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Answer 1. (a)
Communication Meaning and Definitions
Communication is the nervous system of an organisation. It keeps the members of theorganisation informed about the internal and external happenings relevant to a task and of interestto the organisation. It co-ordinates the efforts of the members towards achieving organisationalobjectives. It is the process of influencing the action of a person or a group. It is a process of meaningful interaction among human beings to initiate, execute, accomplish, or prevent certainactions. Communication is, thus, the life blood of an organisation. Without communication, anorganisation, an organisation is lifeless and its very existence is in danger.The term communication has been derived from the Latin word ‘cmmunis’ that means‘common’ and thus, if a person effects communication, he establishes a common ground of understanding. Literally, communication means to inform, to tell, to show, or to spreadinformation. Thus, it may be interpreted as an interchange of thought or information to bring aboutunderstanding and confidence for good industrial relations. It brings about unity of purpose,interest, and efforts in an organisation.
1.“Communication is the sum of all things, one person does when he wants to createunderstanding in the minds of another, it involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding.”-------Allen Louis2.Communication has been defined “As the transfer of information from one person toanother whether or not it elicits confidence.”-------Koontz and O’Donell3.“Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons.”--------George Terry4.Communication is defined as “the process of passing information and understanding fromone person to another, it is essentially a bridge of meaning between people. By using the bridge of meaning a person can safely cross the river of misunderstanding.”---------Keith DavisThe analysis of the above definitions implies that the communication process should have thefollowing characteristics:).I
A two – way traffic
: Since communication is an exchange of views, opinions, directionsetc., it is a two-way traffic, upward and downward. Messages, directives, opinions, etc., arecommunicated downward, from a higher level to a lower level in the hierarchy of management. Likewise, grievances, complaints, opinions feelings, points of view etc., arecommunicated upward along the line, from workers (lower level) to management (higher level). George Terry has rightly remarked, “Simply talking or writing without regard to therecipients’ response, is conducive to misunderstanding.” Thus, communication should be both ways.
Continuous process
: Communication is a continuous process. More often than not, it isrepeated to achieve the desired results. It is not a one time shot.).III
A short lived process
: The process of communication is complete as soon as the messageis received and understood by the receiver in the right perspective; hence, it is a short lived process.).IV
Needs proper understanding
: There may be numerous media of communication but themain purpose of conveying the message is a proper understanding of the message by theother party. For this purpose, it should be clearly and concisely worded.).V
Leads achievement of the organizational objective
: Effective communication does this by creating the sense of object orientation in the organization.).VI
Dispels misunderstanding
: In this sense, it provides clear understanding between personsand thus builds a bridge of comradrie among people.
Answer 1. (b)
The following principles can be followed to make the communication system moreeffective:().i
Principle of clarity
: The idea or the message to be transmitted should be clearly worded sothat it may be interpreted by the receiver in the same sense in which it is communicated.There should be no ambiguity in the message. For this purpose, the idea to be communicatedshould be very clear in the mind of the sender. It should be kept in mind that the words do notspeak themselves, but the speaker gives them meaning. If the message is clear, it wouldevoke an appropriate response from the other party. It is also necessary that the receiver must be conversant with the language, the inherent assumptions, and the mechanics of communication.().ii
Principle of integrity
: Communication should be aimed at motivating people to take actionas agreed upon. In this process, the superiors rely upon the subordinates and undeassumption that their integrity is unimpeackable. It is because the integrity of the organisationis related to the level of integrity possessed by the subordinates. No communication mayevoke a response from the subordinates if their integrity is doubted. The superiors shouldtrust the subordinates, accept their view points and never doubt their intention, in executingthe task entrusted to them.().iii
Principle of informality
: Formal communication system is cornerstone of a formalorganisation, and it leads to transmittal of messages. But, sometimes, formal communications prove ineffective in evoking the needed response from the subordinates. In such cases, thesuperiors should adopt the strategy of making use of informal channels of communication:they may contact, if necessary, the subordinates personally or through someone else to persuade them to translate their orders into action. Informal communication at times provesfor more effective than formal communication.().iv
Principle of attention
: In order to make the message effective, the recipient’s attentionshould be drawn to the message communicated. Each one is different in behaviour,sentiments and emotions, which determine the degree of attention. For this purpose, thesuperior must note that he himself should not expect from his subordinates what he himself does not practice. So, a manager cannot enforce punctuality if he himself is not punctual:“Actions speaks louder than words.”().v
Principle of consistency
: This principle implies that communication should always beconsistent with the policies, plans, programmes and objectives of the organisation, and not inconflict with them. Messages which are inconsistent with the policies and plans of theorganisation create confusion in the minds of the subordinates about their implementation;and, such a situation may prove detrimental to the organisation’s health.().vi
Principle of adequacy
: The information should be adequate and complete in all respects.Inadequate and incomplete information may delay action and destroy understanding, andcreate confusion. Inadequate information also affects the efficiency of the sender and thereceiver of the communication.().vii
Principle of timeliness
: All messages should be transmitted at the proper time. Any delay incommunicating message serves no purpose except to make them merely historical documentas it loses its importance after some time.().viii
Principle of feedback 
: One of the most important principles of communications is the principle of feedback. The communicator must have feedback information from the recipientto know whether the recipient has understood the message in the same sense in which thesender has meant it, or whether the subordinates agree or disagree with the contents of themessage. It also helps in understanding attitude of the people.().ix
Principle of communications network 
: Communications network means the routes throughwhich the communication travels to its destination, the person for whom it is meant. A