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Number Theory Book|Views: 129|Likes: 1

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- Contents
- 1.1 Introduction
- 1.2 Well-Ordering
- 1.3 Mathematical Induction
- Practice
- 1.4 Fibonacci Numbers
- 2.1 Divisibility
- 2.2 Division Algorithm
- 2.3 Some Algebraic Identities
- 3.1 Congruences
- 3.2 Divisibility Tests
- 3.3 Complete Residues
- 4.1 GCD and LCM
- 4.2 Primes
- 4.3 Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic
- 5.1 Euclidean Algorithm
- 5.2 Linear Congruences
- 5.3 A theorem of Frobenius
- 5.4 Chinese Remainder Theorem
- 6.1 Greatest Integer Function
- 6.2 De Polignac’s Formula
- 6.3 Complementary Sequences
- 6.4 Arithmetic Functions
- 6.5 Euler’s Function. Reduced Residues
- 6.6 Multiplication in Zn
- 6.7 Möbius Function
- 7.1 Theorems of Fermat and Wilson
- 7.2 Euler’s Theorem
- 8.1 The Decimal Scale
- 8.2 Non-decimal Scales
- 8.3 A theorem of Kummer

David A. SANTOS

dsantos@ccp.edu

January 2, 2010 REVISION

Copyright c _2007 David Anthony SANTOS. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document

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Que a quien robe este libro, o lo tome prestado y no lo devuelva, se le convierta en una serpiente en las

manos y lo venza. Que sea golpeado por la parálisis y todos sus miembros arruinados. Que languidezca

de dolor gritando por piedad, y que no haya coto a su agonía hasta la última disolución. Que las polillas

roan sus entrañas y, cuando llegue al ﬁnal de su castigo, que arda en las llamas del Inﬁerno para siempre.

-Maldición anónima contra los ladrones de libros en el monasterio de San Pedro, Barcelona.

vi

Contents

Preface

These notes started in the summer of 1993 when I was teaching Number Theory at the Center for Talented Youth Summer

Program at the Johns Hopkins University. The pupils were between 13 and 16 years of age.

The purpose of the course was to familiarise the pupils with contest-type problem solving. Thus the majority of the prob-

lems are taken from well-known competitions:

AHSME American High School Mathematics Examination

AIME American Invitational Mathematics Examination

USAMO United States Mathematical Olympiad

IMO International Mathematical Olympiad

ITT International Tournament of Towns

MMPC Michigan Mathematics Prize Competition

(UM)

2

University of Michigan Mathematics Competition

STANFORD Stanford Mathematics Competition

MANDELBROT Mandelbrot Competition

Firstly, I would like to thank the pioneers in that course: Samuel Chong, Nikhil Garg, Matthew Harris, Ryan Hoegg, Masha

Sapper, Andrew Trister, Nathaniel Wise and Andrew Wong. I would also like to thank the victims of the summer 1994: Karen

Acquista, Howard Bernstein, Geoffrey Cook, Hobart Lee, Nathan Lutchansky, David Ripley, Eduardo Rozo, and Victor Yang.

I would like to thank Eric Friedman for helping me with the typing, and Carlos Murillo for proofreading the notes.

Due to time constraints, these notes are rather sketchy. Most of the motivation was done in the classroom, in the notes

I presented a rather terse account of the solutions. I hope some day to be able to give more coherence to these notes. No

theme requires the knowledge of Calculus here, but some of the solutions given use it here and there. The reader not knowing

Calculus can skip these problems. Since the material is geared to High School students (talented ones, though) I assume very

little mathematical knowledge beyond Algebra and Trigonometry. Here and there some of the problems might use certain

properties of the complex numbers.

A note on the topic selection. I tried to cover most Number Theory that is useful in contests. I also wrote notes (which I

have not transcribed) dealing with primitive roots, quadratic reciprocity, diophantine equations, and the geometry of numbers.

I shall ﬁnish writing them when laziness leaves my weary soul.

I would be very glad to hear any comments, and please forward me any corrections or remarks on the material herein.

David A. SANTOS

dsantos@ccp.edu

vii

Chapter 1

Preliminaries

1.1 Introduction

We can say that no history of mankind would ever be complete without a history of Mathematics. For ages numbers have

fascinated Man, who has been drawn to them either for their utility at solving practical problems (like those of measuring,

counting sheep, etc.) or as a fountain of solace.

Number Theory is one of the oldest and most beautiful branches of Mathematics. It abounds in problems that yet simple to

state, are very hard to solve. Some number-theoretic problems that are yet unsolved are:

1. (Goldbach’s Conjecture) Is every even integer greater than 2 the sum of distinct primes?

2. (Twin Prime Problem) Are there inﬁnitely many primes p such that p +2 is also a prime?

3. Are there inﬁnitely many primes that are 1 more than the square of an integer?

4. Is there always a prime between two consecutive squares of integers?

In this chapter we cover some preliminary tools we need before embarking into the core of Number Theory.

1.2 Well-Ordering

The set N = ¦0, 1, 2, 3, 4, . . .¦ of natural numbers is endowed with two operations, addition and multiplication, that satisfy the

following properties for natural numbers a, b, and c:

1. Closure: a +b and ab are also natural numbers.

2. Associative laws: (a +b) +c = a + (b +c) and a(bc) = (ab)c.

3. Distributive law: a(b +c) = ab +ac.

4. Additive Identity: 0 +a = a +0 = a

5. Multiplicative Identity: 1a = a1 = a.

One further property of the natural numbers is the following.

1 Axiom (Well-Ordering Axiom) Every non-empty subset S of the natural numbers has a least element.

As an example of the use of the Well-Ordering Axiom, let us prove that there is no integer between 0 and 1.

2 Example Prove that there is no integer in the interval ]0; 1[.

1

2 Chapter 1

Solution: Assume to the contrary that the set S of integers in ]0; 1[ is non-empty. Being a set of positive integers, it must

contain a least element, say m. Now, 0 < m

2

< m < 1, and so m

2

∈ S. But this is saying that S has a positive integer m

2

which is smaller than its least positive integer m. This is a contradiction and so S =∅.

We denote the set of all integers by Z, i.e.,

Z =¦. . . −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .¦.

A rational number is a number which can be expressed as the ratio

a

b

of two integers a, b, where b ,= 0. We denote the set of

rational numbers by Q. An irrational number is a number which cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers. Let us give

an example of an irrational number.

3 Example Prove that

√

2 is irrational.

Solution: The proof is by contradiction. Suppose that

√

2 were rational, i.e., that

√

2 =

a

b

for some integers a, b. This implies

that the set

A =¦n

√

2 : both n and n

√

2 positive integers¦

is nonempty since it contains a. By Well-Ordering A has a smallest element, say j = k

√

2. As

√

2−1 > 0,

j(

√

2−1) = j

√

2−k

√

2 = ( j −k)

√

2

is a positive integer. Since 2 < 2

√

2 implies 2 −

√

2 <

√

2 and also j

√

2 = 2k, we see that

( j −k)

√

2 = k(2 −

√

2) < k(

√

2) = j.

Thus ( j −k)

√

2 is a positive integer in A which is smaller than j. This contradicts the choice of j as the smallest integer in A

and hence, ﬁnishes the proof.

4 Example Let a, b, c be integers such that a

6

+2b

6

= 4c

6

. Show that a = b = c = 0.

Solution: Clearly we can restrict ourselves to nonnegative numbers. Choose a triplet of nonnegative integers a, b, c satisfying

this equation and with

max(a, b, c) > 0

as small as possible. If a

6

+2b

6

= 4c

6

then a must be even, a = 2a

1

. This leads to 32a

6

1

+b

6

= 2c

6

. Hence b = 2b

1

and so

16a

6

1

+32b

6

1

= c

6

. This gives c = 2c

1

, and so a

6

1

+2b

6

1

= 4c

6

1

. But clearly max(a

1

, b

1

, c

1

) < max(a, b, c). This means that all of

these must be zero.

5 Example (IMO 1988) If a, b are positive integers such that

a

2

+b

2

1 +ab

is an integer, then

a

2

+b

2

1 +ab

is a perfect square.

Solution: Suppose that

a

2

+b

2

1 +ab

= k is a counterexample of an integer which is not a perfect square, with max(a, b) as small as

possible. We may assume without loss of generality that a < b for if a = b then

0 < k =

2a

2

a

2

+1

< 2,

which forces k = 1, a perfect square.

Now, a

2

+b

2

−k(ab +1) = 0 is a quadratic in b with sum of the roots ka and product of the roots a

2

−k. Let b

1

, b be its

roots, so b

1

+b = ka and b

1

b = a

2

−k.

As a, k are positive integers, supposing b

1

< 0 is incompatible with a

2

+b

2

1

= k(ab

1

+1). As k is not a perfect square,

supposing b

1

= 0 is incompatible with a

2

+0

2

= k(0 a +1). Also

b

1

=

a

2

−k

b

<

b

2

−k

b

< b.

Practice 3

Thus we have found another positive integer b

1

for which

a

2

+b

2

1

1 +ab

1

= k and which is smaller than the smallest max(a, b). This

is a contradiction. It must be the case, then, that k is a perfect square.

Practice

Problem 1.2.1 Find all integer solutions of a

3

+2b

3

= 4c

3

. Problem 1.2.2 Prove that the equality x

2

+y

2

+z

2

=2xyz can

hold for whole numbers x, y, z only when x = y = z = 0.

1.3 Mathematical Induction

The Principle of Mathematical Induction is based on the following fairly intuitive observation. Suppose that we are to perform

a task that involves a certain number of steps. Suppose that these steps must be followed in strict numerical order. Finally,

suppose that we know how to perform the n-th task provided we have accomplished the n −1-th task. Thus if we are ever able

to start the job (that is, if we have a base case), then we should be able to ﬁnish it (because starting with the base case we go to

the next case, and then to the case following that, etc.).

Thus in the Principle of Mathematical Induction, we try to verify that some assertion P(n) concerning natural numbers is

true for some base case k

0

(usually k

0

= 1, but one of the examples below shows that we may take, say k

0

= 33.) Then we try

to settle whether information on P(n −1) leads to favourable information on P(n).

We will now derive the Principle of Mathematical Induction from the Well-Ordering Axiom.

6 Theorem (Principle of Mathematical Induction) If a setS of non-negative integers contains the integer 0, and also con-

tains the integer n +1 whenever it contains the integer n, then S = N.

Proof: Assume this is not the case and so, by the Well-Ordering Principle there exists a least positive integer k

not in S. Observe that k > 0, since 0 ∈ S and there is no positive integer smaller than 0. As k −1 < k, we see that

k −1 ∈ S. But by assumption k −1 +1 is also in S, since the successor of each element in the set is also in the

set. Hence k = k −1 +1 is also in the set, a contradiction. Thus S =N. u

The following versions of the Principle of Mathematical Induction should now be obvious.

7 Corollary If a set A of positive integers contains the integer m and also contains n+1 whenever it contains n, where n > m,

then A contains all the positive integers greater than or equal to m.

8 Corollary (Principle of Strong Mathematical Induction) If a set A of positive integers contains the integer m and also

contains n +1 whenever it contains m+1, m+2, . . . , n, where n > m, then A contains all the positive integers greater than or

equal to m.

We shall now give some examples of the use of induction.

9 Example Prove that the expression

3

3n+3

−26n −27

is a multiple of 169 for all natural numbers n.

Solution: For n = 1 we are asserting that 3

6

−53 = 676 = 169 4 is divisible by 169, which is evident. Assume the assertion is

true for n −1, n > 1, i.e., assume that

3

3n

−26n −1 = 169N

for some integer N. Then

3

3n+3

−26n −27 = 27 3

3n

−26n −27 = 27(3

3n

−26n −1) +676n

4 Chapter 1

which reduces to

27 169N+169 4n,

which is divisible by 169. The assertion is thus established by induction.

10 Example Prove that

(1 +

√

2)

2n

+ (1 −

√

2)

2n

is an even integer and that

(1 +

√

2)

2n

− (1 −

√

2)

2n

= b

√

2

for some positive integer b, for all integers n ≥1.

Solution: We proceed by induction on n. Let P(n) be the proposition: “(1+

√

2)

2n

+ (1−

√

2)

2n

is even and (1+

√

2)

2n

− (1−

√

2)

2n

= b

√

2 for some b ∈ N.” If n = 1, then we see that

(1 +

√

2)

2

+ (1 −

√

2)

2

= 6,

an even integer, and

(1 +

√

2)

2

− (1 −

√

2)

2

= 4

√

2.

Therefore P(1) is true. Assume that P(n −1) is true for n > 1, i.e., assume that

(1 +

√

2)

2(n−1)

+ (1 −

√

2)

2(n−1)

= 2N

for some integer N and that

(1 +

√

2)

2(n−1)

− (1 −

√

2)

2(n−1)

= a

√

2

for some positive integer a.

Consider now the quantity

(1 +

√

2)

2n

+ (1 −

√

2)

2n

= (1 +

√

2)

2

(1 +

√

2)

2n−2

+ (1 −

√

2)

2

(1 −

√

2)

2n−2

.

This simpliﬁes to

(3 +2

√

2)(1 +

√

2)

2n−2

+ (3 −2

√

2)(1 −

√

2)

2n−2

.

Using P(n −1), the above simpliﬁes to

12N+2

√

2a

√

2 = 2(6N+2a),

an even integer and similarly

(1 +

√

2)

2n

− (1 −

√

2)

2n

= 3a

√

2+2

√

2(2N) = (3a +4N)

√

2,

and so P(n) is true. The assertion is thus established by induction.

11 Example Prove that if k is odd, then 2

n+2

divides

k

2

n

−1

for all natural numbers n.

Solution: The statement is evident for n = 1, as k

2

−1 = (k −1)(k +1) is divisible by 8 for any odd natural number k because

both (k −1) and (k +1) are divisible by 2 and one of them is divisible by 4. Assume that 2

n+2

[k

2

n

−1, and let us prove that

2

n+3

[k

2

n+1

−1. As k

2

n+1

−1 = (k

2

n

−1)(k

2

n

+1), we see that 2

n+2

divides (k

2n

−1), so the problem reduces to proving that

2[(k

2n

+1). This is obviously true since k

2n

odd makes k

2n

+1 even.

Mathematical Induction 5

12 Example (USAMO 1978) An integer n will be called good if we can write

n = a

1

+a

2

+ +a

k

,

where a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

k

are positive integers (not necessarily distinct) satisfying

1

a

1

+

1

a

2

+ +

1

a

k

= 1.

Given the information that the integers 33 through 73 are good, prove that every integer ≥33 is good.

Solution: We ﬁrst prove that if n is good, then 2n +8 and 2n +9 are good. For assume that n = a

1

+a

2

+ +a

k

, and

1 =

1

a

1

+

1

a

2

+ +

1

a

k

.

Then 2n +8 = 2a

1

+2a

2

+ +2a

k

+4 +4 and

1

2a

1

+

1

2a

2

+ +

1

2a

k

+

1

4

+

1

4

=

1

2

+

1

4

+

1

4

= 1.

Also, 2n +9 = 2a

1

+2a

2

+ +2a

k

+3 +6 and

1

2a

1

+

1

2a

2

+ +

1

2a

k

+

1

3

+

1

6

=

1

2

+

1

3

+

1

6

= 1.

Therefore,

if n is good both 2n +8 and 2n +9 are good. (1.1)

We now establish the truth of the assertion of the problem by induction on n. Let P(n) be the proposition “all the integers

n, n +1, n +2, . . . , 2n +7” are good. By the statement of the problem, we see that P(33) is true. But (??) implies the truth of

P(n +1) whenever P(n) is true. The assertion is thus proved by induction.

We now present a variant of the Principle of Mathematical Induction used by Cauchy to prove the Arithmetic-Mean-

Geometric Mean Inequality. It consists in proving a statement ﬁrst for powers of 2 and then interpolating between powers of

2.

13 Theorem (Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-Mean Inequality) Let a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

n

be nonnegative real numbers. Then

n

√

a

1

a

2

a

n

≤

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

n

.

Proof: Since the square of any real number is nonnegative, we have

(

√

x

1

−

√

x

2

)

2

≥0.

Upon expanding,

x

1

+x

2

2

≥

√

x

1

x

2

, (1.2)

which is the Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-Mean Inequality for n =2. Assume that the Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-

Mean Inequality holds true for n = 2

k−1

, k > 2, that is, assume that nonnegative real numbers w

1

, w

2

, . . . , w

2

k−1

satisfy

w

1

+w

2

+ +w

2

k−1

2

k−1

≥(w

1

w

2

w

2

k−1 )

1/2

k−1

. (1.3)

Using (??) with

x

1

=

y

1

+y

2

+ +y

2

k−1

2

k−1

and

x

2

=

y

2

k−1

+1

+ +y

2

k

2

k−1

,

6 Chapter 1

we obtain that

y

1

+y

2

+ +y

2

k−1

2

k−1

+

y

2

k−1

+1

+ +y

2

k

2

k−1

2

≥

Å

(

y

1

+y

2

+ +y

2

k−1

2

k−1

)(

y

2

k−1

+1

+ +y

2

k

2

k−1

)

ã

1/2

.

Applying (??) to both factors on the right hand side of the above , we obtain

y

1

+y

2

+ +y

2

k

2

k

≥(y

1

y

2

y

2

k )

1/2

k

. (1.4)

This means that the 2

k−1

-th step implies the 2

k

-th step, and so we have proved the Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-

Mean Inequality for powers of 2.

Now, assume that 2

k−1

< n < 2

k

. Let

y

1

= a

1

, y

2

= a

2

, . . . , y

n

= a

n

,

and

y

n+1

= y

n+2

= = y

2

k =

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

n

.

Let

A =

a

1

+ +a

n

n

and G = (a

1

a

n

)

1/n

.

Using (??) we obtain

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

+ (2

k

−n)

a

1

+ +a

n

n

2

k

≥

_

a

1

a

2

a

n

(

a

1

+ +a

n

n

)

(2

k

−n)

_

1/2

k

,

which is to say that

nA+ (2

k

−n)A

2

k

≥(G

n

A

2

k

−n

)

1/2

k

.

This translates into A ≥G or

(a

1

a

2

a

n

)

1/n

≤

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

n

,

which is what we wanted.u

14 Example Let s be a positive integer. Prove that every interval [s; 2s] contains a power of 2.

Solution: If s is a power of 2, then there is nothing to prove. If s is not a power of 2 then it must lie between two consecutive

powers of 2, i.e., there is an integer r for which 2

r

< s < 2

r+1

. This yields 2

r+1

< 2s. Hence s < 2

r+1

< 2s, which gives the

required result.

15 Example Let M be a nonempty set of positive integers such that 4x and [

√

x] both belong to M whenever x does. Prove

that M is the set of all natural numbers.

Solution: We will prove this by induction. First we will prove that 1 belongs to the set, secondly we will prove that every power

of 2 is in the set and ﬁnally we will prove that non-powers of 2 are also in the set.

Since M is a nonempty set of positive integers, it has a least element, say a. By assumption

√

a also belongs to M, but

√

a < a unless a = 1. This means that 1 belongs to M.

Since 1 belongs to M so does 4, since 4 belongs to M so does 4 4 = 4

2

, etc.. In this way we obtain that all numbers of

the form 4

n

= 2

2n

, n = 1, 2, . . . belong to M. Thus all the powers of 2 raised to an even power belong to M. Since the square

roots belong as well to M we get that all the powers of 2 raised to an odd power also belong to M. In conclusion, all powers

of 2 belong to M.

Practice 7

Assume now that n ∈ N fails to belong to M. Observe that n cannot be a power of 2. Since n ,∈ M we deduce that

no integer in A

1

= [n

2

, (n +1)

2

) belongs to M, because every member of y ∈ A

1

satisﬁes [

√

y] = n. Similarly no member

z ∈ A

2

= [n

4

, (n +1)

4

) belongs to M since this would entail that z would belong to A

1

, a contradiction. By induction we can

show that no member in the interval A

r

= [n

2

r

, (n +1)

2

r

) belongs to M.

We will nowshowthat eventually these intervals are so large that they contain a power of 2, thereby obtaining a contradiction

to the hypothesis that no element of the A

r

belonged to M. The function

f :

R

∗

+

→ R

x → log

2

x

is increasing and hence log

2

(n +1) −log

2

n > 0. Since the function

f :

R → R

∗

+

x → 2

−x

is decreasing, for a sufﬁciently large positive integer k we have

2

−k

< log

2

(n +1) −log

2

n.

This implies that

(n +1)

2

k

> 2n

2

k

.

Thus the interval [n

2

k

, 2n

2

k

] is totally contained in [n

2

k

, (n +1)

2

k

). But every interval of the form [s, 2s] where s is a positive

integer contains a power of 2. We have thus obtained the desired contradiction.

Practice

Problem 1.3.1 Prove that 11

n+2

+12

2n+1

is divisible by 133

for all natural numbers n.

Problem 1.3.2 Prove that

1 −

x

1!

+

x(x −1)

2!

−

x(x −1)(x −2)

3!

+ + (−1)

n

x(x −1)(x −2) (x −n +1)

n!

equals

(−1)

n

(x −1)(x −2) (x −n)

n!

for all non-negative integers n.

Problem 1.3.3 Let n ∈ N. Prove the inequality

1

n +1

+

1

n +2

+ +

1

3n +1

> 1.

Problem 1.3.4 Prove that

_

2 +

»

2 + +

√

2

. ¸¸ .

n radical signs

= 2cos

π

2

n+1

for n ∈ N.

Problem 1.3.5 Let a

1

= 3, b

1

= 4, and a

n

= 3

a

n−1

, b

n

= 4

b

n−1

when n > 1. Prove that a

1000

> b

999

.

Problem 1.3.6 Let n ∈ N, n > 1. Prove that

1 3 5 (2n −1)

2 4 6 (2n)

<

1

√

3n +1

.

Problem 1.3.7 Prove that if n is a natural number, then

1 2 +2 5 + +n (3n −1) = n

2

(n +1).

Problem 1.3.8 Prove that if n is a natural number, then

1

2

+3

2

+5

2

+ + (2n −1)

2

=

n(4n

2

−1)

3

.

Problem 1.3.9 Prove that

4

n

n +1

<

(2n)!

(n!)

2

for all natural numbers n > 1.

Problem 1.3.10 Prove that the sum of the cubes of three con-

secutive positive integers is divisible by 9.

8 Chapter 1

Problem 1.3.11 If [x[ ,= 1, n ∈ N prove that

1

1 +x

+

2

1 +x

2

+

4

1 +x

2

+

8

1 +x

8

+ +

2

n

1 +x

2

n

equals

1

x −1

+

2

n+1

1 −x

2

n+1

.

Problem 1.3.12 Is it true that for every natural number n the

quantity n

2

+n +41 is a prime? Prove or disprove!

Problem 1.3.13 Give an example of an assertion which is not

true for any positive integer, yet for which the induction step

holds.

Problem 1.3.14 Give an example of an assertion which is true

for the ﬁrst two million positive integers but fails for every in-

teger greater than 2000000.

Problem 1.3.15 Prove by induction on n that a set having n

elements has exactly 2

n

subsets.

Problem 1.3.16 Prove that if n is a natural number,

n

5

/5 +n

4

/2 +n

3

/3 −n/30

is always an integer.

Problem 1.3.17 (Halmos) ) Every man in a village knows in-

stantly when another’s wife is unfaithful, but never when his

own is. Each man is completely intelligent and knows that ev-

ery other man is. The law of the village demands that when

a man can PROVE that his wife has been unfaithful, he must

shoot her before sundown the same day. Every man is com-

pletely law-abiding. One day the mayor announces that there

is at least one unfaithful wife in the village. The mayor always

tells the truth, and every man believes him. If in fact there

are exactly forty unfaithful wives in the village (but that fact

is not known to the men,) what will happen after the mayor’s

announcement?

Problem 1.3.18 1. Let a

1

, a

2

, . . . a

n

be positive real num-

bers with

a

1

a

2

a

n

= 1.

Use induction to prove that

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

≥n,

with equality if and only if a

1

= a

2

= = a

n

= 1.

2. Use the preceding part to give another proof of the

Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-Mean Inequality.

3. Prove that if n > 1, then

1 3 5 (2n −1) < n

n

.

4. Prove that if n > 1 then

n

Ä

(n +1)

1/n

−1

ä

< 1 +

1

2

+ +

1

n

.

5. Prove that if n > 1 then

1 +

1

2

+ +

1

n

< n

Å

1 −

1

(n +1)

1/n

+

1

n +1

ã

.

6. Given that u, v, w are positive, 0 < a ≤ 1, and that

u +v +w= 1, prove that

Å

1

u

−a

ãÅ

1

v

−a

ãÅ

1

w

−a

ã

≥27 −27a +9a

2

−a

3

.

7. Let y

1

, y

2

, . . . , y

n

be positive real numbers. Prove the

Harmonic-Mean- Geometric-Mean Inequality:

n

1

y

1

+

1

y

2

+ +

1

y

n

≤

n

√

y

1

y

2

y

n

.

8. Let a

1

, . . . , a

n

be positive real numbers, all different. Set

s = a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

.

(a) Prove that

(n −1)

1≤r≤n

1

s −a

r

<

1≤r≤n

1

a

r

.

(b) Deduce that

4n

s

< s

1≤r≤n

1

a

r

(s −a

r

)

<

n

n −1

1≤r≤n

1

a

r

.

Problem 1.3.19 Suppose that x

1

, x

2

, . . . , x

n

are nonnegative

real numbers with

x

1

+x

2

+ +x

n

≤1/2.

Prove that

(1 −x

1

)(1 −x

2

) (1 −x

n

) ≥1/2.

Problem 1.3.20 Given a positive integer n prove that there is

a polynomial T

n

such that cosnx = T

n

(cosx) for all real num-

bers x. T

n

is called the n-th Tchebychev Polynomial.

Problem 1.3.21 Prove that

1

n +1

+

1

n +2

+ +

1

2n

>

13

24

for all natural numbers n > 1.

Fibonacci Numbers 9

Problem 1.3.22 In how many regions will a sphere be divided

by n planes passing through its centre if no three planes pass

through one and the same diameter?

Problem 1.3.23 (IMO 1977) Let f , f : N →N be a function

satisfying

f (n +1) > f ( f (n))

for each positive integer n. Prove that f (n) = n for each n.

Problem 1.3.24 Let F

0

(x) = x, F(x) = 4x(1 −x), F

n+1

(x) =

F(F

n

(x)), n = 0, 1, . . . . Prove that

_

1

0

F

n

(x)dx =

2

2n−1

2

2n

−1

.

(Hint: Let x = sin

2

θ.)

1.4 Fibonacci Numbers

The Fibonacci numbers f

n

are given by the recurrence

f

0

= 0, f

1

= 1, f

n+1

= f

n−1

+ f

n

, n ≥1. (1.5)

Thus the ﬁrst few Fibonacci numbers are 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . . . A number of interesting algebraic identities can be

proved using the above recursion.

16 Example Prove that

f

1

+ f

2

+ + f

n

= f

n+2

−1.

Solution: We have

f

1

= f

3

− f

2

f

2

= f

4

− f

3

f

3

= f

5

− f

4

.

.

.

.

.

.

f

n

= f

n+2

− f

n+1

Summing both columns,

f

1

+ f

2

+ + f

n

= f

n+2

− f

2

= f

n+2

−1,

as desired.

17 Example Prove that

f

1

+ f

3

+ f

5

+ + f

2n−1

= f

2n

.

Solution: Observe that

f

1

= f

2

− f

0

f

3

= f

4

− f

2

f

5

= f

6

− f

4

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

f

2n−1

= f

2n

− f

2n−2

Adding columnwise we obtain the desired identity.

18 Example Prove that

f

2

1

+ f

2

2

+ + f

2

n

= f

n

f

n+1

.

Solution: We have

f

n−1

f

n+1

= ( f

n+1

− f

n

)( f

n

+ f

n−1

) = f

n+1

f

n

− f

2

n

+ f

n+1

f

n−1

− f

n

f

n−1

.

Thus

f

n+1

f

n

− f

n

f

n−1

= f

2

n

,

10 Chapter 1

which yields

f

2

1

+ f

2

2

+ + f

2

n

= f

n

f

n+1

.

19 Theorem (Cassini’s Identity)

f

n−1

f

n+1

− f

2

n

= (−1)

n

, n ≥1.

Proof: Observe that

f

n−1

f

n+1

− f

2

n

= ( f

n

− f

n−2

)( f

n

+ f

n−1

) − f

2

n

= −f

n−2

f

n

− f

n−1

( f

n−2

− f

n

)

= −( f

n−2

f

n

− f

2

n−1

)

Thus if v

n

= f

n−1

f

n+1

− f

2

n

, we have v

n

= −v

n−1

. This yields v

n

= (−1)

n−1

v

1

which is to say

f

n−1

f

n+1

− f

2

n

= (−1)

n−1

( f

0

f

2

− f

2

1

) = (−1)

n

.

u

20 Example (IMO 1981) Determine the maximum value of

m

2

+n

2

,

where m, n are positive integers satisfying m, n ∈ ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , 1981¦ and

(n

2

−mn −m

2

)

2

= 1.

Solution: Call a pair (n, m) admissible if m, n ∈ ¦1, 2, . . . , 1981¦ and (n

2

−mn −m

2

)

2

= 1.

If m = 1, then (1, 1) and (2, 1) are the only admissible pairs. Suppose now that the pair (n

1

, n

2

) is admissible, with n

2

> 1.

As n

1

(n

1

−n

2

) = n

2

2

±1 > 0, we must have n

1

> n

2

.

Let now n

3

= n

1

−n

2

. Then 1 = (n

2

1

−n

1

n

2

−n

2

2

)

2

= (n

2

2

−n

2

n

3

−n

2

3

)

2

, making (n

2

, n

3

) also admissible. If n

3

> 1, in the

same way we conclude that n

2

> n

3

and we can let n

4

= n

2

−n

3

making (n

3

, n

4

) an admissible pair. We have a sequence of

positive integers n

1

> n

2

> . . ., which must necessarily terminate. This terminates when n

k

= 1 for some k. Since (n

k−1

, 1)

is admissible, we must have n

k−1

= 2. The sequence goes thus 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, . . . , 987, 1597, i.e., a truncated Fibonacci sequence.

The largest admissible pair is thus (1597, 987) and so the maximum sought is 1597

2

+987

2

.

Let τ =

1 +

√

5

2

be the Golden Ratio. Observe that τ

−1

=

√

5−1

2

. The number τ is a root of the quadratic equation

x

2

= x +1. We now obtain a closed formula for f

n

. We need the following lemma.

21 Lemma If x

2

= x +1, n ≥2 then we have x

n

= f

n

x + f

n−1

.

Proof: We prove this by induction on n. For n = 2 the assertion is a triviality. Assume that n > 2 and that

x

n−1

= f

n−1

x + f

n−2

. Then

x

n

= x

n−1

x

= ( f

n−1

x + f

n−2

)x

= f

n−1

(x +1) + f

n−2

x

= ( f

n−1

+ f

n−2

)x + f

n−1

= f

n

x + f

n−1

u

22 Theorem (Binet’s Formula) The n-th Fibonacci number is given by

f

n

=

1

√

5

ÇÇ

1 +

√

5

2

å

n

−

Ç

1 −

√

5

2

å

n

å

n = 0, 2, . . . .

Practice 11

Proof: The roots of the equation x

2

= x +1 are τ =

1 +

√

5

2

and 1 −τ =

1 −

√

5

2

. In virtue of the above lemma,

τ

n

= τ f

n

+ f

n−1

and

(1 −τ)

n

= (1 −τ) f

n

+ f

n−1

.

Subtracting

τ

n

− (1 −τ)

n

=

√

5 f

n

,

from where Binet’s Formula follows.u

23 Example (Cesàro) Prove that

n

k=0

Ç

n

k

å

2

k

f

k

= f

3n

.

Solution: Using Binet’s Formula,

n

k=0

Ç

n

k

å

2

k

f

k

=

n

k=0

Ç

n

k

å

2

k

τ

k

− (1 −τ)

k

√

5

=

1

√

5

_

n

k=0

Ç

n

k

å

τ

k

−

n

k=0

Ç

n

k

å

2

k

(1 −τ)

k

_

=

1

√

5

((1 +2τ)

n

− (1 +2(1 −τ))

n

).

As τ

2

= τ +1, 1 +2τ = τ

3

. Similarly 1 +2(1 −τ) = (1 −τ)

3

. Thus

n

k=0

Ç

n

k

å

2

k

f

k

=

1

√

5

Ä

(τ)

3n

+ (1 −τ)

3n

ä

= f

3n

,

as wanted.

The following theorem will be used later.

24 Theorem If s ≥1, t ≥0 are integers then

f

s+t

= f

s−1

f

t

+ f

s

f

t+1

.

Proof: We keep t ﬁxed and prove this by using strong induction on s. For s = 1 we are asking whether

f

t+1

= f

0

f

t

+ f

1

f

t+1

,

which is trivially true. Assume that s > 1 and that f

s−k+t

= f

s−k−1

f

t

+ f

s−k

f

t+1

for all k satisfying 1 ≤k ≤ s −1.

We have

f

s+t

= f

s+t−1

+ f

s+t−2

by the Fibonacci recursion,

= f

s−1+t

+ f

s−2+t

trivially,

= f

s−2

f

t

+ f

s−1

f

t+1

+ f

s−3

f

t

+ f

s−2

f

t+1

by the inductive assumption

= f

t

( f

s−2

+ f

s−3

) + f

t+1

( f

s−1

+ f

s−2

) rearranging,

= f

t

f

s−1

+ f

t+1

f

s

by the Fibonacci recursion.

This ﬁnishes the proof.u

Practice

12 Chapter 1

Problem 1.4.1 Prove that

f

n+1

f

n

− f

n−1

f

n−2

= f

2n−1

, n > 2.

Problem 1.4.2 Prove that

f

2

n+1

= 4 f

n

f

n−1

+ f

2

n−2

, n > 1.

Problem 1.4.3 Prove that

f

1

f

2

+ f

2

f

3

+ + f

2n−1

f

2n

= f

2

2n

.

Problem 1.4.4 Let N be a natural number. Prove that the

largest n such that f

n

≤N is given by

n =

log

Å

N +

1

2

ã

√

5

log

Ç

1 +

√

5

2

å .

Problem 1.4.5 Prove that f

2

n

+ f

2

n−1

= f

2n+1

.

Problem 1.4.6 Prove that if n > 1,

f

2

n

− f

n+l

f

n−l

= (−1)

n+l

f

2

l

.

Problem 1.4.7 Prove that

n

k=1

f

2k

=

n

k=0

(n −k) f

2k+1

.

Problem 1.4.8 Prove that

∞

n=2

1

f

n−1

f

n+1

= 1.

Hint: What is

1

f

n−1

f

n

−

1

f

n

f

n+1

?

Problem 1.4.9 Prove that

∞

n=1

f

n

f

n+1

f

n+2

= 1.

Problem 1.4.10 Prove that

∞

n=0

1/ f

2

n = 4 −τ.

Problem 1.4.11 Prove that

∞

n=1

arctan

1

f

2n+1

= π/4.

Problem 1.4.12 Prove that

lim

n→∞

f

n

τ

n

=

1

√

5

.

Problem 1.4.13 Prove that

lim

n→∞

f

n+r

f

n

= τ

r

.

Problem 1.4.14 Prove that

n

k=0

1

f

2

k

= 2 +

f

2

n

−2

f

2

n

.

Deduce that

∞

k=0

1

f

2

k

=

7 −

√

5

2

.

Problem 1.4.15 (Cesàro) Prove that

n

k=0

Ç

n

k

å

f

k

= f

2n

.

Problem 1.4.16 Prove that

∞

n=1

f

n

10

n

is a rational number.

Problem 1.4.17 Find the exact value of

1994

k=1

(−1)

k

Ç

1995

k

å

f

k

.

Problem 1.4.18 Prove the converse of Cassini’s Identity: If k

and m are integers such that [m

2

−km−k

2

[ = 1, then there is

an integer n such that k =±f

n

, m =±f

n+1

.

Pigeonhole Principle 13

1.5 Pigeonhole Principle

The Pigeonhole Principle states that if n +1 pigeons ﬂy to n holes, there must be a pigeonhole containing at least two pigeons.

This apparently trivial principle is very powerful. Let us see some examples.

25 Example (Putnam 1978) Let A be any set of twenty integers chosen from the arithmetic progression 1, 4, . . . , 100. Prove

that there must be two distinct integers in A whose sum is 104.

Solution: We partition the thirty four elements of this progression into nineteen groups ¦1¦, ¦52¦, ¦4, 100¦ , ¦7, 97¦, ¦10, 94¦,

. . . ¦49, 55¦. Since we are choosing twenty integers and we have nineteen sets, by the Pigeonhole Principle there must be two

integers that belong to one of the pairs, which add to 104.

26 Example Show that amongst any seven distinct positive integers not exceeding 126, one can ﬁnd two of them, say a and b,

which satisfy

b < a ≤2b.

Solution: Split the numbers ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , 126¦ into the six sets

¦1, 2¦, ¦3, 4, 5, 6¦, ¦7, 8, . . ., 13, 14¦, ¦15, 16, . . ., 29, 30¦,

¦31, 32, . . . , 61, 62¦ and ¦63, 64, . . . , 126¦.

By the Pigeonhole Principle, two of the seven numbers must lie in one of the six sets, and obviously, any such two will satisfy

the stated inequality.

27 Example Given any set of ten natural numbers between 1 and 99 inclusive, prove that there are two disjoint nonempty

subsets of the set with equal sums of their elements.

Solution: There are 2

10

−1 = 1023 non-empty subsets that one can form with a given 10-element set. To each of these subsets

we associate the sum of its elements. The maximum value that any such sum can achieve is 90 +91 + +99 = 945 < 1023.

Therefore, there must be at least two different subsets that have the same sum.

28 Example No matter which ﬁfty ﬁve integers may be selected from

¦1, 2, . . . , 100¦,

prove that one must select some two that differ by 10.

Solution: First observe that if we choose n +1 integers from any string of 2n consecutive integers, there will always be some

two that differ by n. This is because we can pair the 2n consecutive integers

¦a +1, a +2, a +3, . . ., a +2n¦

into the n pairs

¦a +1, a +n +1¦, ¦a+2, a+n+2¦, . . ., ¦a +n, a +2n¦,

and if n +1 integers are chosen from this, there must be two that belong to the same group.

So now group the one hundred integers as follows:

¦1, 2, . . . 20¦, ¦21, 22, . . . , 40¦,

¦41, 42, . . . , 60¦, ¦61, 62, . . . , 80¦

and

¦81, 82, . . . , 100¦.

If we select ﬁfty ﬁve integers, we must perforce choose eleven from some group. From that group, by the above observation

(let n = 10), there must be two that differ by 10.

14 Chapter 1

29 Example (AHSME 1994) Label one disc “1”, two discs “2”, three discs “3”, . . . , ﬁfty discs ‘‘50”. Put these 1+2+3+ +

50 = 1275 labeled discs in a box. Discs are then drawn from the box at random without replacement. What is the minimum

number of discs that must me drawn in order to guarantee drawing at least ten discs with the same label?

Solution: If we draw all the 1 +2 + +9 = 45 labelled “1”, . . . , “9” and any nine from each of the discs “10”, . . . , “50”, we

have drawn 45 +9 41 = 414 discs. The 415-th disc drawn will assure at least ten discs from a label.

30 Example (IMO 1964) Seventeen people correspond by mail with one another—each one with all the rest. In their letters

only three different topics are discussed. Each pair of correspondents deals with only one of these topics. Prove that there at

least three people who write to each other about the same topic.

Solution: Choose a particular person of the group, say Charlie. He corresponds with sixteen others. By the Pigeonhole Principle,

Charlie must write to at least six of the people of one topic, say topic I. If any pair of these six people corresponds on topic I,

then Charlie and this pair do the trick, and we are done. Otherwise, these six correspond amongst themselves only on topics

II or III. Choose a particular person from this group of six, say Eric. By the Pigeonhole Principle, there must be three of the

ﬁve remaining that correspond with Eric in one of the topics, say topic II. If amongst these three there is a pair that corresponds

with each other on topic II, then Eric and this pair correspond on topic II, and we are done. Otherwise, these three people only

correspond with one another on topic III, and we are done again.

