reaching utility value, not only for theoretical purposes, but also for practical applications and policy decisions.
Answer.5. (a) Hypothesis It has already been pointed out that the testing of a hypothesis is an important characteristic of the scientific method. It is a prerequisite of any successful research, for it enables us to get rid of vague approaches and meaningless interpretations. It establishes the relationship of concept with theory, and specifies the test to be applied especially in the context of a meaningful value judgment. The hypothesis, therefore, plays a very pivotal role in the scientific research method. A hypothesis is a skeptical proposition, formulated to be tested in a certain given situation as a part of research, which states what the researcher is looking for. It is a tentative generalization, according to Lundberg. Its validity can be determined only when it is tested. A close relationship, however, exists between theory and facts, though it is neither. However, the testing and proving of a hypothesis leads to theory, though all hypotheses do not necessarily result in theory formation. Specific assumptions are generally involved in hypotheses relating to the level of abstraction. Testing of Hypothesis Hypothesis is considered the principal instrument in research, because it gives definite point to the inquiry, it establishes direction in which to proceed; it helps to delimit the field of study etc. The basic point to maintain is that hypothesis is said to be tentative assumption whether based on experience, creativity etc. to be proved / disproved at the basis principles underlying the role of hypothesis : (1) unless the hypothesis is clear of precise, the inference drawn on its basis cannot be taken as reliable. (2) It should be capable of testing & within reasonable time. Nature of Hypothesis Thus, a hypothesis is skeptical, thought it is based on an observation, until it is tested. It can take the shape of a proposition which may involve assumptions in the given situation or context. It always looks forward, since the skeptical proposition based on some observation or assumption need not be proved valid by being tested. This is the reason why no hypothesis is proved without empirical test. Goode and Hatt are therefore, right when they assert, “A hypothesis looks forward. It is a proposition which can be put to a test to determine its validity. It may see contrary to or in accord with, common sense. It may prove to be correct or incorrect. In any event, however, it leads to an empirical test. Whatever the outcome, the hypothesis is a question put in such a way that an answer of some kind can be forthcoming. It is an example of the organized skepticism of science, the refusal to accept any statement without empirical verification”. When the answer to the question put forward in a hypothesis is found, and when the hypothesis is tested and proved, the relation between variables in the hypothesis is confirmed and the proposition established, leading to the formulation of a theory. Hypothesis is, therefore, closely linked with both theory and facts though it is neither. However, testing and proving of hypothesis may lead to theory although all hypotheses may not necessarily result in theory. Similarly, a hypothesis makes use of variables, and the relationship between variables can be established in proving the hypothesis, though it need not always result in formulation of theory. Actually speaking, it is the scientific method, which is closely linked with the hypothesis that makes the basis for theory. The theory rests on empirical studies, value judgments and factual expressions, for which formulation and testing of hypothesis may become necessary. Scope of Hypothesis It is evident that hypothesis skeptically deals with the variables relating to the real life situation which provides the propositions and assumptions. If, by being tested, they help the
formulation of theory. While scientific method helps to formulate theory, hypothesis is at the center of scientific method. Science, on the other hand, integrates concepts, theory and accumulated knowledge developed from hypothesis, analytical framework and experimentation. Thus, hypothesis is part of every organized knowledge, basis for analysis and inspiration for investigation. As scientific method involves determination of facts through observation, investigation and establishment of causal relationships between variables, hypothesis has tremendous scope in science and scientific method. As mentioned earlier, testing of hypothesis establishes relationship between variables which predicts the same relationships in identical situations giving birth to principles. Thus, hypothesis leads to principles which are the basis for every human activity. To sum up, both theory and principle which act as the foundation of practice on hypothesis? The scope of hypothesis is, therefore, extensive, and hence it has various sources.