31 Example Given any seven distinct real numbers x

1

, . . . x

7

, prove that we can always ﬁnd two, say a, b with

0 <

a −b

1 +ab

<

1

√

3

.

Solution: Put x

k

= tana

k

for a

k

satisfying −

π

2

< a

k

<

π

2

. Divide the interval (−

π

2

,

π

2

) into six non-overlapping subintervals of

equal length. By the Pigeonhole Principle, two of seven points will lie on the same interval, say a

i

< a

j

. Then 0 < a

j

−a

i

<

π

6

.

Since the tangent increases in (−π/2, π/2), we obtain

0 < tan(a

j

−a

i

) =

tana

j

−tana

i

1 +tana

j

tana

i

< tan

π

6

=

1

√

3

,

as desired.

32 Example (Canadian Math Olympiad 1981) Let a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

7

be nonnegative real numbers with

a

1

+a

2

+. . . +a

7

= 1.

If

M = max

1≤k≤5

a

k

+a

k+1

+a

k+2

,

determine the minimum possible value that M can take as the a

k

vary.

Solution: Since a

1

≤a

1

+a

2

≤a

1

+a

2

+a

3

and a

7

≤a

6

+a

7

≤a

5

+a

6

+a

7

we see that M also equals

max

1≤k≤5

¦a

1

, a

7

, a

1

+a

2

, a

6

+a

7

, a

k

+a

k+1

+a

k+2

¦.

We are thus taking the maximum over nine quantities that sum 3(a

1

+a

2

+ +a

7

) = 3. These nine quantities then average

3/9 = 1/3. By the Pigeonhole Principle, one of these is ≥ 1/3, i.e. M ≥1/3. If a

1

= a

1

+a

2

= a

1

+a

2

+a

3

= a

2

+a

3

+a

4

=

a

3

+a

4

+a

5

=a

4

+a

5

+a

6

=a

5

+a

6

+a

7

=a

7

=1/3, we obtain the 7-tuple (a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, a

4

, a

5

, a

6

, a

7

) = (1/3, 0, 0, 1/3, 0, 0, 1/3),

which shows that M = 1/3.

Practice

Practice 15

Problem 1.5.1 (AHSME 1991) A circular table has exactly

sixty chairs around it. There are N people seated at this table

in such a way that the next person to be seated must sit next to

someone. What is the smallest possible value of N?

Answer: 20.

Problem 1.5.2 Show that if any ﬁve points are all in, or on,

a square of side 1, then some pair of them will be at most at

distance

√

2/2.

Problem 1.5.3 (Eötvös, 1947) Prove that amongst six people

in a room there are at least three who know one another, or at

least three who do not know one another.

Problem 1.5.4 Show that in any sum of non-negative real

numbers there is always one number which is at least the av-

erage of the numbers and that there is always one member that

it is at most the average of the numbers.

Problem 1.5.5 We call a set “sum free” if no two elements of

the set add up to a third element of the set. What is the maxi-

mum size of a sum free subset of ¦1, 2, . . . , 2n −1¦.

Hint: Observe that the set ¦n+1, n+2, . . . , 2n−1¦ of n+1 el-

ements is sum free. Show that any subset with n +2 elements

is not sum free.

Problem 1.5.6 (MMPC 1992) Suppose that the letters of the

English alphabet are listed in an arbitrary order.

1. Prove that there must be four consecutive consonants.

2. Give a list to show that there need not be ﬁve consecu-

tive consonants.

3. Suppose that all the letters are arranged in a circle.

Prove that there must be ﬁve consecutive consonants.

Problem 1.5.7 (Stanford 1953) Bob has ten pockets and

forty four silver dollars. He wants to put his dollars into

his pockets so distributed that each pocket contains a differ-

ent number of dollars.

1. Can he do so?

2. Generalise the problem, considering p pockets and n

dollars. The problem is most interesting when

n =

(p −1)(p −2)

2

.

Why?

Problem 1.5.8 No matter which ﬁfty ﬁve integers may be se-

lected from

¦1, 2, . . . , 100¦,

prove that you must select some two that differ by 9, some two

that differ by 10, some two that differ by 12, and some two that

differ by 13, but that you need not have any two that differ by

11.

Problem 1.5.9 Let mn + 1 different real numbers be given.

Prove that there is either an increasing sequence with at least

n +1 members, or a decreasing sequence with at least m+1

members.

Problem 1.5.10 If the points of the plane are coloured with

three colours, show that there will always exist two points of

the same colour which are one unit apart.

Problem 1.5.11 Show that if the points of the plane are

coloured with two colours, there will always exist an equilat-

eral triangle with all its vertices of the same colour. There

is, however, a colouring of the points of the plane with two

colours for which no equilateral triangle of side 1 has all its

vertices of the same colour.

Problem 1.5.12 Let r

1

, r

2

, . . . , r

n

, n >1 be real numbers of ab-

solute value not exceeding 1 and whose sum is 0. Show that

there is a non-empty proper subset whose sum is not more than

2/n in size. Give an example in which any subsum has abso-

lute value at least

1

n −1

.

Problem 1.5.13 Let r

1

, r

2

, . . . , r

n

be real numbers in the in-

terval [0, 1]. Show that there are numbers ε

k

, 1 ≤ k ≤ n, ε

k

=

−1, 0, 1 not all zero, such that

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

n

k=1

ε

k

r

k

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤

n

2

n

.

Problem 1.5.14 (USAMO, 1979) Nine mathematicians meet

at an international conference and discover that amongst any

three of them, at least two speak a common language. If

each of the mathematicians can speak at most three languages,

prove that there are at least three of the mathematicians who

can speak the same language.

Problem 1.5.15 (USAMO, 1982) In a party with 1982 per-

sons, amongst any group of four there is at least one person

who knows each of the other three. What is the minimum num-

ber of people in the party who know everyone else?

16 Chapter 1

Problem 1.5.16 (USAMO, 1985) There are n people at a

party. Prove that there are two people such that, of the re-

maining n −2 people, there are at least n/2−1 of them,

each of whom knows both or else knows neither of the two.

Assume that “knowing” is a symmetrical relationship.

Problem 1.5.17 (USAMO, 1986) During a certain lecture,

each of ﬁve mathematicians fell asleep exactly twice. For each

pair of these mathematicians, there was some moment when

both were sleeping simultaneously. Prove that, at some mo-

ment, some three were sleeping simultaneously.

Problem 1.5.18 Let P

n

be a set of en!+1 points on the

plane. Any two distinct points of P

n

are joined by a straight

line segment which is then coloured in one of n given colours.

Show that at least one monochromatic triangle is formed.

(Hint: e =

∞

n=0

1/n!.)

Chapter 2

Divisibility

2.1 Divisibility

33 Deﬁnition If a ,= 0, b are integers, we say that a divides b if there is an integer c such that ac = b. We write this as a[b.

If a does not divide b we write a ,[b. The following properties should be immediate to the reader.

34 Theorem 1. If a, b, c, m, n are integers with c[a, c[b, then c[(am+nb).

2. If x, y, z are integers with x[y, y[z then x[z.

Proof: There are integers s, t with sc = a, tc = b. Thus

am+nb = c(sm+tn),

giving c[(am+bn).

Also, there are integers u, v with xu = y, yv = z. Hence xuv = z, giving x[z.

It should be clear that if a[b and b ,= 0 then 1 ≤[a[ ≤[b[.u

35 Example Find all positive integers n for which

n +1[n

2

+1.

Solution: n

2

+1 = n

2

−1 +2 = (n −1)(n +1) +2. This forces n +1[2 and so n +1 = 1 or n +1 = 2. The choice n +1 = 1 is

out since n ≥1, so that the only such n is n = 1.

36 Example If 7[3x +2 prove that 7[(15x

2

−11x −14.).

Solution: Observe that 15x

2

−11x −14 = (3x +2)(5x −7). We have 7s = 3x +2 for some integer s and so

15x

2

−11x −14 = 7s(5x −7),

giving the result.

Among every two consecutive integers there is an even one, among every three consecutive integers there is one divisible

by 3, etc.The following theorem goes further.

37 Theorem The product of n consecutive integers is divisible by n!.

17

18 Chapter 2

Proof: Assume ﬁrst that all the consecutive integers m+1, m+2, . . . , m+n are positive. If this is so, the divisibility

by n! follows from the fact that binomial coefﬁcients are integers:

Ç

m+n

n

å

=

(m+n)!

n!m!

=

(m+n)(m+n −1) (m+1)

n!

.

If one of the consecutive integers is 0, then the product of them is 0, and so there is nothing to prove. If all the n

consecutive integers are negative, we multiply by (−1)

n

, and see that the corresponding product is positive, and so

we apply the ﬁrst result.u

38 Example Prove that 6[n

3

−n, for all integers n.

Solution: n

3

−n = (n −1)n(n +1) is the product of 3 consecutive integers and hence is divisible by 3! = 6.

39 Example (Putnam 1966) Let 0 < a

1

< a

2

< . . . < a

mn+1

be mn +1 integers. Prove that you can ﬁnd either m+1 of them

no one of which divides any other, or n +1 of them, each dividing the following.

Solution: Let, for each 1 ≤k ≤mn+1, n

k

denote the length of the longest chain, starting with a

k

and each dividing the following

one, that can be selected from a

k

, a

k+1

, . . . , a

mn+1

. If no n

k

is greater than n, then the are at least m+1 n

k

’s that are the same.

However, the integers a

k

corresponding to these n

k

’s cannot divide each other, because a

k

[a

l

implies that n

k

≥n

l

+1.

40 Theorem If k[n then f

k

[ f

n

.

Proof: Letting s = kn, t = n in the identity f

s+t

= f

s−1

f

t

+ f

s

f

t+1

we obtain

f

(k+1)n

= f

kn+n

= f

n−1

f

kn

+ f

n

f

kn+1

.

It is clear that if f

n

[ f

kn

then f

n

[ f

(k+1)n

. Since f

n

[ f

n1

, the assertion follows.u

Practice

Problem 2.1.1 Given that 5[(n +2), which of the following

are divisible by 5

n

2

−4, n

2

+8n +7, n

4

−1, n

2

−2n?

Problem 2.1.2 Prove that n

5

−5n

3

+4n is always divisible by

120.

Problem 2.1.3 Prove that

(2m)!(3n)!

(m!)

2

(n!)

3

is always an integer.

Problem 2.1.4 Demonstrate that for all integer values n,

n

9

−6n

7

+9n

5

−4n

3

is divisible by 8640.

Problem 2.1.5 Prove that if n >4 is composite, then n divides

(n −1)!.

(Hint: Consider, separately, the cases when n is and is not a

perfect square.)

Problem 2.1.6 Prove that there is no prime triplet of the form

p, p +2, p +4, except for 3, 5, 7.

Problem 2.1.7 Prove that for n ∈ N, (n!)! is divisible by

n!

(n−1)!

Problem 2.1.8 (AIME 1986) What is the largest positive in-

teger n for which

(n +10)[(n

3

+100)?

(Hint: x

3

+y

3

= (x +y)(x

2

−xy +y

2

).)

Problem 2.1.9 (Olimpíada matemática española, 1985) If

n is a positive integer, prove that (n + 1)(n + 2) (2n) is

divisible by 2

n

.

Division Algorithm 19

2.2 Division Algorithm

41 Theorem (Division Algorithm) If a, b are positive integers, then there are unique integers q, r such that a =bq+r, 0 ≤r <b.

Proof: We use the Well-Ordering Principle. Consider the set S = ¦a −bk : k ∈ Z and a ≥ bk¦. Then S is a

collection of nonnegative integers and S ,= ∅ as a −b 0 ∈ S. By the Well-Ordering Principle, S has a least

element, say r. Now, there must be some q ∈ Z such that r = a −bq since r ∈ S. By construction, r ≥ 0. Let us

prove that r < b. For assume that r ≥ b. Then r > r −b = a −bq −b = a − (q +1)b ≥0, since r −b ≥0. But then

a− (q+1)b ∈ S and a− (q+1)b <r which contradicts the fact that r is the smallest member of S. Thus we must

have 0 ≤r < b. To show that r and q are unique, assume that bq

1

+r

1

= a = bq

2

+r

2

, 0 ≤r

1

< b, 0 ≤r

2

< b. Then

r

2

−r

1

= b(q

1

−q

2

), that is b[(r

2

−r

1

). But [r

2

−r

1

[ < b, whence r

2

= r

1

. From this it also follows that q

1

= q

2

.

This completes the proof. u

It is quite plain that q =a/b, where a/b denotes the integral part of a/b.

It is important to realise that given an integer n > 0, the Division Algorithm makes a partition of all the integers according

to their remainder upon division by n. For example, every integer lies in one of the families 3k, 3k +1 or 3k +2 where k ∈ Z.

Observe that the family 3k +2, k ∈ Z, is the same as the family 3k −1, k ∈ Z. Thus

Z = A∪B∪C

where

A =¦. . . , −9, −6, −3, 0, 3, 6, 9, . . .¦

is the family of integers of the form 3k, k ∈ Z,

B =¦. . . −8, −5, −2, 1, 4, 7, . . .¦

is the family of integers of the form 3k +1, k ∈ Z and

C = ¦. . . −7, −4, −1, 2, 5, 8, . . .¦

is the family of integers of the form 3k −1, k ∈ Z.

42 Example (AHSME 1976) Let r be the remainder when 1059, 1417 and 2312 are divided by d > 1. Find the value of d −r.

Solution: By the Division Algorithm, 1059 = q

1

d +r, 1417 = q

2

d +r, 2312 = q

3

d +r, for some integers q

1

, q

2

, q

3

. From this,

358 = 1417 −1059 = d(q

2

−q

1

), 1253 = 2312 −1059 = d(q

3

−q

1

) and 895 = 2312 −1417 = d(q

3

−q

2

). Hence d[358 =

2 179, d[1253 = 7 179 and 7[895 = 5 179. Since d > 1, we conclude that d = 179. Thus (for example) 1059 = 5 179+164,

which means that r = 164. We conclude that d −r = 179 −164 = 15.

43 Example Show that n

2

+23 is divisible by 24 for inﬁnitely many n.

Solution: n

2

+23 =n

2

−1+24 = (n−1)(n+1)+24. If we take n =24k±1, k =0, 1, 2, . . . , all these values make the expression

divisible by 24.

44 Deﬁnition A prime number p is a positive integer greater than 1 whose only positive divisors are 1 and p. If the integer

n > 1 is not prime, then we say that it is composite.

For example, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 are prime, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20 are composite. The number 1 is neither

a prime nor a composite.

45 Example Show that if p > 3 is a prime, then 24[(p

2

−1).

Solution: By the Division Algorithm, integers come in one of six ﬂavours: 6k, 6k ±1, 6k ±2 or 6k +3. If p > 3 is a prime, then

p is of the form p = 6k ±1 (the other choices are either divisible by 2 or 3). But (6k ±1)

2

−1 = 36k

2

±12k = 12k(3k −1).

Since either k or 3k −1 is even, 12k(3k −1) is divisible by 24.

20 Chapter 2

46 Example Prove that the square of any integer is of the form 4k or 4k +1.

Solution: By the Division Algorithm, any integer comes in one of two ﬂavours: 2a or 2a +1. Squaring,

(2a)

2

= 4a

2

, (2a +1)

2

= 4(a

2

+a) +1

and so the assertion follows.

47 Example Prove that no integer in the sequence

11, 111, 1111, 11111, . . .

is the square of an integer.

Solution: The square of any integer is of the form 4k or 4k +1. All the numbers in this sequence are of the form 4k −1, and so

they cannot be the square of any integer.

48 Example Show that from any three integers, one can always choose two so that a

3

b −ab

3

is divisible by 10.

Solution: It is clear that a

3

b −ab

3

= ab(a −b)(a +b) is always even, no matter which integers are substituted. If one of the

three integers is of the form 5k, then we are done. If not, we are choosing three integers that lie in the residue classes 5k ±1 or

5k ±2. Two of them must lie in one of these two groups, and so there must be two whose sum or whose difference is divisible

by 5. The assertion follows.

49 Example Prove that if 3[(a

2

+b

2

), then 3[a and 3[b

Solution: Assume a = 3k ±1 or b = 3m±1. Then a

2

= 3x +1, b

2

= 3y +1. But then a

2

+b

2

= 3t +1 or a

2

+b

2

= 3s +2, i.e.,

3 ,[(a

2

+b

2

).

Practice

Problem 2.2.1 Prove the following extension of the Division

Algorithm: if a and b ,= 0 are integers, then there are unique

integers q and r such that a = qb +r, 0 ≤r <[b[.

Problem 2.2.2 Show that if a and b are positive integers,

then there are unique integers q and r, and ε = ±1 such that

a = qb +εr, −

b

2

< r ≤

b

2

.

Problem 2.2.3 Show that the product of two numbers of the

form 4k +3 is of the form 4k +1.

Problem 2.2.4 Prove that the square of any odd integer leaves

remainder 1 upon division by 8.

Problem 2.2.5 Demonstrate that there are no three consec-

utive odd integers such that each is the sum of two squares

greater than zero.

Problem 2.2.6 Let n > 1 be a positive integer. Prove that if

one of the numbers 2

n

−1, 2

n

+1 is prime, then the other is

composite.

Problem 2.2.7 Prove that there are inﬁnitely many integers n

such that 4n

2

+1 is divisible by both 13 and 5.

Problem 2.2.8 Prove that any integer n >11 is the sum of two

positive composite numbers.

Hint: Think of n −6 if n is even and n −9 if n is odd.

Problem 2.2.9 Prove that 3 never divides n

2

+1.

Problem 2.2.10 Show the existence of inﬁnitely many natural

numbers x, y such that x(x +1)[y(y +1) but

x ,[y and (x +1) ,[y,

and also

x ,[(y +1) and (x +1) ,[(y +1).

Hint: Try x = 36k +14, y = (12k +5)(18k +7).

Some Algebraic Identities 21

2.3 Some Algebraic Identities

In this section we present some examples whose solutions depend on the use of some elementary algebraic identities.

50 Example Find all the primes of the form n

3

−1, for integer n > 1.

Solution: n

3

−1 = (n −1)(n

2

+n +1). If the expression were prime, since n

2

+n +1 is always greater than 1, we must have

n −1 = 1, i.e. n = 2. Thus the only such prime is 7.

51 Example Prove that n

4

+4 is a prime only when n = 1 for n ∈ N.

Solution: Observe that

n

4

+4 = n

4

+4n

2

+4 −4n

2

= (n

2

+2)

2

− (2n)

2

= (n

2

+2 −2n)(n

2

+2 +2n)

= ((n −1)

2

+1)((n +1)

2

+1).

Each factor is greater than 1 for n > 1, and so n

4

+4 cannot be a prime.

52 Example Find all integers n ≥1 for which n

4

+4

n

is a prime.

Solution: The expression is only prime for n =1. Clearly one must take n odd. For n ≥3 odd all the numbers below are integers:

n

4

+2

2n

= n

4

+2n

2

2

n

+2

2n

−2n

2

2

n

= (n

2

+2

n

)

2

−

Ä

n2

(n+1)/2

ä

2

= (n

2

+2

n

+n2

(n+1)/2

)(n

2

+2

n

−n2

(n+1)/2

).

It is easy to see that if n ≥3, each factor is greater than 1, so this number cannot be a prime.

53 Example Prove that for all n ∈ N , n

2

divides the quantity

(n +1)

n

−1.

Solution: If n = 1 this is quite evident. Assume n > 1. By the Binomial Theorem,

(n +1)

n

−1 =

n

k=1

Ç

n

k

å

n

k

,

and every term is divisible by n

2

.

54 Example Prove that if p is an odd prime and if

a

b

= 1 +1/2 + +1/(p −1),

then p divides a.

Solution: Arrange the sum as

1 +

1

p −1

+

1

2

+

1

p −2

+ +

1

(p −1)/2

+

1

(p +1)/2

.

After summing consecutive pairs, the numerator of the resulting fractions is p. Each term in the denominator is < p. Since p is

a prime, the p on the numerator will not be thus cancelled out.

22 Chapter 2

55 Example Prove that

x

n

−y

n

= (x −y)(x

n−1

+x

n−2

y +x

n−3

y

2

+ +xy

n−2

+y

n−1

)

Thus x −y always divides x

n

−y

n

.

Solution: We may assume that x ,= y, xy ,= 0, the result being otherwise trivial. In that case, the result follows at once from the

identity

n−1

k=0

a

k

=

a

n

−1

a −1

a ,= 1,

upon letting a = x/y and multiplying through by y

n

.

Without calculation we see that 8767

2345

−8101

2345

is divisible by 666.

56 Example (E˝ otv˝ os 1899) Show that

2903

n

−803

n

−464

n

+261

n

is divisible by 1897 for all natural numbers n.

Solution: By the preceding problem, 2903

n

−803

n

is divisible by 2903 −803 = 2100 = 7 300 =, and 261

n

−464

n

is divisible

by 261 −464 = −203 = 7 (−29). Thus the expression 2903

n

−803

n

−464

n

+261

n

is divisible by 7. Also, 2903

n

−464

n

is

divisible by 2903 −464 = 9 271 and 261

n

−803

n

is divisible by −542 = (−2)271. Thus the expression is also divisible by

271. Since 7 and 271 have no prime factors in common, we can conclude that the expression is divisible by 7 271 = 1897.

57 Example ((UM)

2

C

4

1987) Given that 1002004008016032 has a prime factor p > 250000, ﬁnd it.

Solution: If a = 10

3

, b = 2 then

1002004008016032 = a

5

+a

4

b +a

3

b

2

+a

2

b

3

+ab

4

+b

5

=

a

6

−b

6

a −b

.

This last expression factorises as

a

6

−b

6

a −b

= (a +b)(a

2

+ab +b

2

)(a

2

−ab +b

2

)

= 1002 1002004 998004

= 4 4 1002 250501 k,

where k < 250000. Therefore p = 250501.

58 Example (Grünert, 1856) If x, y, z, n are natural numbers n ≥z, then the relation

x

n

+y

n

= z

n

does not hold.

Solution: It is clear that if the relation x

n

+y

n

= z

n

holds for natural numbers x, y, z then x < z and y < z. By symmetry, we may

suppose that x < y. So assume that x

n

+y

n

= z

n

and n ≥z. Then

z

n

−y

n

= (z −y)(z

n−1

+yz

n−2

+ +y

n−1

) ≥1 nx

n−1

> x

n

,

contrary to the assertion that x

n

+y

n

= z

n

. This establishes the assertion.

Practice 23

59 Example Prove that for n odd,

x

n

+y

n

= (x +y)(x

n−1

−x

n−2

y +x

n−3

y

2

− + − + −xy

n−2

+y

n−1

).

Thus if n is odd, x +y divides x

n

+y

n

.

Solution: This is evident by substituting −y for y in example 1.11 and observing that (−y)

n

= −y

n

for n odd.

60 Example Show that 1001 divides

1

1993

+2

1993

+3

1993

+ +1000

1993

.

Solution: Follows at once from the previous problem, since each of 1

1993

+1000

1993

, 2

1993

+999

1993

, . . . , 500

1993

+501

1993

is

divisible by 1001.

61 Example (S250) Show that for any natural number n, there is another natural number x such that each term of the sequence

x +1, x

x

+1, x

x

x

+1, . . .

is divisible by n.

Solution: It sufﬁces to take x = 2n −1.

62 Example Determine inﬁnitely many pairs of integers (m, n) such that M and n share their prime factors and (m−1, n −1)

share their prime factors.

Solution: Take m = 2

k

−1, n = (2

k

−1)

2

, k = 2, 3, . . .. Then m, n obviously share their prime factors and m−1 = 2(2

k−1

−1)

shares its prime factors with n −1 = 2

k+1

(2

k−1

−1).

Practice

Problem 2.3.1 Show that the integer

1. . . 1

. ¸¸ .

91 ones

is composite.

Problem 2.3.2 Prove that 1

99

+2

99

+3

99

+4

99

is divisible by

5.

Problem 2.3.3 Show that if [ab[ ,=1, then a

4

+4b

4

is compos-

ite.

Problem 2.3.4 Demonstrate that for any natural number n,

the number

1 1

. ¸¸ .

2n 1

′

s

−2 2

. ¸¸ .

n 2

′

s

is the square of an integer.

Problem 2.3.5 Let 0 ≤a < b.

1. Prove that b

n

((n +1)a −nb) < a

n+1

.

2. Prove that for n = 1, 2, . . .,

Å

1 +

1

n

ã

n

<

Å

1 +

1

n +1

ã

n+1

n = 1, 2, . . . .

3. Show that

b

n+1

−a

n+1

b −a

> (n +1)a.

4. Show that

Å

1 +

1

n

ã

n+1

>

Å

1 +

1

n +1

ã

n+2

n = 1, 2, . . . .

Problem 2.3.6 If a, b are positive integers, prove that

(a +1/2)

n

+ (b +1/2)

n

is an integer only for ﬁnitely many positive integers n.

Problem 2.3.7 Prove that 100[11

10

−1.

24 Chapter 2

Problem 2.3.8 Let A and B be two natural numbers with the

same number of digits, A>B. Suppose that A and B have more

than half of their digits on the sinistral side in common. Prove

that

A

1/n

−B

1/n

<

1

n

for all n = 2, 3, 4, . . ..

Problem 2.3.9 Demonstrate that every number in the se-

quence

49, 4489, 444889, 44448889, . . ., 4 4

. ¸¸ .

n 4

′

s

8 8

. ¸¸ .

n−1 8

′

s

9,

is the square of an integer.

Problem 2.3.10 (Polish Mathematical Olympiad) Prove

that if n is an even natural number, then the number 13

n

+6 is

divisible by 7.

Problem 2.3.11 Find, with proof, the unique square which is

the product of four consecutive odd numbers.

Problem 2.3.12 Prove that the number 2222

5555

+5555

2222

is

divisible by 7.

(Hint: Consider

2222

5555

+4

5555

+5555

2222

−4

2222

+4

2222

−4

5555

.)

Problem 2.3.13 Prove that if a

n

+1, 1 < a ∈ N, is prime, then

a is even and n is a power of 2. Primes of the form 2

2

k

+1 are

called Fermat primes.

Problem 2.3.14 Prove that if a

n

−1, 1 < a ∈ N, is prime, then

a = 2 and n is a prime. Primes of the form 2

n

−1 are called

Mersenne primes.

Problem 2.3.15 (Putnam, 1989) How many primes amongst

the positive integers, written as usual in base-ten are such that

their digits are alternating 1’s and 0’s, beginning and ending

in 1?

Problem 2.3.16 Find the least value achieved by 36

k

−5

k

, k =

1, 2, . . . .

Problem 2.3.17 Find all the primes of the form n

3

+1.

Problem 2.3.18 Find a closed formula for the product

P = (1 +2)(1 +2

2

)(1 +2

2

2

) (1 +2

2

n

).

Use this to prove that for all positive integers n, 2

2

n

+1 divides

2

2

2

n

+1

−2.

Problem 2.3.19 Let a > 1 be a real number. Simplify the ex-

pression

»

a +2

√

a −1+

»

a −2

√

a −1.

Problem 2.3.20 Let a, b, c, d be real numbers such that

a

2

+b

2

+c

2

+d

2

= ab +bc +cd+da.

Prove that a = b = c = d.

Problem 2.3.21 Let a, b, c be the lengths of the sides of a tri-

angle. Show that

3(ab +bc +ca) ≤(a +b +c)

2

≤4(ab +bc +ca).

Problem 2.3.22 (ITT, 1994) Let a, b, c, d be complex num-

bers satisfying

a +b +c +d = a

3

+b

3

+c

3

+d

3

= 0.

Prove that a pair of the a, b, c, d must add up to 0.

Problem 2.3.23 Prove that the product of four consecutive

natural numbers is never a perfect square.

Hint: What is (n

2

+n −1)

2

?

Problem 2.3.24 Let k ≥ 2 be an integer. Show that if n is a

positive integer, then n

k

can be represented as the sum of n

successive odd numbers.

Problem 2.3.25 (Catalan) Prove that

1 −

1

2

+

1

3

−

1

4

+ +

1

2n −1

−

1

2n

equals

1

n +1

+

1

n +2

+ +

1

2n

.

Problem 2.3.26 (IMO, 1979) If a, b are natural numbers

such that

a

b

= 1 −

1

2

+

1

3

−

1

4

+ −

1

1318

+

1

1319

,

prove that 1979[a.

Practice 25

Problem 2.3.27 (Polish Mathematical Olympiad) A trian-

gular number is one of the form 1 +2 +. . . +n, n ∈ N. Prove

that none of the digits 2, 4, 7, 9 can be the last digit of a trian-

gular number.

Problem 2.3.28 Demonstrate that there are inﬁnitely many

square triangular numbers.

Problem 2.3.29 (Putnam, 1975) Supposing that an integer n

is the sum of two triangular numbers,

n =

a

2

+a

2

+

b

2

+b

2

,

write 4n+1 as the sum of two squares, 4n+1 = x

2

+y

2

where

x and y are expressed in terms of a and b.

Conversely, show that if 4n+1 = x

2

+y

2

, then n is the sum

of two triangular numbers.

Problem 2.3.30 (Polish Mathematical Olympiad) Prove

that amongst ten successive natural numbers, there are always

at least one and at most four numbers that are not divisible by

any of the numbers 2, 3, 5, 7.

Problem 2.3.31 Show that if k is odd,

1 +2 + +n

divides

1

k

+2

k

+ +n

k

.

Problem 2.3.32 Are there ﬁve consecutive positive integers

such that the sum of the ﬁrst four, each raised to the fourth

power, equals the ﬁfth raised to the fourth power?

Chapter 3

Congruences. Z

n

3.1 Congruences

The notation a ≡ b mod n is due to Gauß, and it means that n[(a −b). It also indicates that a and b leave the same remainder

upon division by n. For example, −8 ≡ −1 ≡ 6 ≡ 13 mod 7. Since n[(a −b) implies that ∃k ∈ Z such that nk = a −b, we

deduce that a ≡b mod n if and only if there is an integer k such that a = b +nk.

We start by mentioning some simple properties of congruences.

63 Lemma Let a, b, c, d, m∈ Z, k ∈ with a ≡b mod m and c ≡d mod m. Then

1. a +c ≡b +d mod m

2. a −c ≡b −d mod m

3. ac ≡bd mod m

4. a

k

≡b

k

mod m

5. If f is a polynomial with integral coefﬁcients then f (a) ≡ f (b) mod m.

Proof: As a ≡ b mod m and c ≡ d mod m, we can ﬁnd k

1

, k

2

∈ Z with a = b +k

1

m and c = d +k

2

m. Thus

a±c = b±d +m(k

1

±k

2

) and ac = bd +m(k

2

b+k

1

d). These equalities give (1), (2) and (3). Property (4) follows

by successive application of (3), and (5) follows from (4). u

Congruences mod 9 can sometimes be used to check multiplications. For example 875961 2753 ,= 2410520633. For if

this were true then

(8 +7 +5 +9 +6+1)(2 +7+5+3) ≡2 +4 +1 +0 +5+2+0+6+3+3 mod 9.

But this says that 0 8 ≡8 mod 9, which is patently false.

64 Example Find the remainder when 6

1987

is divided by 37.

Solution: 6

2

≡−1 mod 37. Thus 6

1987

≡6 6

1986

≡6(6

2

)

993

≡6(−1)

993

≡−6 ≡31 mod 37.

65 Example Prove that 7 divides 3

2n+1

+2

n+2

for all natural numbers n.

Solution: Observe that 3

2n+1

≡3 9

n

≡3 2

n

mod 7 and 2

n+2

≡4 2

n

mod 7. Hence

3

2n+1

+2

n+2

≡7 2

n

≡0 mod 7,

for all natural numbers n.

26

Congruences 27

66 Example Prove the following result of Euler: 641[(2

32

+1).

Solution: Observe that 641 = 2

7

5 +1 = 2

4

+5

4

. Hence 2

7

5 ≡ −1 mod 641 and 5

4

≡ −2

4

mod 641. Now, 2

7

5 ≡ −1

mod 641 yields 5

4

2

28

= (5 2

7

)

4

≡ (−1)

4

≡ 1 mod 641. This last congruence and 5

4

≡ −2

4

mod 641 yield −2

4

2

28

≡ 1

mod 641, which means that 641[(2

32

+1).

67 Example Find the perfect squares mod 13.

Solution: First observe that we only have to square all the numbers up to 6, because r

2

≡ (13 −r)

2

mod 13. Squaring the

nonnegative integers up to 6, we obtain 0

2

≡0, 1

2

≡1, 2

2

≡ 4, 3

2

≡9, 4

2

≡3, 5

2

≡ 12, 6

2

≡ 10 mod 13. Therefore the perfect

squares mod 13 are 0, 1, 4, 9, 3, 12, and 10.

68 Example Prove that there are no integers with x

2

−5y

2

= 2.

Solution: If x

2

= 2 −5y

2

, then x

2

≡2 mod 5. But 2 is not a perfect square mod 5.

69 Example Prove that 7[(2222

5555

+5555

2222

).

Solution: 2222 ≡ 3 mod 7, 5555 ≡ 4 mod 7 and 3

5

≡ 5 mod 7. Now 2222

5555

+5555

2222

≡ 3

5555

+4

2222

≡ (3

5

)

1111

+

(4

2

)

1111

≡5

1111

−5

1111

≡0 mod 7.

70 Example Find the units digit of 7

7

7

.

Solution: We must ﬁnd 7

7

7

mod 10. Now, 7

2

≡ −1 mod 10, and so 7

3

≡ 7

2

7 ≡ −7 ≡ 3 mod 10 and 7

4

≡ (7

2

)

2

≡ 1

mod 10. Also, 7

2

≡ 1 mod 4 and so 7

7

≡ (7

2

)

3

7 ≡ 3 mod 4, which means that there is an integer t such that 7

7

= 3 +4t.

Upon assembling all this,

7

7

7

≡7

4t+3

≡(7

4

)

t

7

3

≡1

t

3 ≡3 mod 10.

Thus the last digit is 3.

71 Example Prove that every year, including any leap year, has at least one Friday 13-th.

Solution: It is enough to prove that each year has a Sunday the 1st. Now, the ﬁrst day of a month in each year falls in one of the

following days:

Month Day of the year mod 7

January 1 1

February 32 4

March 60 or 61 4 or 5

April 91 or 92 0 or 1

May 121 or122 2 or 3

June 152 or 153 5 or 6

July 182 or183 0 or 1

August 213 or 214 3 or 4

September 244 or 245 6 or 0

October 274 or 275 1 or 2

November 305 or 306 4 or 5

December 335 or 336 6 or 0

(The above table means that, depending on whether the year is a leap year or not, that March 1st is the 50th or 51st day of the

year, etc.) Now, each remainder class modulo 7 is represented in the third column, thus each year, whether leap or not, has at

least one Sunday the 1st.

28 Chapter 3

72 Example Find inﬁnitely many integers n such that 2

n

+27 is divisible by 7.

Solution: Observe that 2

1

≡ 2, 2

2

≡ 4, 2

3

≡ 1, 2

4

≡ 2, 2

5

≡ 4, 2

6

≡ 1 mod 7 and so 2

3k

≡ 1 mod 3 for all positive integers k.

Hence 2

3k

+27 ≡1 +27 ≡0 mod 7 for all positive integers k. This produces the inﬁnitely many values sought.

73 Example Are there positive integers x, y such that x

3

= 2

y

+15?

Solution: No. The perfect cubes mod 7 are 0, 1, and 6. Now, every power of 2 is congruent to 1, 2, or 4 mod 7. Thus

2

y

+15 ≡2, 3, or 5 mod 7. This is an impossibility.

74 Example Prove that 2

k

−5, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . never leaves remainder 1 when divided by 7.

Solution: 2

1

≡2, 2

2

≡4, 2

3

≡ 1 mod 7, and this cycle of three repeats. Thus 2

k

−5 can leave only remainders 3, 4, or 6 upon

division by 7.

75 Example (AIME, 1994) The increasing sequence

3, 15, 24, 48, . . . ,

consists of those positive multiples of 3 that are one less than a perfect square. What is the remainder when the 1994-th term of

the sequence is divided by 1000?

Solution: We want 3[n

2

−1 = (n −1)(n +1). Since 3 is prime, this requires n = 3k +1 or n = 3k −1, k = 1, 2, 3, . . .. The

sequence 3k +1, k = 1, 2, . . . produces the terms n

2

−1 = (3k +1)

2

−1 which are the terms at even places of the sequence of

3, 15, 24, 48, . . .. The sequence 3k −1, k = 1, 2, . . . produces the terms n

2

−1 = (3k −1)

2

−1 which are the terms at odd places

of the sequence 3, 15, 24, 48, . . .. We must ﬁnd the 997th term of the sequence 3k +1, k = 1, 2, . . .. Finally, the term sought is

(3(997) +1)

2

−1 ≡(3(−3) +1)

2

−1 ≡8

2

−1 ≡63 mod 1000. The remainder sought is 63.

76 Example (USAMO, 1979) Determine all nonnegative integral solutions

(n

1

, n

2

, . . . , n

14

)

if any, apart from permutations, of the Diophantine equation

n

4

1

+n

4

2

+ +n

4

14

= 1599.

Solution: There are no such solutions. All perfect fourth powers mod 16 are ≡0 or 1 mod 16. This means that

n

4

1

+ +n

4

14

can be at most 14 mod 16. But 1599 ≡15 mod 16.

77 Example (Putnam, 1986) What is the units digit of

10

20000

10

100

+3

?

Solution: Set a−3 =10

100

. Then [(10

20000

)/10

100

+3] = [(a−3)

200

/a] = [

1

a

200

k=0

Ç

200

k

å

a

200−k

(−3)

k

] =

199

k=0

Ç

200

k

å

a

199−k

(−3)

k

.

Since

200

k=0

(−1)

k

Ç

200

k

å

= 0, (3)

199

199

k=0

(−1)

k

Ç

200

k

å

= −3

199

. As a ≡3 mod 10,

199

k=0

Ç

200

k

å

a

199−k

(−3)

k

≡3

199

199

k=0

(−1)

k

Ç

200

k

å

≡−3

199

≡3 mod 10.

Congruences 29

78 Example Prove that for any a, b, c ∈ Z, n ∈ N, n > 3, there is an integer k such that n ,[(k +a), n ,[(k +b), n ,[(k +c).

Solution: The integers a, b, c belong to at most three different residue classes mod n. Since n > 3, we have more than three

distinct residue classes. Thus there must be a residue class, say k for which −k ,≡ a, −k ,≡ b, −k ,≡ c, mod n. This solves the

problem.

79 Example (Putnam, 1973) Let a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

2n+1

be a set of integers such that if any one of them is removed, the remaining

ones can be divided into two sets of n integers with equal sums. Prove that a

1

= a

2

= . . . = a

2n+1

.

Solution: As the sum of the 2n integers remaining is always even, no matter which of the a

k

be taken, all the a

k

must have the

same parity. The property stated in the problem is now shared by a

k

/2 or (a

k

−1)/2, depending on whether they are all even, or

all odd. Thus they are all congruent mod 4. Continuing in this manner we arrive at the conclusion that the a

k

are all congruent

mod 2

k

for every k, and this may only happen if they are all equal.

80 Example Prove that

(kn)! ≡0 mod

n−1

r=0

(n +r)

if n, k ∈ N, n ≥k ≥2.

Solution: (kn)! = M(n −1)!n(n +1) (2n −1) for some integer M ≥1. The assertion follows.

81 Example Let

n!! = n! (1/2! −1/3! + + (−1)

n

/n!).

Prove that for all n ∈ N, n > 3,

n!! ≡n! mod (n −1).

Solution: We have

n! −n!! = n(n −1)(n −2)!(1 −1/2!

+ + (−1)

n−1

/(n −1)! + (−1)

n

/n!)

= (n −1)

Ä

m+ (−1)

n−1

n/(n −1) + (−1)

n

/(n −1)

ä

= (n −1)(m+ (−1)

n

) ,

where M is an integer, since (n −2)! is divisible by k!, k ≤n −2.

82 Example Prove that

6n+2

k=0

Ç

6n +2

2k

å

3

k

≡0, 2

3n+1

, −2

3n+1

mod 2

3n+2

when n is of the form 2k, 4k +3 or 4k +1 respectively.