A Flow Diagram
STATE THE HYPOTHESIS (1)
SPECIFY A VALUE FOR “a” THE SIGNIFICANCE LEVEL (2)
SELECT A RANDOM SAMPLE AND DETERMINE AN APPOPRIATE VALUE FROM THE SAMPLE (3)
CALCULATE A PROBILITY THAT THE SAMPLE RESULT WOULD DIVERGE AS WIDELY AS IT HAS FROM EXPECTATIONS (IF THE HYPOTHESIS IS TRUE) (4)
IS THIS PROBABILITY EQUAL TO OR SMALLER THAN ‘a’? (5) YES REJECT THE HYPOTHESIS (6a) NO
ACCEPT THE HYPOTHESIS (6b)
Answer.5. (b) Meaning of Case Study: The term ‘case’ has different meanings in different disciplines of professions. For instance, in medicine it mean a patient who has approached to the doctor for specific treatment, in education the maladjusted interpersonal problem, in social research the term ‘case’ refers to a unit of study. The case study method means a careful and complete observation of a social unit, be that unit a person, a family, an institution, a cultural group or even the entire community. This is very popular method of collecting information about personal life of an individual or a group of persons. Definitions: Different scholars from different disciplines have defined the term “A case study’ differently among which few of these definitions is as follows: 1. Pauline U Young has defined it in his book entitled: “Scientific social survey and Research,” as ‘a comprehensive study of a social unit that unit a person, a group, a social institutions, a district or 2. H-Odum has explained it in his book entitled: An introduction to social research, as “case study method is a technique by which individual factor whether it be an institution or just an episode in he life of an individual or a group is analyzed in its relationship to any other in the group”. 3. Goode and Hatt have given their definition of case study method in their book entitled: Methods in social research, According to them “It is a way or organizing social date so as to presence the unitary character of the social object being studied.” 4. Start a Queen has stated that: Case study is “the examination of a single situation, persons, group, or institutions as complex wholes in order to identity types and process”. 5. Burgess has defined it in his book entitled: “Research methods in sociology” He used the words ‘the social microscope’ for the case study method. From all above definitions, we can briefly say that case method is a form of qualitative analysis where in careful and complete observation of an individual or a situation or an institution is done, efforts are made to study such and every aspect of the concerning unit in minute details and then from case data generalization and inferences can be drawn. In short, case study method is a study of a particular unit in detail. Assumptions of Case Study Method: The case study method is based on several assumptions. The important assumptions are explained below:
1. Uniformity of Human nature: The assumption of uniformity in the basic human nature in spite of the fact that human behavior may vary according to situations. This assumption underlines the collection of case-data. 2. Nature history of the unit: The assumptions of studying the natural history of the unit concerned. It gives the background for the study. 3. Comprehensive Study: The assumption of comprehensive study of the unit concerned. 4. Applicability: Psychologist has stated that some statements about human nature broadly apply to each individual or to each member of a large group. 5. Homogeneity: According to Cora Dubois, an anthropologist, the case study is possible only because of certain basic homogeneity or similarity in evidenced in the mankind. Major Phase / Steps of Case Study Method: As we have seen that the case study method is based on certain well set assumptions, it involves certain phases/steps analyzing different cases. There are not hard and fast rules for analysis of cases. However following steps are considered as the general guidelines of the case study method. (1) Defining or Discovering or Identifying the specific problem: This is the first step in case analysis. The basic issues are required to be defined. Thus the first step may present only the definition of the problem in question. (2) Collection of data and history of the given phenomena: The second step in case study method is the collection of data. It is also required that the historical background of the problem must be given. (3) Analysis of problem: The third step in case study method is of analyzing the problem in question. Analysis is the process of breaking down a problem into rational easily understood divisions which can be examined separately. (4) Application of remedial measures i.e. treatment and therapy: Once the problem is defined and analyzed then one has to suggest suitable remedies to solve the problem or to over come the problem. Application of remedial measure plays significant role in case study method. (5) Evaluating finding and establishing conclusions: The alternatives for solutions or decision should grow out of analysis. Case study is extensively used in teaching law, personnel management, Industrial relation, marketing and
so on. So it should be noted that there can’t be a single answer to a particular problem. Hence different solutions must be suggested to the problem concerned. (6) Follow-up program: Once the treatment is applied and solutions are found, one has to follow-up the program to determine the effectiveness of the treatment applied.