Solution: Using the Binomial Theorem,

2S := 2

3n+1

k=0

Ç

6n +2

2k

å

3

k

= (1 +

√

3)

6n+2

+ (1 −

√

3)

6n+2

.

Also, if n is odd, with a = 2 +

√

3, b = 2 −

√

3,

1

2

(a

3n+1

+b

3n+1

) =

3n +1

2

r=0

Ç

3n +1

2r

å

2

3n+1−2r

3

r

.

≡ 3

(3n+1)/2

mod 4

≡ (−1)

(n−1)/2

mod 4.

30 Chapter 3

As 2S = 2

3n+1

(a

3n+1

+b

3n+1

), we have, for odd n,

S ≡(−1)

(n−1)/2

2

3n+1

mod 2

3n+3

.

If n is even,

1

2

(a

3n+1

+b

3n+1

) =

2r≤3n

Ç

3n +1

2r +1

å

2

2r+1

3

3n−2r

≡ 2(6n +1)3

3n

mod 8

≡ 4n +2 mod 8.

So for even n, S ≡2

3n+2

2n +1 mod 2

3n+4

.

Practice

Problem 3.1.1 Find the number of all n, 1 ≤n ≤25 such that

n

2

+15n +122 is divisible by 6.

(Hint: n

2

+15n+122 ≡n

2

+3n+2 = (n+1)(n+2) mod 6.)

Problem 3.1.2 (AIME 1983) Let a

n

=6

n

+8

n

. Determine the

remainder when a

83

is divided by 49.

Problem 3.1.3 (POLISH MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD)

What digits should be put instead of x and y in 30x0y03 in

order to give a number divisible by 13?

Problem 3.1.4 Prove that if 9[(a

3

+b

3

+c

3

), then 3[abc, for

integers a, b, c.

Problem 3.1.5 Describe all integers n such that 10[n

10

+1.

Problem 3.1.6 Prove that if

a −b, a

2

−b

2

, a

3

−b

3

, a

4

−b

4

, . . .

are all integers, then a and b must also be integers.

Problem 3.1.7 Find the last digit of 3

100

.

Problem 3.1.8 (AHSME 1992) What is the size of the largest

subset S of ¦1, 2, . . . , 50¦ such that no pair of distinct elements

of S has a sum divisible by 7?

Problem 3.1.9 Prove that there are no integer solutions to the

equation x

2

−7y = 3.

Problem 3.1.10 Prove that if 7[a

2

+b

2

then 7[a and 7[b.

Problem 3.1.11 Prove that there are no integers with

800000007 = x

2

+y

2

+z

2

.

Problem 3.1.12 Prove that the sum of the decimal digits of a

perfect square cannot be equal to 1991.

Problem 3.1.13 Prove that

7[4

2

n

+2

2

n

+1

for all natural numbers n.

Problem 3.1.14 Prove that 5 never divides

n

k=0

2

3k

Ç

2n +1

2k +1

å

.

Problem 3.1.15 Prove that if p is a prime,

Ç

n

p

å

− [

n

p

] is di-

visible by p, for all n ≥ p.

Problem 3.1.16 How many perfect squares are there

mod 2

n

?

Problem 3.1.17 Prove that every non-multiple of 3 is a per-

fect power of 2 mod 3

n

.

Problem 3.1.18 Find the last two digits of 3

100

.

Problem 3.1.19 (USAMO, 1986) What is the smallest inte-

ger n >1, for which the root-mean-square of the ﬁrst n positive

integers is an integer?

Note. The root mean square of n numbers a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

n

is deﬁned to be

Å

a

2

1

+a

2

2

+ +a

2

n

n

ã

1/2

.

Divisibility Tests 31

Problem 3.1.20 Find all integers a, b, c, a > 1 and all prime

numbers p, q, r which satisfy the equation

p

a

= q

b

+r

c

(a, b, c, p, q, r need not necessarily be different).

Problem 3.1.21 Show that the number 16 is a perfect 8-th

power mod p for any prime p.

Problem 3.1.22 (IMO, 1975) Let a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, . . . be an increas-

ing sequence of positive integers. Prove that for every s ≥ 1

there are inﬁnitely many a

m

that can be written in the form

a

m

= xa

s

+ya

t

with positive integers x and y and t > s.

Problem 3.1.23 For each integer n > 1, prove that n

n

−n

2

+

n −1 is divisible by (n −1)

2

.

Problem 3.1.24 Let x and a

i

, i = 0, 1, . . . , k be arbitrary inte-

gers. Prove that

k

i=0

a

i

(x

2

+1)

3i

is divisible by x

2

±x +1 if and only if

k

i=0

(−1)

i

a

i

is divisible

by x

2

±x +1.

Problem 3.1.25 ((UM)

2

C

9

1992) If x, y, z are positive inte-

gers with

x

n

+y

n

= z

n

for an odd integer n ≥3, prove that z cannot be a prime-power.

3.2 Divisibility Tests

Working base-ten, we have an ample number of rules of divisibility. The most famous one is perhaps the following.

83 Theorem (Casting-out 9’s) A natural number n is divisible by 9 if and only if the sum of it digits is divisible by 9.

Proof: Let n = a

k

10

k

+a

k−1

10

k−1

+ +a

1

10 +a

0

be the base-10 expansion of n. As 10 ≡ 1 mod 9, we have

10

j

≡1 mod 9. It follows that n = a

k

10

k

+ +a

1

10 +a

0

≡a

k

+ +a

1

+a

0

, whence the theorem. u

84 Example (AHSME, 1992) The two-digit integers from 19 to 92 are written consecutively in order to form the integer

192021222324 89909192.

What is the largest power of 3 that divides this number?

Solution: By the casting-out-nines rule, this number is divisible by 9 if and only if

19 +20 +21 + +92 = 37

2

3

is. Therefore, the number is divisible by 3 but not by 9.

85 Example (IMO, 1975) When 4444

4444

is written in decimal notation, the sum of its digits is A. Let B be the sum of the

digits of A. Find the sum of the digits of B. (A and B are written in decimal notation.)

Solution: We have 4444 ≡7 mod 9, and hence 4444

3

≡7

3

≡1 mod 9. Thus 4444

4444

=4444

3(1481)

4444 ≡1 7 ≡7 mod 9.

Let C be the sum of the digits of B.

By the casting-out 9’s rule, 7 ≡4444

4444

≡A ≡B ≡C mod 9. Now, 4444log

10

4444 <4444log

10

10

4

=17776. This means

that 4444

4444

has at most 17776 digits, so the sum of the digits of 4444

4444

is at most 9 17776 = 159984, whence A ≤159984.

Amongst all natural numbers ≤ 159984 the one with maximal digit sum is 99999, so it follows that B ≤ 45. Of all the natural

numbers ≤45, 39 has the largest digital sum, namely 12. Thus the sum of the digits of B is at most 12. But since C ≡7 mod 9,

it follows that C = 7.

A criterion for divisibility by 11 can be established similarly. For let n = a

k

10

k

+a

k−1

10

k−1

+ +a

1

10+a

0

. As 10 ≡−1

mod 11, we have 10

j

≡(−1)

j

mod 11. Therefore n ≡(−1)

k

a

k

+(−1)

k−1

a

k−1

+ −a

1

+a

0

mod 11, that is, n is divisible by

11 if and only if the alternating sumof its digits is divisible by 11. For example, 912282219≡9−1+2−2+8−2+2−1+9 ≡7

mod 11 and so 912282219 is not divisible by 11, whereas 8924310064539≡8−9+2−4+3−1+0−0+6−4+4−3+9 ≡0

mod 11, and so 8924310064539 is divisible by 11.

32 Chapter 3

86 Example (Putnam, 1952) Let

f (x) =

n

k=0

a

k

x

n−k

be a polynomial of degree n with integral coefﬁcients. If a

0

, a

n

and f (1) are all odd, prove that f (x) = 0 has no rational roots.

Solution: Suppose that f (a/b) = 0, where a and b are relatively prime integers. Then 0 = b

n

f (a/b) = a

0

b

n

+a

1

b

n−1

a + +

a

n−1

ba

n−1

+a

n

a

n

. By the relative primality of a and b it follows that a[a

0

, b[a

n

, whence a and b are both odd. Hence

a

0

b

n

+a

a

b

n−1

a + +a

n−1

ba

n−1

+a

n

a

n

≡a

0

+a

1

+ +a

n

= f (1) ≡1 mod 2,

but this contradicts that a/b is a root of f .

Practice

Problem 3.2.1 (AHSME 1991) An n-digit integer is cute if its

n digits are an arrangement of the set ¦1, 2, . . . , n¦ and its ﬁrst

k digits forman integer that is divisible by k for all k, 1 ≤k ≤n.

For example, 321 is a cute three-digit number because 1 di-

vides 3, 2 divides 32, and 3 divides 321. How many cute six-

digit integers are there?

Answer: 2.

Problem 3.2.2 How many ways are there to roll two distin-

guishable dice to yield a sum that is divisible by three?

Answer: 12.

Problem 3.2.3 Prove that a number is divisible by 2

k

, k ∈ N if

and only if the number formed by its last k digits is divisible by

2

k

. Test whether

90908766123456789999872

is divisible by 8.

Problem 3.2.4 An old receipt has faded. It reads 88 chickens

at the total of $x4.2y, where x and y are unreadable digits.

How much did each chicken cost?

Answer: 73 cents.

Problem 3.2.5 Five sailors plan to divide a pile of coconuts

amongst themselves in the morning. During the night, one of

them wakes up and decides to take his share. After throwing

a coconut to a monkey to make the division come out even, he

takes one ﬁfth of the pile and goes back to sleep. The other four

sailors do likewise, one after the other, each throwing a co-

conut to the monkey and taking one ﬁfth of the remaining pile.

In the morning the ﬁve sailors throw a coconut to the monkey

and divide the remaining coconuts into ﬁve equal piles. What

is the smallest amount of coconuts that could have been in the

original pile?

Answer: 15621

Problem 3.2.6 Prove that a number which consists of 3

n

iden-

tical digits is divisible by 3

n

. For example, 111 111 111 is

divisible by 9.

Problem 3.2.7 ((UM)

2

C

8

1991) Suppose that a

0

, a

1

, . . . a

n

are integers with a

n

,= 0, and let

p(x) = a

0

+a

1

x + +a

n

x

n

.

Suppose that x

0

is a rational number such that p(x

0

) =0. Show

that if 1 ≤k ≤n, then

a

k

x

0

+a

k+1

x

2

0

+ +a

n

x

n−k+1

is an integer.

Problem 3.2.8 1953 digits are written in a circular order.

Prove that if the 1953-digit numbers obtained when we read

these digits in dextrogyral sense beginning with one of the dig-

its is divisible by 27, then if we read these digits in the same

direction beginning with any other digit, the new 1953-digit

number is also divisible by 27.

Problem 3.2.9 (Lagrange) Prove that

f

n+60

≡ f

n

mod 10.

Thus the last digit of a Fibonacci number recurs in cycles of

length 60.

Problem 3.2.10 Prove that

f

2n+1

≡ f

2

n+1

mod f

2

n

.

Complete Residues 33

3.3 Complete Residues

The following concept will play a central role in our study of integers.

87 Deﬁnition If a ≡b mod n then b is called a residue of a modulo n. A set a

1

, a

2

, . . . a

n

is called a complete residue system

modulo n if for every integer b there is exactly one index j such that b ≡a

j

mod n.

It is clear that given any ﬁnite set of integers, this set will form a complete set of residues modulo n if and only if the

set has n members and every member of the set is incongruent modulo n. For example, the set A = ¦0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5¦ forms

a complete set of residues mod 6, since any integer x is congruent to one and only one member of A. Notice that the set

B = ¦−40, 6, 7, 15, 22, 35¦ forms a complete residue set mod 6, but the set C = ¦−3, −2, −1, 1, 2, 3¦ does not, as −3 ≡ 3

mod 6.

+

3

0 1 2

0 0 1 2

1 1 2 0

2 2 0 1

Table 3.1: Addition Table for Z

3

+

6

0 1 2 3 4 5

0 0 1 2 3 4 5

1 1 2 3 4 5 0

2 2 3 4 5 0 1

3 3 4 5 0 1 2

4 4 5 0 1 2 3

5 5 0 1 2 3 4

Table 3.2: Addition Table for Z

6

Tied up with the concept of complete residues is that of Z

n

. As an example, let us take n = 3. We now let 0 represent all

those integers that are divisible by 3, 1 represent all those integers that leave remainder 1 upon division by 3, and 2 all those

integers that leave remainder 2 upon division by 3, and consider the set Z

3

= ¦0, 1, 2¦. We deﬁne addition in Z

3

as follows.

Given a, b ∈ Z

3

we consider a +b mod 3. Now, there is c ∈ ¦0, 1, 2¦ such that a +b ≡ c mod 3. We then deﬁne a +

3

b to be

equal to c. Table ?? contains all the possible additions.

We observe that Z

3

together with the operation +

3

as given in Table ?? satisﬁes the following properties:

1. The element 0 ∈ Z

3

is an identity element for Z

3

, i.e. 0 satisﬁes 0 +

3

a = a +

3

0 = a for all a ∈ Z

3

2. Every element a ∈ Z

3

has an additive inverse b, i.e., an element such that a +

3

b = b +

3

a = 0. We denote the additive

inverse of a by −a. In Z

3

we note that −0 = 0, −1 = 2, −2 = 1.

3. The operation addition in Z

3

is associative, that is, for all a, b, c ∈ Z

3

we have a +

3

(b+

3

c) = (a +

3

b) +

3

c.

We then say that <Z

3

, +

3

> forms a group and we call it the group of residues under addition mod 3.

Similarly we deﬁne < Z

n

, +

n

>, as the group of residues under addition mod n. As a further example we present the

addition table for <Z

6

, +

6

> on Table (1.2). We will explore later the multiplicative structure of Z

n

.

Practice

Problem 3.3.1 Construct the addition tables for Z

8

and Z

9

. Problem 3.3.2 How many distinct ordered pairs (a, b) ,=

(0, 0) are in Z

12

such that a +

12

b = 0?

Chapter 4

Unique Factorisation

4.1 GCD and LCM

If a, b ∈ Z, not both zero, the largest positive integer that divides both a, b is called the greatest common divisor of a and b. This

is denoted by (a, b) or sometimes by gcd(a, b). Thus if d[a and d[b then d[(a, b), because any common divisor of a and b must

divide the largest common divisor of a and b. For example, (68, −6) = 2, gcd(1998, 1999) = 1.

If (a, b) = 1, we say that a and b are relatively prime or coprime. Thus if a, b are relatively prime, then they have no factor

greater than 1 in common.

If a, b are integers, not both zero, the smallest positive integer that is a multiple of a, b is called the least common multiple

of a and b. This is denoted by [a, b]. We see then that if a[c and if b[c, then [a, b][c, since c is a common multiple of both a and

b, it must be divisible by the smallest common multiple of a and b.

The most important theorem related to gcd’s is probably the following.

88 Theorem (Bachet-Bezout Theorem) The greatest common divisor of any two integers a, b can be written as a linear

combination of a and b, i.e., there are integers x, y with

(a, b) = ax +by.

Proof: Let A = ¦ax +by[ax +by > 0, x, y ∈ Z¦. Clearly one of ±a, ±b is in A, as both a, b are not zero. By the

Well Ordering Principle, A has a smallest element, say d. Therefore, there are x

0

, y

0

such that d = ax

0

+by

0

. We

prove that d = (a, b). To do this we prove that d[a, d[b and that if t[a, t[b, then t[d.

We ﬁrst prove that d[a. By the Division Algorithm, we can ﬁnd integers q, r, 0 ≤r < d such that a = dq +r. Then

r = a −dq = a(1 −qx

0

) −by

0

.

If r > 0, then r ∈ A is smaller than the smaller element of A, namely d, a contradiction. Thus r = 0. This entails

dq = a, i.e. d[a. We can similarly prove that d[b.

Assume that t[a, t[b. Then a = tm, b = tn for integers m, n. Hence d = ax

0

+bx

0

= t(mx

0

+ny

0

), that is, t[d. The

theorem is thus proved. u

It is clear that any linear combination of a, b is divisible by (a, b).

89 Lemma (Euclid’s Lemma) If a[bc and if (a, b) = 1, then a[c.

Proof: As (a, b) = 1, by the Bachet-Bezout Theorem, there are integers x, y with ax +by = 1. Since a[bc, there is

an integer s with as = bc. Then c = c 1 = cax +cby = cax +asy. From this it follows that a[c, as wanted.u

34

GCD and LCM 35

90 Theorem If (a, b) = d, then

(

a

d

,

b

d

) = 1.

Proof: By the Bachet-Bezout Theorem, there are integers x, y such that ax+by =d. But then (a/d)x+(b/d)y =1,

and a/d, b/d are integers. But this is a linear combination of a/d, b/d and so (a/d, b/d) divides this linear

combination, i.e., divides 1. We conclude that (a/d, b/d) = 1.u

91 Theorem Let c be a positive integer. Then

(ca, cb) = c(a, b).

Proof: Let d

1

= (ca, cb) and d

2

= (a, b). We prove that d

1

[cd

2

and cd

2

[d

1

. As d

2

[a and d

2

[b, then cd

2

[ca, cd

2

[cb.

Thus cd

2

is a common divisor of ca and cb and hence d

1

[cd

2

. By the Bachet-Bezout Theorem we can ﬁnd integers

x, y with d

1

= acx +bcy = c(ax +by). But ax +by is a linear combination of a, b and so it is divisible by d

2

. There

is an integer s then such that sd

2

= ax +by. It follows that d

1

= csd

2

, i.e., cd

2

[d

1

. u

It follows similarly that (ca, cb) =[c[(a, b) for any non-zero integer c.

92 Lemma For nonzero integers a, b, c,

(a, bc) = (a, (a, b)c).

Proof: Since (a, (a, b)c) divides (a, b)c it divides bc. Thus gcd(a, (a, b)c) divides a and bc and hence gcd(a, (a, b)c)[ gcd(a, bc).

On the other hand, (a, bc) divides a and bc, hence it divides ac and bc. Therefore (a, bc) divides (ac, bc) = c(a, b).

In conclusion, (a, bc) divides a and c(a, b) and so it divides (a, (a, b)c). This ﬁnishes the proof.u

93 Theorem (a

2

, b

2

) = (a, b)

2

.

Proof: Assume that (m, n) = 1. Using the preceding lemma twice,

(m

2

, n

2

) = (m

2

, (m

2

, n)n) = (m

2

, (n, (m, n)m)n).

As (m, n) = 1, this last quantity equals (m

2

, n). Using the preceding problem again,

(m

2

, n) = (n, (m, n)m) = 1.

Thus (m, n) = 1 implies (m

2

, n

2

) = 1.

By Theorem ??,

Å

a

(a, b)

,

b

(a, b)

ã

= 1,

and hence

Ç

a

2

(a, b)

2

,

b

2

(a, b)

2

å

= 1.

By Theorem ??, upon multiplying by (a, b)

2

, we deduce

(a

2

, b

2

) = (a, b)

2

,

which is what we wanted.u

94 Example Let (a, b) = 1. Prove that (a +b, a

2

−ab +b

2

) = 1 or 3.

36 Chapter 4

Solution: Let d = (a +b, a

2

−ab +b

2

). Now d divides

(a +b)

2

−a

2

+ab −b

2

= 3ab.

Hence d divides 3b(a +b) −3ab = 3b

2

. Similarly, d[3a

2

. But then d[(3a

2

, 3b

2

) = 3(a

2

, b

2

) = 3(a, b)

2

= 3.

95 Example Let a, a ,= 1, m, n be positive integers. Prove that

(a

m

−1, a

n

−1) = a

(m,n)

−1.

Solution: Set d = (m, n), sd = m, td = n. Then a

m

−1 = (a

d

)

s

−1 is divisible by a

d

−1 and similarly, a

n

−1 is divisible by

a

d

−1. Thus (a

d

−1)[(a

m

−1, a

n

−1). Now, by the Bachet-Bezout Theoremthere are integers x, y with mx+ny =d. Notice that

x and y must have opposite signs (they cannot obviously be both negative, since then d would be negative. They cannot both be

positive because then d ≥ m+n, when in fact we have d ≤ m, d ≤ n). So, assume without loss of generality that x > 0, y ≤ 0.

Set t = (a

m

−1, a

n

−1). Then t[(a

mx

−1) and t[(a

−ny

−1). Hence, t[((a

mx

−1) −a

d

(a

−ny

−1)) = a

d

−1. The assertion is

established.

96 Example (IMO, 1959) Prove that the fraction

21n +4

14n +3

is irreducible for every natural number n.

Solution: 2(21n +4) −3(14n +3) = −1. Thus the numerator and the denominator have no common factor greater than 1.

97 Example (AIME, 1985) The numbers in the sequence

101, 104, 109, 116, . . .

are of the form a

n

= 100 +n

2

, n = 1, 2, . . .. For each n let d

n

= (a

n

, a

n+1

). Find max

n≥1

d

n

.

Solution: We have the following: d

n

= (100 +n

2

, 100 + (n +1)

2

) = (100 +n

2

, 100 +n

2

+2n +1) = (100 +n

2

, 2n +1). Thus

d

n

[(2(100+n

2

)−n(2n+1)) =200−n. Therefore d

n

[(2(200−n)+(2n+1)) =401. This means that d

n

[401 for all n. Could it be

that large? The answer is yes, for let n = 200, then a

200

= 100+200

2

= 100(401) and a

201

= 100+201

2

= 40501 = 101(401).

Thus max

n≥1

d

n

= 401.

98 Example Prove that if m and n are natural numbers and m is odd, then (2

m

−1, 2

n

+1) = 1.

Solution: Let d = (2

m

−1, 2

n

+1). It follows that d must be an odd number, and 2

m

−1 = kd, 2

n

+1 = ld, for some natural

numbers k, l. Therefore, 2

mn

= (kd +1)

n

= td +1, where t =

n−1

j=0

Ç

n

j

å

k

n−j

d

n−j−1

. In the same manner, 2

mn

= (ld −1)

m

=

ud −1, where we have used the fact that m is odd. As td +1 = ud −1, we must have d[2, whence d = 1.

99 Example Prove that there are arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions in which the terms are pairwise relatively prime.

Solution: The numbers km! +1, k = 1, 2, . . . , m form an arithmetic progression of length m and common difference m!. Suppose

that d[(lm! +1), d[(sm! +1), 1 ≤l < s ≤m. Then d[(s(lm! +1) −l(sm! +1)) = (s −l) < m. Thus 1 ≤d < m and so, d[m!. But

then d[(sm! +1 −sm!) = 1. This means that any two terms of this progression are coprime.

100 Example Prove that any two consecutive Fibonacci numbers are relatively prime.

Solution: Let d = ( f

n

, f

n+1

). As f

n+1

− f

n

= f

n−1

and d divides the sinistral side of this equality, d[ f

n−1

. Thus d[( f

n

− f

n−1

) =

f

n−2

. Iterating on this process we deduce that d[ f

1

= 1 and so d = 1.

Aliter: By Cassini’s Identity f

n−1

f

n+1

− f

2

n

= (−1)

n

. Thus d[(−1)

n

, i.e., d = 1.

GCD and LCM 37

101 Example Prove that

( f

m

, f

n

) = f

(n,m)

.

Solution: Set d = ( f

n

, f

m

), c = f

(m,n)

, a = (m, n). We will prove that c[d and d[c.

Since a[m and a[n, f

a

[ f

m

and f

a

[ f

n

by Theorem ??. Thus

f

a

[( f

m

, f

m

),

i.e., c[d.

Now, by the Bachet-Bezout Theorem, there are integers x, y such that xm+yn =a. Observe that x, y cannot be both negative,

otherwise a would be negative. As a[n, a[m we have a ≤n, a ≤m. They cannot be both positive since then a =xm+yn ≥m+n,

a contradiction. Thus they are of opposite signs, and we assume without loss of generality that x ≤0, y > 0.

Observe that

f

yn

= f

a−xm

= f

a−1

f

−xm

+ f

a

f

−xm+1

upon using the identity

f

s+t

= f

s−1

f

t

+ f

s

f

t+1

of Theorem ??. As n[yn, m[(−xm), we have that f

n

[ f

yn

, f

m

[ f

−xm

. This implies that ( f

n

, f

m

)[ f

yn

and ( f

n

, f

m

)[ f

−xm

. Hence

( f

n

, f

m

)[ f

a

f

−xm+1

.

We saw earlier that ( f

n

, f

m

)[ f

−xm

. If it were the case that

( f

n

, f

m

)[ f

−xm+1

,

then ( f

n

, f

m

) would be dividing two consecutive Fibonacci numbers, a contradiction to the preceding problem in the case when

( f

n

, f

m

) > 1. The case = 1 is a triviality. Therefore ( f

n

, f

m

)[ f

a

, which is what we wanted to prove.

102 Example Prove that no odd Fibonacci number is ever divisible by 17.

Solution: Let d = (17, f

n

), which obviously must be odd. Then (17, f

n

) = (34, f

n

) = ( f

9

, f

n

) = f

(9,n)

= f

1

, f

3

or f

9

. This means

that d = (17, f

n

) = 1, 2 or 34. This forces d = 1.

103 Example The Catalan number of order n is deﬁned as

C

n

=

1

n +1

Ç

2n

n

å

.

Prove that C

n

is an integer for all natural numbers n.

Solution: By the binomial absorption identity,

2n +1

n +1

Ç

2n

n

å

=

Ç

2n +1

n +1

å

.

Since 2n+1 and n+1 are relatively prime, and since the dextral side is an integer, it must be the case that n+1 divides

Ç

2n

n

å

.

104 Example Let n be a natural number. Find the greatest common divisor of

Ç

2n

1

å

,

Ç

2n

3

å

, . . . ,

Ç

2n

2n −1

å

.

38 Chapter 4

Solution: Since

n

k=1

Ç

2n

2k −1

å

= 2

2n−1

,

the gcd must be of the form 2

a

. Since the gcd must divide

Ç

2n

1

å

= 2n, we see that it has divide 2

l+1

, where l is the largest

power of 2 that divides n. We claim that 2

l+1

divides all of them. We may write n = 2

l

m, where M is odd. Now,

Ç

2

l+1

m

2k −1

å

=

2

l+1

m

2k −1

Ç

2

l+1

m−1

2k −2

å

.

But 2k −1 ,[2

l+1

for k > 1. This establishes the claim.

105 Example Let any ﬁfty one integers be taken from amongst the numbers 1, 2, . . . , 100. Show that there are two that are

relatively prime.

Solution: Arrange the 100 integers into the 50 sets

¦1, 2¦, ¦3, 4¦, ¦5, 6¦. . ., ¦99, 100¦.

Since we are choosing ﬁfty one integers, there must be two that will lie in the same set. Those two are relatively prime, as

consecutive integers are relatively prime.

106 Example Prove that any natural number n > 6 can be written as the sum of two integers greater than 1, each of the

summands being relatively prime.

Solution: If n is odd, we may choose a = 2, b = n −2. If n is even, then is either of the form 4k or 4k +2. If n = 4k, then take

a = 2k +1, b = 2k −1. These two are clearly relatively prime (why?). If n = 4k +2, k > 1 take a = 2k +3, b = 2k −1.

107 Example How many positive integers ≤1260 are relatively prime to 1260?

Solution: As 1260 = 2

2

3

2

5 7, the problem amounts to ﬁnding those numbers less than 1260 which are not divisible by

2, 3, 5, or 7. Let A denote the set of integers ≤ 1260 which are multiples of 2, B the set of multiples of 3, etc. By the

Inclusion-Exclusion Principle,

[A∪B∪C∪D[ = [A[ +[B[ +[C[ +[D[

−[A∩B[ −[A∩C[ −[A∩D[

−[B∩C[ −[B∩D[ −[C∩D[

+[A∩B∩C[ +[A∩B∩D[ +[A∩C∩D[

+[B∩C∩D[ −[A∩B∩C∩D[

= 630 +420 +252+180−210−126−90−84

−60 −36 +42 +30+18+12−6 = 972.

The number of integers sought is then 1260 −972 = 288.

Practice

Problem 4.1.1 Show that

(a, b)[a, b] = ab

for all natural numbers a, b.

Problem 4.1.2 Find lcm (23!41!, 29!37!).

Primes 39

Problem 4.1.3 Find two positive integers a, b such that

a

2

+b

2

= 85113, and lcm (a, b) = 1764.

Problem 4.1.4 Find a, b ∈ N with (a, b) = 12, [a, b] = 432.

Problem 4.1.5 Prove that (a, b)

n

= (a

n

, b

n

) for all natural

numbers n.

Problem 4.1.6 Let a ∈N. Find, with proof, all b ∈Nsuch that

(2

b

−1)[(2

a

+1).

Problem 4.1.7 Show that (n

3

+3n +1, 7n

3

+18n

2

−n −2) =

1.

Problem 4.1.8 Let the integers a

n

, b

n

be deﬁned by the rela-

tion

a

n

+b

n

√

2 = (1 +

√

2)

n

, n ∈ N.

Prove that gcd(a

n

, b

n

) = 1 ∀ n.

Problem 4.1.9 Prove or disprove the following two proposi-

tions:

1. If a, b ∈ N, a < b, then in any set of b consecutive inte-

gers there are two whose product is divisible by ab.

2. If a, b, c, ∈ N, a < b < c, then in any set of c consecu-

tive integers there are three whose product is divisible

by abc.

Problem 4.1.10 Let n, k, n ≥k > 0 be integers. Prove that the

greatest common divisor of the numbers

Ç

n

k

å

,

Ç

n +1

k

å

, . . . ,

Ç

n +k

k

å

is 1.

(Hint: Prove

k

j=0

(−1)

j

Ç

k

j

åÇ

n + j

k

å

= (−1)

k

.)

Problem 4.1.11 Let F

n

= 2

2

n

+1 be the n-th Fermat number.

Find (F

n

, F

m

).

Problem 4.1.12 Find the greatest common divisor of the se-

quence

16

n

+10n −1, n = 1, 2, . . . .

Problem 4.1.13 Demonstrate that (n! +1, (n +1)! +1) = 1.

Problem 4.1.14 Prove that any natural number n > 17 can

be written as n = a+b+c where a, b, c are pairwise relatively

prime natural numbers each exceeding 1.

(Hint: Consider n mod 12. Write two of the summands in the

form 6k +s and the third summand as a constant.)

Problem 4.1.15 Prove that there are no positive integers

a, b, n > 1 with

(a

n

−b

n

)[(a

n

+b

n

).

Problem 4.1.16 Prove that the binomial coefﬁcients have the

following hexagonal property:

gcd

ÇÇ

n −1

k −1

å

,

Ç

n

k +1

å

,

Ç

n +1

k

åå

equals

gcd

ÇÇ

n −1

k

å

,

Ç

n +1

k +1

å

,

Ç

n

k −1

åå

.

Problem 4.1.17 (Putnam, 1974) Call a set of integers con-

spiratorial if no three of them are pairwise relatively prime.

What is the largest number of elements in any conspiratorial

subset of the integers 1 through 16?

4.2 Primes

Recall that a prime number is a positive integer greater than 1 whose only positive divisors are itself and 1. Clearly 2 is the only

even prime and so 2 and 3 are the only consecutive integers which are prime. An integer different from 1 which is not prime is

called composite. It is clear that if n > 1 is composite then we can write n as n = ab, 1 < a ≤b < n, a, b ∈ N.

108 Theorem If n > 1, then n is divisible by at least one prime.

40 Chapter 4

Proof: Since n > 1, it has at least one divisor > 1. By the Well Ordering Principle, n must have a least positive

divisor greater than 1, say q. We claim that q is prime. For if not then we can write q as q = ab, 1 < a ≤b < q. But

then a is a divisor of n greater than 1 and smaller than q, which contradicts the minimality of q.u

109 Theorem (Euclid) There are inﬁnitely many primes.

Proof: Let p

1

, p

2

, . . . p

k

be a list of primes. Construct the integer

n = p

1

p

2

p

k

+1.

This integer is greater than 1 and so by the preceding problem, it must have a prime divisor p. Observe that p must

be different from any of p

1

, p

2

, . . . , p

k

since n leaves remainder 1 upon division by any of the p

i

. Thus we have

shown that no ﬁnite list of primes exhausts the set of primes, i.e., that the set of primes is inﬁnite.u

110 Lemma The product of two numbers of the form 4k +1 is again of that form.

Proof: (4a +1)(4b +1) = 4(4ab +a +b) +1.u

111 Theorem There are inﬁnitely many primes of the form 4n +3.

Proof: Any prime either equals 2, or is of the form 4k ±1. We will show that the collection of primes of the form

4k −1 is inexhaustible. Let

¦p

1

, p

2

, . . . p

n

¦

be any ﬁnite collection of primes of the form 4k −1. Construct the number

N = 4p

1

p

2

p

n

−1.

Since each p

k

is ≥3, N ≥11. Observe that N is not divisible by any of the primes in our collection. Now either N

is a prime, in which case it is a prime of the form 4k −1 not on the list, or it is a product of primes. In the latter

case, all of the prime factors of N cannot be of the form 4k +1, for the product of any two primes of this form is

again of this form, in view of the preceding problem. Thus N must be divisible by some prime of the form 4k −1

not on the list. We have thus shown that given any ﬁnite list of primes of the form 4k −1 we can always construct

an integer which is divisible by some prime of the form 4k −1 not on that list. The assertion follows. u

112 Example Prove that there are arbitrarily long strings that do not contain a prime number.

Solution: Let k ∈ N, k ≥2. Then each of the numbers

k! +2, . . . , k! +k

is composite.

113 Theorem If the positive integer n is composite, then it must have a prime factor p with p ≤

√

n.

Proof: Suppose that n = ab, 1 < a ≤b < n. If both a and b are >

√

n, then n = ab >

√

n

√

n = n, a contradiction.

Thus n has a factor ,= 1 and ≤

√

n, and hence a prime factor, which is ≤

√

n. u

114 Example Find the number of prime numbers ≤100.

Solution: Observe that

√

100 = 10. By the preceding theorem, all the composite numbers in the range 10 ≤ n ≤ 100 have

a prime factor amongst 2, 3, 5, or 7. Let A

m

denote the multiples of M which are ≤ 100. Then [A

2

[ = 50, [A

3

[ = 33, [A

5

[ =

Practice 41

20, [A

7

[ =14, [A

6

[ =16, [A

10

[ =10, [A

14

[ =7, [A

15

[ =6, [A

21

[ =4, [A

35

[ =2, [A

30

[ =3, [A

42

[ =2, [A

70

[ =1, [A

105

[ =0, [A

210

[ =0.

Thus the number of primes ≤100 is

= 100 − ( number of composites ≤1) −1

= 4 +100 − multiples of 2, 3, 5, or 7 ≤100 −1

= 4 +100 − (50 +33 +20+14) + (16+10 +7+6+4+2)

−(3 +2 +1 +0) −0−1

= 25,

where we have subtracted the 1, because 1 is neither prime nor composite.

115 Lemma If p is a prime,

Ç

p

k

å

is divisible by p for all 0 < k < p.

Proof:

Ç

p

k

å

=

p(p −1) (p −k +1)

k!

yields

k!

Ç

p

k

å

= p(p −1) (p −k +1),

whence p[k!

Ç

p

k

å

. Now, as k < p, p ,[k!. By Euclid’s Lemma, it must be the case that p[

Ç

p

k

å

.u

116 Example Prove that if p is a prime, then p divides 2

p

−2.

Solution: By the Binomial Theorem:

2

p

−2 = (1 +1)

p

−2 =

Ç

p

1

å

+

Ç

p

2

å

+ +

Ç

p

p −1

å

,

as

Ç

p

0

å

=

Ç

p

p

å

= 1. By the preceding lemma, p divides each of the terms on the dextral side of the above. This establishes

the assertion.

Practice

Problem 4.2.1 Prove that there are inﬁnitely many primes of

the form 6n +5.

Problem 4.2.2 Use the preceding problem to show that there

are inﬁnitely many primes p such that p −2 is not a prime.

Problem 4.2.3 If p and q are consecutive odd primes, prove

that the prime factorisation of p +q has at least three (not

necessarily distinct) primes.

Problem 4.2.4 1. Let p be a prime and let n ∈ N. Prove,

by induction on n, that p[(n

p

−n).

2. Extend this result to all n ∈ Z.

3. Prove Fermat’s Little Theorem: if p ,[n, then p[(n

p−1

−

1).

4. Prove that 42[n

7

−n, n ∈ Z.

5. Prove that 30[n

5

−n, n ∈ Z.

Problem 4.2.5 Let p be an odd prime and let (a, b) =1. Prove

that

Å

a +b,

a

p

+b

p

a +b

ã

divides p.

Problem 4.2.6 Prove that 3, 5, 7 is the only prime triplet of the

form p, p +2, p +4.

42 Chapter 4

Problem 4.2.7 Let n > 2. Prove that if one of the numbers 2

n

−1 and 2

n

+1 is prime, then the other is composite.

4.3 Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic

Consider the integer 1332. It is clearly divisible by 2 and so we obtain 1332 = 2 666. Now, 666 is clearly divisible by 6, and

so 1332 = 2 2 3 111. Finally, 111 is also divisible by 3 and so we obtain 1332 = 2 2 3 3 37. We cannot further decompose

1332 as a product of positive integers greater than 1, as all 2, 3, 37 are prime. We will show now that such decomposition is

always possible for a positive integer greater than 1.

117 Theorem Every integer greater than 1 is a product of prime numbers.

Proof: Let n > 1. If n is a prime, then we have nothing to prove. Assume that n is composite and let q

1

be its least

proper divisor. By Theorem 4.5, q

1

is a prime. Set n = q

1

n

1

, 1 < n

1

< n. If n

1

is a prime, then we arrived at the

result. Otherwise, assume that n

1

is composite, and let q

2

be its least prime divisor, as guaranteed by Theorem 4.5.

We can write then n = q

1

q

2

n

2

, 1 <n

2

< n

1

< n. Continuing the argument, we arrive at a chain n > n

1

>n

2

> 1,

and this process must stop before n steps, as n is a positive integer. Eventually we then have n = q

1

q

2

q

s

. u

We may arrange the prime factorisation obtained in the preceding Theorem as follows,

n = p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

k

k

, a

1

> 0, a

2

> 0, . . . , a

k

> 0,

p

1

< p

2

< < p

k

,

where the p

j

are primes. We call the preceding factorisation of n, the canonical factorisation of n. For example 2

3

3

2

5

2

7

3

is the

canonical factorisation of 617400.

118 Theorem (Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic) Every integer > 1 can be represented as a product of primes in only

one way, apart from the order of the factors.

Proof: We prove that a positive integer greater than 1 can only have one canonical factorisation. Assume that

n = p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

s

s

= q

b

1

1

q

b

2

2

q

b

t

t

are two canonical factorisations of n. By Euclid’s Lemma (example 1.2) we conclude that every p must be a q and

every q must be a p. This implies that s =t. Also, from p

1

< p

2

< < p

s

and q

1

<q

2

< <q

t

we conclude that

p

j

= q

j

, 1 ≤ j ≤s.

If a

j

> b

j

for some j then, upon dividing by p

b

j

j

, we obtain

p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

j

−b

j

j

p

a

s

s

= p

b

1

1

p

b

2

2

p

b

j−1

j−1

p

b

j+1

j+1

p

b

s

s

,

which is impossible, as the sinistral side is divisible by p

j

and the dextral side is not. Similarly, the alternative

a

j

< b

j

for some j is ruled out and so a

j

= b

j

for all j. This ﬁnishes the proof. u

It is easily seen, by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, that if a has the prime factorisation a = p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

n

n

and b

has the prime factorisation b = p

b

1

1

p

b

2

2

p

b

n

n

, (it may be the case that some of the a

k

and some of the b

k

are zero) then

(a, b) = p

min(a

1

,b

1

)

1

p

min(a

2

,b

2

)

2

p

min(a

n

,b

n

)

n

. (4.1)

and also

[a, b] = p

max(a

1

,b

1

)

1

p

max(a

2

,b

2

)

2

p

max(a

n

,b

n

)

n

. (4.2)

Since x +y = max(x, y) +min(x, y), it clearly follows that

ab = (a, b)[a, b].

Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic 43

119 Example Prove that

√

2 is irrational.

Solution: Assume that

√

2 = a/b with relatively prime natural numbers a, b. Then 2b

2

= a

2

. The sinistral side of this last

equality has an odd number of prime factors (including repetitions), whereas the dextral side has an even number of prime

factors. This contradicts the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic.

120 Example Prove that if the polynomial

p(x) = a

0

x

n

+a

1

x

n−1

+ +a

n−1

x +a

n

with integral coefﬁcients assumes the value 7 for four integral values of x, then it cannot take the value 14 for any integral value

of x.

Solution: First observe that the integer 7 can be decomposed into at most three different integer factors 7 = −7(1)(−1). Assume

that p(a

k

) −7 = 0 for distinct a

k

, 1 ≤k ≤4. Then

p(x) −7 = (x −a

1

)(x −a

2

)(x −a

3

)(x −a

4

)q(x)

for a polynomial q with integer coefﬁcients. Assume that there is an integer M with p(m) = 14. Then

7 = p(m) −7 = (m−a

1

)(m−a

2

)(m−a

3

)(m−a

4

)q(m).

Since the factors m−a

k

are all distinct, we have decomposed the integer 7 into at least four different factors. This is impossible,

by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic.

121 Example Prove that the product of three consecutive integers is never a perfect power (i.e., a perfect square or a perfect

cube, etc.).

Solution: Let the integer be (n−1)n(n+1) = (n

2

−1)n. Since n

2

−1 and n are relatively prime, by the Fundamental Theoremof

Arithmetic, n

2

−1 is a perfect kth power (k ≥2) and n is also a perfect kth power. But then, n

2

−1 and n

2

would be consecutive

perfect kth powers, sheer nonsense.

122 Example Prove that m

5

+3m

4

n −5m

3

n

2

−15m

2

n

3

+4mn

4

+12n

5

is never equal to 33.

Solution: Observe that

m

5

+3m

4

n −5m

3

n

2

−15m

2

n

3

+4mn

4

+12n

5

= (m−2n)(m−n)(m+n)(m+2n)(m+3n).

Now, 33 can be decomposed as the product of at most four different integers 33 = (−11)(3)(1)(−1). If n ,= 0, the factors in the

above product are all different. They cannot be multiply to 33, by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, as 33 is the product

of 4 different factors and the expression above is the product of 5 different factors for n ,= 0.. If n = 0, the product of the factors

is m

5

, and 33 is clearly not a ﬁfth power.

123 Example Prove that the sum

S = 1/2 +1/3 +1/4+ +1/n

is never an integer.

Solution: Let k be the largest integer such that 2

k

≤ n, and P the product of all the odd natural numbers not exceeding n. The

number 2

k−1

PS is a sum, all whose terms, except for 2

k−1

P

1

2

k

, are integers.

124 Example Prove that there is exactly one natural number n for with 2

8

+2

11

+2

n

is a perfect square.

44 Chapter 4

Solution: If k

2

= 2

8

+2

11

+2

n

= 2304 +2

n

= 48

2

+2

n

, then k

2

−48

2

= (k −48)(k +48) = 2

n

. By unique factorisation,

k −48 = 2

s

, k +48 = 2

t

, s +t = n. But then 2

t

−2

s

=96 = 3 2

5

or 2

s

(2

t−s

−1) =3 2

5

. By unique factorisation, s =5, t −s =2,

giving s +t = n = 12.

125 Example Prove that in any set of 33 distinct integers with prime factors amongst ¦5, 7, 11, 13, 23¦, there must be two

whose product is a square.

Solution: Any number in our set is going to have the form

5

a

7

b

11

c

13

d

23

f

.

Thus to each number in the set, we associate a vector (a, b, c, d, f ). These vectors come in 32 different ﬂavours, according to

the parity of the components. For example (even, odd, odd, even, odd) is one such class. Since we have 33 integers, two (at

least) will have the same parity in their exponents, and the product of these two will be a square.

126 Example (IMO, 1985) Given a set M of 1985 distinct positive integers, none with a prime factor greater than 26, prove

that M contains a subset of four distinct elements whose product is the fourth power of an integer.

Solution: Any number in our set is going to be of the form

2

a

3

b

5

c

7

d

11

f

13

g

17

h

19

j

23

k

.

Thus if we gather 513 of these numbers, we will have two different ones whose product is a square.

Start weeding out squares. Since we have 1985 > 513 numbers, we can ﬁnd a pair of distinct a

1

, b

1

such that a

1

b

1

= c

2

1

.

Delete this pair. From the 1983 integers remaining, we can ﬁnd a pair of distinct a

2

, b

2

such that a

2

b

2

= c

2

2

. Delete this pair.

From the 1981 integers remaining, we can ﬁnd a pair a

3

, b

3

such that a

3

b

3

= c

2

3

. We can continue this operation as long as

we have at least 513 integers. Thus we may perform this operation n +1 times, were n is the largest positive integer such that

1985 −2n ≥ 513, i.e., n = 736. Therefore, we are able to gather 737 pairs a

k

, b

k

such that a

k

b

k

= c

2

k

. Now, the 737 numbers

c

k

have all their prime factors smaller than 26, and since 737 > 513, we may ﬁnd two distinct c

m

say c

i

and c

j

, i ,= j, such that

c

i

c

j

= a

2

, a perfect square. But then c

i

c

j

= a

2

implies that a

i

b

i

a

j

b

j

= a

4

, a fourth power. Thus we have found four distinct

numbers in our set whose product is a fourth power.

127 Example Let any ﬁfty one integers be taken from amongst the numbers 1, 2, . . . , 100. Show that there must be one that

divides some other.

Solution: Any of the ﬁfty one integers can be written in the form 2

a

m, where m is odd. Since there are only ﬁfty odd integers

between 1 and 100, there are only ﬁfty possibilities for m. Thus two (at least) of the integers chosen must share the same odd

part, and thus the smaller will divide the larger.

128 Example (USAMO 1972) Prove that

[a, b, c]

2

[a, b][b, c][c, a]

=

(a, b, c)

2

(a, b)(b, c)(c, a)

.

Solution: Put

a =

p

α

k

k

, b =

p

β

k

k

, c =

p

γ

k

k

,

with primes p

k

. The assertion is equivalent to showing

2max(α

k

, β

k

, γ

k

) −max(α

k

, β

k

) −max(α

k

, γ

k

) −max(β

k

, γ

k

)

= 2min(α

k

, β

k

, γ

k

) −min(α

k

, β

k

) −min(α

k

, γ

k

) −min(β

k

, γ

k

).

By symmetry, we may assume, without loss of generality, that α

k

≥β

k

≥γ

k

. The equation to be established reduces thus to the

identity

2α

k

−α

k

−α

k

−β

k

= 2γ

k

−β

k

−γ

k

−γ

k

.

Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic 45

129 Example Prove that n = 24 is the largest natural number divisible by all integral a, 1 ≤a ≤

√

n.

Solution: Suppose n is divisible by all the integers ≤

√

n. Let p

1

= 2, p

2

= 3, . . . , p

l

be all the primes ≤

√

n, and let k

j

be the

unique integers such that p

k

j

j

≤

√

n < p

k

j

+1

j

. Clearly n

l/2

< p

k

1

+1

1

p

k

2

+1

2

p

k

l

+1

l

. Let lcm(1, 2, 3, . . . ,

√

n−1,

√

n) = K.

Clearly then K = p

k

1

1

p

k

2

2

p

k

l

l

. Hence p

k

1

+1

1

p

k

2

+1

2

p

k

l

+1

l

≤K

2

and thus n

l/2

< K

2

. By hypothesis, n must be divisible by K

and so K ≤ n. Consequently, n

l/2

< n

2

. This implies that l < 4 and so n < 49. By inspection, we see that the only valid values

for n are n = 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24.

130 Example (Irving Kaplansky) A positive integer n has the property that for 0 < l < m < n,

S = l + (l +1) +. . . +m

is never divisible by n. Prove that this is possible if and only if n is a power of 2.

Solution: Set n = s2

k

with s odd. If s = 1, 2S = (l +m)(m−l +1), which has one factor even and one factor odd, cannot be

divisible by 2n = 2

k+1

, since, its even factor is less than 2n. But if s > 1, then S is divisible by n, with 0 <l <m <n, if we take

m = (s +2

k+1

−1)/2

and

l =

®

1 +m−2

k+1

, s > 2

k+1

,

1 +m−s, s < 2

k+1

.

131 Example Let 0 < a

1

< a

2

< < a

k

≤n, where k >

n +1

2

, be integers. Prove that

a

1

+a

j

= a

r

is soluble.

Solution: The k −1 positive integers a

i

−a

1

, 2 ≤ i ≤ k, are clearly distinct. These, together with the k given distinct a’s, give

2k −1 > n positive integers, each not greater than n. Hence, at least one of the integers is common to both sets, so that at least

once a

r

−a

1

= a

j

.

The sequence n/2+1, n/2+2, . . ., n, shows that for k =(n +1)/2 the result is false.

132 Example Let 0 < a

1

< a

2

< < a

n

≤2n be integers such that the least common multiple of any two exceeds 2n. Prove

that a

1

>

2n

3

.

Solution: It is clear that no one of the numbers can divide another (otherwise we would have an lcm ≤ 2n). Hence, writing

a

k

= 2

t

k

A

k

, A

k

odd, we see that all the A

k

are different. Since there are n of them, they coincide in some order with the set of all

positive odd numbers less than 2n.

Now, consider a

1

= 2

t

1

A

1

. If a

1

≤2n/3, then 3a

1

= 2

t

1

3A

1

≤2n, and 3A

1

< 2n. Since 3A

1

would then be an odd number

< 2n, 3A

1

= A

j

for some j, and a

j

= 2

t

j

3A

1

. Thus either [a

1

, a

j

] = 2

t

1

3A

1

= 3a

1

≤ 2n, or [a

1

, a

j

] = 2

t

j

3A

1

= a

j

≤ 2n. These

contradictions establish the assertion.

133 Example (Putnam, 1980) Derive a formula for the number of quadruples (a, b, c, d) such that

3

r

7

s

= [a, b, c] = [b, c, d] = [c, d, a] = [d, a, b].

Solution: By unique factorisation, each of a, b, c, d must be of the form 3

m

7

n

, 0 ≤ m ≤ r, 0 ≤ n ≤ s. Moreover, M must equal

r for at least two of the four numbers, and n must equal s for at least two of the four numbers. There are

Ç

4

2

å

r

2

= 6r

2

ways

46 Chapter 4

of choosing exactly two of the four numbers to have exponent r,

Ç

4

3

å

r = 4r ways of choosing exactly three to have exponent

r and

Ç

4

4

å

= 1 of choosing the four to have exponent r. Thus there is a total of 1 +4r +6r

2

of choosing at least two of the

four numbers to have exponent r. Similarly, there are 1 +4s +6s

2

ways of choosing at least two of the four numbers to have

exponent s. The required formula is thus

(1 +4r +6r

2

)(1 +4s +6s

2

).

Practice

Problem 4.3.1 Prove that log

10

7 is irrational.

Problem 4.3.2 Prove that

log3

log2

is irrational.

Problem 4.3.3 Find the smallest positive integer such that

n/2 is a square and n/3 is a cube.

Problem 4.3.4 How many integers from 1 to 10

20

inclusive,

are not perfect squares, perfect cubes, or perfect ﬁfth powers?

Problem 4.3.5 Prove that the sum

1/3 +1/5 +1/7+ +1/(2n +1)

is never an integer.

(Hint: Look at the largest power of 3 ≤n).

Problem 4.3.6 Find min

k≥1

36

k

−5

k

.

(Hint: Why is 36

k

−1 −5

k

,= 0?)

Problem 4.3.7 (AIME 1987) Find the number of ordered

triples (a, b, c) of positive integers for which [a, b] =

1000, [b, c] = [a, c] = 2000.

Problem 4.3.8 Find the number of ways of factoring 1332

as the product of two positive relatively prime factors each

greater than 1. Factorisations differing in order are consid-

ered the same.

Answer: 3.

Problem 4.3.9 Let p

1

, p

2

, . . . , p

t

be different primes and

a

1

, a

2

, . . . a

t

be natural numbers. Find the number of ways of

factoring p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

t

t

as the product of two positive relatively

prime factors each greater than 1. Factorisations differing in

order are considered the same.

Answer: 2

t−1

−1.

Problem 4.3.10 Let n = p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

t

t

and m = p

b

1

1

p

b

2

2

p

b

t

t

,

the p’s being different primes. Find the number of the common

factors of m and n.

Answer:

t

k=1

(1 +min(a

k

, b

k

)).

Problem 4.3.11 (USAMO 1973) Show that the cube roots of

three distinct prime numbers cannot be three terms (not nec-

essarily consecutive) of an arithmetic progression.

Problem 4.3.12 Let 2 = p

1

, 3 = p

2

, . . . be the primes in their

natural order and suppose that n ≥10 and that 1 < j < n. Set

N

1

= p

1

p

2

p

j−1

−1, N

2

= 2p

1

p

2

p

j−1

−1, . . .

and

N

p

j

= p

j

p

1

p

2

p

j−1

−1

Prove

1. Each p

i

, j ≤ i ≤ n, divides at most one of the N

p

k

, 1 ≤

k ≤ j

2. There is a j, 1 < j < n, for which p

j

> n − j +1.

3. Let s be the smallest j for which p

j

> n − j +1. There

is a t, 1 ≤t ≤ p

s

, such that all of p

1

, . . . p

n

fail to divide

t p

1

p

2

p

s−1

−1, and hence p

n+1

< p

1

p

2

p

s

.

4. The s above is >4 and so p

s−1

−2 ≥s and p

1

p

2

p

s

<

p

s+1

p

n

.

5. (Bonse’s Inequality) For n ≥4, p

2

n+1

< p

1

p

n

.

Problem 4.3.13 Prove that 30 is the only integer n with the

following property: if 1 ≤t ≤n and (t, n) = 1, then t is prime.

Practice 47

Problem 4.3.14 (USAMO 1984) 1. For which positive

integers n is there a ﬁnite set S

n

of n distinct positive

integers such that the geometric mean of any subset of

S

n

is an integer?

2. Is there an inﬁnite set S of distinct positive integers such

that the geometric mean of any ﬁnite subset of S is an

integer.

Problem 4.3.15 1. (Putnam 1955) Prove that there is no

triplet of integers (a, b, c), except for (a, b, c) = (0, 0, 0)

for which

a +b

√

2 +c

√

3 = 0.

2. (Putnam 1980) Prove that there exist integers a, b, c,

not all zero and each of absolute value less than a mil-

lion, such that

[a +b

√

2+c

√

3[ < 10

−11

.

3. (Putnam 1980) Let a, b, c be integers, not all zero and

each of absolute value less than a million. Prove that

[a +b

√

2+c

√

3[ > 10

−21

.

Problem 4.3.16 (E˝ otv˝ os 1906) Let a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

n

be any per-

mutation of the numbers 1, 2, . . . , n. Prove that if n is odd, the

product

(a

1

−1)(a

2

−2) (a

n

−n)

is an even number.

Problem 4.3.17 Prove that from any sequence formed by ar-

ranging in a certain way the numbers from 1 to 101, it is al-

ways possible to choose 11 numbers (which must not neces-

sarily be consecutive members of the sequence) which form an

increasing or a decreasing sequence.

Problem 4.3.18 Prove that from any ﬁfty two integers it is al-

ways to choose two, whose sum, or else, whose difference, is

divisible by 100.

Problem 4.3.19 Prove that from any one hundred integers it

is always possible to choose several numbers (or perhaps, one

number) whose sum is divisible by 100.

Problem 4.3.20 Given n numbers x

1

, x

2

, . . . , x

n

each of which

is equal to ±1, prove that if

x

1

x

2

+x

2

x

3

+ +x

n

x

1

= 0,

then n is a multiple of 4.

Chapter 5

Linear Diophantine Equations

5.1 Euclidean Algorithm

We nowexamine a procedure that avoids factorising two integers in order to obtain their greatest common divisor. It is called the

Euclidean Algorithm and it is described as follows. Let a, b be positive integers. After using the Division Algorithm repeatedly,

we ﬁnd the sequence of equalities

a = bq

1

+r

2

, 0 < r

2

< b,

b = r

2

q

2

+r

3

0 < r

3

< r

2

,

r

2

= r

3

q

3

+r

4

0 < r

4

< r

3

,

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

r

n−2

= r

n−1

q

n−1

+r

n

0 < r

n

< r

n−1

,

r

n−1

= r

n

q

n

.

(5.1)

The sequence of remainders will eventually reach a r

n+1

which will be zero, since b, r

2

, r

3

, . . . is a monotonically decreasing

sequence of integers, and cannot contain more than b positive terms.

The Euclidean Algorithm rests on the fact, to be proved below, that (a, b) = (b, r

2

) = (r

2

, r

3

) = = (r

n−1

, r

n

) = r

n

.

134 Theorem Prove that if a, b, n are positive integers, then

(a, b) = (a +nb, b).

Proof: Set d = (a, b), c = (a +nb, b). As d[a, d[b, it follows that d[(a +nb). Thus d is a common divisor of both

(a+nb) and b. This implies that d[c. On the other hand, c[(a+nb), c[b imply that c[((a+nb) −nb) = a. Thus c is

a common divisor of a and b, implying that c[d. This completes the proof. u

135 Example Use Theorem ?? to ﬁnd (3456, 246).

Solution: (3456, 246) = (13 246 +158, 246) = (158, 246), by the preceding example. Now, (158, 246) = (158, 158 +88) =

(88, 158). Finally, (88, 158) = (70, 88) = (18, 70) = (16, 18) = (2, 16) = 2. Hence (3456, 246) = 2.

136 Theorem If r

n

is the last non-zero remainder found in the process of the Euclidean Algorithm, then

r

n

= (a, b).

48

Euclidean Algorithm 49

Proof: From equations ??

r

2

= a −bq

1

r

3

= b −r

2

q

2

r

4

= r

2

−r

3

q

3

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

r

n

= r

n−2

−r

n−1

q

n−1

Let r = (a, b). From the ﬁrst equation, r[r

2

. From the second equation, r[r

3

. Upon iterating the process, we see that

r[r

n

.

But starting at the last equation ?? and working up, we see that r

n

[r

n−1

, r

n

[r

n−2

, . . . r

n

[r

2

, r

n

[b, r

n

[a. Thus r

n

is a

common divisor of a and b and so r

n

[(a, b). This gives the desired result. u

137 Example Find (23, 29) by means of the Euclidean Algorithm.

Solution: We have

29 = 1 23 +6,

23 = 3 6 +5,

6 = 1 5 +1,

5 = 5 1.

The last non-zero remainder is 1, thus (23, 29) = 1.

An equation which requires integer solutions is called a diophantine equation. By the Bachet-Bezout Theorem, we see that

the linear diophantine equation

ax +by = c

has a solution in integers if and only if (a, b)[c. The Euclidean Algorithmis an efﬁcient means to ﬁnd a solution to this equation.

138 Example Find integers x, y that satisfy the linear diophantine equation

23x +29y = 1.

Solution: We work upwards, starting from the penultimate equality in the preceding problem:

1 = 6 −1 5,

5 = 23 −3 6,

6 = 29 1 −23.

Hence,

1 = 6 −1 5

= 6 −1 (23 −3 6)

= 4 6 −1 23

= 4(29 1 −23) −1 23

= 4 29 −5 23.

This solves the equation, with x = −5, y = 4.

139 Example Find integer solutions to

23x +29y = 7.

Solution: From the preceding example, 23(−5) +29(4) = 1. Multiplying both sides of this equality by 7,

23(−35) +29(28) = 7,

which solves the problem.

50 Chapter 5

140 Example Find inﬁnitely many integer solutions to

23x +29y = 1.

Solution: By Example ??, the pair x

0

= −5, y

0

= 4 is a solution. We can ﬁnd a family of solutions by letting

x = −5 +29t, y = 4 −23t, t ∈ Z.

141 Example Can you ﬁnd integers x, y such that 3456x +246y = 73?

Solution: No. (3456, 246) = 2 and 2 ,[73.

142 Theorem Assume that a, b, c are integers such that (a, b)[c. Then given any solution (x

0

, y

0

) of the linear diophantine

equation

ax +by = c

any other solution of this equation will have the form

x = x

0

+t

b

d

, y = y

0

−t

a

d

,

where d = (a, b) and t ∈ Z.

Proof: It is clear that if (x

0

, y

0

) is a solution of ax +by = c, then x = x

0

+tb/d, y = y

0

−ta/d is also a solution.

Let us prove that any solution will have this form.

Let (x

′

, y

′

) satisfy ax

′

+by

′

= c. As ax

0

+by

0

= c also, we have

a(x

′

−x

0

) = b(y

0

−y

′

).

Dividing by d = (a, b),

a

d

(x

′

−x

0

) =

b

d

(y

0

−y

′

).

Since (a/d, b/d) = 1,

a

d

[(y

0

−y

′

), in virtue of Euclid’s Lemma. Thus there is an integer t such that t

a

d

= y

0

−y

′

,

that is, y = y

0

−ta/d. From this

a

d

(x

′

−x

0

) =

b

d

t

a

d

,

which is to say x

′

= x

0

+tb/d. This ﬁnishes the proof. u

143 Example Find all solutions in integers to

3456x +246y = 234.

Solution: By inspection, 3456(−1) +246(15) = 234. By Theorem ??, all the solutions are given by x = −1 +123t, y = 15 −

1728t, t ∈ Z.

Practice

Problem 5.1.1 Find the following:

1. (34567, 987)

2. (560, 600)

3. (4554, 36)

4. (8098643070, 8173826342)

Problem 5.1.2 Solve the following linear diophantine equa-

tions, provided solutions exist:

Linear Congruences 51

1. 24x +25y = 18

2. 3456x +246y = 44

3. 1998x +2000y = 33

Problem 5.1.3 Prove that the area of the triangle whose ver-

tices are (0, 0), (b, a), (x, y) is

[by −ax[

2

.

Problem 5.1.4 A woman pays $2.78 for some bananas and

eggs. If each banana costs $0.69 and each egg costs $0.35,

how many eggs and how many bananas did the woman buy?

5.2 Linear Congruences

We recall that the expression ax ≡ b mod n means that there is t ∈ Z such that ax = b +nt. Hence, the congruencial equation

in x, ax ≡ b mod n is soluble if and only if the linear diophantine equation ax +ny = b is soluble. It is clear then that the

congruence

ax ≡b mod n

has a solution if and only if (a, n)[b.

144 Theorem Let a, b, n be integers. If the congruence ax ≡b mod n has a solution, then it has (a, n) incongruent solutions

mod n.

Proof: From Theorem ?? we know that the solutions of the linear diophantine equation ax +ny = b have the

form x = x

0

+nt/d, y = y

0

−at/d, d = (a, n), t ∈ Z, where x

0

, y

0

satisfy ax

0

+ny = b. Letting t take on the values

t = 0, 1, . . . ((a, n) −1), we obtain (a, n) mutually incongruent solutions, since the absolute difference between any

two of them is less than n. If x = x

0

+nt

′

/d is any other solution, we write t

′

as t

′

= qd +r, 0 ≤r < d. Then

x = x

0

+n(qd +r)/d

= x

0

+nq +nr/d

≡ x

0

+nr/d mod n.

Thus every solution of the congruence ax ≡ b mod n is congruent mod n to one and only one of the d values

x

0

+nt/d, 0 ≤ t ≤ d −1. Thus if there is a solution to the congruence, then there are d incongruent solutions

mod n.u

145 Example Find all solutions to the congruence 5x ≡3 mod 7

Solution: Notice that according to Theorem ??, there should only be one solution mod 7, as (5, 7) = 1. We ﬁrst solve the

linear diophantine equation 5x +7y = 1. By the Euclidean Algorithm

7 = 5 1 +2

5 = 2 2 +1

2 = 2 1.

Hence,

1 = 5 −2 2

2 = 7 −5 1,

which gives

1 = 5 −2 2 = 5 −2(7 −5 1) = 5 3 −7 2.

Whence 3 = 5(9) −7(6). This gives 5 9 ≡3 mod 7 which is the same as 5 2 ≡3 mod 7. Thus x ≡2 mod 7.

146 Example Solve the congruence

3x ≡6 mod 12.

52 Chapter 5

Solution: As (3, 12) = 3 and 3[6, the congruence has three mutually incongruent solutions. By inspection we see that x = 2 is

a solution. By Theorem ??, all the solutions are thus of the form x = 2 +4t, t ∈ Z. By letting t = 0, 1, 2, the three incongruent

solutions modulo 12 are t = 2, 6, 10.

We now add a few theorems and deﬁnitions that will be of use in the future.

147 Theorem Let x, y be integers and let a, n be non-zero integers. Then

ax ≡ay mod n

if and only if

x ≡y mod

n

(a, n)

.

Proof: If ax ≡ay mod n then a(x −y) = sn for some integer s. This yields

(x −y)

a

(a, n)

= s

n

(a, n)

.

Since (a/(a, n), n/(a, n)) = 1 by Theorem ??, we must have

n

(a, n)

[(x −y),

by Euclid’s Lemma (Lemma ??). This implies that

x ≡y mod

n

(a, n)

.

Conversely if x ≡y mod

n

(a, n)

implies

ax ≡ay mod

an

(a, n)

,

upon multiplying by a. As (a, n) divides a, the above congruence implies a fortiori that ax −ay = tn for some

integer t. This gives the required result.u

Theorem ?? gives immediately the following corollary.

148 Corollary If ax ≡ay mod n and (a, n) = 1, then x ≡y mod n.

Practice

Problem 5.2.1 Solve the congruence 50x ≡12 mod 14. Problem 5.2.2 How many x, 38 ≤x ≤289 satisfy

3x ≡8 mod 11?

5.3 A theorem of Frobenius

If (a, b) = d > 1 then the linear form ax +by skips all non-multiples of d. If (a, b) = 1, there is always an integer solution

to ax +by = n regardless of the integer n. We will prove the following theorem of Frobenius that tells un when we will ﬁnd

nonnegative solutions to ax +by = n.

149 Theorem (Frobenius) Let a, b be positive integers. If (a, b) = 1 then the number of positive integers m that cannot be

written in the form ar +bs = m for nonnegative integers r, s equals (a −1)(b −1)/2.

A theorem of Frobenius 53

Proof: Let us say that an integer n is attainable if there are nonnegative integers r, s with ar +bs = n. Consider

the inﬁnite array

0 1 2 . . . k . . . a −1

a a +1 a +2 . . . a +k . . . 2a −1

2a 2a +1 2a +2 . . . 2a +k . . . 3a −1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The columns of this array are arithmetic progressions with common difference a. The numbers directly below a

number n have the form n +ka where k is a natural number. Clearly, if n is attainable, so is n +ka, implying thus

that if an integer n is attainable so is every integer directly below it. Clearly all multiples of b are attainable. We

claim that no two distinct multiples of b, vb and wb with 0 ≤ v, w ≤ a −1 can belong to the same column. If this

were so then we would have vb ≡ wb mod a. Hence a(v −w) ≡ 0 mod a. Since (a, b) = 1 we invoke Corollary

5.1 to deduce v −w ≡0 mod a. Since 0 ≤v, w ≤a −1, we must have v = w.

Now we show that any number directly above one of the multiples vb, 0 ≤v ≤a−1 is non-attainable. For a number

directly above vb is of the form vb−ka for some natural number k. If vb−ka were attainable, then ax+by =vb−ka

for some nonnegative integers x, y. This yields by ≤ ax +by = vb −ka < vb. Hence, 0 ≤ y < v < a. This implies

that y ,≡ v mod b. On the other hand, two numbers on the same column are congruent mod a. Therefore we

deduce vb ≡ bv −ka ≡ ax +by mod a which yields bv ≡ by mod a. By Corollary ?? we obtain v ≡ y mod a.

This contradicts the fact that 0 ≤y < v < a.

Thus the number of unattainable numbers is precisely the numbers that occur just above a number of the form

vb, 0 ≤v ≤a−1. Now, on the j-th column, there are (vb− j)/a values above vb. Hence the number of unattainable

numbers is given by

a−1

v=0

a−1

j=0

vb − j

a

=

(a −1)(b −1)

2

,

as we wanted to show.u

The greatest unattainable integer occurs just above (a −1)b, hence the greatest value that is not attainable is (a −1)b −a,

which gives the following theorem.

150 Theorem Let a, b be relatively prime positive integers. Then the equation

ax +by = n

is unsoluble in nonnegative integers x, y for n =ab−a−b. If n >ab−a−b, then the equation is soluble in nonnegative integers.

151 Example (Putnam, 1971) A game of solitaire is played as follows. After each play, according to the outcome, the player

receives either a or b points, (a, b ∈ N, a > b), and his score accumulates from play to play. It has been noticed that there are

thirty ﬁve non-attainable scores and that one of these is 58. Find a and b.

Solution: The attainable scores are the nonnegative integers of the form ax +by. If (a, b) > 1, there are inﬁnitely many such

integers. Hence (a, b) =1. By Theorem??, the number of non-attainable scores is (a−1)(b−1)/2. Therefore, (a−1)(b−1) =

70 = 2(35) = 5(14) = 7(10). The conditions a > b, (a, b) = 1 yield the two possibilities a = 71, b = 2 and a = 11, b = 8. As

58 = 0 71 +2 29, the ﬁrst alternative is dismissed. The line 11x +8y = 58 passes through (6, −1) and (−2, 10) and thus it

does not pass through a lattice point in the ﬁrst quadrant. The unique solution is a = 11, b = 8.

152 Example (AIME, 1994) Ninety-four bricks, each measuring 4

′′

10

′′

19

′′

, are to be stacked one on top of another to

form a tower 94 bricks tall. Each brick can be oriented so it contributes 4

′′

or 10

′′

or 19

′′

to the total height of the tower. How

many different tower heights can be achieved using all 94 of the bricks?

54 Chapter 5

Solution: Let there be x, y, z bricks of height 4

′′

, 10

′′

, and 19

′′

respectively. We are asking for the number of different sums

4x +10y +19z

with the constraints x ≥0, y ≥0, z ≥0, x +y +z = 94.

Now, 4x +10y +19z ≤ 19 94 = 1786. Letting x = 94 −y −z, we count the number of different nonnegative integral

solutions to the inequality 376+3(2y +5z) ≤1786, y +z ≤94, that is 2y +5z ≤470, y +z ≤94. By Theorem ??, every integer

≥(2−1)(5−1) =4 can be written in the form 2y+5z, and the number of exceptions is (2−1)(5−1)/2 =2, namely n =1 and

n =3. Thus of the 471 nonnegative integers n ≤470, we see that 469 can be written in the formn =2y+5z. Using x =96−x−y,

n, 4 ≤ n ≤ 470 will be “good” only if we have 470 −n = 3x +5z. By Theorem ?? there are (3 −1)(5 −1)/2 = 4 exceptions,

each ≤ 8, namely n = 1, 2, 4, 7. This means that 463, 466, 468, and 469 are not representable in the form 4x +10y +19z. Then

every integer n, 0 ≤n ≤ 470 except for 1, 3, 463, 466, 468, and 469 can be thus represented, and the number of different sums

is 471 −6 = 465.

153 Example 1. Let (n, 1991) = 1. Prove that

n

1991

is the sum of two positive integers with denominator < 1991 if an

only if there exist integers m, a, b with

(∗) 1 ≤m ≤10, a ≥1, b ≥1, mn = 11a +181b.

2. Find the largest positive rational with denominator 1991 that cannot be written as the sum of two positive rationals each

with denominators less than 1991.

Solution: (a) If (∗) holds then

n

1991

=

a

181m

+

b

11m

does the trick. Conversely, if

n

1991

=

a

r

+

b

s

for a, b ≥1, (a, r) = (b, s) =1,

and r, s < 1991, we may suppose r = 181r

1

, s = 11s

1

and then nr

1

s

1

= 11as

1

+181br

1

, which leads to r

1

[11as

1

and so r

1

[s

1

.

Similarly, s

1

[r

1

, whence r

1

= s

1

= m, say, and (∗) follows.

(b) Any n > 170, (n, 1991) = 1 satisﬁes (∗) with b = 1 and M such that mn is of the form mn ≡ 181 mod 11. For mn > 181

except if m = 1, n ≤180; but then n would not be of the form n ≡181 mod 11.

But n = 170 does not satisfy (∗); for we would have 170 ≡ 181b mod 11, so b ≡ m mod 11, which yields b ≥ m, but

170m < 181. The answer is thus 170/1991.

Practice

Problem 5.3.1 Let a, b, c be positive real numbers. Prove that

there are at least c

2

/2ab pairs of integers (x, y) satisfying

x ≥0, y ≥0, ax +by ≤c.

Problem 5.3.2 (AIME, 1995) What is largest positive integer

that is not the sum of a positive integral multiple of 42 and a

positive composite integer?

Problem 5.3.3 Let a > 0, b > 0, (a, b) = 1. Then the number

of nonnegative solutions to the equation ax +by = n is equal

to

[

n

ab

] or [

n

ab

] +1.

(Hint: [s] − [t] = [s −t] or [s −t] +1.)

Problem 5.3.4 Let a, b ∈ N, (a, b) = 1. Let S(n) denote the

number of nonnegative solutions to

ax +by = n.

Evaluate

lim

n→∞

S(n)

n

.

Problem 5.3.5 (IMO, 1983) Let a, b, c be pairwise relatively

prime integers. Demonstrate that 2abc −ab −bc −ca is the

largest integer not of the form

bcx +acy +abz, x ≥0, y ≥0, z ≥0.

Chinese Remainder Theorem 55

5.4 Chinese Remainder Theorem

In this section we consider the case when we have multiple congruences. Consider the following problem: ﬁnd an integer x

which leaves remainder 2 when divided by 5, is divisible by 7, and leaves remainder 4 when divided by 11. In the language of

congruences we are seeking x such that

x ≡ 2 mod 5,

x ≡ 0 mod 7,

x ≡ 4 mod 11.

One may check that x = 147 satisﬁes the requirements, and that in fact, so does the parametric family x = 147 +385t, t ∈ Z.

We will develop a method to solve congruences like this one. The method is credited to the ancient Chinese, and it is thus

called the Chinese Remainder Theorem.

154 Example Find x such that

x ≡3 mod 5 and x ≡7 mod 11.

Solution: Since x = 3 +5a, we have 11x = 33 +55a. As x = 7 +11b, we have 5x = 35 +55b. Thus x = 11x −10x = 33 −70 +

55a −110b. This means that x ≡ −37 ≡ 18 mod 55. One veriﬁes that all the numbers x = 18 +55t, t ∈ Z verify the given

congruences.

155 Example Find a number n such that when divided by 4 leaves remainder 2, when divided by 5 leaves remainder 1, and

when divided by 7 leaves remainder 1.

Solution: We want n such that

n ≡ 2 mod 4,

n ≡ 1 mod 5,

n ≡ 1 mod 7.

This implies that

35n ≡ 70 mod 140,

28n ≡ 28 mod 140,

20n ≡ 20 mod 140.

As n = 21n −20n, we have n ≡ 3(35n −28n) −20n ≡ 3(70 −28) −20 ≡ 106 mod 140. Thus all n ≡ 106 mod 140 will

do.

156 Theorem (Chinese Remainder Theorem) Let m

1

, m

2

, . . . m

k

be pairwise relatively prime positive integers, each exceed-

ing 1, and let a

1

, a

2

, . . . a

k

be arbitrary integers. Then the system of congruences

x ≡ a

1

mod m

1

x ≡ a

2

mod m

2

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

x ≡ a

k

mod m

k

has a unique solution modulo m

1

m

2

m

k

.

Proof: Set P

j

= m

1

m

2

m

k

/m

j

, 1 ≤ j ≤ k. Let Q

j

be the inverse of P

j

mod m

j

, i.e., P

j

Q

j

≡ 1 mod m

j

, which

we know exists since all the m

i

are pairwise relatively prime. Form the number

x = a

1

P

1

Q

1

+a

2

P

2

Q

2

+ +a

k

P

k

Q

k

.

This number clearly satisﬁes the conditions of the theorem. The uniqueness of the solution modulo m

1

m

2

m

k

can

be easily established. u

56 Chapter 5

157 Example Can one ﬁnd one million consecutive integers that are not square-free?

Solution: Yes. Let p

1

, p

2

, . . . , p

1000000

be a million different primes. By the Chinese Remainder Theorem, there exists a solution

to the following system of congruences.

x ≡ −1 mod p

2

1

,

x ≡ −2 mod p

2

2

,

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

x ≡ −1000000 mod p

2

1000000

.

The numbers x+1, x+2, . . . , x+1000000 are a million consecutive integers, each of which is divisible by the square of a prime.

Practice

Problem 5.4.1 Solve the following systems:

1. x ≡−1 mod 4; x ≡2 mod 5

2. 4x ≡3 mod 7; x ≡10 mod 11

3. 5x ≡2 mod 8; 3x ≡2 mod 9; x ≡0 mod 11

Problem 5.4.2 (USAMO 1986) 1. Do there exist fourteen

consecutive positive integers each of which is divisible

by one or more primes p, 2 ≤ p ≤11?

2. Do there exist twenty-one consecutive integers each of

which is divisible by one or more primes p, 2 ≤ p ≤13?

Chapter 6

Number-Theoretic Functions

6.1 Greatest Integer Function

The largest integer not exceeding x is denoted by x or x. We also call this function the ﬂoor function. Thus x satisﬁes

the inequalities x −1 < x ≤ x, which, of course, can also be written as x ≤ x < x+1. The fact that x is the unique

integer satisfying these inequalities, is often of use. We also utilise the notation ¦x¦ = x −x, to denote the fractional part of

x, and [[x[[ = min

n∈Z

[x −n[ to denote the distance of a real number to its nearest integer. A useful fact is that we can write any real

number x in the form x =x+¦x¦, 0 ≤¦x¦ < 1.

The greatest integer function enjoys the following properties:

158 Theorem Let α, β ∈ R, a ∈ Z, n ∈ N. Then

1. α +a =α+a

2.

α

n

=

α

n

3. α+β ≤α +β ≤α+β+1

Proof:

1. Let m = α +a. Then m ≤ α +a < m+1. Hence m−a ≤ α < m−a +1. This means that m−a = α,

which is what we wanted.

2. Write α/n as α/n =α/n+θ, 0 ≤θ < 1. Since nα/n is an integer, we deduce by (1) that

α =nα/n+nθ = nα/n+nθ.

Now, 0 ≤nθ ≤nθ < n, and so 0 ≤nθ/n < 1. If we let Θ =nθ/n, we obtain

α

n

=

α

n

+Θ, 0 ≤Θ < 1.

This yields the required result.

3. From the inequalities α −1 < α ≤ α, β −1 < β ≤ β we get α +β −2 < α+β ≤ α +β. Since

α+β is an integer less than or equal to α+β, it must be less than or equal to the integral part of α+β,

i.e. α +β. We obtain thus α+β ≤α +β. Also, α +β is less than the integer α+β+2, so

its integer part α +β must be less than α+β+2, but α +β < α+β+2 yields α +β ≤

α+β+1. This proves the inequalities.

u

57

58 Chapter 6

159 Example Find a non-zero polynomial P(x, y) such that

P(2t, 3t) = 0

for all real t.

Solution: We claim that 3[2t] −2[3t] = 0, ±1 or −2. We can then take

P(x, y) = (3x −2y)(3x −2y −1)(3x −2y +1)(3x −2y +2).

In order to prove the claim, we observe that x has unit period, so it is enough to prove the claim for t ∈ [0, 1). We divide

[0, 1) as

[0, 1) = [0, 1/3) ∪[1/3, 1/2) ∪[1/2, 2/3) ∪[2/3, 1).

If t ∈ [0, 1/3), then both 2t and 3t are = 0, and so 32t−23t = 0. If t ∈ [1/3, 1/2) then [3t] = 1 and [2t] = 0, and so

32t−23t= −2. If t ∈[1/2, 2/3), then [2t] =1, [3t] =1, and so 32t−23t=1. If t ∈[2/3, 1), then 2t =1, 3t =2,

and 32t−23t = −1.