Answer.6. (a) Report Writing in RM It is the major component of the research study. Report writing is the important and final sage in the research activity. The hypothesis of the study, the objective of the study and the data collection and data analysis on these lines can be well presented in report writing. This report writing will help others to understand the findings of the research. The research is research, any innovation or explanation of new facts. This is addition to the knowledge. Report writing is integral part of research and hence it cannot be isolated. Report writing is not a mechanical process but it is an art. It requires skill. Different Steps in Report Writing: It is the critical stage and hence it requires patience. These is no mechanical formulate to present a report, though there are certain steps to be followed while writing a research report. The usual steps in report writing can be indicated in the following manner: (a) Logical analysis of subject matter. (b) Preparation of final outline. (c) Preparation of Rough Draft. (d) Rewriting and Polishing. (e) Preparation of final Bibliography. (f) Writing the final draft. It is pertinent to follow these steps and hence it is essential to understand these steps thoroughly. (a) Logical analysis of subject matter: When a researcher thinks of doing a research, he must select subject and topic of his research work. The subject must be of his own interest and there must be scope for further research. Such can be selected and developed logically or chronologically. He must find out mental connections and associations by way of analysis to finalize his subject. Logical treatment often consists in developing from the simple possible to the most complex strictures. He can use the deductive method or inductive method in his research work. Secondly the alternative in selecting research subject is to use chronological method. In this method, he should concentrate on the connection or sequence in time or occurrence. The directions for doing or making something usually follow the chronological method. In this method, he should concentrate on the connection or sequence in time or occurrence. The directions for doing or making something usually follow the chronological order. (b) Preparation of final outline: Outlines are the framework upon which long written works are constructed. It is an aid to logical organization of the material and remainder of the points to be stressed in the report. He should rely on review of literature. The earlier research works can provide basic information as well as thinking to the researcher to pursue his subject. (c) Preparation of rough draft: The purpose of the report is to convey to the interested persons the whole result of the study in sufficient detail and so arranged as to enable each reader to comprehend the data an so determine for himself the validity of conclusions. Taking into account this purpose of research, the research report writing has its own significance. The researcher has already collected primary data and secondary data. He has also set his objectives of the study.
Taking into account the objectives his study, he should make an attempt to prepare a draft report on the basis of analysis of the data. He should prepare a procedure to be followed in report writing. He must mention the limitations of his study. He may analyze data systematically with the help of statistical methods to arrive at the conclusions. The research is fact finding study which may lead the researcher to point out suggestions or recommendations. (d) Rewriting and Polishing the rough Draft: Research is a continuous process. Research is not the essay writing. He must consider the data, write down his findings, reconsider them, and rewrite. This careful revision makes the difference between a mediocre and a good liece of writing. The researcher must concentrate on weakness in the logical development or presentation. He should check the consistency in his presentation. He must be aware that his report writing must be of definite pattern. He must also take atmost care of the language of writing a report. (e) Bibliography: This helps the researcher to collect secondary source of the data. This is also useful to review the earlier research work. He should prepare the bibliography from the beginning of his research work. While selecting a topic or subject of research, he must refer books, journals, research projects and anlist the important documents in systematic manner. The bibliography must be in proper form. The researcher must have separate cards, indicating following details, readily available with him, so that he can make a note of it while he refers to a book/journal/research report. The bibliography must be included in the appendix of his research report. It must be exhaustive to cover all types of works the researcher has used. It must be arranged alphabetically. He can divide it in different sections, such as books in first section, journals in second, research reports in third etc. Generally the prescribed form for preparation of bibliography is as given below: The book must be noted in following manner: 1) Name of Author (Surname first). 2) Title of book. 3) Publisher’s name, place and data of publication. 4) Number of volumes. The article can be mentioned in following manner: 1) Name of author (surname first) 2) Title of article (in quotation mark) 3) Name of periodical (underline it) 4) The volume or volume and number 5) Data of issue 6) The pagination
(f) Final Report: The final report must be written in a concise and objective style and in simple language. The researcher should avoid expressions in his report, such as “it seems”, “there may be” and like ones. He should avoid abstract terminology and technical jargon. He may refer to usual and common experiences to illustrate his point. The report writing is an art. No two researchers may have common style of report writing. But it must be interesting for a common man to add to his knowledge. However report on scientific subject may have most technical presentation. The scientists may be familiar with technical concepts and they may find it valuable if such report is mostly technical in form.
Answer.6 (b). Contents of Report Writing: The researcher must keep in mind that his research report must contain following aspects: (1) Purpose of study (2) Significance of his study or statement of the problem (3) Review of literature (4) Methodology (5) Interpretation of data (6) Conclusions and suggestions (7) Bibliography (8) Appendices These can be discussed in detail as under: (1) Purpose of study: Research is one direction oriented study. He should discuss the problem of his study. He must give background of the problem. He must lay down his hypothesis of the study. Hypothesis is the statement indicating the nature of the problem. He should be able to collect data, analyze it and prove the hypothesis. The importance of the problem for the advancement of knowledge or removed of some evil may also be explained. He must use review of literature or the data from secondary source for explaining the statement of the problems. (2) Significance of study: Research is re-search and hence the researcher may highlight the earlier research in new manner or establish new theory. He must refer earlier research work and distinguish his own research from earlier work. He must explain how his research is different and how his research topic is different and how his research topic is important. In a statement of his problem, he must be able to explain in brief the historical account of the topic and way in which he can make and attempt. In his study to conduct the research on his topic. (3) Review of Literature: Research is a continuous process. He cannot avoid earlier research work. He must start with earlier work. He should note down all such research work, published in books, journals or unpublished thesis. He will get guidelines for his research from taking a review of literature. He should collect information in respect of earlier research work. He should enlist them in the given below: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Author/researcher Title of research /Name of book Publisher Year of publication Objectives of his study
Then he can compare this information with his study to show separate identity of his study. He must be honest to point out similarities and differences of his study from earlier research work. (4) Methodology: It is related to collection of data. There are two sources for collecting data; primary and secondary. Primary data is original and collected in field work, either through questionnaire interviews. The secondary data relied on library work. Such primary data are collected by sampling method. The procedure for selecting the sample must be mentioned. The methodology must give various aspects of the problem that are studied for valid generalization about the phenomena. The scales of measurement must be explained along with different concepts used in the study. While conducting a research based on field work, the procedural things like definition of universe, preparation of source list must be given. We use case study method, historical research etc. He must make it clear as to which method is used in his research work. When questionnaire is prepared, a copy of it must be given in appendix. (5) Interpretation of data: Mainly the data collected from primary source need to be interpreted in systematic manner. The tabulation must be completed to draw conclusions. All the questions are not useful for report writing. One has to select them or club them according to hypothesis or objectives of study. (6) Conclusions/suggestions: Data analysis forms the crux of the problem. The information collected in field work is useful to draw conclusions of study. In relation with the objectives of study the analysis of data may lead the researcher to pin point his suggestions. This is the most important part of study. The conclusions must be based on logical and statistical reasoning. The report should contain not only the generalization of inference but also the basis on which the inferences are drawn. All sorts of proofs, numerical and logical, must be given in support of any theory that has been advanced. He should point out the limitations of his study. (7) Bibliography: The list of references must be arranged in alphabetical order and be presented in appendix. The books should be given in first section and articles are in second section and research projects in the third. The pattern of bibliography is considered convenient and satisfactory from the point of view of reader. (8) Appendices: The general information in tabular form which is not directly used in the analysis of data but which is useful to understand the background of study can be given in appendix. Layout of the Research Report: There is scientific method for the layout of the research report. The layout of the report means as to what the research report should contain. The contents of the research report are noted below: (i) (ii) Preliminary Page Main Text
(1) Preliminary Pages: These must be title of the research topic and data. There must be preface of foreword to the research work. It should be followed by table of contents. The list of tables, maps should be given. (2) Main Text: It provides the complete outline of research report along with all details. The title page is reported in the main text. Details of text are given continuously as divided in different chapters. (a) Introduction (b) Statement of the problem (c) The analysis of data (d) The implications drawn from the results (e) The summary (a) Introduction: Its purpose is to introduce the research topic to readers. It must cover statement of the problem, hypotheses, objectives of study, review of literature, and the methodology to cover primary and secondary data, limitations of study and chapter scheme. Some may give in brief in the first chapter the introduction of the research project highlighting the importance of study. This is followed by research methodology in separate chapter. The methodology should point out the method of study, the research design and method of data collection. (b) Statement of the problem: This is crux of his research. It highlights main theme of his study. It must be in nontechnical language. It should be in simple manner so ordinary reader may follow it. The social research must be made available to common man. The research in agricultural problems must be easy for farmers to read it. (c) Analysis of data: Data so collected should be presented in systematic manner and with its help, conclusions can be drawn. This helps to test the hypothesis. Data analysis must be made to confirm the objectives of the study. (d) Implications of Data: The results based on the analysis of data must be valid. This is the main body of research. It contains statistical summaries and analysis of data. There should be logical sequence in the analysis of data. The primary data may lead to establish the results. He must have separate chapter on conclusions and recommendations. The conclusions must be based on data analysis. The conclusions must be such which may lead to generalization and its applicability in similar circumstances. The conditions of research work limiting its scope for generalization must be made clear by the researcher.
(e) Summary: This is conclusive part of study. It makes the reader to understand by reading summary the knowledge of the research work. This is also a synopsis of study. (3) End Matter: It covers relevant appendices covering general information, the concepts and bibliography. The index may also be added to the report.