160 Example Describe all integers n such that 1 +

√

2n

¸

¸

¸2n.

Solution: Let 2n = m(1 +

√

2n). If m ≤

√

2n−1 then 2n ≤ (

√

2n−1)(

√

2n+1) =

√

2n

2

−1 ≤ 2n −1 < 2n, a

contradiction. If m≥

√

2n+1, then 2n ≥(

√

2n

2

+1)

2

≥2n+1, another contradiction. It must be the case that m=

√

2n.

Conversely, let n =

l(l +1)

2

. Since l <

√

2n < l +1, l =

√

2n. So all the integers with the required property are the

triangular numbers.

161 Example Prove that the integers

Ä

1 +

√

2

ä

n

**with n a nonnegative integer, are alternately even or odd.
**

Solution: By the Binomial Theorem

(1 +

√

2)

n

+ (1 −

√

2)

n

= 2

0≤k≤n/2

(2)

k

Ç

n

2k

å

:= 2N,

an even integer. Since −1 < 1−

√

2 < 0, it must be the case that (1−

√

2)

n

is the fractional part of (1+

√

2)

n

or (1+

√

2)

n

+1

depending on whether n is odd or even, respectively. Thus for odd n, (1 +

√

2)

n

−1 < (1 +

√

2)

n

+ (1 −

√

2)

n

< (1 +

√

2)

n

,

whence (1+

√

2)

n

+ (1−

√

2)

n

=(1+

√

2)

n

, always even, and for n even 2N := (1+

√

2)

n

+ (1−

√

2)

n

= (1+

√

2)

n

+1,

and so (1 +

√

2)

n

= 2N−1, always odd for even n.

162 Example Prove that the ﬁrst thousand digits after the decimal point in

(6 +

√

35)

1980

are all 9’s.

Solution: Reasoning as in the preceding problem,

(6 +

√

35)

1980

+ (6 −

√

35)

1980

= 2k,

Greatest Integer Function 59

an even integer. But 0 < 6 −

√

35 < 1/10, (for if

1

10

< 6 −

√

35, upon squaring 3500 < 3481, which is clearly nonsense), and

hence 0 < (6 −

√

35)

1980

< 10

−1980

which yields

2k −1 + 0.9. . . 9

. ¸¸ .

1979 nines

= 2k −

1

10

1980

< (6 +

√

35)

1980

< 2k,

This proves the assertion of the problem.

163 Example (Putnam 1948) If n is a positive integer, demonstrate that

√

n+

√

n +1 =

√

4n +2.

Solution: By squaring, it is easy to see that

√

4n +1 <

√

n+

√

n +1 <

√

4n +3.

Neither 4n +2 nor 4n +3 are squares since squares are either congruent to 0 or 1 mod 4, so

√

4n +2 =

√

4n +3,

and the result follows.

164 Example Find a formula for the n-th non-square.

Solution: Let T

n

be the n-th non-square. There is a natural number m such that m

2

< T

n

< (m+1)

2

. As there are m squares less

than T

n

and n non-squares up to T

n

, we see that T

n

= n+m. We have then m

2

< n+m < (m+1)

2

or m

2

−m < n < m

2

+m+1.

Since n, m

2

−m, m

2

+m+1 are all integers, these inequalities imply m

2

−m+

1

4

<n < m

2

+m+

1

4

, that is to say, (m−1/2)

2

<

n < (m+1/2)

2

. But then m =

√

n+

1

2

. Thus the n-th non-square is T

n

= n +

√

n+1/2.

165 Example (Putnam 1983) Let f (n) = n +

√

n. Prove that for every positive integer m, the sequence

m, f (m), f ( f (m)), f ( f ( f (m))), . . .

contains at least one square of an integer.

Solution: Let m = k

2

+ j, 0 ≤ j ≤ 2k. Split the m’s into two sets, the set A of all the m with excess j, 0 ≤ j ≤ k and the set B

with all those m’s with excess j, k < j < 2k +1.

Observe that k

2

≤ m < (k +1)

2

= k

2

+2k +1. If j = 0, we have nothing to prove. Assume that m ∈ B. As

√

m = k,

f (m) =k

2

+ j +k = (k +1)

2

+ j −k −1, with 0 ≤ j −k −1 ≤k −1 <k +1. This means that either f (m) is a square or f (m) ∈A.

It is thus enough to consider the alternative m ∈ A, in which case

√

m+k = k and

f ( f (m)) = f (m+k) = m+2k = (k +1)

2

+ j −1.

This means that f ( f (m)) is either a square or f ( f (m)) ∈ A with an excess j −1 smaller than the excess j of m. At each iteration

the excess will reduce and eventually it will hit 0, whence we reach a square.

166 Example Solve the equation

x

2

−x −2 =x,

for x ∈ R.

Solution: Observe that a = b if and only if ∃k ∈ Z with a, b ∈ [k, k +1) which happens if and only if [a −b[ < 1. Hence,

the given equation has a solution if and only if [x

2

−2x −2[ < 1. Solving these inequalities it is easy to see that the solution is

thus

x ∈ (−1,

1

2

(1 −

√

5)] ∪[

1

2

(1 +

√

17),

1

2

(1 +

√

21)).

60 Chapter 6

167 Theorem If a, b are relatively prime natural numbers then

a−1

k=1

kb

a

=

b−1

k=1

ka

b

=

(a −1)(b −1)

2

.

Proof: Consider the rectangle with vertices at (0, 0), (0, b), (a, 0), (a, b). This rectangle contains (a −1)(b −1)

lattice points, i.e., points with integer coordinates. This rectangle is split into two halves by the line y =

xb

a

.

We claim that there are no lattice points on this line, except for the endpoints. For if there were a lattice point

(m, n), 0 <m<a, 0 <n <b, then

n

m

=

b

a

. Thus n/m is a reduction for the irreducible fraction b/a, a contradiction.

The points L

k

= (k,

kb

a

), 1 ≤k ≤a −1 are each on this line. Now,

kb

a

equals the number of lattice points on the

vertical line that goes from (k, 0) to (k,

kb

a

), i.e.

a−1

k=1

kb

a

is the number of lattice points on the lower half of the

rectangle. Similarly,

b−1

k=1

ka

b

equals the number of lattice points on the upper half of the rectangle. Since there

are (a−1)(b−1) lattice points in total, and their number is shared equally by the halves, the assertion follows. u

168 Example Find the integral part of

10

6

k=1

1

√

k

.

Solution: The function x →x

−1/2

is decreasing. Thus for positive integer k,

1

√

k +1

<

_

k+1

k

dx

√

x

<

1

√

k

.

Summing from k = 1 to k = 10

6

−1 we deduce

10

6

k=2

1

√

k

<

_

10

6

1

dx

√

x

<

10

6

−1

k=1

1

√

k

.

The integral is easily seen to be 1998. Hence

1998 +1/10

3

<

10

6

k=1

1

√

k

< 1999.

The integral part sought is thus 1998.

Practice

Problem 6.1.1 Prove that for all real numbers x, y,

x+x +y+y ≤2x+2y

holds.

Problem 6.1.2 If x, y real numbers, when is it true that

xy ≤xy?

Problem 6.1.3 If n > 1 is a natural number and α ≥ 1 is a

real number, prove that

[α] >

α

n

.

Practice 61

Problem 6.1.4 If a, b, n are positive integers, prove that

ab

n

≥a

b

n

.

Problem 6.1.5 Let α be a real number. Prove that [α] +

[−α] = −1 or 0 and that α−2α/2 = 0 or 1.

Problem 6.1.6 Prove that

(2 +

√

3)

n

**is an odd integer.
**

Problem 6.1.7 Show that the n-th element of the sequence

1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, . . .

where there are n occurrences of the integer n is

√

2n+1/2.

Problem 6.1.8 Prove Hermite’s Identity: if x is a real number

and n is a natural number then

nx =x+x +

1

n

+x +

2

n

+ +x +

n −1

n

.

Problem 6.1.9 Prove that for all integers m, n, the equality

m+n

2

+

n −m+1

2

= n

holds.

Problem 6.1.10 If a, b, c, d are positive real numbers such

that

na+nb =nc+nd

for all natural numbers n, prove that

a +b = c +d.

Problem 6.1.11 If n is a natural number, prove that

n +2 −n/25

3

=

8n +24

25

.

Problem 6.1.12 Solve the equation

x

1994

=

x

1995

.

Problem 6.1.13 Let [α, β] be an interval which contains no

integers. Prove that there is a positive integer n such that

[nα, nβ] still contains no integers but has length at least 1/6.

Problem 6.1.14 (IMO 1968) For every natural number n,

evaluate the sum

∞

k=0

n +2

k

2

k+1

.

Problem 6.1.15 (Putnam 1973) Prove that if n ∈ N,

min

k∈N

(k +n/k) =

√

4n +1.

Problem 6.1.16 (Dirichlet’s principle of the hyperbola)

Let N be the number of integer solutions to xy ≤n, x >0, y >0.

Prove that

N =

n

k=1

n

k

= 2

1≤k≤

√

n

n

k

−

√

n

2

.

Problem 6.1.17 (Circle Problem) Let r > 0 and let T denote

the number of lattice points of the domain x

2

+y

2

≤ r

2

. Prove

that

T = 1 +4r+8

0<x≤r

√

2

_

r

2

−x

2

+4

r

√

2

2

.

Problem 6.1.18 Let d = (a, b). Prove that

1≤n≤b−1

an

b

=

(a −1)(b −1)

2

+

d −1

2

.

Problem 6.1.19 (Eisenstein) If (a, b) = 1 and a, b are odd,

then

1≤n≤(b−1)/2

an

b

+

1≤n≤(a−1)/2

bn

a

=

(a −1)(b −1)

4

.

Problem 6.1.20 Let m ∈ N with m > 1 and let y be a positive

real number. Prove that

x

m

…

y

x

=y,

where the summation runs through all positive integers x not

divisible by the mth power of an integer exceeding 1.

Problem 6.1.21 For which natural numbers n will 112 divide

4

n

−(2 +

√

2)

n

?

Problem 6.1.22 A triangular number is a number of the form

1+2+ +n, n ∈N. Find a formula for the nth non-triangular

number.

Problem 6.1.23 (AIME 1985) How many of the ﬁrst thou-

sand positive integers can be expressed in the form

2x+4x+6x+8x?

62 Chapter 6

Problem 6.1.24 (AIME 1987) What is the largest positive in-

teger n for which there is a unique integer k such that

8

15

<

n

n +k

<

7

13

?

Problem 6.1.25 Prove that if p is an odd prime, then

(2 +

√

5)

p

−2

p+1

is divisible by p.

Problem 6.1.26 Prove that the n-th number not of the form

e

k

, k = 1, 2, . . . is

T

n

= n +ln(n +1 +ln(n +1)).

Problem 6.1.27 (Leningrad Olympiad) How many different

integers are there in the sequence

1

2

1980

,

2

2

1980

, . . . ,

1980

2

1980

?

Problem 6.1.28 Let k ≥ 2 be a natural number and x a posi-

tive real number. Prove that

k

√

x =

k

»

x.

Problem 6.1.29 1. Find a real number x ,= 0 such that

x, 2x, . . . , 34x have no 7’s in their decimal expansions.

2. Prove that for any real number x ,= 0 at least one of

x, 2x, . . . 79x has a 7 in its decimal expansion.

3. Can you improve the “gap” between 34 and 79?

Problem 6.1.30 (AIME 1991) Suppose that r is a real num-

ber for which

91

k=19

r +

k

100

= 546.

Find the value of 100r.

Problem 6.1.31 (AIME 1995) Let f (n) denote the integer

closest to n

1/4

, when n is a natural number. Find the exact

numerical value of

1995

n=1

1

f (n)

.

Problem 6.1.32 Prove that

_

1

0

(−1)

1994x+1995x

Ç

1993

1994x

åÇ

1994

1995x

å

dx = 0.

Problem 6.1.33 Prove that

√

n+

√

n +1 =

√

n+

√

n +2.

Problem 6.1.34 (Putnam 1976) Prove that

lim

n→∞

1≤k≤n

Å

2n

k

−2

n

k

ã

= ln4 −1.

Problem 6.1.35 (Putnam 1983) Prove that

lim

n→∞

1

n

_

n

1

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

n

x

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸ dx = log

3

(4/π).

You may appeal to Wallis Product Formula:

2

1

2

3

4

3

4

5

6

5

6

7

8

7

8

9

=

π

2

.

6.2 De Polignac’s Formula

We will consider now the following result due to De Polignac.

169 Theorem (De Polignac’s Formula) The highest power of a prime p dividing n! is given by

∞

k=1

n

p

k

.

Proof: The number of integers contributing a factor of p is n/p, the number of factors contributing a second

factor of p is n/p

2

, etc..u

170 Example How many zeroes are at the end of 300!?

De Polignac’s Formula 63

Solution: The number of zeroes is determined by how many times 10 divides into 300. Since there are more factors of 2 in 300!

than factors of 5, the number of zeroes is thus determined by the highest power of 5 in 300!. By De Polignac’s Formula this is

∞

k=1

300/5

k

= 60 +12 +2 = 74.

171 Example Does

7

¸

¸

¸

Ç

1000

500

å

?

Solution: The highest power of 7 dividing into 1000! is 1000/7+1000/7

2

+1000/7

3

= 142+20+2 = 164. Similarly,

the highest power of 7 dividing into 500! is 71 +10 +1 = 82. Since

Ç

1000

500

å

=

1000!

(500!)

2

, the highest power of 7 that divides

Ç

1000

500

å

is 164 −2 82 = 0, and so 7 does not divide

Ç

1000

500

å

.

172 Example Let n = n

1

+n

2

+ +n

k

where the n

i

are nonnegative integers. Prove that the quantity

n!

n

1

!n

2

! n

k

!

is an integer.

Solution: From (3) in Theorem ?? we deduce by induction that

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

l

≤a

1

+a

2

+ +a

l

.

For any prime p, the power of p dividing n! is

j≥1

n/p

j

=

j≥1

(n

1

+n

2

+ +n

k

)/p

j

.

The power of p dividing n

1

!n

2

! n

k

! is

j≥1

n

1

/p

j

+n

2

/p

j

+ n

k

/p

j

.

Since

n

1

/p

j

+n

2

/p

j

+ +n

k

/p

j

≤(n

1

+n

2

+ +n

k

)/p

j

,

we see that the power of any prime dividing the numerator of

n!

n

1

!n

2

! n

k

!

is at least the power of the same prime dividing the denominator, which establishes the assertion.

173 Example Given a positive integer n > 3, prove that the least common multiple of the products x

1

x

2

x

k

(k ≥ 1), whose

factors x

i

are the positive integers with

x

1

+x

2

+ x

k

≤n,

is less than n!.

Solution: We claim that the least common multiple of the numbers in question is

p

p prime

p

n/p

.

64 Chapter 6

Consider an arbitrary product x

1

x

2

x

k

, and an arbitrary prime p. Suppose that p

α

j

[x

j

, p

α

j

+1

,[x

j

. Clearly p

α

1

+ + pα

k

≤n

and since p

α

≥αp, we have

p(α

1

+ α

k

) ≤n or α

1

+ +α

k

≤

n

p

.

Hence it follows that the exponent of an arbitrary prime p is at most n/p. But on choosing x

1

= = x

k

= p, k =n/p, we

see that there is at least one product for which equality is achieved. This proves the claim.

The assertion of the problem now follows upon applying De Polignac’s Formula and the claim.

Practice

Problem 6.2.1 (AHSME 1977) Find the largest possible n

such that 10

n

divides 1005!.

Problem 6.2.2 Find the highest power of 17 that divides

(17

n

−2)! for a positive integer n.

Problem 6.2.3 Find the exponent of the highest power of 24

that divides 300!.

Problem 6.2.4 Find the largest power of 7 in 300!.

Problem 6.2.5 (AIME 1983) What is the largest two-digit

prime factor of the integer

Ç

200

100

å

?

Problem 6.2.6 (USAMO 1975) 1. Prove that

5x+5y ≥3x +y+3y +x.

2. Using the result of part 1 or otherwise, prove that

(5m)!(5n)!

m!n!(3m+n)!(3n +m)!

is an integer for all positive integers m, n.

Problem 6.2.7 Prove that if n > 1, (n, 6) = 1, then

(2n −4)!

n!(n −2)!

is an integer.

Problem 6.2.8 (AIME 1992) Deﬁne a positive integer n to be

a “factorial tail” if there is some positive integer m such that

the base-ten representation of m! ends with exactly n zeroes.

How many positive integers less than 1992 are not factorial

tails?

Problem 6.2.9 Prove that if m and n are relatively prime pos-

itive integers then

(m+n −1)!

m!n!

is an integer.

Problem 6.2.10 If p is a prime divisor of

Ç

2n

n

å

with p ≥

√

2n

prove that the exponent of p in the factorisation of

Ç

2n

n

å

equals 1.

Problem 6.2.11 Prove that

lcm

ÇÇ

n

1

å

,

Ç

n

2

å

, . . . ,

Ç

n

n

åå

=

lcm(1, 2, . . . , n +1)

n +1

.

Problem 6.2.12 Prove the following result of Catalan:

Ç

m+n

n

å

divides

Ç

2m

m

åÇ

2n

n

å

.

6.3 Complementary Sequences

We deﬁne the spectrum of a real number α to be the inﬁnite multiset of integers

Spec(α) = ¦α, 2α, 3α, . . .¦.

Two sequences Spec(α) and Spec(β) are said to be complementary if they partition the natural numbers, i.e. Spec(α) ∩

Spec(β) = ∅ and Spec(α) ∪Spec(β) =N.

Practice 65

For example, it appears that the two sequences

Spec(

√

2) = ¦1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 24, 25, . . .¦,

and

Spec(2 +

√

2) =¦3, 6, 10, 13, 17, 20, 23, 27, 30, 34, 37, 40, 44, 47, 51, . . .¦

are complementary. The following theorem establishes a criterion for spectra to be complementary.

174 Theorem (Beatty’s Theorem, 1926) If α > 1 is irrational and

1

α

+

1

β

= 1,

then the sequences

Spec(α) and Spec(β)

are complementary.

Proof: Since α > 1, β > 1, Spec(α) and Spec(β) are each sequences of distinct terms, and the total number of

terms not exceeding N taken together in both sequences is N/α+N/β. But N/α −1+N/β −1 <N/α+

[N/β] <N/α+N/β, the last inequality being strict because both α, β are irrational. As 1/α+1/β =1, we gather

that N−2 <N/α+N/β<N. Since the sandwiched quantity is an integer, we deduce [N/α] +[N/β] =N−1.

Thus the total number of terms not exceeding N in Spec(α) and Spec(β) is N−1, as this is true for any N ≥1 each

interval (n, n+1) contains exactly one such term. It follows that Spec(α)∪Spec(β) =N, Spec(α)∩Spec(β) =∅.

u

The converse of Beatty’s Theorem is also true.

175 Theorem (Bang’s Theorem, 1957) If the sequences

Spec(α) and Spec(β)

are complementary, then α, β are positive irrational numbers with

1

α

+

1

β

= 1.

Proof: If both α, β are rational numbers, it is clear that Spec(α), Spec(β) eventually contain the same integers,

and so are not disjoint. Thus α and β must be irrational. If 0 < α ≤ 1, given n there is an M for which

mα −1 < n ≤ mα; hence n = [mα], which implies that Spec(α) = N, whence α > 1 (and so β > 1 also). If

Spec(α) ∩Spec(β) is ﬁnite, then

lim

n→∞

n/α+n/β

n

= 1,

but since (n/α+n/β)

1

n

→1/α +1/β as n →∞, it follows that 1/α +1/β = 1. u

176 Example Suppose we sieve the positive integers as follows: we choose a

1

= 1 and then delete a

1

+1 = 2. The next term

is 3, which we call a

2

, and then we delete a

2

+2 = 5. Thus the next available integer is 4 = a

3

, and we delete a

3

+3 = 7, etc.

Thereby we leave the integers 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17, . . .. Find a formula for a

n

.

Solution: What we are asking for is a sequence ¦S

n

¦ which is complementary to the sequence ¦S

n

+n¦. By Beatty’s Theorem,

nτ and nτ+n = n(τ +1) are complementary if 1/τ +1/(τ +1) = 1. But then τ = (1 +

√

5)/2, the Golden ratio. The

n-th term is thus a

n

=nτ.

Practice

66 Chapter 6

Problem 6.3.1 (Skolem) Let τ =

1 +

√

5

2

be the Golden

Ratio. Prove that the three sequences (n ≥ 1)

¦ττn¦, ¦ττ

2

n¦, ¦τ

2

n¦ are complementary.

6.4 Arithmetic Functions

An arithmetic function f is a function whose domain is the set of positive integers and whose range is a subset of the complex

numbers. The following functions are of considerable importance in Number Theory:

d(n) the number of positive divisors of the number n.

σ(n) the sum of the positive divisors of n.

φ(n) the number of positive integers not exceeding

n and relative prime to n.

ω(n) the number of distinct prime divisors of n.

Ω(n) the number of primes dividing n, counting multiplicity.

In symbols the above functions are:

d(n) =

d[n

1, σ(n) =

d[n

d, ω(n) =

p[n

1, Ω(n) =

p

α

[[n

α,

and

φ(n) =

1≤k≤n

(k,n)=1

1.

(The symbol [[ in p

α

[[n is read exactly divides and it signiﬁes that p

α

[n but p

α+1

,[n.)

For example, since 1, 2, 4, 5, 10 and 20 are the divisors of 20, we have d(20) =6, σ(20) =42, ω(20) =2, Ω(20) =3. Since

the numbers 1, 3, 7, 9, 11, 13, 17, 19 are the positive integers not exceeding 20 and relatively prime to 20, we see that φ(20) =8.

If f is an arithmetic function which is not identically 0 such that f (mn) = f (m) f (n) for every pair of relatively prime natural

numbers m, n, we say that f is then a multiplicative function. If f (mn) = f (m) f (n) for every pair of natural numbers m, n we

say then that f is totally multiplicative.

Let f be multiplicative and let n have the prime factorisation n = p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

r

r

. Then

f (n) = f (p

a

1

1

) f (p

a

2

2

) f (p

a

r

r

).

A multiplicative function is thus determined by its values at prime powers. If f is multiplicative, then there is a positive integer

a such that f (a) ,= 0. Hence f (a) = f (1 a) = f (1) f (a) which entails that f (1) = 1.

We will now show that the functions d and σ are multiplicative. For this we need ﬁrst the following result.

177 Theorem Let f be a multiplicative function and let F(n) =

d[n

f (d). Then F is also multiplicative.

Proof: Suppose that a, b are natural numbers with (a, b) = 1. By the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, every

divisor d of ab has the form d = d

1

d

2

where d

1

[a, d

2

[b, (d

1

, d

2

) = 1. Thus there is a one-to-one correspondence

between positive divisors d of ab and pairs d

1

, d

2

of positive divisors of a and b. Hence, if n = ab, (a, b) = 1 then

F(n) =

d[n

f (d) =

d

1

[a

d

2

[b

f (d

1

d

2

).

Since f is multiplicative the dextral side of the above equals

d

1

[a

d

2

[b

f (d

1

) f (d

2

) =

d

1

[a

f (d

1

)

d

2

[b

f (d

2

) = F(a)F(b).

This completes the proof. u

Arithmetic Functions 67

Since the function f (n) = 1 for all natural numbers n is clearly multiplicative (indeed, totally multiplicative), the theorem

above shows that d(n) =

d[n

1 is a multiplicative function. If p is a prime, the divisors of p

a

are 1, p, p

2

, p

3

, . . . , p

a

and so

d(p

a

) = a +1. This entails that if n has the prime factorisation n = p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

r

r

, then

d(n) = (1 +a

1

)(1 +a

2

) (1 +a

r

).

For example, d(2904) = d(2

3

3 11

2

) = d(2

3

)d(3)d(11

2

) = (1 +3)(1 +1)(1 +2) = 24.

We give now some examples pertaining to the divisor function.

178 Example (AHSME 1993) For how many values of n will an n-sided polygon have interior angles with integral degree

measures?

Solution: The measure of an interior angle of a regular n-sided polygon is

(n −2)180

n

. It follows that n must divide 180. Since

there are 18 divisors of 180, the answer is 16, because n ≥3 and so we must exclude the divisors 1 and 2.

179 Example Prove that d(n) ≤2

√

n.

Solution: Each positive divisor a of n can paired with its complementary divisor

n

a

. As n = a

n

a

, one of these divisors must be

≤

√

n. This gives at most 2

√

n divisors.

180 Example Find all positive integers n such that d(n) = 6.

Solution: Since 6 can be factored as 2 3 and 6 1, the desired n must have only two distinct prime factors, p and q, say. Thus

n = p

α

q

β

and either 1 +α = 2, 1 +β = 3 or 1 +α = 6, 1 +β = 1. Hence, n must be of one of the forms pq

2

or p

5

, where p, q

are distinct primes.

181 Example Prove that

n

k=1

d(k) =

n

j=1

n

j

Solution: We have

n

k=1

d(k) =

n

k=1

j[k

1.

Interchanging the order of summation

j≤n

j≤k≤n

k≡0 mod j

1 =

j≤n

n

j

,

which is what we wanted to prove.

182 Example (Putnam 1967) A certain locker room contains n lockers numbered 1, 2, . . . , n and are originally locked. An

attendant performs a sequence of operations T

1

, T

2

, . . . , T

n

whereby with the operation T

k

, 1 ≤ k ≤ n, the condition of being

locked or unlocked is changed for all those lockers and only those lockers whose numbers are multiples of k. After all the n

operations have been performed it is observed that all lockers whose numbers are perfect squares (and only those lockers) are

now open or unlocked. Prove this mathematically.

Solution: Observe that locker m, 1 ≤m ≤n, will be unlocked after n operations if and only if m has an odd number of divisors.

Now, d(m) is odd if and only if m is a perfect square. The assertion is proved.

68 Chapter 6

Since the function f (n) = n is multiplicative (indeed, totally multiplicative), the above theorem entails that σ is multiplica-

tive. If p is a prime, then clearly σ(p

a

) =1+p+p

2

+ +p

a

. This entails that if n has the prime factorisation n = p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

r

r

,

then

σ(n) = (1 + p

1

+ p

2

1

+ + p

a

1

1

)(1 + p

2

+ p

2

2

+ + p

a

2

w

) (1 + p

r

+ p

2

r

+ + p

a

r

r

).

This last product also equals

p

a

1

+1

1

−1

p

1

−1

p

a

2

+1

2

−1

p

2

−1

p

a

r

+1

r

−1

p

r

−1

.

We present now some examples related to the function σ.

183 Example (Putnam 1969) Let n be a positive integer such that 24[n +1. Prove that the sum of all divisors of n is also

divisible by 24.

Solution: Since 24[n+1, n ≡1 or 2 mod 3 and d ≡1, 3, 5 or 7 mod 8. As d(

n

d

) ≡−1 mod 3 or mod 8, the only possibilities

are

d ≡1, n/d ≡2 mod 3 or vice versa,

d ≡1, n/d ≡7 mod 8 or vice versa,

d ≡3, n/d ≡5 mod 8 or vice versa.

In all cases d +n/d ≡ 0 mod 3 and mod 8, whence 24 divides d +n/d. As d ,≡ n/d, no divisor is used twice in the pairing.

This implies that 24[

d[n

d.

We say that a natural number is perfect if it is the sum of its proper divisors. For example, 6 is perfect because 6 =

d[6,d,=6

d =

1 +2 +3. It is easy to see that a natural number is perfect if and only if 2n =

d[n

d. The following theorem is classical.

184 Theorem An even number is perfect if and only if it is of the form 2

p−1

(2

p

−1) where both p and 2

p

−1 are primes.

Proof: Suppose that p, 2

p

−1 are primes. Then σ(2

p

−1) = 1 +2

p

−1. Since (2

p−1

, 2

p

−1) = 1, σ(2

p−1

(2

p

−

1)) = σ(2

p−1

)σ(2

p

−1) = (1 +2 +2

2

+ +2

p−1

)(1 +2

p

−1) = (2

p

−1)2(2

p−1

), and 2

p−1

(2

p

−1) is perfect.

Conversely, let n be an even perfect number. Write n = 2

s

m, m odd. Then σ(n) = σ(2

s

)σ(m) = (2

s+1

−1)σ(m).

Also, since n perfect is, σ(n) = 2n = 2

s+1

m. Hence (2

s+1

−1)σ(m) = 2

s+1

m. One deduces that 2

s+1

[σ(m), and

so σ(m) = 2

s+1

b for some natural number b. But then (2

s+1

−1)b = m, and so b[m, b ,= m.

We propose to show that b = 1. Observe that b +m = (2

s+1

−1)b +b = 2

s+1

b = σ(m). If b ,= 1, then there are at

least three divisors of m, namely 1, b and m, which yields σ(m) ≥ 1 +b +m, a contradiction. Thus b = 1, and so

m = (2

s+1

−1)b = 2

s+1

−1 is a prime. This means that 2

s+1

−1 is a Mersenne prime and hence s +1 must be a

prime.u

185 Example Prove that for every natural number n there exist natural numbers x and y such that x−y ≥n and σ(x

2

) =σ(y

2

).

Solution: Let s ≥n, (s, 10) = 1. We take x = 5s, y = 4s. Then σ(x

2

) = σ(y

2

) = 31σ(s

2

).

Practice

Euler’s Function. Reduced Residues 69

Problem 6.4.1 Find the numerical values of d(1024), σ(1024), ω(1024),

Ω(1024) and φ(1024).

Problem 6.4.2 Describe all natural numbers n such that

d(n) = 10.

Problem 6.4.3 Prove that

d(2

n

−1) ≥d(n).

Problem 6.4.4 Prove that d(n) ≤

√

3n with equality if and

only if n = 12.

Problem 6.4.5 Prove that the following Lambert expansion

holds:

∞

n=1

d(n)t

n

=

∞

n=1

t

n

1 −t

n

.

Problem 6.4.6 Let d

1

(n) = d(n), d

k

(n) = d(d

k−1

(n)), k =

2, 3, . . .. Describe d

k

(n) for sufﬁciently large k.

Problem 6.4.7 Let m ∈ N be given. Prove that the set

A =¦n ∈ N : m[d(n)¦

contains an inﬁnite arithmetic progression.

Problem 6.4.8 Let n be a perfect number. Show that

d[n

1

d

= 2.

Problem 6.4.9 Prove that

d[n

d = n

d(n)/2

.

Problem 6.4.10 Prove that the power of a prime cannot be a

perfect number.

Problem 6.4.11 (AIME, 1995) Let n = 2

31

3

19

. How many

positive integer divisors of n

2

are less than n but do not di-

vide n?

Problem 6.4.12 Prove that if n is composite, then σ(n) >

n +

√

n.

Problem 6.4.13 Prove that σ(n) =n+k, k >1 a ﬁxed natural

number has only ﬁnitely many solutions.

Problem 6.4.14 Characterise all n for which σ(n) is odd.

Problem 6.4.15 Prove that p is a prime if and only if σ(p) =

1 + p.

Problem 6.4.16 Prove that

σ(n!)

n!

≥1 +

1

2

+ +

1

n

.

Problem 6.4.17 Prove that an odd perfect number must have

at least two distinct prime factors.

Problem 6.4.18 Prove that in an odd perfect number, only one

of its prime factors occurs to an odd power; all the others oc-

cur to an even power.

Problem 6.4.19 Show that an odd perfect number must con-

tain one prime factor p such that, if the highest power of p

occurring in n is p

a

, both p and a are congruent to 1 modulo

4; all other prime factors must occur to an even power.

Problem 6.4.20 Prove that every odd perfect number having

three distinct prime factors must have two of its prime factors

3 and 5.

Problem 6.4.21 Prove that there do not exist odd perfect num-

bers having exactly three distinct prime factors.

Problem 6.4.22 Prove that

n

k=1

σ(k) =

n

j=1

j

n

j

.

Problem 6.4.23 Find the number of sets of positive integers

¦a, b, c¦ such that a b c = 462.

6.5 Euler’s Function. Reduced Residues

Recall that Euler’s φ(n) function counts the number of positive integers a ≤n that are relatively prime to n. We will prove now

that φ is multiplicative. This requires more work than that done for d and σ.

First we need the following deﬁnitions.

70 Chapter 6

186 Deﬁnition Let n > 1. The φ(n) integers 1 = a

1

< a

2

< < a

φ(n)

= n −1 less than n and relatively prime to n are called

the canonical reduced residues modulo n.

187 Deﬁnition A reduced residue system modulo n, n > 1 is a set of φ(n) incongruent integers modulo n that are relatively

prime to n.

For example, the canonical reduced residues mod 12 are 1, 5, 7, 11 and the set ¦−11, 5, 19, 23¦ forms a reduced residue

system modulo 12.

We are now ready to prove the main result of this section.

188 Theorem The function φ is multiplicative.

Proof: Let n be a natural number with n = ab, (a, b) = 1. We arrange the ab integers 1, 2, . . . , ab as follows.

1 2 3 . . . k . . . a

a +1 a +2 a +3 . . . a +k . . . 2a

2a +1 2a +2 2a +3 . . . 2a +k . . . 3a

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b −1)a +1 (b −1)a +2 (b −1)a +3 . . . (b −1)a +k . . . ba

Now, an integer r is relatively prime to m if and only if it is relatively prime to a and b. We shall determine ﬁrst the

number of integers in the above array that are relatively prime to a and ﬁnd out how may of them are also relatively

prime to b.

There are φ(a) integers relatively prime to a in the ﬁrst row. Now consider the k-th column, 1 ≤k ≤a. Each integer

on this column is of the form ma +k, 0 ≤m ≤ b −1. As k ≡ ma +k mod a, k will have a common factor with a if

and only if ma +k does. This means that there are exactly φ(a) columns of integers that are relatively prime to a.

We must determine how many of these integers are relatively prime to b.

We claim that no two integers k, a +k, . . . , (b −1)a +k on the k-th column are congruent modulo b. For if ia +k ≡

ja +k mod b then a(i − j) ≡0 mod b. Since (a, b) = 1, we deduce that i − j ≡0 mod b thanks to Corollary ??.

Now i, j ∈ [0, b −1] which implies that [i − j[ < b. This forces i = j. This means that the b integers in any of these

φ(n) columns are, in some order, congruent to the integers 0, 1, . . . , b −1. But exactly φ(b) of these are relatively

prime to b. This means that exactly φ(a)φ(b) integers on the array are relatively prime to ab, which is what we

wanted to show.u

If p is a prime and m a natural number, the integers

p, 2p, 3p, . . . , p

m−1

p

are the only positive integers ≤ p

m

sharing any prime factors with p

m

. Thus φ(p

m

) = p

m

− p

m−1

. Since φ is multiplicative, if

n = p

a

1

1

p

a

k

k

is the factorisation of n into distinct primes, then

φ(n) = (p

a

1

1

− p

a

1

−1

1

) (p

a

k

k

− p

a

k

−1

k

).

For example, φ(48) = φ(2

4

3) = φ(2

4

)φ(3) = (2

4

−2

3

)(3 −1) = 16, and φ(550) = φ(2 5

2

11) = φ(2) φ(5

2

) φ(11) =

(2 −1)(5

2

−5)(11 −1) = 1 20 10 = 200.

189 Example Let n be a natural number. How many of the fractions 1/n, 2/n, . . . , (n −1)/n, n/n are irreducible?

Solution: This number is clearly

n

k=1

φ(k).

Euler’s Function. Reduced Residues 71

190 Example Prove that for n > 1,

1≤a≤n

(a,n)=1

a =

nφ(n)

2

.

Solution: Clearly if 1 ≤a ≤n and (a, n) = 1, 1 ≤n −a ≤n and (n −a, n) = 1. Thus

S =

1≤a≤n

(a,n)=1

a =

1≤a≤n

(a,n)=1

n −a,

whence

2S =

1≤a≤n

(a,n)=1

n = nφ(n).

The assertion follows.

191 Theorem Let n be a positive integer. Then

d[n

φ(d) = n.

Proof: For each divisor d of n, let T

d

(n) be the set of positive integers ≤ n whose gcd with n is d. As d varies

over the divisors of n, the T

d

partition the set ¦1, 2, . . . , n¦ and so

d[n

T

d

(n) = n.

We claim that T

d

(n) has φ(n/d) elements. Note that the elements of T

d

(n) are found amongst the integers

d, 2d, . . .

n

d

d. If k ∈T

d

(n), then k =ad, 1 ≤a ≤n/d and (k, n) =d. But then (

k

d

,

n

d

) =1. This implies that (a,

n

d

) =1.

Therefore counting the elements of T

d

(n) is the same as counting the integers a with 1 ≤ a ≤ n/d, (a,

n

d

) = 1. But

there are exactly φ(n/d) such a. We gather that

n =

d[n

φ(n/d).

But as d runs through the divisors of n, n/d runs through the divisors of n in reverse order, whence n =

d[n

φ(n/d) =

d[n

φ(d).u

192 Example If p −1 and p +1 are twin primes, and p > 4, prove that 3φ(p) ≤ p.

Solution: Observe that p > 4 must be a multiple of 6, so

p = 2

a

3

b

m, ab ≥1, (m, 6) = 1.

We then have φ(p) ≤2

a

3

b−1

φ(m) ≤2

a

3

b−1

m = p/3.

193 Example Let n ∈ N. Prove that the equation

φ(x) = n!

is soluble.

72 Chapter 6

Solution: We want to solve the equation φ(x) = n with the constraint that x has precisely the same prime factors as n. This

restriction implies that φ(x)/x = φ(n)/n. It follows that x = n

2

/φ(n).

Let n =

p

α

[[n

p

α

. Then x =

p

α

[[n

p

α

p −1

. The integer x will have the same prime factors as n provided that

p[n

(p −1)[n. It is

clear then that a necessary and sufﬁcient condition for φ(x) = n to be soluble under the restriction that x has precisely the same

prime factors as n is

p[n

(p −1)[n. If n = k!, this last condition is clearly satisﬁed. An explicit solution to the problem is thus

x = (k!)

2

/φ(k!).

194 Example Let φ

k

(n) =φ(φ

k−1

(n)), k = 1, 2, . . . , where φ

0

(n) =φ(n). Show that ∀k ∈ N, φ

k

(n) >1 for all sufﬁciently large

n.

Solution: Let p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

r

r

be the prime factorisation of n. Clearly

p

a

1

/2

1

p

a

2

/2

2

p

a

r

/2

r

> 2

r−1

≥

1

2

p

1

p

1

−1

p

r

p

r

−1

.

Hence

φ(n) =

p

1

−1

p

1

p

2

−1

p

2

p

r

−1

p

r

p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

r

r

≥

1

2

p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

r

r

p

a

1

/2

1

p

a

2

/2

2

p

a

r

/2

r

.

This last quantity equals

√

n/2. Therefore φ

1

(n) >

1

2

»

φ(n) >

1

2

…

1

4

√

n =

1

4

n

1/4

. In general we can show that φ

k

(n) >

1

4

n

2

−k−1

. We conclude that n ≥2

2

k+2

implies that φ

k

(n) > 1.

195 Example Find inﬁnitely many integers n such that 10[φ(n).

Solution: Take n = 11

k

, k = 1, 2, . . .. Then φ(11

k

) = 11

k

−11

k−1

= 10 11

k−1

.

Practice

Problem 6.5.1 Prove that

φ(n) = n

p[n

Å

1 −

1

p

ã

.

Problem 6.5.2 Prove that if n is composite then φ(n) ≤ n −

√

n. When is equality achieved?

Problem 6.5.3 (AIME 1992) Find the sum of all positive ra-

tional numbers that are less than 10 and have denominator 30

when written in lowest terms.

Answer: 400

Problem 6.5.4 Prove that φ(n) ≥n2

−ω(n)

.

Problem 6.5.5 Prove that φ(n) >

√

n for n > 6.

Problem 6.5.6 If φ(n)[n, then n must be of the form 2

a

3

b

for

nonnegative integers a, b.

Problem 6.5.7 Prove that if φ(n)[n − 1, then n must be

squarefree.

Problem 6.5.8 (Mandelbrot 1994) Four hundred people are

standing in a circle. You tag one person, then skip k people,

then tag another, skip k, and so on, continuing until you tag

someone for the second time. For how many positive values

of k less than 400 will every person in the circle get tagged at

least once?