Answer.7. (a) Documentation The documentary source is an important source of information for a researcher. A document is anything in writing a record, files or diaries, published or unpublished which can be extracted and used in research. It is a very valuable source of information for a research either in management or in social sciences. It may comprise office files, business and legal papers, biographies, official and unofficial records, letters, proceedings of any courts, committees, societies, Assemblies, and Parliaments, enactments, constitution, reports of surveys, or research of commissions, official statistics, newspaper editorials, special articles, company news, cases or company directors’ reports, etc. Documentation is the process of collecting and extracting the documents which are relevant to research. Documents may be classified into: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Personal documents; Company documents; Consultants’ report and published materials; and Public documents.
Personal documents are those that are written by or on behalf of individuals. They may include autobiographies, biographies, diaries, memoirs, letters, observations and inscriptions, which are primarily written for the use and satisfaction of individuals and which can be utilized for research purposes. Personal documents play a very vital role in research, when certain information is not available from any other sources; however, such documents are subject to the difficulties of availability, reliability and validity of inferences. Company documents are the most essential types of documents is management research, annual reports, statements of income and expenditure and balance sheets, files and records, policy statements, resolutions, minutes of board of directors, general bodies and executive conferences, performance records and evaluation files, specific forecasting and evaluation reports, directors’ reports, etc. Many of these documents are reliable ones, though they are subject to the problems of availability and adequacy. Such documents can be published or unpublished. Consultant’s published materials consist of report of professional consultants, records of commodity boards, chambers of commerce, FICCI,, manufacturers’ associations; industry associations like the Engineering Association , the Textile Mill Ownerers’ Association, the Jute Mills Association, etc., documents available with trade unions, the All India Management Association, management training institutions, etc. Public documents are documents, both published and unpublished, of government organizations and documents of public interest. They include government records and files, draft outlines of five-year plans, consultative committee reports, finance commission reports, special enquiry commission reports, Company Law Board reports, MRTP Commission reports, reports and files of the Registrar of Companies, the Registrar of Firms, the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, etc., report of population census, National Sample Survey and such other government research institutions. Such documents are valuable if they are reliable and suitable for a particular study if they can be obtained. Documentation is one of the most important needs of any management researcher at the primary sate of his research.
Classification and Tabulation Classification is the way of arranging the data in different classes in order to give a definite form and a coherent structure to the data collected, facilitating their use in the most systematic and effective manner. It is the process of grouping the statistical data under various understandable homogeneous groups for the purpose of convenient interpretation. A uniformity of attributes is the basis criterion for classification; and the grouping of data is made according to similarity. Classification becomes necessary when there is diversity in the data collected for meaningful presentation and analysis. However, in respect of homogeneous presentation of data, classification may be unnecessary. Objectives of classification of data: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) To group heterogeneous data under the homogeneous group of common characteristics; To facility similarity of various group; To facilitate effective comparison; To present complex, haphazard and scattered dates in a concise, logical, homogeneous, and intelligible form; To maintain clarity and simplicity of complex data; To identify independent and dependent variables and establish their relationship; To establish a cohesive nature for the diverse data for effective and logical analysis; To make logical and effective quantification
A good classification should have the characteristics of clarity, homogeneity, and equality of scale, purposefulness, accuracy, stability, flexibility, and unambiguity. Classification is of two types, viz., quantitative classification, which is on the basis of variables or quantity; and qualitative classification (classification according to attributes). The former is the way of grouping the variables, say quantifying the variables in cohesive groups, while the latter group the data on the basis of attributes or qualities. Again, it may be multiple classification or dichotomous classification. The former is the way of making many (more than two) groups on the basis of some quality or attributes, while the latter is the classification into two groups on the basis of the presence or absence of a certain quality. Grouping the workers of a factory under various income (class intervals) groups comes under multiple classifications; and making two groups into skilled workers and unskilled workers is dichotomous classification. The tabular form of such classification is known as statistical series, which may be inclusive or exclusive. The classified data may be arranged in tabular forms (tables) in columns and rows. Tabulation is the simplest way of arranging the data, so that anybody can understand it in the easiest way. It is the most systematic way of presenting numerical data in an easily understandable form. It facilitates a clear and simple presentation of the data, a clear expression of the implication, and an easier and more convenient comparison. There can be simple or complex tables, and general purpose or summary tables. Classification and tabulation are interdependent events in a research.