Problem 6.5.9 Prove that if φ(n)[n −1 and n is composite,

then n has at least three distinct prime factors.

Problem 6.5.10 Prove that if φ(n)[n −1 and n is composite,

then n has at least four prime factors.

Multiplication in Z

n

73

Problem 6.5.11 For n > 1 let 1 = a

1

< a

2

< < a

φ(n)

=

n −1 be the positive integers less than n that are relatively

prime to n. Deﬁne the Jacobsthal function

g(n) := max

1≤k≤φ(n)−1

a

k+1

−a

k

to be the maximum gap between the a

k

. Prove that ω(n) ≤

g(n).

(Hint: Use the Chinese Remainder Theorem).

Problem 6.5.12 Prove that a necessary and sufﬁcient condi-

tion for n to be a prime is that

σ(n) +φ(n) = nd(n).

6.6 Multiplication in Z

n

In section 3.5 we saw that Z

n

endowed with the operation of addition +

n

becomes a group. We are now going to investigate the

multiplicative structure of Z

n

.

How to deﬁne multiplication in Z

n

? If we want to multiply a

n

b we simply multiply a b and reduce the result mod n. As

an example, let us consider Table ??. To obtain 4

6

2 we ﬁrst multiplied 4 2 = 8 and then reduced mod 6 obtaining 8 ≡ 2

mod 6. The answer is thus 4

6

2 = 2.

Another look at the table shows the interesting product 3

6

2 = 0. Why is it interesting? We have multiplied to non-zero

entities and obtained a zero entity!

Does Z

6

form a group under

6

? What is the multiplicative identity? In analogy with the rational numbers, we would like

1 to be the multiplicative identity. We would then deﬁne the multiplicative inverse of a to be that b that has the property that

a

6

b = b

6

a = 1. But then, we encounter some problems. For example, we see that 0, 2, 3, and 4 do not have a multiplicative

inverse. We need to be able to identify the invertible elements of Z

n

. For that we need the following.

6

0 1 2 3 4 5

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 1 2 3 4 5

2 0 2 4 0 2 4

3 0 3 0 3 0 3

4 0 4 2 0 4 2

5 0 5 4 3 2 1

Table 6.1: Multiplication Table for Z

6

196 Deﬁnition Let n > 1 be a natural number. An integer b is said to be the inverse of an integer a modulo n if ab ≡1 mod n.

It is easy to see that inverses are unique mod n. For if x, y are inverses to a mod n then ax ≡1 mod n and ay ≡1 mod n.

Multiplying by y the ﬁrst of these congruences, (ya)x ≡y mod n. Hence x ≡y mod n.

197 Theorem Let n > 1, a be integers. Then a possesses an inverse modulo n if and only if a is relatively prime to n.

Proof: Assume that b is the inverse of a mod n. Then ab ≡1 mod n, which entails the existence of an integer s

such that ab −1 = sn, i.e. ab −sn = 1. This is a linear combination of a and n and hence divisible by (a, n). This

implies that (a, n) = 1.

Conversely if (a, n) = 1, by the Bachet-Bezout Theorem there are integers x, y such that ax +ny = 1. This immedi-

ately yields ax ≡1 mod n, i.e., a has an inverse mod n.u

198 Example Find the inverse of 5 mod 7.

Solution: We are looking for a solution to the congruence 5x ≡1 mod 7. By inspection we see that this is x ≡3 mod 7.

74 Chapter 6

According to the preceding theorem, a will have a multiplicative inverse if and only if (a, n) = 1. We thus see that only the

reduced residues mod n have an inverse. We let Z

n

= ¦a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

φ(n)

¦. It is easy to see that the operation

n

is associative,

since it inherits associativity from the integers. We conclude that Z

n

is a group under the operation

n

.

We now give some assorted examples.

199 Example (IMO 1964) Prove that there is no positive integer n for which 2

n

+1 is divisible by 7.

Solution: Observe that 2

1

≡ 2, 2

2

≡ 4, 2

3

≡ 1 mod 7, 2

4

≡ 2 mod 7, 2

5

≡ 4 mod 7, 2

6

≡ 1 mod 7, etc. The pattern 2, 4, 1,

repeats thus cyclically. This says that there is no power of 2 which is ≡−1 ≡6 mod 7.

200 Theorem If a is relatively prime to the positive integer n, there exists a positive integer k ≤n such that a

k

≡1 mod n.

Proof: Since (a, n) = 1 we must have (a

j

, n) = 1 for all j ≥1. Consider the sequence a, a

2

, a

3

, . . . , a

n+1

mod n.

As there are n +1 numbers and only n residues mod n, the Pigeonhole Principle two of these powers must have

the same remainder mod n. That is, we can ﬁnd s, t with 1 ≤ s < t ≤ n +1 such that a

s

≡ a

t

mod n. Now,

1 ≤ t −s ≤ n. Hence a

s

≡ a

t

mod n gives a

t−s

a

s

≡ a

t−s

a

t

mod n, which is to say a

t

≡ a

t−s

a

t

mod n. Using

Corollary ?? we gather that a

t−s

≡1 mod n, which proves the result.u

If (a, n) = 1, the preceding theorem tells us that there is a positive integer k with a

k

≡ 1 mod n. By the Well-Ordering

Principle, there must be a smallest positive integer with this property. This prompts the following deﬁnition.

201 Deﬁnition If m is the least positive integer with the property that a

m

≡1 mod n, we say that a has order m mod n.

For example, 3

1

≡ 3, 3

2

≡ 2, 3

3

≡ 6, 3

4

≡ 4, 3

5

≡ 5, 3

6

≡1 mod 7, and so the order of 3 mod 7 is 6. We write this fact as

ord

7

3 = 6.

Given n, not all integers a are going to have an order mod n. This is clear if n[a, because then a

m

≡ 0 mod n for all

positive integers m. The question as to which integers are going to have an order mod n is answered in the following theorem.

202 Theorem Let n > 1 be a positive integer. Then a ∈ Z has an order mod n if and only if (a, n) = 1.

Proof: If (a, n) = 1, then a has an order in view of Theorem ?? and the Well-Ordering Principle. Hence assume

that a has an order mod n. Clearly a ,= 0. The existence of an order entails the existence of a positive integer

m such that a

m

≡ 1 mod n. Hence, there is an integer s with a

m

+sn = 1 or a a

m−1

+sn = 1. This is a linear

combination of a and n and hence divisible by (a, n). This entails that (a, n) = 1. u

The following theorem is of utmost importance.

203 Theorem Let (a, n) = 1 and let t be an integer. Then a

t

≡1 mod n if and only if ord

n

a[t.

Proof: Assume that ord

n

a[t. Then there is an integer s such that sord

n

a =t. This gives

a

t

≡a

sord

n

a

≡(a

ord

n

a

)

s

≡1

s

≡1 mod n.

Conversely, assume that a

t

≡1 mod n and t = x ord

n

a +y, 0 ≤y < ord

n

a. Then

a

y

≡a

t−xord

n

a

≡a

t

(a

ord

n

a

)

−x

≡1 1

−x

≡1 mod n.

If y > 0 we would have a positive integer smaller than ord

n

a with the property a

y

≡ 1 mod n. This contradicts

the deﬁnition of ord

n

a as the smallest positive integer with that property. Hence y = 0 and thus t = x ord

n

a, i.e.,

ord

n

a[t.u

Practice 75

204 Example (IMO 1964) Find all positive integers n for which 2

n

−1 is divisible by 7.

Solution: Observe that the order of 2 mod 7 is 3. We want 2

n

≡ 1 mod 7. It must then be the case that 3[n. Thus n =

3, 6, 9, 12, . . ..

The following result will be used repeatedly.

205 Theorem Let n > 1, a ∈ Z, (a, n) = 1. If r

1

, r

2

, . . . , r

φ(n)

is a reduced set of residues modulo n, then ar

1

, ar

2

, . . . , ar

φ(n)

is

also a reduced set of residues modulo n.

Proof: We just need to showthat the φ(n) numbers ar

1

, ar

2

, . . . , ar

φ(n)

are mutually incongruent mod n. Suppose

that ar

i

≡ ar

j

mod n for some i ,= j. Since (a, n) = 1, we deduce from Corollary ?? that r

i

≡ r

j

mod n. This

contradicts the fact that the r’s are incongruent, so the theorem follows.u

For example, as 1, 5, 7, 11 is a reduced residue system modulo 12 and (12, 5) = 1, the set 5, 25, 35, 55 is also a reduced

residue system modulo 12. Again, the 1, 5, 7, 11 are the 5, 25, 35, 55 in some order and 1 5 7 11 ≡5 25 35 55 mod 12.

The following corollary to Theorem ?? should be immediate.

206 Corollary Let n > 1, a, b ∈ Z, (a, n) = 1. If r

1

, r

2

, . . . , r

φ(n)

is a reduced set of residues modulo n, then ar

1

+b, ar

2

+

b, . . . , ar

φ(n)

+b is also a reduced set of residues modulo n.

Practice

Problem 6.6.1 Find the order of 5 modulo 12.

6.7 Möbius Function

207 Deﬁnition The Möbius function is deﬁned for positive integer n as follows:

µ(n) =

_

_

_

1 if n = 1,

(−1)

ω(n)

if ω(n) = Ω(n),

0 if ω(n) < Ω(n).

Thus µ is 1 for n = 1 and square free integers with an even number of prime factors, −1 for square free integers with an

odd number of prime factors, and 0 for non-square free integers. Thus for example µ(6) = 1, µ(30) = −1 and µ(18) = 0.

208 Theorem The Möbius Function µ is multiplicative.

Proof: Assume (m, n) = 1. If both M and n are square-free then

µ(m)µ(n) = (−1)

ω(m)

(−1)

ω(n)

= (−1)

ω(m)+ω(n)

= µ(mn).

If one of m, n is not square-free then

µ(m)µ(n) = 0 = µ(mn).

This proves the theorem. u

209 Theorem

d[n

µ(d) =

ß

1 if n = 1,

0 if n > 1.

76 Chapter 6

Proof: There are

Ç

ω(n)

k

å

square-free divisors d of n with exactly k prime factors. For all such d, µ(d) = (−1)

k

.

The sum in question is thus

d[n

µ(d) =

ω(n)

k=0

Ç

ω(n)

k

å

(−1)

k

.

By the Binomial Theorem this last sum is (1 −1)

ω(n)

= 0.u

210 Theorem (Möbius Inversion Formula) Let f be an arithmetical function and F(n) =

d[n

f (d). Then

f (n) =

d[n

µ(d)F(n/d) =

d[n

µ(n/d)F(d).

Proof: We have

d[n

µ(d)F(n/d) =

d[n

d[n

s[

n

d

f (s)

=

ds[n

µ(d) f (s)

=

s[n

f (s)

d[

n

s

µ(d).

In view of theorem ??, the inner sum is different from 0 only when

n

s

= 1. Hence only the term s = n in the outer

sum survives, which means that the above sums simplify to f (n).u

We now show the converse to Theorem ??.

211 Theorem Let f , F be arithmetic functions with f (n) =

d[n

µ(d)F(n/d) for all natural numbers n. Then F(n) =

d[n

f (d).

Proof: We have

d[n

f (d) =

d[n

s[d

µ(s)F(d/s)

=

d[n

s[d

µ(d/s)F(s)

=

s[n

r[

n

s

µ(r)F(s).

Using Theorem ??, the inner sum will be 0 unless s = n, in which case the entire sum reduces to F(n).u

Practice

Problem 6.7.1 Prove that

φ(n) = n

d[n

µ(d)

d

.

Problem 6.7.2 If f is an arithmetical function and F(n) =

Practice 77

n

k=1

f ([n/k]), then

f (n) =

n

j=1

µ( j)F([n/ j]).

Problem 6.7.3 If F is an arithmetical function such that

f (n) =

n

k=1

µ(k)F([n/k]), prove that F(n) =

n

j=1

f ( j).

Problem 6.7.4 Prove that

d[n

[µ(d)[ = 2

ω(n)

.

Problem 6.7.5 Prove that

d[n

µ(d)d(d) = (−1)

ω(n)

.

Problem 6.7.6 Given any positive integer k, prove that there

exist inﬁnitely many integers n with

µ(n +1) = µ(n +2) = = µ(n +k).

Chapter 7

More on Congruences

7.1 Theorems of Fermat and Wilson

212 Theorem (Fermat’s Little Theorem) Let p be a prime and let p ,[a. Then

a

p−1

≡1 mod p.

Proof: Since (a, p) = 1, the set a 1, a 2, . . . , a (p −1) is also a reduced set of residues mod p in view of

Theorem ??. Hence

(a 1)(a 2) (a (p −1)) ≡1 2 (p −1) mod p,

or

a

p−1

(p −1)! ≡(p −1)! mod p.

As ((p −1)!, p) = 1 we may cancel out the (p −1)!’s in view of Corollary ??. This proves the theorem.u

As an obvious corollary, we obtain the following.

213 Corollary For every prime p and for every integer a,

a

p

≡a mod p.

Proof: Either p[a or p ,[a. If p[a, a ≡ 0 ≡ a

p

mod p and there is nothing to prove. If p ,[a, Fermat’s Little

Theorem yields p[a

p−1

−1. Hence p[a(a

p−1

−1) = a

p

−a, which again gives the result.u

The following corollary will also be useful.

214 Corollary Let p be a prime and a an integer. Assume that p ,[a. Then ord

p

a[p −1.

Proof: This follows immediately from Theorem ?? and Fermat’s Little Theorem.u

215 Example Find the order of 8 mod 11.

Solution: By Corollary ?? ord

11

8 is either 1, 2, 5 or 10. Now 8

2

≡ −2 mod 11, 8

4

≡ 4 mod 11 and 8

5

≡ −1 mod 11. The

order is thus ord

11

8 = 10.

216 Example Let a

1

= 4, a

n

= 4

a

n−1

, n > 1. Find the remainder when a

100

is divided by 7.

78

Theorems of Fermat and Wilson 79

Solution: By Fermat’s Little Theorem, 4

6

≡1 mod 7. Now, 4

n

≡4 mod 6 for all positive integers n, i.e., 4

n

= 4+6t for some

integer t. Thus

a

100

≡4

a

99

≡4

4+6t

≡4

4

(4

6

)

t

≡4 mod 7.

217 Example Prove that for m, n ∈ Z, mn(m

60

−n

60

) is always divisible by 56786730.

Solution: Let a = 56786730 = 2 3 5 7 11 13 31 61. Let Q(x, y) = xy(x

60

−y

60

). Observe that (x −y)[Q(x, y), (x

2

−

y

2

)[Q(x, y), (x

3

−y

3

)[Q(x, y), (x

4

−y

4

)[Q(x, y), (x

6

−y

6

)[Q(x, y), (x

10

−y

10

)[Q(x, y), (x

12

−y

12

)[Q(x, y), and (x

30

−y

30

)[Q(x, y).

If p is any one of the primes dividing a, the Corollary to Fermat’s Little Theorem yields m

p

−m ≡ 0 mod p and n

p

−

n ≡ 0 mod p. Thus n(m

p

−m) −m(n

p

−n) ≡ 0 mod p, i.e., mn(m

p−1

−n

p−1

) ≡ 0 mod p. Hence, we have 2[mn(m−

n)[Q(m, n), 3[mn(m

2

−n

2

)[Q(m, n), 5[mn(m

4

−n

4

)[Q(m, n), 7[mn(m

6

−n

6

)[Q(m, n), 11[mn(m

10

−n

10

)[Q(m, n), 13[mn(m

12

−n

12

)[Q(m, n), 31[mn

n

30

)[Q(m, n) and 61[mn(m

60

−n

60

)[Q(m, n). Since these are all distinct primes, we gather that a[mnQ(m, n), which is what we

wanted.

218 Example (Putnam 1972) Showthat given an odd prime p, there are always inﬁnitely many integers n for which p[n2

n

+1.

Answer: For any odd prime p, take n = (p −1)

2k+1

, k = 0, 1, 2, . . .. Then

n2

n

+1 ≡(p −1)

2k+1

(2

p−1

)

(p−1)

2k

+1 ≡(−1)

2k+1

1

2k

+1 ≡0 mod p.

219 Example Prove that there are no integers n > 1 with n[2

n

−1.

Solution: If n[2

n

−1 for some n > 1, then n must be odd and have a smallest odd prime p as a divisor. By Fermat’s Little

Theorem, 2

p−1

≡1 mod p. By Corollary ?? , ord

p

2 has a prime factor in common with p −1. Now, p[n[2

n

−1 and so 2

n

≡1

mod p. Again, by Corollary ??, ord

p

2 must have a common prime factor with n (clearly ord

p

2 > 1). This means that n has a

smaller prime factor than p, a contradiction.

220 Example Let p be a prime. Prove that

1.

Ç

p −1

n

å

≡(−1)

n

mod p, 1 ≤n ≤ p −1.

2.

Ç

p +1

n

å

≡0 mod p, 2 ≤n ≤ p −1.

3. If p ,= 5 is an odd prime, prove that either f

p−1

or f

p+1

is divisible by p.

Solution: (1) (p −1)(p −2) (p −n) ≡(−1)(−2) (−n) ≡(−1)

n

n! mod p. The assertion follows from this.

(2) (p +1)(p)(p −1) (p −n +2) ≡(1)(0)(−1) (−n +2) ≡0 mod p. The assertion follows from this.

(3) Using the Binomial Theorem and Binet’s Formula

f

n

=

1

2

n−1

ÇÇ

n

1

å

+5

Ç

n

3

å

+5

2

Ç

n

5

å

+

å

.

From this and (1),

2

p−2

f

p−1

≡ p −1 − (5 +5

2

+ +5

(p−3)/2

) ≡−

5

(p−1)/2

−1

4

mod p.

80 Chapter 7

Using (2),

2

p

f

p+1

≡ p +1 +5

(p−1)/2

≡5

(p−1)/2

+1 mod p.

Thus

2

p

f

p−1

f

p+1

≡5

p−1

−1 mod p.

But by Fermat’s Little Theorem, 5

p−1

≡1 mod p for p ,= 5. The assertion follows.

221 Lemma If a

2

≡1 mod p, then either a ≡1 mod p or a ≡−1 mod p.

Proof: We have p[a

2

−1 = (a −1)(a +1). Since p is a prime, it must divide at least one of the factors. This

proves the lemma.u

222 Theorem (Wilson’s Theorem) If p is a prime, then (p −1)! ≡−1 mod p.

Proof: If p =2 or p =3, the result follows by direct veriﬁcation. So assume that p >3. Consider a, 2 ≤a ≤ p−2.

To each such a we associate its unique inverse a mod p, i.e. aa ≡ 1 mod p. Observe that a ,= a since then we

would have a

2

≡1 mod p which violates the preceding lemma as a ,= 1, a ,= p−1. Thus in multiplying all a in the

range 2 ≤a ≤ p −2, we pair them of with their inverses, and the net contribution of this product is therefore 1. In

symbols,

2 3 (p −2) ≡1 mod p.

In other words,

(p −1)! ≡1

Ñ

2≤a≤p−2

j

é

(p −1) ≡1 1 (p −1) ≡−1 mod p.

This gives the result. u

223 Example If p ≡1 mod 4, prove that

Å

p −1

2

ã

! ≡−1 mod p.

Solution: In the product (p −1)! we pair off j, 1 ≤ j ≤(p −1)/2 with p − j. Observe that j(p − j) ≡−j

2

mod p. Hence

−1 ≡(p −1)! ≡

1≤j≤(p−1)/2

−j

2

≡(−1)

(p−1)/2

Å

p −1

2

ã

! mod p.

As (−1)

(p−1)/2

= 1, we obtain the result.

224 Example (IMO 1970) Find the set of all positive integers n with the property that the set

¦n, n +1, n +2, n +3, n +4, n +5¦

can be partitioned into two sets such that the product of the numbers in one set equals the product of the numbers in the other

set.

Solution: We will show that no such partition exists. Suppose that we can have such a partition, with one of the subsets having

product of its members equal to A and the other having product of its members equal to B. We might have two possibilities.

The ﬁrst possibility is that exactly one of the numbers in the set ¦n, n +1, n +2, n +3, n +4, n +5¦ is divisible by 7, in which

case exactly one of A or B is divisible by 7, and so A B is not divisible by 7

2

, and so A B is not a square. The second possibility

is that all of the members of the set are relatively prime to 7. In this last case we have

n(n +1) (n +6) ≡1 2 6 ≡A B ≡−1 mod 7.

But if A = B then we are saying that there is an integer A such that A

2

≡ −1 mod 7, which is an impossibility, as −1 is not a

square mod 7. This ﬁnishes the proof.

Practice 81

Practice

Problem 7.1.1 Find all the natural numbers n for which

3[(n2

n

+1).

Problem 7.1.2 Prove that there are inﬁnitely many integers n

with n[2

n

+2.

Problem 7.1.3 Find all primes p such that p[2

p

+1.

Answer: p = 3 only.

Problem 7.1.4 If p and q are distinct primes prove that

pq[(a

pq

−a

p

−a

q

−a)

for all integers a.

Problem 7.1.5 If p is a prime prove that p[a

p

+ (p −1)!a for

all integers a.

Problem 7.1.6 If (mn, 42) = 1 prove that 168[m

6

−n

6

.

Problem 7.1.7 Let p and q be distinct primes. Prove that

q

p−1

+ p

q−1

≡1 mod pq.

Problem 7.1.8 If p is an odd prime prove that n

p

≡n mod 2p

for all integers n.

Problem 7.1.9 If p is an odd prime and p[m

p

+n

p

prove that

p

2

[m

p

+n

p

.

Problem 7.1.10 Prove that n > 1 is a prime if and only if

(n −1)! ≡−1 mod n.

Problem 7.1.11 Prove that if p is an odd prime

1

2

3

2

(p−2)

2

≡2

2

4

2

(p−1)

2

≡(−1)

(p−1)/2

mod p

Problem 7.1.12 Prove that 19[(2

2

6k+2

+3) for all nonnegative

integers k.

7.2 Euler’s Theorem

In this section we obtain a generalisation of Fermat’s Little Theorem, due to Euler. The proof is analogous to that of Fermat’s

Little Theorem.

225 Theorem (Euler’s Theorem) Let (a, n) = 1. Then a

φ(n)

≡1 mod n.

Proof: Let a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

φ(n)

be the canonical reduced residues mod n. As (a, n) = 1, aa

1

, aa

2

, . . . , aa

φ(n)

also

forms a set of incongruent reduced residues. Thus

aa

1

aa

2

aa

φ(n)

≡a

1

a

2

a

φ(n)

mod n,

or

a

φ(n)

a

1

a

2

a

φ(n)

≡a

1

a

2

a

φ(n)

mod n.

As (a

1

a

2

a

φ(n)

, n) = 1, we may cancel the product a

1

a

2

a

φ(n)

from both sides of the congruence to obtain

Euler’s Theorem.u

Using Theorem ?? we obtain the following corollary.

226 Corollary Let (a, n) = 1. Then ord

n

a[φ(n).

227 Example Find the last two digits of 3

1000

.

Solution: As φ(100) = 40, by Euler’s Theorem, 3

40

≡1 mod 100. Thus

3

1000

= (3

40

)

25

≡1

25

= 1 mod 100,

and so the last two digits are 01.

82 Chapter 7

228 Example Find the last two digits of 7

7

1000

.

Solution: First observe that φ(100) = φ(2

2

)φ(5

2

) = (2

2

−2)(5

2

−5) = 40. Hence, by Euler’s Theorem, 7

40

≡ 1 mod 100.

Now, φ(40) =φ(2

3

)φ(5) =4 4 = 16, hence 7

16

≡1 mod 40. Finally, 1000 =16 62+8. This means that 7

1000

≡(7

16

)

62

7

8

≡

1

62

7

8

≡(7

4

)

2

≡1

2

≡1 mod 40. This means that 7

1000

= 1 +40t for some integer t. Upon assembling all this

7

7

1000

≡7

1+40t

≡7 (7

40

)

t

≡7 mod 100.

This means that the last two digits are 07.

229 Example (IMO 1978) m, n are natural numbers with 1 ≤ m < n. In their decimal representations, the last three digits of

1978

m

are equal, respectively, to the last three digits of 1978

n

. Find m, n such that m+n has its least value.

Solution: As m+n = n −m+2m, we minimise n −m. We are given that

1978

n

−1978

m

= 1978

m

(1978

n−m

−1)

is divisible by 1000 = 2

3

5

3

. Since the second factor is odd, 2

3

must divide the ﬁrst and so m ≥ 3. Now, ord

125

1978 is the

smallest positive integer s with

1978

s

≡1 mod 125.

By Euler’s Theorem

1978

100

≡1 mod 125

and so by Corollary 7.3 s[100. Since 125[(1978

s

−1) we have 5[(1978

s

−1), i.e., 1978

s

≡3

s

≡1 mod 5. Since s[100, this last

congruence implies that s = 4, 20, or 100. We now rule out the ﬁrst two possibilities.

Observe that

1978

4

≡(−22)

4

≡2

4

11

4

≡(4 121)

2

≡(−16)

2

≡6 mod 125.

This means that s ,= 4. Similarly

1978

20

≡1978

4

(1978

4

)

4

≡6 6

4

≡6 46 ≡26 mod 125.

This means that s ,=20 and so s =100. Since s is the smallest positive integer with 1978

s

≡1 mod 125, we take n−m=s =100

and m = 3, i.e., n = 103, m = 3, and ﬁnally, m+n = 106.

230 Example (IMO 1984) Find one pair of positive integers a, b such that:

(i) ab(a +b) is not divisible by 7.

(ii) (a +b)

7

−a

7

−b

7

is divisible by 7

7

. Justify your answer.

Solution: We ﬁrst factorise (a +b)

7

−a

7

−b

7

as ab(a +b)(a

2

+ab +b

2

)

2

. Using the Binomial Theorem we have

(a +b)

7

−a

7

−b

7

= 7(a

6

b +ab

6

+3(a

5

b

2

+a

2

b

5

) +5(a

4

b

3

+a

3

b

4

))

= 7ab(a

5

+b

5

+3ab(a

3

+b

3

) +5(a

2

b

2

)(a +b))

= 7ab(a +b)(a

4

+b

4

−a

3

b −ab

3

+a

2

b

2

+3ab(a

2

−ab +b

2

) +5ab)

= 7ab(a +b)(a

4

+b

4

+2(a

3

b +ab

3

) +3a

2

b

2

)

= 7ab(a +b)(a

2

+ab +b

2

)

2

.

The given hypotheses can be thus simpliﬁed to

(i)

′

ab(a +b) is not divisible by 7,

(ii)

′

a

2

+ab +b

2

is divisible by 7

3

.

Practice 83

As (a +b)

2

> a

2

+ab +b

2

≥ 7

3

, we obtain a +b ≥ 19. Using trial and error, we ﬁnd that a = 1, b = 18 give an answer, as

1

2

+1 18 +18

2

= 343 = 7

3

.

Let us look for more solutions by means of Euler’s Theorem. As a

3

−b

3

= (a −b)(a

2

+ab +b

2

), (ii)’ is implied by

(ii)

′′

ß

a

3

≡b

3

mod 7

3

a ,≡b mod 7.

Now φ(7

3

) = (7 −1)7

2

= 3 98, and so if x is not divisible by 7 we have (x

98

)

3

≡ 1 mod 7

3

, which gives the ﬁrst part of (ii)’.

We must verify now the conditions of non-divisibility. For example, letting x = 2 we see that 2

98

≡ 4 mod 7. Thus letting

a = 2

98

, b = 1. Letting x = 3 we ﬁnd that 3

98

≡ 324 mod 7

3

. We leave to the reader to verify that a = 324, b = 1 is another

solution.

Practice

Problem 7.2.1 Show that for all natural numbers s, there is

an integer n divisible by s, such that the sum of the digits of n

equals s.

Problem 7.2.2 Prove that 504[n

9

−n

3

.

Problem 7.2.3 Prove that for odd integer n > 0, n[(2

n!

−1).

Problem 7.2.4 Let p ,[10 be a prime. Prove that p divides

inﬁnitely many numbers of the form

11. . . 11.

Problem 7.2.5 Find all natural numbers n that divide

1

n

+2

n

+ + (n −1)

n

.

Problem 7.2.6 Let (m, n) = 1. Prove that

m

φ(n)

+n

φ(n)

≡1 mod mn.

Problem 7.2.7 Find the last two digits of a

1001

if a

1

= 7, a

n

=

7

a

n−1

.

Problem 7.2.8 Find the remainder of

10

10

+10

10

2

+ +10

10

10

upon division by 7.

Problem 7.2.9 Prove that for every natural number n there

exists some power of 2 whose ﬁnal n digits are all ones and

twos.

Problem 7.2.10 (USAMO 1982) Prove that there exists a

positive integer k such that k 2

n

+1 is composite for every

positive integer n.

Problem 7.2.11 (Putnam 1985) Describe the sequence a

1

=

3, a

n

= 3

a

n−1

mod 100 for large n.

Chapter 8

Scales of Notation

8.1 The Decimal Scale

As we all know, any natural number n can be written in the form

n = a

0

10

k

+a

1

10

k−1

+ +a

k−1

10 +a

k

,

where 1 ≤a

0

≤9, 0 ≤a

j

≤9, j ≥1. For example, 65789 = 6 10

4

+5 10

3

+7 10

2

+8 10 +9.

231 Example Find all whole numbers which begin with the digit 6 and decrease 25 times when this digit is deleted.

Solution: Let the number sought have n +1 digits. Then this number can be written as 6 10

n

+y, where y is a number with n

digits (it may begin with one or several zeroes). The condition of the problem stipulates that

6 10

n

+y = 25 y

whence

y =

6 10

n

24

.

From this we gather that n ≥2 (otherwise, 6 10

n

would not be divisible by 24). For n ≥2, y = 25 10

k−2

, that is, y has the form

250 0(n −2 zeroes). We conclude that all the numbers sought have the form 625 0. . . 0

. ¸¸ .

n−2 zeroes

.

232 Example (IMO 1968) Find all natural numbers x such that the product of their digits (in decimal notation) equals x

2

−

10x −22.

Solution: Let x have the form

x = a

0

+a

1

10 +a

2

10

2

+ +a

n−1

10

n−1

, a

k

≤9, a

n−1

,= 0.

Let P(x) be the product of the digits of x, P(x) =x

2

−10x−22. Now, P(x) = a

0

a

1

a

n−1

≤9

n−1

a

n−1

< 10

n−1

a

n−1

≤x (strict

inequality occurs when x has more than one digit). So x

2

−10x −22 < x, and we deduce that x < 13, whence x has either one

digit or x =10, 11, 13. If x had one digit, then a

0

=x

2

−10x−22, but this equation has no integral solutions. If x =10, P(x) =0,

but x

2

−10x −22 ,= 0. If x = 11, P(x) = 1, but x

2

−10x −22 ,= 1. If x = 12, P(x) = 2 and x

2

−10x −22 = 2. Therefore, x = 12

is the only solution.

233 Example A whole number decreases an integral number of times when its last digit is deleted. Find all such numbers.

84

The Decimal Scale 85

Solution: Let 0 ≤ y ≤ 9, and 10x +y = mx, m and x natural numbers. This requires 10 +y/x = m, an integer. We must have

x[y. If y = 0, any natural number x will do, and we obtain the multiples of 10. If y = 1, x = 1, and we obtain 11. If y = 2, x = 1

or x = 2 and we obtain 12 and 22. Continuing in this fashion, the sought numbers are: the multiples of 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,

16, 17, 18, 19,22, 24, 26, 28, 33, 36, 39, 44, 48, 55, 66, 77, 88, and 99.

234 Example Let A be a positive integer, and A

′

be a number written with the aid of the same digits with are arranged in some

other order. Prove that if A+A

′

= 10

10

, then A is divisible by 10.

Solution: Clearly A and A

′

must have ten digits. Let A = a

10

a

9

. . . a

1

be the consecutive digits of A and A

′

= a

′

10

a

′

9

. . . a

′

1

. Now,

A+A

′

=10

10

if and only if there is a j, 0 ≤ j ≤9 for which a

1

+a

′

1

=a

2

+a

′

2

= =a

j

+a

′

j

=0, a

j+1

+a

′

j+1

=10, a

j+2

+a

′

j+2

=

a

j+3

+a

′

j+3

= = a

10

+a

′

10

= 9. Notice that j = 0 implies that there are no sums of the form a

j+k

+a

′

j+k

, k ≥ 2, and j = 9

implies that there are no sums of the form a

l

+a

′

l

, 1 ≤l ≤ j. On adding all these sums, we gather

a

1

+a

′

1

+a

2

+a

′

2

+ +a

10

+a

′

10

= 10 +9(9 − j).

Since the a

′

s

are a permutation of the a

s

, we see that the sinistral side of the above equality is the even number 2(a

1

+a

2

+ +

a

10

). This implies that j must be odd. But this implies that a

1

+a

′

1

= 0, which gives the result.

235 Example (AIME 1994) Given a positive integer n, let p(n) be the product of the non-zero digits of n. (If n has only one

digit, then p(n) is equal to that digit.) Let

S = p(1) + p(2) + + p(999).

What is the largest prime factor of S?

Solution: Observe that non-zero digits are the ones that matter. So, for example, the numbers 180, 108, 118, 810, 800, and 811

have the same value p(n).

We obtain all the three digit numbers from 001 to 999 by expanding the product

(0 +1 +2 + +9)

3

−0,

where we subtracted a 0 in order to eliminate 000. Thus

(0 +1 +2 +9)

3

−0 = 001 +002 + +999.

In order to obtain p(n) for a particular number, we just have to substitute the (possible) zeroes in the decimal representation, by

1’s, and so

p(1) + p(2) + + p(n) = 111 +112 + +999 = (1 +1 +2 + +9)

3

−1,

which equals 46

3

−1. (In the last sum, 111 is repeated various times, once for 001, once for 011, once for 100, once for 101,

once for 110, etc.) As 46

3

−1 = 3

3

5 7 103, the number required is 103.

236 Example (AIME 1992) Let S be the set of all rational numbers r, 0 < r < 1, that have a repeating decimal expansion of the

form

0.abcabcabc. . . = 0.abc,

where the digits a, b, c are not necessarily distinct. To write the elements of S as fractions in lowest terms, how many different

numerators are required?

Solution: Observe that 0.abcabcabc. . . =

abc

999

, and 999 = 3

3

37. If abc is neither divisible by 3 nor 37, the fraction is already

in lowest terms. By the Inclusion-Exclusion Principle, there are

999 − (999/3 +999/37) +999/3 37 = 648

such numbers. Also, fractions of the form s/37, where 3[s, 37 ,[s are in S. There are 12 fractions of this kind. (Observe that we

do not consider fractions of the form l/3

t

, 37[s, 3 ,[l, because fractions of this form are greater than 1, and thus not in S.)

The total number of distinct numerators in the set of reduced fractions is thus 640 +12 = 660.

86 Chapter 8

237 Example (Putnam 1956) Prove that every positive integer has a multiple whose decimal representation involves all 10

digits.

Solution: Let n be an arbitrary positive integer with k digits. Let m = 123456789 10

k+1

. Then all of the n consecutive integers

m+1, m+2, . . . m+n begin with 1234567890 and one of them is divisible by n.

238 Example (Putnam 1987) The sequence of digits

12345678910111213141516171819202122. . .

is obtained by writing the positive integers in order. If the 10

n

digit of this sequence occurs in the part in which the m-digit

numbers are placed, deﬁne f (n) to be m. For example f (2) = 2, because the hundredth digit enters the sequence in the

placement of the two-digit integer 55. Find, with proof, f (1987).

Solution: There are 9 10

j−1

j-digit positive integers. The total number of digits in numbers with at most r digits is g(r) =

r

j=1

j 9 10

r−1

= r10

r

−

10

r

−1

9

. As 0 <

10

r

−1

9

< 10

r

, we get (r −1)10

r

< g(r) < r10

r

. Thus g(1983) < 1983 10

1983

<

10

4

10

1983

= 10

1987

and g(1984) > 1983 10

1984

> 10

3

10

1984

. Therefore f (1987) = 1984.

Practice

Problem 8.1.1 Prove that there is no whole number which de-

creases 35 times when its initial digit is deleted.

Problem 8.1.2 A whole number is equal to the arithmetic

mean of all the numbers obtained from the given number with

the aid of all possible permutations of its digits. Find all whole

numbers with that property.

Problem 8.1.3 (AIME 1989) Suppose that n is a positive in-

teger and d is a single digit in base-ten. Find n if

n

810

= 0.d25d25d25d25. . ..

Problem 8.1.4 (AIME 1992) For how many pairs of consec-

utive integers in

¦1000, 1001, . . ., 2000¦

is no carrying required when the two integers are added?

Problem 8.1.5 Let m be a seventeen-digit positive integer and

let N be number obtained from m by writing the same digits in

reversed order. Prove that at least one digit in the decimal

representation of the number M+N is even.

Problem 8.1.6 Given that

e = 2 +

1

2!

+

1

3!

+

1

4!

+ ,

prove that e is irrational.

Problem 8.1.7 Let t be a positive real number. Prove that

there is a positive integer n such that the decimal expansion

of nt contains a 7.

Problem 8.1.8 (AIME 1988) Find the smallest positive inte-

ger whose cube ends in 888.

Problem 8.1.9 (AIME 1987) An ordered pair (m, n) of non-

negative integers is called simple if the addition m+n requires

no carrying. Find the number of simple ordered pairs of non-

negative integers that sum 1492.

Problem 8.1.10 (AIME 1986) In the parlor game, the “ma-

gician” asks one of the participants to think of a three-digit

number abc, where a, b, c represent the digits of the number

in the order indicated. The magician asks his victim to form

the numbers acb, bac, cab and cba, to add the number and to

reveal their sum N. If told the value of N, the magician can

identity abc. Play the magician and determine abc if N = 319.

Problem 8.1.11 The integer n is the smallest multiple of 15

such that every digit of n is either 0 or 8. Compute n/15.

Problem 8.1.12 (AIME 1988) For any positive integer k, let

f

1

(k) denote the square of the sums of the digits of k. For

n ≥2, let f

n

(k) = f

1

( f

n−1

(k)). Find f

1988

(11).

Problem 8.1.13 (IMO 1969) Determine all three-digit num-

bers N that are divisible by 11 and such that N/11 equals the

Non-decimal Scales 87

sum of the squares of the digits of N.

Problem 8.1.14 (IMO 1962) Find the smallest natural num-

ber having last digit is 6 and if this 6 is erased and put in front

of the other digits, the resulting number is four times as large

as the original number.

Problem 8.1.15 1. Show that Champernowne’s number

χ = 0.123456789101112131415161718192021. . .

is irrational.

2. Let r ∈ Q and let ε > 0 be given. Prove that there exists

a positive integer n such that

[10

n

χ −r[ < ε.

Problem 8.1.16 A Liouville number is a real number x such

that for every positive k there exist integers a and b ≥ 2, such

that

[x −a/b[ < b

−k

.

Prove or disprove that π is the sum of two Liouville numbers.

Problem 8.1.17 Given that

1/49 =0.020408163265306122448979591836734693877551,

ﬁnd the last thousand digits of

1 +50 +50

2

+ +50

999

.

8.2 Non-decimal Scales

The fact that most people have ten ﬁngers has ﬁxed our scale of notation to the decimal. Given any positive integer r > 1, we

can, however, express any number in base r.

239 Example Express the decimal number 5213 in base-seven.

Solution: Observe that 5213 < 7

5

. We thus want to ﬁnd 0 ≤a

0

, . . . , a

4

≤6, a

4

,= 0, such that

5213 = a

4

7

4

+a

3

7

3

+a

2

7

2

+a

1

7 +a

0

.

Now, divide by 7

4

to obtain

2 +proper fraction = a

4

+proper fraction.

Since a

4

is an integer, it must be the case that a

4

= 2. Thus 5213 −2 7

4

= 411 = a

3

7

3

+a

2

7

2

+a

1

7 +a

0

. Dividing 411 by 7

3

we obtain

1 +proper fraction = a

3

+proper fraction.

Thus a

3

= 1. Continuing in this way we deduce that 5213 = 21125

7

.

240 Example Express the decimal number 13/16 in base-six.

Solution: Write

13

16

=

a

1

6

+

a

2

6

2

+

a

3

6

3

+. . . .

Multiply by 6 to obtain

4 +proper fraction = a

1

+proper fraction.

Thus a

1

= 4. Hence 13/16 −4/6 = 7/48 =

a

2

6

2

+

a

3

6

3

+. . .. Multiply by 6

2

to obtain

5 +proper fraction = a

2

+proper fraction.

We gather that a

2

= 5. Continuing in this fashion, we deduce that 13/16 = .4513

6

.

241 Example Prove that 4.41 is a perfect square in any scale of notation.

Solution: If 4.41 is in scale r, then

4.41 = 4 +

4

r

+

1

r

2

=

Å

2 +

1

r

ã

2

.

88 Chapter 8

242 Example Let x denote the greatest integer less than or equal to x. Does the equation

x+2x+4x+8x+16x+32x= 12345

have a solution?

Solution: We show that there is no such x. Recall that x satisﬁes the inequalities x −1 < x ≤x. Thus

x −1 +2x −1 +4x −1+ +32x −1 < x+2x+4x+8x

+16x+32x

≤ x +2x +4x + +32x.

From this we see that 63x −6 < 12345 ≤63x. Hence 195 < x < 196.

Write then x in base-two:

x = 195 +

a

1

2

+

a

2

2

2

+

a

3

2

3

+. . . ,

with a

k

= 0 or 1. Then

2x = 2 195 +a

1

,

4x = 4 195 +2a

1

+a

2

,

8x = 8 195 +4a

1

+2a

2

+a

3

,

16x = 16 195 +8a

1

+4a

2

+2a

3

+a

4

,

32x = 32 195 +16a

1

+8a

2

+4a

3

+2a

4

+a

5

.

Adding we ﬁnd that x+2x+4x+8x+16x+32x = 63 195+31a

1

+15a

2

+7a

3

+3a

4

+a

5

, i.e. 31a

1

+15a

2

+

7a

3

+3a

4

+a

5

= 60. This cannot be because 31a

1

+15a

2

+7a

3

+3a

4

+a

5

≤31 +15 +7 +3+1 = 57 < 60.

243 Example (AHSME 1993) Given 0 ≤x

0

< 1, let

x

n

=

ß

2x

n−1

if 2x

n−1

< 1

2x

n−1

−1 if 2x

n−1

≥1

for all integers n > 0. For how many x

0

is it true that x

0

= x

5

?

Solution: Write x

0

in base-two,

x

0

=

∞

k=1

a

n

2

n

a

n

= 0 or 1.

The algorithm given just moves the binary point one unit to the right. For x

0

to equal x

5

we need 0.a

1

a

2

a

3

a

4

a

5

a

6

a

7

. . . =

0.a

6

a

7

a

8

a

9

a

10

a

11

a

12

. . .. This will happen if and only if x

0

has a repeating expansion with a

1

a

2

a

3

a

4

a

5

as the repeating block .

There are 2

5

= 32 such blocks. But if a

1

= a

2

= = a

5

= 1, then x

0

= 1, which is outside [0, 1). The total number of values

for which x

0

= x

5

is thus 32 −1 = 31.

244 Example (AIME 1986) The increasing sequence

1, 3, 4, 9, 10, 12, 13, . . .

consists of all those positive integers which are powers of 3 or sums distinct powers of 3. Find the hundredth term of the

sequence.

Solution: If the terms of the sequence are written in base-3, they comprise the positive integers which do not contain the digit

2. Thus, the terms of the sequence in ascending order are thus

1, 10, 11, 100, 101, 110, 111, . . ..

In the binary scale, these numbers are, of course, 1, 2, 3, . . . . To obtain the 100-th term of the sequence we just write 100 in

binary 100 = 1100100

2

and translate this into ternary: 1100100

3

= 3

6

+3

5

+3

2

= 981.

Practice

A theorem of Kummer 89

Problem 8.2.1 (Putnam, 1987) For each positive integer n,

let α(n) be the number of zeroes in the base-three represen-

tation of n. For which positive real numbers x does the series

∞

n=1

x

α(n)

n

3

converge?

Problem 8.2.2 Prove that for x ∈ R, x ≥0, one has

∞

n=1

(−1)

2

n

x

2

n

= 1 −2(x −x).

Problem 8.2.3 (Putnam, 1981) Let E(n) denote the largest k

such that 5

k

is an integral divisor of 1

1

2

2

3

3

n

n

. Calculate

lim

n→∞

E(n)

n

2

.

Problem 8.2.4 (AHSME, 1982) The base-eight representa-

tion of a perfect square is ab3c with a ,= 0. Find the value

of c.

Problem 8.2.5 (Putnam, 1977) An ordered triple of

(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) of positive irrational numbers with x

1

+x

2

+x

3

= 1

is called balanced if x

n

< 1/2 for all 1 ≤ n ≤ 3. If a triple

is not balanced, say x

j

> 1/2, one performs the following

“balancing act”:

B(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) = (x

′

1

, x

′

2

, x

′

3

),

where x

′

i

= 2x

i

if x

i

,= x

j

and x

′

j

= 2x

j

−1. If the new triple

is not balanced, one performs the balancing act on it. Does

continuation of this process always lead to a balanced triple

after a ﬁnite number of performances of the balancing act?

Problem 8.2.6 Let C denote the class of positive integers

which, when written in base-three, do not require the digit 2.

Show that no three integers in C are in arithmetic progression.

Problem 8.2.7 Let B(n) be the number of 1’s in the base-two

expansion of n. For example, B(6) = B(110

2

) = 2, B(15) =

B(1111

2

) = 4.

1. (PUTNAM 1981) Is

exp

_

∞

n=1

B(n)

n

2

+n

_

a rational number?

2. (PUTNAM 1984) Express

2

m

−1

n=0

(−1)

B(n)

n

m

in the form (−1)

m

a

f (m)

(g(m))! where a is an integer

and f , g are polynomials.

Problem 8.2.8 What is the largest integer that I should be

permitted to choose so that you may determine my number in

twenty “yes” or “no” questions?

8.3 A theorem of Kummer

We ﬁrst establish the following theorem.

245 Theorem (Legendre) Let p be a prime and let n = a

0

p

k

+a

1

p

k−1

+ +a

k−1

p +a

k

be the base-p expansion of n. The

exact power m of a prime p dividing n! is given by

m =

n − (a

0

+a

1

+ +a

k

)

p −1

.

Proof: By De Polignac’s Formula

m =

∞

k=1

n

p

k

.

90 Chapter 8

Now, n/p = a

0

p

k−1

+a

1

p

k−2

+ a

k−2

p +a

k−1

, n/p

2

= a

0

p

k−2

+a

1

p

k−3

+ +a

k−2

, . . . , n/p

k

= a

0

.

Thus

∞

k=1

n/p

k

= a

0

(1 + p + p

2

+ + p

k−1

) +a

1

(1 + p + p

2

+ + p

k−2

)+

+a

k−1

(1 + p) +a

k

= a

0

p

k

−1

p −1

+a

1

p

k−1

−1

p −1

+ +a

k−1

p

2

−1

p −1

+a

k

p −1

p −1

=

a

0

p

k

+a

1

p

k−1

+ +a

k

− (a

0

+a

1

+ +a

k

)

p −1

=

n − (a

0

+a

1

+ +a

k

)

p −1

,

as wanted.u

246 Theorem (Kummer’s Theorem) The exact power of a prime p dividing the binomial coefﬁcient

Ç

a +b

a

å

is equal to the

number of “carry-overs” when performing the addition of a, b written in base p.

Proof: Let a = a

0

+a

1

p + +a

k

p

k

, b = b

0

+b

1

p + +b

k

p

k

, 0 ≤ a

j

, b

j

≤ p −1, and a

k

+b

k

> 0. Let S

a

=

k

j=0

a

j

, S

b

=

k

j=0

b

j

. Let c

j

, 0 ≤c

j

≤ p −1, and ε

j

= 0 or 1, be deﬁned as follows:

a

0

+b

0

= ε

0

p +c

0

,

ε

0

+a

1

+b

1

= ε

1

p +c

1

,

ε

1

+a

2

+b

2

= ε

2

p +c

2

,

.

.

.

ε

k−1

+a

k

+b

k

= ε

k

p +c

k

.

Multiplying all these equalities successively by 1, p, p

2

, . . . and adding them:

a +b +ε

0

p +ε

1

p

2

+. . . +ε

k−1

p

k

= ε

0

p +ε

1

p

2

+. . . +ε

k−1

p

k

+ε

k

p

k+1

+c

0

+c

1

p + +c

k

p

k

.

We deduce that a +b = c

0

+c

1

p + +c

k

p

k

+ε

k

p

k+1

. By adding all the equalities above, we obtain similarly:

S

a

+S

b

+ (ε

0

+ε

1

+ +ε

k−1

) = (ε

0

+ε

1

+ +ε

k

)p +S

a+b

−ε

k

.

Upon using Legendre’s result from above,

(p −1)m = (a +b) −S

a+b

−a +S

a

−b +S

b

= (p −1)(ε

0

+ε

1

+ +ε

k

),

which gives the result.u

Chapter 9

Miscellaneous Problems

247 Example Prove that

p

p prime

1

p

diverges.

Solution: Let F

x

denote the family consisting of the integer 1 and the positive integers n all whose prime factors are less than

or equal to x. By the Unique Factorisation Theorem

p≤x

p prime

Å

1 +

1

p

+

1

p

2

+

ã

=

n∈F

x

1

n

. (9.1)

Now,

n∈F

x

1

n

>

n≤x

1

n

.

As the harmonic series diverges, the product on the sinistral side of 2.3.3 diverges as x →∞. But

p≤x

p prime

Å

1 +

1

p

+

1

p

2

+

ã

=

p≤x

p prime

1

p

+O(1).

This ﬁnishes the proof.

248 Example Prove that for each positive integer k there exist inﬁnitely many even positive integers which can be written in

more than k ways as the sum of two odd primes.

Solution: Let a

k

denote the number of ways in which 2k can be written as the sum of two odd primes. Assume that a

k

≤C ∀k

for some positive constant C. Then

Ü

p>2

p prime

x

p

ê

2

=

∞

k=2

a

k

x

2k

≤C

x

4

1 −x

2

.

This yields

p>2

p prime

x

p−1

≤

√

C

x

√

1 −x

2

.

91

92 Chapter 9

Integrating term by term,

p>2

p prime

1

p

≤

√

C

_

1

0

x

√

1 −x

2

dx =

√

C.

But the leftmost series is divergent, and we obtain a contradiction.

249 Example (IMO 1976) Determine, with proof, the largest number which is the product of positive integers whose sum is

1976.

Solution: Suppose that

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

= 1976;

we want to maximise

n

k=1

a

k

. We shall replace some of the a

k

so that the product is enlarged, but the sum remains the same. By

the arithmetic mean-geometric mean inequality

_

n

k=1

a

k

_

1/n

≤

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

n

,

with equality if and only if a

1

= a

2

= = a

n

. Thus we want to make the a

k

as equal as possible.

If we have an a

k

≥4, we replace it by two numbers 2, a

k

−2. Then the sum is not affected, but 2(a

k

−2) ≥a

k

, since we are

assuming a

k

≥ 4. Therefore, in order to maximise the product, we must take a

k

= 2 or a

k

= 3. We must take as many 2’s and

3’s as possible.

Now, 2+2+2 =3+3, but 2

3

<3

2

, thus we should take no more than two 2’s. Since 1976 =3 658+2, the largest possible

product is 2 3

658

.

250 Example (USAMO 1983) Consider an open interval of length 1/n on the real line, where n is a positive integer. Prove that

the number of irreducible fractions a/b, 1 ≤b ≤n, contained in the given interval is at most (n +1)/2.

Solution: Divide the rational numbers in (x, x +1/n) into two sets: ¦

s

k

t

k

¦, k = 1, 2, . . . , r, with denominators 1 ≤ t

k

≤ n/2 and

those u

k

/v

k

, k = 1, 2, . . . , s with denominators n/2 < v

k

≤ n, where all these fractions are in reduced form. Now, for every t

k

there are integers c

k

such that n/2 ≤c

k

t

k

≤n. Deﬁne u

s+k

= c

k

s

k

, v

s+k

= c

k

t

k

, y

k+r

= u

k+r

/v

k+r

. No two of the y

l

, 1 ≤l ≤r +s

are equal, for otherwise y

j

= y

k

would yield

[u

k

/v

k

−u

i

/v

i

[ ≥1/v

i

≥1/n,

which contradicts that the open interval is of length 1/n. Hence the number of distinct rationals is r +s ≤n−n/2≤(n+1)/2.

Aliter: Suppose to the contrary that we have at least (n +1)/2+1 = a fractions. Let s

k

, t

k

, 1 ≤ k ≤ a be the set of

numerators and denominators. The set of denominators is a subset of

¦1, 2, . . . , 2(a −1)¦.

By the Pigeonhole Principle, t

i

[t

k

for some i, k, say t

k

= mt

i

. But then

[s

k

/t

k

−s

i

/t

i

[ =[ms

i

−s

k

[/t

k

≥1/n,

contradicting the hypothesis that the open interval is of length 1/n.

251 Example Let

Q

r,s

=

(rs)!

r!s!

.

Show that Q

r,ps

≡Q

r,s

mod p, where p is a prime

Practice 93

Solution: As

Q

r,s

=

r

j=1

Ç

js −1

s −1

å

and

Q

r,ps

=

r

j=1

Ç

j ps −1

ps −1

å

,

it follows from

(1 +x)

j ps−1

≡(1 +x

p

)

js−1

(1 +x)

p−1

mod p

that

Ç

j ps −1

ps −1

å

≡

Ç

js −1

s −1

å

mod p,

whence the result.

Practice

Problem 9.0.1 Find a four-digit number which is a perfect

square such that its ﬁrst two digits are equal to each other

and its last two digits are equal to each other.

Problem 9.0.2 Find all integral solutions of the equation

x

k=1

k! = y

2

.

Problem 9.0.3 Find all integral solutions of the equation

x

k=1

k! = y

z

.

Problem 9.0.4 (USAMO 1985) Determine whether there are

any positive integral solutions to the simultaneous equations

x

2

1

+x

2

2

+ +x

2

1985

= y

3

,

x

3

1

+x

3

2

+ +x

3

1985

= z

2

with distinct integers x

1

, x

2

, . . . , x

1985

.

Problem 9.0.5 Show that the Diophantine equation

1

a

1

+

1

a

2

+. . . +

1

a

n−1

+

1

a

n

+

1

a

1

a

2

a

n

has at least one solution for every n ∈ N.

Problem 9.0.6 (AIME 1987) Find the largest possible value

of k for which 3

11

is expressible as the sum of k consecutive

positive integers.

Problem 9.0.7 (AIME 1987) Let M be the smallest positive

integer whose cube is of the form n +r, where n ∈ N, 0 < r <

1/1000. Find n.

Problem 9.0.8 Determine two-parameter solutions for the

“almost” Fermat Diophantine equations

x

n−1

+y

n−1

= z

n

,

x

n+1

+y

n+1

= z

n

,

x

n+1

+y

n−1

= z

n

.

Problem 9.0.9 (AIME 1984) What is the largest even integer

which cannot be written as the sum of two odd composite num-

bers?

Problem 9.0.10 Prove that are inﬁnitely many nonnegative

integers n which cannot be written as n = x

2

+y

3

+z

6

for non-

negative integers x, y, z.

Problem 9.0.11 Find the integral solutions of

x

2

+x = y

4

+y

3

+y

2

+y.

Problem 9.0.12 Show that there are inﬁnitely many integers

x, y such that

3x

2

−7y

2

= −1.

Problem 9.0.13 Prove that

1.

a

3

+b

3

+c

3

−3abc = (a+b+c)(a

2

+b

2

+c

2

−ab−bc−ca).

2. Find integers a, b, c such that 1987 = a

3

+ b

3

+ c

3

−

3abc.

94 Chapter 9

3. Find polynomials P, Q, R in x, y, z such that

P

3

+Q

3

+R

3

−3PQR = (x

3

+y

3

+z

3

−3xyz)

2

4. Can you ﬁnd integers a, b, c with 1987

2

= a

3

+b

3

+c

3

−

3abc?

Problem 9.0.14 Find all integers n such that n

4

+n +7 is a

perfect square.

Problem 9.0.15 Prove that 1991

1991

is not the sum of two per-

fect squares.

Problem 9.0.16 Find inﬁnitely many integers x >1, y >1, z >

1 such that

x!y! = z!.

Problem 9.0.17 Find all positive integers with

m

n

−n

m

= 1.

Problem 9.0.18 Find all integers with

x

4

−2y

2

= 1.

Problem 9.0.19 Prove that for every positive integer k there

exists a sequence of k consecutive positive integers none of

which can be represented as the sum of two squares.

Problem 9.0.20 (IMO 1977) In a ﬁnite sequence of real num-

bers, the sumof any seven successive terms is negative, and the

sum of any eleven successive terms is positive. Determine the

maximum number of terms in the sequence.

Problem 9.0.21 Determine an inﬁnite series of terms such

that each term of the series is a perfect square and the sum

of the series at any point is also a perfect square.

Problem 9.0.22 Prove that any positive rational integer can

be expressed as a ﬁnite sum of distinct terms of the harmonic

series, 1, 1/2, 1/3, . . ..

Problem 9.0.23 (Wostenholme’s Theorem) Let p > 3 be a

prime. If

a

b

= 1 +

1

2

+

1

3

+ +

1

p −1

,

then p

2

[a.

Problem 9.0.24 Prove that the number of odd binomial coef-

ﬁcients in any row of Pascal’s Triangle is a power of 2.

Problem 9.0.25 Prove that the coefﬁcients of a binomial ex-

pansion are odd if and only if n is of the form 2

k

−1.

Problem 9.0.26 Let the numbers c

i

be deﬁned by the power

series identity

(1 +x +x

2

+ +x

p−1

)/(1 −x)

p−1

:= 1 +c

1

x +c

2

x

2

+ .

Show that c

i

≡0 mod p for all i ≥1.

Problem 9.0.27 Let p be a prime. Show that

Ç

p −1

k

å

≡(−1)

k

mod p

for all 0 ≤k ≤ p −1.

Problem 9.0.28 (Putnam 1977) Let p be a prime and let a ≥

b > 0 be integers. Prove that

Ç

pa

pb

å

≡

Ç

a

b

å

mod p.

Problem 9.0.29 Demonstrate that for a prime p and k ∈ N,

Ç

p

k

a

å

≡0 mod p,

for 0 < a < p

k

.

Problem 9.0.30 Let p be a prime and let k, a ∈ N, 0 ≤ a ≤

p

k

−1. Demonstrate that

Ç

p

k

−1

a

å

≡(−1)

a

mod p.

Copyright c 2007 David Anthony SANTOS. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.

GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.2, November 2002 Copyright c 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

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vi Contents .

Preface These notes started in the summer of 1993 when I was teaching Number Theory at the Center for Talented Youth Summer Program at the Johns Hopkins University. Thus the majority of the problems are taken from well-known competitions: AHSME AIME USAMO IMO ITT MMPC (UM)2 S TANFORD M ANDELBROT American High School Mathematics Examination American Invitational Mathematics Examination United States Mathematical Olympiad International Mathematical Olympiad International Tournament of Towns Michigan Mathematics Prize Competition University of Michigan Mathematics Competition Stanford Mathematics Competition Mandelbrot Competition Firstly. Nathan Lutchansky. Nikhil Garg. No theme requires the knowledge of Calculus here. and please forward me any corrections or remarks on the material herein. these notes are rather sketchy. I would like to thank the pioneers in that course: Samuel Chong. I tried to cover most Number Theory that is useful in contests. Most of the motivation was done in the classroom. and Carlos Murillo for proofreading the notes.edu vii . I hope some day to be able to give more coherence to these notes. but some of the solutions given use it here and there. Howard Bernstein. Masha Sapper. I would like to thank Eric Friedman for helping me with the typing. Here and there some of the problems might use certain properties of the complex numbers. Ryan Hoegg. Hobart Lee. David Ripley. The reader not knowing Calculus can skip these problems. A note on the topic selection. and the geometry of numbers. quadratic reciprocity. I shall ﬁnish writing them when laziness leaves my weary soul. though) I assume very little mathematical knowledge beyond Algebra and Trigonometry. I would be very glad to hear any comments. I also wrote notes (which I have not transcribed) dealing with primitive roots. and Victor Yang. diophantine equations. Geoffrey Cook. Nathaniel Wise and Andrew Wong. Andrew Trister. I would also like to thank the victims of the summer 1994: Karen Acquista. SANTOS dsantos@ccp. The pupils were between 13 and 16 years of age. Since the material is geared to High School students (talented ones. Matthew Harris. The purpose of the course was to familiarise the pupils with contest-type problem solving. in the notes I presented a rather terse account of the solutions. Due to time constraints. Eduardo Rozo. David A.

. 4.} of natural numbers is endowed with two operations. counting sheep. are very hard to solve. Number Theory is one of the oldest and most beautiful branches of Mathematics. 3. 1[. . who has been drawn to them either for their utility at solving practical problems (like those of measuring. 1 Axiom (Well-Ordering Axiom) Every non-empty subset S of the natural numbers has a least element. 1 . b. As an example of the use of the Well-Ordering Axiom. 2. 1. Closure: a + b and ab are also natural numbers. etc. (Goldbach’s Conjecture) Is every even integer greater than 2 the sum of distinct primes? 2.Chapter 1 Preliminaries 1. let us prove that there is no integer between 0 and 1. 4. Associative laws: (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) and a(bc) = (ab)c. For ages numbers have fascinated Man. 3.) or as a fountain of solace. One further property of the natural numbers is the following.1 Introduction We can say that no history of mankind would ever be complete without a history of Mathematics. (Twin Prime Problem) Are there inﬁnitely many primes p such that p + 2 is also a prime? 3. Distributive law: a(b + c) = ab + ac. Multiplicative Identity: 1a = a1 = a. Additive Identity: 0 + a = a + 0 = a 5.2 Well-Ordering The set N = {0. 2 Example Prove that there is no integer in the interval ]0. Is there always a prime between two consecutive squares of integers? In this chapter we cover some preliminary tools we need before embarking into the core of Number Theory. 1. It abounds in problems that yet simple to state. and c: 1. addition and multiplication. 2. that satisfy the following properties for natural numbers a. Are there inﬁnitely many primes that are 1 more than the square of an integer? 4. Some number-theoretic problems that are yet unsolved are: 1. .

√ √ √ √ j( 2 − 1) = j 2 − k 2 = ( j − k) 2 √ √ √ √ is a positive integer. b. Now. it must contain a least element. b.e. i. k are positive integers. that 2 = for some integers a. This gives c = 2c1 . This means that all of 1 1 1 1 1 these must be zero. b be its roots. b. We denote the set of b rational numbers by Q. a = 2a1 . As k is not a perfect square. −2. c satisfying this equation and with max(a. i. 1 + ab 1 + ab a2 + b2 = k is a counterexample of an integer which is not a perfect square. This is a contradiction and so S = ∅. 3 Example Prove that √ 2 is irrational. Also b1 = a2 − k b2 − k < < b. By Well-Ordering A has a smallest element. a2 + b2 − k(ab + 1) = 0 is a quadratic in b with sum of the roots ka and product of the roots a2 − k. Solution: Clearly we can restrict ourselves to nonnegative numbers. Let us give an example of an irrational number. say m. ﬁnishes the proof. √ √ a Solution: The proof is by contradiction. . Since 2 < 2 2 implies 2 − 2 < 2 and also j 2 = 2k. . Show that a = b = c = 0. But clearly max(a1 . c) > 0 as small as possible. Hence b = 2b1 and so 1 16a6 + 32b6 = c6 . a2 + 1 which forces k = 1. Let b1 . . b1 .. 1. √ Thus ( j − k) 2 is a positive integer in A which is smaller than j. Choose a triplet of nonnegative integers a. b. Suppose that 2 were rational. .}. This implies b that the set √ √ A = {n 2 : both n and n 2 positive integers} √ √ is nonempty since it contains a. say j = k 2. a A rational number is a number which can be expressed as the ratio of two integers a. − 3. b are positive integers such that a2 + b2 a2 + b2 is an integer.2 Chapter 1 Solution: Assume to the contrary that the set S of integers in ]0. 1 supposing b1 = 0 is incompatible with a2 + 02 = k(0 · a + 1).. where b = 0. b) as small as 1 + ab possible. and so m2 ∈ S . We may assume without loss of generality that a < b for if a = b then Solution: Suppose that 0<k= 2a2 < 2. so b1 + b = ka and b1 b = a2 − k. 1[ is non-empty. b. 2. Now. with max(a. c). supposing b1 < 0 is incompatible with a2 + b2 = k(ab1 + 1). 3. Z = {. But this is saying that S has a positive integer m2 which is smaller than its least positive integer m. We denote the set of all integers by Z. b b . and so a6 + 2b6 = 4c6 . −1. we see that √ √ √ ( j − k) 2 = k(2 − 2) < k( 2) = j. This contradicts the choice of j as the smallest integer in A and hence. . An irrational number is a number which cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers. As 2 − 1 > 0. If a6 + 2b6 = 4c6 then a must be even. 0 < m2 < m < 1. c be integers such that a6 + 2b6 = 4c6 . a perfect square.e. 0. This leads to 32a6 + b6 = 2c6 . c1 ) < max(a. 5 Example (IMO 1988) If a. b. then is a perfect square. Being a set of positive integers. 4 Example Let a. As a.

) Then we try to settle whether information on P(n − 1) leads to favourable information on P(n). then. Thus if we are ever able to start the job (that is. 1. u The following versions of the Principle of Mathematical Induction should now be obvious. and then to the case following that. As k − 1 < k. It must be the case.2. since the successor of each element in the set is also in the set. . 6 Theorem (Principle of Mathematical Induction) If a setS of non-negative integers contains the integer 0. and also contains the integer n + 1 whenever it contains the integer n. y. z only when x = y = z = 0. n.). Thus in the Principle of Mathematical Induction. . say k0 = 33. that k is a perfect square. a contradiction.1 Find all integer solutions of a3 + 2b3 = 4c3 . we see that k − 1 ∈ S . This 1 + ab1 is a contradiction. Suppose that we are to perform a task that involves a certain number of steps. by the Well-Ordering Principle there exists a least positive integer k not in S . Thus we have found another positive integer b1 for which Practice Problem 1. then we should be able to ﬁnish it (because starting with the base case we go to the next case. But by assumption k − 1 + 1 is also in S . n > 1. which is evident. 7 Corollary If a set A of positive integers contains the integer m and also contains n + 1 whenever it contains n.3 Mathematical Induction The Principle of Mathematical Induction is based on the following fairly intuitive observation. 9 Example Prove that the expression 33n+3 − 26n − 27 is a multiple of 169 for all natural numbers n. Proof: Assume this is not the case and so.2 Prove that the equality x2 + y2 + z2 = 2xyz can hold for whole numbers x. Assume the assertion is true for n − 1. Finally. but one of the examples below shows that we may take. . Hence k = k − 1 + 1 is also in the set. Problem 1.2. etc.e.. then S = N. b). then A contains all the positive integers greater than or equal to m. where n > m. if we have a base case). Suppose that these steps must be followed in strict numerical order. m + 2. We will now derive the Principle of Mathematical Induction from the Well-Ordering Axiom. we try to verify that some assertion P(n) concerning natural numbers is true for some base case k0 (usually k0 = 1.Practice 3 a2 + b2 1 = k and which is smaller than the smallest max(a. i. Thus S = N. assume that 33n − 26n − 1 = 169N for some integer N. Observe that k > 0. since 0 ∈ S and there is no positive integer smaller than 0. We shall now give some examples of the use of induction. suppose that we know how to perform the n-th task provided we have accomplished the n − 1-th task. then A contains all the positive integers greater than or equal to m. Then 33n+3 − 26n − 27 = 27 · 33n − 26n − 27 = 27(33n − 26n − 1) + 676n . 8 Corollary (Principle of Strong Mathematical Induction) If a set A of positive integers contains the integer m and also contains n + 1 whenever it contains m + 1. . where n > m. Solution: For n = 1 we are asserting that 36 − 53 = 676 = 169 · 4 is divisible by 169.

The assertion is thus established by induction. 10 Example Prove that Chapter 1 √ √ (1 + 2)2n + (1 − 2)2n √ √ √ (1 + 2)2n − (1 − 2)2n = b 2 is an even integer and that for some positive integer b. as k2 − 1 = (k − 1)(k + 1) is divisible by 8 for any odd natural number k because n both (k − 1) and (k + 1) are divisible by 2 and one of them is divisible by 4.e. for all integers n ≥ 1. and √ √ √ (1 + 2)2 − (1 − 2)2 = 4 2. assume that √ √ (1 + 2)2(n−1) + (1 − 2)2(n−1) = 2N for some integer N and that √ √ √ (1 + 2)2(n−1) − (1 − 2)2(n−1) = a 2 for some positive integer a. Consider now the quantity √ √ √ √ √ √ (1 + 2)2n + (1 − 2)2n = (1 + 2)2 (1 + 2)2n−2 + (1 − 2)2 (1 − 2)2n−2 . Solution: The statement is evident for n = 1. then we see that √ √ (1 + 2)2 + (1 − 2)2 = 6. Therefore P(1) is true. As k2 − 1 = (k2 − 1)(k2 + 1). Using P(n − 1). the above simpliﬁes to an even integer and similarly √ √ √ √ √ (1 + 2)2n − (1 − 2)2n = 3a 2 + 2 2(2N) = (3a + 4N) 2. so the problem reduces to proving that 2|(k2n + 1). and so P(n) is true. we see that 2n+2 divides (k2n − 1). n . This simpliﬁes to √ √ √ √ (3 + 2 2)(1 + 2)2n−2 + (3 − 2 2)(1 − 2)2n−2 . then 2n+2 divides k2 − 1 for all natural numbers n. The assertion is thus established by induction. Let P(n) be the proposition: “(1 + 2)2n + (1 − 2)2n is even and (1 + 2)2n − (1 − √ √ 2n 2) = b 2 for some b ∈ N. √ √ √ Solution: We proceed by induction on n. This is obviously true since k2n odd makes k2n + 1 even. i.4 which reduces to 27 · 169N + 169 · 4n. 11 Example Prove that if k is odd.” If n = 1. an even integer. Assume that 2n+2 |k2 − 1. which is divisible by 169. √ √ 12N + 2 2a 2 = 2(6N + 2a). Assume that P(n − 1) is true for n > 1. and let us prove that n n n+1 n+1 2n+3 |k2 − 1..

. n + 1. x1 + x2 √ (1. . assume that nonnegative real numbers w1 . .. n + 2. we see that P(33) is true. . 2a1 2a2 2ak 4 4 2 4 4 Also. Let P(n) be the proposition “all the integers n. . .1) We now establish the truth of the assertion of the problem by induction on n. The assertion is thus proved by induction. that is. 13 Theorem (Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-Mean Inequality) Let a1 . For assume that n = a1 + a2 + · · · + ak . 2 which is the Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-Mean Inequality for n = 2. 2n + 7” are good. k > 2. . By the statement of the problem. a2 . Solution: We ﬁrst prove that if n is good. a1 a2 ak √ a1 + a2 + · · · + an n . w2 . a1 a2 ak Given the information that the integers 33 through 73 are good. an be nonnegative real numbers.Mathematical Induction 12 Example (USAMO 1978) An integer n will be called good if we can write 5 n = a1 + a2 + · · · + ak . It consists in proving a statement ﬁrst for powers of 2 and then interpolating between powers of 2. prove that every integer ≥ 33 is good. .3) ≥ (w1 w2 · · · w2k−1 )1/2 . a2 . 2a1 2a2 2ak 3 6 2 3 6 Therefore. 2n + 9 = 2a1 + 2a2 + · · · + 2ak + 3 + 6 and 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + ···+ + + = + + = 1. But (??) implies the truth of P(n + 1) whenever P(n) is true. Assume that the Arithmetic-Mean-GeometricMean Inequality holds true for n = 2k−1 . .2) ≥ x1 x2 . . (1. a1 a2 · · · an ≤ n Proof: Since the square of any real number is nonnegative. x2 = 2 +1 k−1 2 Upon expanding. . then 2n + 8 and 2n + 9 are good. . . and 1= Then 2n + 8 = 2a1 + 2a2 + · · · + 2ak + 4 + 4 and 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + ···+ + + = + + = 1. if n is good both 2n + 8 and 2n + 9 are good. k−1 2 Using (??) with y1 + y2 + · · · + y2k−1 x1 = 2k−1 and y k−1 + · · · + y2k . We now present a variant of the Principle of Mathematical Induction used by Cauchy to prove the Arithmetic-MeanGeometric Mean Inequality. . . we have √ √ ( x1 − x2 )2 ≥ 0. ak are positive integers (not necessarily distinct) satisfying 1 1 1 + + · · · + = 1. where a1 . Then 1 1 1 + + ··· + . . w2k−1 satisfy k−1 w1 + w2 + · · · + w2k−1 (1.

u (a1 a2 · · · an )1/n ≤ a1 + a2 + · · · + an . then there is nothing to prove. . since 4 belongs to M so does 4 · 4 = 42 . i. which is to say that k k nA + (2k − n)A ≥ (Gn A2 −n )1/2 . belong to M . In this way we obtain that all numbers of the form 4n = 22n . . assume that 2k−1 < n < 2k . . but √ Since M is a nonempty set of positive integers. Let y1 = a 1 . Since the square roots belong as well to M we get that all the powers of 2 raised to an odd power also belong to M . there is an integer r for which 2r < s < 2r+1 . it has a least element. say a. and yn+1 = yn+2 = · · · = y2k = Let A= Using (??) we obtain a1 + a2 + · · · + an + (2k − n) 2k a1 + · · · + an n a1 + a2 + · · · + an . . )( ) ( 2k−1 2k−1 Chapter 1 Applying (??) to both factors on the right hand side of the above . yn = a n . 2s] contains a power of 2. k 2 (1. In conclusion. and so we have proved the Arithmetic-Mean-GeometricMean Inequality for powers of 2. n 14 Example Let s be a positive integer. n ≥ a1 a2 · · · an ( a1 + · · · + an (2k −n) ) n 1/2k . By assumption a < a unless a = 1. Prove that every interval [s. we obtain k y1 + y2 + · · · + y2 k ≥ (y1 y2 · · · y2k )1/2 . 15 Example Let M be a nonempty set of positive integers such that 4x and [ x] both belong to M whenever x does. y2 = a 2 . This yields 2r+1 < 2s. First we will prove that 1 belongs to the set.e. Now. 2k This translates into A ≥ G or which is what we wanted.6 we obtain that y1 + y2 + · · · + y2k−1 y2k−1 +1 + · · · + y2k + 2k−1 2k−1 ≥ 2 ã Å y1 + y2 + · · · + y2k−1 y2k−1 +1 + · · · + y2k 1/2 . . . all powers of 2 belong to M . . n = 1. This means that 1 belongs to M . √ a also belongs to M . which gives the required result. Solution: We will prove this by induction.. n a1 + · · · + an and G = (a1 · · · an )1/n . Thus all the powers of 2 raised to an even power belong to M . Solution: If s is a power of 2. If s is not a power of 2 then it must lie between two consecutive powers of 2. 2.. Since 1 belongs to M so does 4.4) This means that the 2k−1 -th step implies the 2k -th step. secondly we will prove that every power of 2 is in the set and ﬁnally we will prove that non-powers of 2 are also in the set. Hence s < 2r+1 < 2s. etc. Prove √ that M is the set of all natural numbers. .

Problem 1. Problem 1. We have thus obtained the desired contradiction. a contradiction.3. We will now show that eventually these intervals are so large that they contain a power of 2.3.3.3. (n + 1)2 ). k k k k k k Practice Problem 1.6 Let n ∈ N.3.3.4 Prove that » √ π 2 + 2 + · · · + 2 = 2 cos n+1 2 n radical signs for n ∈ N. n(4n2 − 1) . Similarly no member z ∈ A2 = [n4 . b1 = 4. Thus the interval [n2 . 2s] where s is a positive integer contains a power of 2. 2n2 ] is totally contained in [n2 .2 Prove that 1− x x(x − 1) x(x − 1)(x − 2) + − 1! 2! 3! x(x − 1)(x − 2) · · ·(x − n + 1) n! Problem 1. Prove the inequality 1 1 1 + + ···+ > 1.1 Prove that 11n+2 + 122n+1 is divisible by 133 Problem 1. for a sufﬁciently large positive integer k we have 2−k < log2 (n + 1) − log2 n.10 Prove that the sum of the cubes of three consecutive positive integers is divisible by 9. . Problem 1. 3 + · · · + (−1)n equals (−1) n (x − 1)(x − 2) · · ·(x − n) n! for all non-negative integers n. Prove that 1 · 3 · 5 · · ·(2n − 1) 1 . bn = 4bn−1 when n > 1.3.7 Prove that if n is a natural number. But every interval of the form [s. By induction we can r r show that no member in the interval Ar = [n2 . thereby obtaining a contradiction to the hypothesis that no element of the Ar belonged to M .3 Let n ∈ N. n > 1. Since n ∈ M we deduce that √ no integer in A1 = [n2 . This implies that (n + 1)2 > 2n2 . then 12 + 32 + 52 + · · · + (2n − 1)2 = Problem 1. (n + 1)4 ) belongs to M since this would entail that z would belong to A1 .3. <√ 2 · 4 · 6 · · ·(2n) 3n + 1 Problem 1. (n + 1)2 ) belongs to M .9 Prove that (2n)! 4n < n + 1 (n!)2 for all natural numbers n > 1. Since the function f: R x is decreasing. then 1 · 2 + 2 · 5 + · · ·+ n · (3n − 1) = n2 (n + 1).3.8 Prove that if n is a natural number.Practice 7 Assume now that n ∈ N fails to belong to M . (n + 1)2 ) belongs to M .3. n+1 n+2 3n + 1 Problem 1. and an = 3an−1 . Prove that a1000 > b999 . Observe that n cannot be a power of 2. because every member of y ∈ A1 satisﬁes [ y] = n. The function f: ∗ R+ x → R → log2 x → R∗ + → 2−x is increasing and hence log2 (n + 1) − log2 n > 0.5 Let a1 = 3. Problem 1. for all natural numbers n.

8 Problem 1.3.11 If |x| = 1, n ∈ N prove that 1 4 8 2n 2 + + + ···+ + n 2 2 8 1+x 1+x 1+x 1+x 1 + x2 equals 1 2n+1 . + x − 1 1 − x2n+1 Problem 1.3.12 Is it true that for every natural number n the quantity n2 + n + 41 is a prime? Prove or disprove! Problem 1.3.13 Give an example of an assertion which is not true for any positive integer, yet for which the induction step holds. Problem 1.3.14 Give an example of an assertion which is true for the ﬁrst two million positive integers but fails for every integer greater than 2000000. Problem 1.3.15 Prove by induction on n that a set having n elements has exactly 2n subsets. Problem 1.3.16 Prove that if n is a natural number, n5 /5 + n4/2 + n3/3 − n/30 is always an integer. (n − 1) 3. Prove that if n > 1, then 1 · 3 · 5 · · ·(2n − 1) < nn .

Chapter 1

5. Prove that if n > 1 then

4. Prove that if n > 1 then Ä ä 1 1 n (n + 1)1/n − 1 < 1 + + · · · + . 2 n

7. Let y1 , y2 , . . . , yn be positive real numbers. Prove the Harmonic-Mean- Geometric-Mean Inequality: n √ ≤ n y1 y2 · · · yn . 1 1 1 + + ···+ y1 y2 yn

6. Given that u, v, w are positive, 0 < a ≤ 1, and that u + v + w = 1, prove that Å ãÅ ãÅ ã 1 1 1 −a −a − a ≥ 27 − 27a + 9a2 − a3 . u v w

Å ã 1 1 1 1 . 1 + + ···+ < n 1 − + 2 n (n + 1)1/n n + 1

8. Let a1 , . . . , an be positive real numbers, all different. Set s = a1 + a2 + · · · + an . (a) Prove that 1 < s − ar 1 . ar

1≤r≤n 1≤r≤n Problem 1.3.17 (Halmos) ) Every man in a village knows instantly when another’s wife is unfaithful, but never when his (b) Deduce that own is. Each man is completely intelligent and knows that ev4n n 1 1 ery other man is. The law of the village demands that when . <s < s ar (s − ar ) n − 1 ar a man can PROVE that his wife has been unfaithful, he must 1≤r≤n 1≤r≤n shoot her before sundown the same day. Every man is completely law-abiding. One day the mayor announces that there Problem 1.3.19 Suppose that x1 , x2 , . . . , xn are nonnegative is at least one unfaithful wife in the village. The mayor always real numbers with tells the truth, and every man believes him. If in fact there are exactly forty unfaithful wives in the village (but that fact x1 + x2 + · · · + xn ≤ 1/2. is not known to the men,) what will happen after the mayor’s Prove that announcement?