Experimental research design Experimental research designs, which can otherwise be called hypothesis-testing research designs, were originally made by R.A. Fisher in agricultural research in England. Experimental designs are generally used in experimental studies where hypo these are tested. Experimental designs are now used in almost all the areas of scientific studies. These principal of experimental designs which Fisher prescribed are, viz.: (a) the principle of replication, (b) principle of randomization, and (c) the principle of local control. The principle of replication suggests that the experiment must be repeated also that the treatment is applied in many experimental units. This increases the statistical accuracy of the experiments. Randomization indicating that the variations resulted by extraneous factors can be brought under “chance”. Principle of local control indicates that the extraneous factor is allowed to vary deliberately over a wide range so that the variability it causes can be measured and eliminated from the experimental error. Experimental designs can either be informal experimental designs or formal experimental designs. Informal experimental designs generally use less sophisticated form of analysis based on differences in magnitudes. Formal experimental designs provide relatively greater control and use statistical procedures for analysis. Informal experimental designs include: (a) Before and after without control design, (b) After only with control design, and (c) before and after with control design. Formal experimental designs include: (I) Completely Randomized Design (CRD), (ii) Randomized Block Design (RBD), (iii) Latin Square Design (LSD), and (iv) Factorial designs. A single test group or area is selected and the dependent variable is measured before the introduction of the treatment in the “Before and after without control design” The dependent variable is again measured after the treatment. In the “After only with control design” two groups or areas (test area and control area) are selected and the treatment is introduced into the test area only. The dependent variable is then measured in both the areas at the same time. In the “Before-and after with control design”, two areas are selected in which the dependent variable is measured for an identical time period, before the treatment. Then the treatment is applied into the test area so that the dependent variable can be measured in both for an identical period of time after the treatment. Completely Randomized Design (CRD) is a simple research design. Subjects are assigned at random for experimental treatment. Principle of replication and principle of randomization of experimental designs are involved in this type of design and random replications design are the two forms of CR design. In the former a sample is selected at random from a defined population. In the latter a number of repetitive treatments are given in each case minimizing the effect of differences. Randomized block design (RB design) makes use of the principle of local control. Subjects are first divided into groups (blocks). Subjects are relatively homogeneous in regard to selected variables in the RB design. When two extraneous factors are applicable. Latin square design is effective, while items are placed in a square. Out of the many items; say for example, five items are placed in five places each in the square but used only once in each raw/column. The two blocking factors on two sides of the square (vertical and horizontal are words. It is generally used in agriculture. When a large number of factors affect a particular problem, factorial designs are used. There can be simple factorial designs and complex factorial designs. Generally two factors are involved in the former, and many factors (multi factors) in the latter. The independent variable to be manipulated is called experimental variable, and the extraneous variable to be controlled by homogeneity is called control variable.
Scope for Managerial research: Managerial economics may be viewed as economics applied to problem solving at the level of the firm. The problem relates to choices and allocation of resources, which are basically economic in nature and are faced by managers all the time. Managerial research is also known as operations research. It was undertaken for the first time in Second World War in America. It is also interdisciplinary research done by mathematicians, Staticians, Engineers and other Scientists. The operation researchers developed the concepts of linear programming, inventory models and game theory. They attempted to attain optimization. The framework of optimization has been used a great deal in managerial economics. The operation research has influenced managerial economics through its new concepts and models for dealing with risk and uncertainly. Managerial economics it primarily an aid to analyze and decision making in the context of the firm. But in the management, more than decision making, the implementation, control and conflict resolutions are also covered. Managerial research is concerned with decision making at the managerial level it considers the alternative theories of firm behavior, secision making problems and different approaches to arrive at the most appropriate answer to such problems. It draws heavily from Microeconomics, Econometrics and operation research. The managerial economics is considered to be applied microeconomics. The functional areas of the managerial research cover the decision variables for firms. The micro-economic principles and techniques from decision sciences. The decision-making area is related to the production decisions, the exchange decisions and consumption decisions. This operation research necessitates the use of quantitative techniques. Some of them are methods of estimation, optimization, and discounted cash flow techniques. These techniques are borrowed from statistics, operation research and finance. The case study method is useful in managerial research. It helps us to look for and organized the data and evidence relevant to the problem at hand. A manager does not get all the data he needs well organized and presented to him on a platter. The cases may bring out the complexity of the environment in which managers have to take decisions.
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