Problem 1.3.18 bers with

1. Let a1 , a2 , . . . an be positive real numa1 · a2 · · · an = 1.

(1 − x1)(1 − x2 ) · · · (1 − xn) ≥ 1/2. Problem 1.3.20 Given a positive integer n prove that there is a polynomial Tn such that cos nx = Tn (cos x) for all real numbers x. Tn is called the n-th Tchebychev Polynomial. Problem 1.3.21 Prove that 1 1 13 1 + + ···+ > n+1 n+2 2n 24 for all natural numbers n > 1.

Use induction to prove that a1 + a2 + · · · + an ≥ n, with equality if and only if a1 = a2 = · · · = an = 1. 2. Use the preceding part to give another proof of the Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-Mean Inequality.

Fibonacci Numbers

9

Problem 1.3.22 In how many regions will a sphere be divided Problem 1.3.24 Let F0 (x) = x, F(x) = 4x(1 − x), Fn+1 (x) = by n planes passing through its centre if no three planes pass F(Fn (x)), n = 0, 1, . . . . Prove that through one and the same diameter?

1

Problem 1.3.23 (IMO 1977) Let f , f : N → N be a function satisfying f (n + 1) > f ( f (n)) for each positive integer n. Prove that f (n) = n for each n.

Fn (x) dx =

0

22n−1 . 22n − 1

(Hint: Let x = sin2 θ .)

1.4

Fibonacci Numbers

f0 = 0, f1 = 1, fn+1 = fn−1 + fn , n ≥ 1. (1.5)

The Fibonacci numbers fn are given by the recurrence

Thus the ﬁrst few Fibonacci numbers are 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . . . A number of interesting algebraic identities can be proved using the above recursion.

16 Example Prove that

**f1 + f2 + · · · + fn = fn+2 − 1. Solution: We have f1 f2 f3 . . . fn Summing both columns, f1 + f2 + · · · + fn = fn+2 − f2 = fn+2 − 1, as desired.
**

17 Example Prove that

= f3 − f2 = f4 − f3 = f5 − f4 . . . = fn+2 − fn+1

**f1 + f3 + f5 + · · · + f2n−1 = f2n . Solution: Observe that f1 f3 f5 . . . f2n−1 Adding columnwise we obtain the desired identity.
**

18 Example Prove that

2 2 2 f1 + f2 + · · · + fn = fn fn+1 .

= = = . . . =

f2 − f0 f4 − f2 f6 − f4 . . . f2n − f2n−2

Solution: We have

2 fn−1 fn+1 = ( fn+1 − fn )( fn + fn−1 ) = fn+1 fn − fn + fn+1 fn−1 − fn fn−1 .

Thus

2 fn+1 fn − fn fn−1 = fn ,

10 which yields

2 2 2 f1 + f2 + · · · + fn = fn fn+1 .

Chapter 1

**19 Theorem (Cassini’s Identity)
**

2 fn−1 fn+1 − fn = (−1)n , n ≥ 1.

Proof: Observe that

2 fn−1 fn+1 − fn

= = =

2 ( fn − fn−2 )( fn + fn−1 ) − fn − fn−2 fn − fn−1 ( fn−2 − fn ) 2 −( fn−2 fn − fn−1 )

2 Thus if vn = fn−1 fn+1 − fn , we have vn = −vn−1 . This yields vn = (−1)n−1 v1 which is to say 2 2 fn−1 fn+1 − fn = (−1)n−1 ( f0 f2 − f1 ) = (−1)n .

u

20 Example (IMO 1981) Determine the maximum value of

m2 + n 2 , where m, n are positive integers satisfying m, n ∈ {1, 2, 3, . . . , 1981} and (n2 − mn − m2)2 = 1. Solution: Call a pair (n, m) admissible if m, n ∈ {1, 2, . . . , 1981} and (n2 − mn − m2)2 = 1. If m = 1, then (1, 1) and (2, 1) are the only admissible pairs. Suppose now that the pair (n1 , n2 ) is admissible, with n2 > 1. 2 As n1 (n1 − n2) = n2 ± 1 > 0, we must have n1 > n2 . Let now n3 = n1 − n2 . Then 1 = (n2 − n1 n2 − n2 )2 = (n2 − n2 n3 − n2 )2 , making (n2 , n3 ) also admissible. If n3 > 1, in the 1 2 2 3 same way we conclude that n2 > n3 and we can let n4 = n2 − n3 making (n3 , n4 ) an admissible pair. We have a sequence of positive integers n1 > n2 > . . ., which must necessarily terminate. This terminates when nk = 1 for some k. Since (nk−1 , 1) is admissible, we must have nk−1 = 2. The sequence goes thus 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, . . ., 987, 1597, i.e., a truncated Fibonacci sequence. The largest admissible pair is thus (1597, 987) and so the maximum sought is 15972 + 9872. √ √ 1+ 5 5−1 −1 be the Golden Ratio. Observe that τ = . The number τ is a root of the quadratic equation Let τ = 2 2 2 x = x + 1. We now obtain a closed formula for fn . We need the following lemma.

21 Lemma If x2 = x + 1, n ≥ 2 then we have xn = fn x + fn−1 .

Proof: We prove this by induction on n. For n = 2 the assertion is a triviality. Assume that n > 2 and that xn−1 = fn−1 x + fn−2 . Then xn = xn−1 · x = ( fn−1 x + fn−2 )x = fn−1 (x + 1) + fn−2x = ( fn−1 + fn−2 )x + fn−1 = fn x + fn−1 u

22 Theorem (Binet’s Formula) The n-th Fibonacci number is given by

1 fn = √ 5 n = 0, 2, . . . .

ÇÇ

√ ån Ç √ ån å 1+ 5 1− 5 − 2 2

24 Theorem If s ≥ 1. 1 + 2τ = τ 3 .u Practice .t ≥ 0 are integers then fs+t = fs−1 ft + fs ft+1 . The following theorem will be used later. Solution: Using Binet’s Formula. n k=0 Ç å n k 2 fk = f3n . This ﬁnishes the proof. = fs−2 ft + fs−1 ft+1 + fs−3 ft + fs−2 ft+1 by the inductive assumption = ft ( fs−2 + fs−3 ) + ft+1 ( fs−1 + fs−2 ) rearranging.u 23 Example (Cesàro) Prove that n k=0 (1 − τ )n = (1 − τ ) fn + fn−1 . Similarly 1 + 2(1 − τ ) = (1 − τ )3 . k Ç å n k 2 fk k = = = Ç å n k τ k − (1 − τ )k √ 2 k 5 k=0 n Ç å n Ç å n k n k 1 √ τ − 2 (1 − τ )k k 5 k=0 k k=0 1 n √ ((1 + 2τ ) − (1 + 2(1 − τ ))n) . We have fs+t = fs+t−1 + fs+t−2 by the Fibonacci recursion. Proof: The roots of the equation x = x + 1 are τ = 2 2 2 11 τ n = τ fn + fn−1 and Subtracting from where Binet’s Formula follows.Practice √ √ 1+ 5 1− 5 and 1 − τ = . In virtue of the above lemma. Assume that s > 1 and that fs−k+t = fs−k−1 ft + fs−k ft+1 for all k satisfying 1 ≤ k ≤ s − 1. Proof: We keep t ﬁxed and prove this by using strong induction on s. 5 n As τ 2 = τ + 1. = fs−1+t + fs−2+t trivially. which is trivially true. τ n − (1 − τ )n = √ 5 fn . = ft fs−1 + ft+1 fs by the Fibonacci recursion. k 5 k=0 as wanted. For s = 1 we are asking whether ft+1 = f0 ft + f1 ft+1 . Thus n Ç å ä n k 1 Ä 2 fk = √ (τ )3n + (1 − τ )3n = f3n .

4.4. Chapter 1 Problem 1.4 Let N be a natural number. Problem 1. Problem 1. fn−1 fn+1 Ç å n fk = f2n . then there is an integer n such that k = ± fn .8 Prove that ∞ n=2 1 = 1.4.15 (Cesàro) Prove that (n − k) f2k+1 .18 Prove the converse of Cassini’s Identity: If k and m are integers such that |m2 − km − k2 | = 1.3 Prove that 2 f1 f2 + f2 f3 + · · · + f2n−1 f2n = f2n .4.4.4.4.7 Prove that n n Problem 1. m = ± fn+1 .4. f2n+1 Problem 1.4. k 1/ f2n = 4 − τ .4.11 Prove that ∞ arctan n=1 1 = π /4.13 Prove that lim fn+r = τr. k ∞ n=1 Problem 1.4.17 Find the exact value of 1994 Problem 1. n=0 Problem 1.12 Prove that fn 1 =√ . f 2k 2 Problem 1.4.4.4.9 Prove that ∞ n=1 fn = 1.10 Prove that ∞ Ç å 1995 fk .12 Problem 1.4. Problem 1. f 2k f 2n √ 1 7− 5 = . n n→∞ τ 5 lim Problem 1.5 Prove that 2 2 fn + fn−1 n→∞ Problem 1.1 Prove that fn+1 fn − fn−1 fn−2 = f2n−1 . n > 1. fn+1 fn+2 (−1) k=1 k Problem 1. f2n −2 1 = 2+ . Deduce that ∞ k=0 Problem 1. n > 2.4.2 Prove that 2 2 fn+1 = 4 fn fn−1 + fn−2 . n= 1+ 5 log 2 Problem 1. . 2 fn − fn+l fn−l = (−1)n+l fl2 . n k=0 f2k = k=1 k=0 Problem 1.4. fn Problem 1.14 Prove that n k=0 = f2n+1 . Prove that the largest n such that fn ≤ N is given by Å ã 1 √ log N + 5 2 Ç √ å .6 Prove that if n > 1.16 Prove that fn 10n Hint: What is 1 fn−1 fn − 1 ? fn fn+1 is a rational number.4.

42. .. two of the seven numbers must lie in one of the six sets.20}. 100} . 97}. 3. . which satisfy b < a ≤ 2b. From that group. 25 Example (Putnam 1978) Let A be any set of twenty integers chosen from the arithmetic progression 1. This is because we can pair the 2n consecutive integers {a + 1. {49. {21. The maximum value that any such sum can achieve is 90 + 91 + · · · + 99 = 945 < 1023.. we must perforce choose eleven from some group. there must be at least two different subsets that have the same sum. . 62} and {63. 94}. Therefore. So now group the one hundred integers as follows: {1. . {31. To each of these subsets we associate the sum of its elements. 29..... . .5 Pigeonhole Principle The Pigeonhole Principle states that if n + 1 pigeons ﬂy to n holes. a + 2n}. .. . . 126} into the six sets {1. . 2. . 2}. say a and b. 27 Example Given any set of ten natural numbers between 1 and 99 inclusive. . . by the Pigeonhole Principle there must be two integers that belong to one of the pairs. a + 2.. 2. Let us see some examples.Pigeonhole Principle 13 1. {7. 61. a + 2n} into the n pairs and if n + 1 integers are chosen from this. If we select ﬁfty ﬁve integers. . . . . 28 Example No matter which ﬁfty ﬁve integers may be selected from {1. 2. . {a + 1. there must be two that belong to the same group.. 5. . there must be two that differ by 10. there will always be some two that differ by n. 16. 100. 6}. {52}. by the above observation (let n = 10). a + n + 2}. . . {61. 126}.. Prove that there must be two distinct integers in A whose sum is 104. 80} and {81. . 4. . prove that one must select some two that differ by 10. {15. {7. Solution: Split the numbers {1. prove that there are two disjoint nonempty subsets of the set with equal sums of their elements. any such two will satisfy the stated inequality. This apparently trivial principle is very powerful.. 40}. 4. . a + 3. there must be a pigeonhole containing at least two pigeons. 22. 64. Solution: We partition the thirty four elements of this progression into nineteen groups {1}. . Solution: There are 210 − 1 = 1023 non-empty subsets that one can form with a given 10-element set. . 32. Since we are choosing twenty integers and we have nineteen sets. . By the Pigeonhole Principle. {10. . . . . . {a + n. . .. {3. {4. . 60}. 26 Example Show that amongst any seven distinct positive integers not exceeding 126. {41. a + n + 1}. 8. . . . 14}. . . . 13. . . 82. . Solution: First observe that if we choose n + 1 integers from any string of 2n consecutive integers. . 100}. {a + 2. 30}. . 55}. 62. . which add to 104. 100}. and obviously. one can ﬁnd two of them.

Discs are then drawn from the box at random without replacement. What is the minimum number of discs that must me drawn in order to guarantee drawing at least ten discs with the same label? Solution: If we draw all the 1 + 2 + · · · + 9 = 45 labelled “1”. Otherwise. . . x7 . By the Pigeonhole Principle. If any pair of these six people corresponds on topic I. these six correspond amongst themselves only on topics II or III. 1 + ab 3 Solution: Put xk = tan ak for ak satisfying − π π π π < ak < . a1 + a2 . say topic II. prove that we can always ﬁnd two.14 Chapter 1 29 Example (AHSME 1994) Label one disc “1”. . . 1/3. Prove that there at least three people who write to each other about the same topic. . We are thus taking the maximum over nine quantities that sum 3(a1 + a2 + · · · + a7 ) = 3. . two of seven points will lie on the same interval. say Charlie. Put these 1 + 2 + 3 + · · ·+ 50 = 1275 labeled discs in a box. 1 + tana j tan ai 6 3 as desired. there must be three of the ﬁve remaining that correspond with Eric in one of the topics. . By the Pigeonhole Principle. 6 Since the tangent increases in (−π /2. say Eric. By the Pigeonhole Principle. 31 Example Given any seven distinct real numbers x1 . . a2 . 0. These nine quantities then average 3/9 = 1/3. By the Pigeonhole Principle. we have drawn 45 + 9 · 41 = 414 discs. then Eric and this pair correspond on topic II. π /2). i. ﬁfty discs ‘‘50”. a4 . Solution: Since a1 ≤ a1 + a2 ≤ a1 + a2 + a3 and a7 ≤ a6 + a7 ≤ a5 + a6 + a7 we see that M also equals 1≤k≤5 max {a1 . then Charlie and this pair do the trick. “9” and any nine from each of the discs “10”. 32 Example (Canadian Math Olympiad 1981) Let a1 . 0. Solution: Choose a particular person of the group. . say a. and we are done again. a5 . a7 . . two discs “2”. one of these is ≥ 1/3. . a7 be nonnegative real numbers with a1 + a2 + . If M = max ak + ak+1 + ak+2. a7 ) = (1/3. a3 . .e. “50”. we obtain the 7-tuple (a1 . a6 + a7 . Practice . b with 0< 1 a−b <√ . ) into six non-overlapping subintervals of 2 2 2 2 π equal length. say ai < a j . say topic I. + a7 = 1. a2 . If a1 = a1 + a2 = a1 + a2 + a3 = a2 + a3 + a4 = a3 + a4 + a5 = a4 + a5 + a6 = a5 + a6 + a7 = a7 = 1/3. 1/3). ak + ak+1 + ak+2 }. . In their letters only three different topics are discussed. . Divide the interval (− . If amongst these three there is a pair that corresponds with each other on topic II. Each pair of correspondents deals with only one of these topics. three discs “3”. these three people only correspond with one another on topic III. 1≤k≤5 determine the minimum possible value that M can take as the ak vary. M ≥ 1/3. and we are done. we obtain 0 < tan(a j − ai ) = tan a j − tan ai 1 π < tan = √ . 30 Example (IMO 1964) Seventeen people correspond by mail with one another—each one with all the rest. . which shows that M = 1/3. . . Charlie must write to at least six of the people of one topic. He corresponds with sixteen others. 0. and we are done. Choose a particular person from this group of six. . a6 . 0. Then 0 < a j − ai < . . . . Otherwise. The 415-th disc drawn will assure at least ten discs from a label.

11 Show that if the points of the plane are it is at most the average of the numbers. considering p pockets and n dollars.5.5. Problem 1. He wants to put his dollars into his pockets so distributed that each pocket contains a different number of dollars. n + 2.7 (Stanford 1953) Bob has ten pockets and forty four silver dollars. or at least three who do not know one another. show that there will always exist two points of Problem 1. 15 Problem 1. .2 Show that if any ﬁve points are all in. 1].5. 2 k=1 εk rk ≤ n . Problem 1. 2n Problem 1. . English alphabet are listed in an arbitrary order. Problem 1. some two that differ by 10.13 Let r1 . .5. vertices of the same colour. Problem 1. 100}.14 (USAMO. and some two that differ by 13. .5 We call a set “sum free” if no two elements of is. . Suppose that all the letters are arranged in a circle. 2n − 1} of n + 1 el. Show that any subset with n + 2 elements solute value not exceeding 1 and whose sum is 0. distance 2/2. . 1982) In a party with 1982 persons. Generalise the problem. 2. . there is a non-empty proper subset whose sum is not more than 2/n in size. If each of the mathematicians can speak at most three languages. or on. . but that you need not have any two that differ by 11. Can he do so? 2. coloured with two colours.6 (MMPC 1992) Suppose that the letters of the lute value at least .10 If the points of the plane are coloured with three colours. Give an example in which any subsum has abso1 Problem 1. n > 1 be real numbers of abements is sum free. 2. numbers there is always one number which is at least the average of the numbers and that there is always one member that Problem 1. prove that you must select some two that differ by 9.3 (Eötvös. r2 . .1 (AHSME 1991) A circular table has exactly sixty chairs around it. . Prove that there is either an increasing sequence with at least n + 1 members.8 No matter which ﬁfty ﬁve integers may be selected from {1. . then some pair of them will be at most at of Problem 1.. n 3. .9 Let mn + 1 different real numbers be given.5.colours for which no equilateral triangle of side 1 has all its mum size of a sum free subset of {1. 1 ≤ k ≤ n.5.5. a square √ side 1. at least two speak a common language. . Show that there are numbers εk . εk = 2. 1 not all zero. 1.5.5. Give a list to show that there need not be ﬁve consecu−1.5.5. . .4 Show that in any sum of non-negative real the same colour which are one unit apart. a colouring of the points of the plane with two the set add up to a third element of the set. 0. 1947) Prove that amongst six people members. rn . Show that is not sum free. . n−1 1. . however.Problem 1. There Problem 1. Prove that there must be four consecutive consonants.5. such that tive consonants. . 2n − 1}. prove that there are at least three of the mathematicians who can speak the same language. r2 .15 (USAMO. or a decreasing sequence with at least m + 1 Problem 1. What is the maxi.12 Let r1 . Problem 1.5.5. . rn be real numbers in the interval [0.Practice Problem 1. some two that differ by 12. 1979) Nine mathematicians meet at an international conference and discover that amongst any three of them. there will always exist an equilateral triangle with all its vertices of the same colour. amongst any group of four there is at least one person who knows each of the other three. What is the smallest possible value of N? Answer: 20. in a room there are at least three who know one another. Hint: Observe that the set {n + 1.5. The problem is most interesting when n= Why? (p − 1)(p − 2) . There are N people seated at this table in such a way that the next person to be seated must sit next to someone. Prove that there must be ﬁve consecutive consonants. What is the minimum number of people in the party who know everyone else? .

18 Let Pn be a set of en! + 1 points on the plane. Prove that. there was some moment when (Hint: e = 1/n!. 1986) During a certain lecture. there are at least n/2 − 1 of them. Assume that “knowing” is a symmetrical relationship. Prove that there are two people such that. For each ∞ pair of these mathematicians. at some mon=0 .16 (USAMO.5. Problem 1. of the remaining n − 2 people. some three were sleeping simultaneously. Chapter 1 Problem 1.5.16 Problem 1. each of whom knows both or else knows neither of the two. Show that at least one monochromatic triangle is formed.5. ment. 1985) There are n people at a party. Any two distinct points of Pn are joined by a straight line segment which is then coloured in one of n given colours.) both were sleeping simultaneously.17 (USAMO. each of ﬁve mathematicians fell asleep exactly twice.

36 Example If 7|3x + 2 prove that 7|(15x2 − 11x − 14. The following properties should be immediate to the reader. This forces n + 1|2 and so n + 1 = 1 or n + 1 = 2. 34 Theorem 1. c. there are integers u. y|z then x|z. m.Chapter 2 Divisibility 2. Solution: Observe that 15x2 − 11x − 14 = (3x + 2)(5x − 7). It should be clear that if a|b and b = 0 then 1 ≤ |a| ≤ |b|. If x. 17 . so that the only such n is n = 1. Among every two consecutive integers there is an even one. The choice n + 1 = 1 is out since n ≥ 1. y. If a does not divide b we write a |b.1 Divisibility 33 Deﬁnition If a = 0.). c|b. We have 7s = 3x + 2 for some integer s and so 15x2 − 11x − 14 = 7s(5x − 7). among every three consecutive integers there is one divisible by 3. 2. Hence xuv = z. We write this as a|b. 37 Theorem The product of n consecutive integers is divisible by n!. etc. Solution: n2 + 1 = n2 − 1 + 2 = (n − 1)(n + 1) + 2. giving x|z. v with xu = y.tc = b. b are integers. Also. Thus am + nb = c(sm + tn). we say that a divides b if there is an integer c such that ac = b. giving c|(am + bn).u 35 Example Find all positive integers n for which n + 1|n2 + 1. z are integers with x|y. giving the result. yv = z. If a. then c|(am + nb). n are integers with c|a. Proof: There are integers s.t with sc = a. b.The following theorem goes further.

1. Solution: Let.1.) n2 − 4. If this is so. p + 2. or n + 1 of them. 7. we multiply by (−1)n . the divisibility by n! follows from the fact that binomial coefﬁcients are integers: Ç å m+n (m + n)! (m + n)(m + n − 1) · · ·(m + 1) = = . . amn+1 . and see that the corresponding product is positive.1. However.1. the integers ak corresponding to these nk ’s cannot divide each other. that can be selected from ak . and so there is nothing to prove. starting with ak and each dividing the following one.4 Demonstrate that for all integer values n.3 Prove that (2m)!(3n)! (m!)2 (n!)3 is always an integer. because ak |al implies that nk ≥ nl + 1. < amn+1 be mn + 1 integers. prove that (n + 1)(n + 2) · · · (2n) is divisible by 2n .1.1. (n!)! is divisible by n!(n−1)! Problem 2. then the are at least m + 1 nk ’s that are the same. ak+1 .1.6 Prove that there is no prime triplet of the form p. for each 1 ≤ k ≤ mn + 1. Solution: n3 − n = (n − 1)n(n + 1) is the product of 3 consecutive integers and hence is divisible by 3! = 6.18 Chapter 2 Proof: Assume ﬁrst that all the consecutive integers m+ 1. 5. 1985) If Problem 2.1 Given that 5|(n + 2).. . Problem 2. n2 + 8n + 7. Problem 2. each dividing the following. the assertion follows. the cases when n is and is not a are divisible by 5 perfect square.u 38 Example Prove that 6|n3 − n. 39 Example (Putnam 1966) Let 0 < a1 < a2 < . n9 − 6n7 + 9n5 − 4n3 is divisible by 8640.u Practice Problem 2. Prove that you can ﬁnd either m + 1 of them no one of which divides any other. . . Problem 2. and so we apply the ﬁrst result. m+ 2. .7 Prove that for n ∈ N. n4 − 1. (n − 1)!.5 Prove that if n > 4 is composite. .t = n in the identity fs+t = fs−1 ft + fs ft+1 we obtain f(k+1)n = fkn+n = fn−1 fkn + fn fkn+1 . . If all the n consecutive integers are negative. separately. 40 Theorem If k|n then fk | fn . Proof: Letting s = kn. for all integers n. p + 4. which of the following (Hint: Consider. n n!m! n! If one of the consecutive integers is 0. .2 Prove that n5 − 5n3 + 4n is always divisible by 120.1.8 (AIME 1986) What is the largest positive integer n for which (n + 10)|(n3 + 100)? (Hint: x3 + y3 = (x + y)(x2 − xy + y2).1.9 (Olimpíada matemática española. except for 3. then the product of them is 0. If no nk is greater than n. then n divides n is a positive integer.) . . n2 − 2n? Problem 2. It is clear that if fn | fkn then fn | f(k+1)n . nk denote the length of the longest chain. Problem 2. Problem 2. Since fn | fn·1 . m+ n are positive.

then 24|(p2 − 1). q2 . If we take n = 24k ± 1. 8. then we say that it is composite. . every integer lies in one of the families 3k. for some integers q1 . 1417 = q2 d + r.} is the family of integers of the form 3k − 1. . 14. k ∈ Z. Solution: By the Division Algorithm. Consider the set S = {a − bk : k ∈ Z and a ≥ bk}. . u 41 Theorem (Division Algorithm) If a. For assume that r ≥ b. 0 ≤ r1 < b. Then r2 − r1 = b(q1 − q2 ). 3. Since d > 1. 1059 = q1 d + r. 15. It is quite plain that q = a/b . 3k + 1 or 3k + 2 where k ∈ Z. which means that r = 164. all these values make the expression divisible by 24. 1253 = 2312 − 1059 = d(q3 − q1 ) and 895 = 2312 − 1417 = d(q3 − q2 ). . . 7. To show that r and q are unique. k ∈ Z. 5. −3. 4. . whence r2 = r1 . For example. Then r > r − b = a − bq − b = a − (q + 1)b ≥ 0. We conclude that d − r = 179 − 164 = 15. 8. 6. S has a least element.} is the family of integers of the form 3k + 1. integers come in one of six ﬂavours: 6k. 5. 4. Observe that the family 3k + 2. . By the Well-Ordering Principle. there must be some q ∈ Z such that r = a − bq since r ∈ S . −9. 2312 = q3 d + r. Solution: n2 + 23 = n2 −1 + 24 = (n −1)(n + 1)+ 24. 1. 44 Deﬁnition A prime number p is a positive integer greater than 1 whose only positive divisors are 1 and p. If p > 3 is a prime. Thus we must have 0 ≤ r < b. b are positive integers. −2. the Division Algorithm makes a partition of all the integers according to their remainder upon division by n. . 16. Thus Z = A ∪ B ∪C where is the family of integers of the form 3k. 19 are prime. But (6k ± 1)2 − 1 = 36k2 ± 12k = 12k(3k − 1). If the integer n > 1 is not prime. . k ∈ Z and C = {. 6. then there are unique integers q. q3 . 0 ≤ r < b. 1. 7. 6k ± 2 or 6k + 3. assume that bq1 + r1 = a = bq2 + r2 . . d|1253 = 7 · 179 and 7|895 = 5 · 179. . Solution: By the Division Algorithm. . 1417 and 2312 are divided by d > 1. −6. 17. we conclude that d = 179. 3. k ∈ Z. 43 Example Show that n2 + 23 is divisible by 24 for inﬁnitely many n. This completes the proof. Find the value of d − r. 11. . For example. A = {. It is important to realise that given an integer n > 0. . 358 = 1417 − 1059 = d(q2 − q1 ). 2. From this it also follows that q1 = q2 . that is b|(r2 − r1 ). r such that a = bq+r. −5. 0 ≤ r2 < b. 9.Division Algorithm 19 2. . Since either k or 3k − 1 is even. Hence d|358 = 2 · 179. −4. where a/b denotes the integral part of a/b. From this. 10. −1. Thus (for example) 1059 = 5 · 179 + 164. k = 0. 0. . . k ∈ Z. then p is of the form p = 6k ± 1 (the other choices are either divisible by 2 or 3). By construction.2 Division Algorithm Proof: We use the Well-Ordering Principle. . 2. 6k ± 1. say r. 42 Example (AHSME 1976) Let r be the remainder when 1059. But then a − (q + 1)b ∈ S and a − (q + 1)b < r which contradicts the fact that r is the smallest member of S . 13. 20 are composite. Then S is a collection of nonnegative integers and S = ∅ as a − b · 0 ∈ S . But |r2 − r1 | < b. − 7. 18. Let us prove that r < b. The number 1 is neither a prime nor a composite. 45 Example Show that if p > 3 is a prime.} B = {. . r ≥ 0. 9. . 2. 12. since r − b ≥ 0. . − 8. is the same as the family 3k − 1. Now. 12k(3k − 1) is divisible by 24.

10 Show the existence of inﬁnitely many natural remainder 1 upon division by 8. But then a2 + b2 = 3t + 1 or a2 + b2 = 3s + 2. then there are unique integers q and r such that a = qb + r.20 46 Example Prove that the square of any integer is of the form 4k or 4k + 1. Two of them must lie in one of these two groups. then we are done.2. any integer comes in one of two ﬂavours: 2a or 2a + 1. 48 Example Show that from any three integers. a = qb + ε r.3 Show that the product of two numbers of the form 4k + 3 is of the form 4k + 1. 49 Example Prove that if 3|(a2 + b2 ). we are choosing three integers that lie in the residue classes 5k ± 1 or 5k ± 2. If not. If one of the three integers is of the form 5k.4 Prove that the square of any odd integer leaves Problem 2.2.5 Demonstrate that there are no three consecutive odd integers such that each is the sum of two squares and also greater than zero. 11111. Prove that if one of the numbers 2n − 1.2 Show that if a and b are positive integers. is the square of an integer.2. The assertion follows. no matter which integers are substituted. y such that x(x + 1)|y(y + 1) but Problem 2. i. . then 3|a and 3|b Solution: Assume a = 3k ± 1 or b = 3m ± 1. . . Problem 2.9 Prove that 3 never divides n2 + 1. Squaring. then there are unique integers q and r.2.2. Algorithm: if a and b = 0 are integers. then the other is x |y and (x + 1) |y. 47 Example Prove that no integer in the sequence 11. y = (12k + 5)(18k + 7). All the numbers in this sequence are of the form 4k − 1.2. Chapter 2 Solution: By the Division Algorithm. Problem 2. (2a + 1)2 = 4(a2 + a) + 1 and so the assertion follows. 2n + 1 is prime. Practice Problem 2. Problem 2.2. numbers x. Then a2 = 3x + 1.2. Problem 2. Solution: The square of any integer is of the form 4k or 4k + 1. one can always choose two so that a3 b − ab3 is divisible by 10. Solution: It is clear that a3 b − ab3 = ab(a − b)(a + b) is always even.8 Prove that any integer n > 11 is the sum of two b b positive composite numbers.1 Prove the following extension of the Division composite. 0 ≤ r < |b|. b2 = 3y + 1. Hint: Try x = 36k + 14. (2a)2 = 4a2 .e. Problem 2. x |(y + 1) and (x + 1) |(y + 1).6 Let n > 1 be a positive integer.. and so they cannot be the square of any integer. and ε = ±1 such that Problem 2. and so there must be two whose sum or whose difference is divisible by 5. − < r ≤ . 1111.2. 3 |(a2 + b2). 111.2.7 Prove that there are inﬁnitely many integers n such that 4n2 + 1 is divisible by both 13 and 5. 2 2 Problem 2. . Hint: Think of n − 6 if n is even and n − 9 if n is odd.

Solution: Arrange the sum as 1+ 1 1 1 1 1 + + + ··· + + . the p on the numerator will not be thus cancelled out.3 Some Algebraic Identities In this section we present some examples whose solutions depend on the use of some elementary algebraic identities. Since p is a prime. 52 Example Find all integers n ≥ 1 for which n4 + 4n is a prime. for integer n > 1. It is easy to see that if n ≥ 3. n Ç å n k n (n + 1) − 1 = n. 53 Example Prove that for all n ∈ N . n = 2. Solution: n3 − 1 = (n − 1)(n2 + n + 1). p−1 2 p−2 (p − 1)/2 (p + 1)/2 After summing consecutive pairs. k k=1 and every term is divisible by n2 . and so n4 + 4 cannot be a prime. Solution: Observe that n4 + 4 = = = = n4 + 4n2 + 4 − 4n2 (n2 + 2)2 − (2n)2 (n2 + 2 − 2n)(n2 + 2 + 2n) ((n − 1)2 + 1)((n + 1)2 + 1). Assume n > 1. . Solution: The expression is only prime for n = 1. For n ≥ 3 odd all the numbers below are integers: n4 + 22n = = = n4 + 2n22n + 22n − 2n22n Ä ä2 (n2 + 2n )2 − n2(n+1)/2 (n2 + 2n + n2(n+1)/2)(n2 + 2n − n2(n+1)/2). Clearly one must take n odd. each factor is greater than 1. b then p divides a.e. 50 Example Find all the primes of the form n3 − 1. we must have n − 1 = 1.Some Algebraic Identities 21 2. By the Binomial Theorem. If the expression were prime. Each term in the denominator is < p. 54 Example Prove that if p is an odd prime and if a = 1 + 1/2 + · · ·+ 1/(p − 1). Each factor is greater than 1 for n > 1. n2 divides the quantity (n + 1)n − 1. i. 51 Example Prove that n4 + 4 is a prime only when n = 1 for n ∈ N. so this number cannot be a prime. Solution: If n = 1 this is quite evident. since n2 + n + 1 is always greater than 1. Thus the only such prime is 7. the numerator of the resulting fractions is p.

2903n − 803n is divisible by 2903 − 803 = 2100 = 7 · 300 =. the result follows at once from the identity n−1 an − 1 ak = a = 1. By symmetry. So assume that xn + yn = zn and n ≥ z. Since 7 and 271 have no prime factors in common. we can conclude that the expression is divisible by 7 · 271 = 1897. y. n are natural numbers n ≥ z. 57 Example ((UM)2C4 1987) Given that 1002004008016032 has a prime factor p > 250000. z. 2903n − 464n is divisible by 2903 − 464 = 9 · 271 and 261n − 803n is divisible by −542 = (−2)271. ﬁnd it. Therefore p = 250501. . 1856) If x. a−b where k < 250000. z then x < z and y < z. Also. This establishes the assertion. y. we may suppose that x < y. xy = 0. Solution: It is clear that if the relation xn + yn = zn holds for natural numbers x. contrary to the assertion that xn + yn = zn . Solution: We may assume that x = y. In that case. the result being otherwise trivial.22 55 Example Prove that Chapter 2 xn − yn = (x − y)(xn−1 + xn−2y + xn−3 y2 + · · · + xyn−2 + yn−1 ) Thus x − y always divides xn − yn . a6 − b6 . 2903n − 803n − 464n + 261n is divisible by 1897 for all natural numbers n. 58 Example (Grünert. and 261n − 464n is divisible by 261 − 464 = −203 = 7 · (−29). Then zn − yn = (z − y)(zn−1 + yzn−2 + · · · + yn−1 ) ≥ 1 · nxn−1 > xn . Thus the expression is also divisible by 271. Solution: If a = 103 . then the relation xn + yn = zn does not hold. a−1 k=0 upon letting a = x/y and multiplying through by y . Solution: By the preceding problem. Thus the expression 2903n − 803n − 464n + 261n is divisible by 7. b = 2 then 1002004008016032 = a5 + a4b + a3b2 + a2 b3 + ab4 + b5 = This last expression factorises as a6 − b6 a−b = = = (a + b)(a2 + ab + b2)(a2 − ab + b2) 1002 · 1002004 · 998004 4 · 4 · 1002 · 250501 · k. n Without calculation we see that 8767 ˝ ˝ 56 Example (Eotvos 1899) Show that 2345 − 81012345 is divisible by 666.

1 91 ones 2. Show that Å 1 1+ n ãn+1 Å > 1+ 1 n+1 ãn+2 n = 1. 21993 + 9991993. . Problem 2. Solution: This is evident by substituting −y for y in example 1.. Solution: It sufﬁces to take x = 2n − 1.3. 23 xn + yn = (x + y)(xn−1 − xn−2 y + xn−3y2 − + − · · · + −xyn−2 + yn−1). . . . 5001993 + 5011993 is divisible by 1001. . Solution: Follows at once from the previous problem.4 Demonstrate that for any natural number n. . Then m. n n+1 bn+1 − an+1 > (n + 1)a.3. x + y divides xn + yn . 2. there is another natural number x such that each term of the sequence x + 1. . . Problem 2. prove that (a + 1/2)n + (b + 1/2)n is an integer only for ﬁnitely many positive integers n. 3. .6 If a. Prove that for n = 1.1 Show that the integer 1. since each of 11993 + 10001993. . . 61 Example (S250) Show that for any natural number n. .Practice 59 Example Prove that for n odd. n obviously share their prime factors and m − 1 = 2(2k−1 − 1) shares its prime factors with n − 1 = 2k+1 (2k−1 − 1). n) such that M and n share their prime factors and (m − 1. is the square of an integer. n − 1) x share their prime factors. 1. . Å Å ã ãn+1 1 n 1 1+ < 1+ n = 1. k = 2. Solution: Take m = 2k − 1.3.3. .7 Prove that 100|1110 − 1.2 Prove that 199 + 299 + 399 + 499 is divisible by 5.3. . the number 1······1−2··· 2 2n 1′ s n 2′ s 3. Prove that bn ((n + 1)a − nb) < an+1 . Problem 2. is composite. . 60 Example Show that 1001 divides 11993 + 21993 + 31993 + · · · + 10001993. Problem 2. .. Practice Problem 2.3. xx + 1.3 Show that if |ab| = 1. b are positive integers. xx + 1. Thus if n is odd.11 and observing that (−y)n = −yn for n odd. 2. Show that Problem 2. n = (2k − 1)2 . is divisible by n. Problem 2. 62 Example Determine inﬁnitely many pairs of integers (m. . ..3. 2. . .. . then a4 + 4b4 is composite.5 Let 0 ≤ a < b. b−a 4.

Primes of the form 22 + 1 are Problem 2. n+1 n+2 2n Problem 2.21 Let a. Problem 2.3. .3.11 Find. 1994) Let a.26 (IMO. then the number 13n + 6 is divisible by 7. 44448889.3.3.9 Demonstrate that every number in the sequence 49. Show that 3(ab + bc + ca) ≤ (a + b + c)2 ≤ 4(ab + bc + ca).22 (ITT.24 Let k ≥ 2 be an integer. 1 < a ∈ N. Use this to prove that for all positive integers n. d must add up to 0. . (Hint: Consider 22225555 + 45555 + 55552222 − 42222 + 42222 − 45555.3.. c. ..3.3. Problem 2.3. Prove that a = b = c = d.23 Prove that the product of four consecutive natural numbers is never a perfect square.24 Problem 2. 1989) How many primes amongst the positive integers. . A > B. 4489. d be complex numbers satisfying a + b + c + d = a3 + b3 + c3 + d 3 = 0. .13 Prove that if an + 1. 22 + 1 divides 22 2n +1 n 2 n − 2.8 Let A and B be two natural numbers with the same number of digits.3. c.3. Problem 2. beginning and ending in 1? Problem 2. with proof.3. then a = 2 and n is a prime.16 Find the least value achieved by 36k − 5k . 1 < a ∈ N.17 Find all the primes of the form n + 1. then nk can be represented as the sum of n successive odd numbers. b. . 1979) If a. Problem 2. 3. Problem 2. 4. then k a is even and n is a power of 2.3. written as usual in base-ten are such that equals their digits are alternating 1’s and 0’s. is prime.18 Find a closed formula for the product P = (1 + 2)(1 + 22)(1 + 22 ) · · · (1 + 22 ). d be real numbers such that a2 + b2 + c2 + d 2 = ab + bc + cd + da. . b.3. is prime. 4 · · · · · · 4 8 · · · 8 9.3. 1 1 1 1 1 − 1 − + − + ···+ 2 3 4 2n − 1 2n Problem 2. Problem 2. Problem 2. positive integer.12 Prove that the number 22225555 + 55552222 is divisible by 7.25 (Catalan) Prove that Mersenne primes.3. Prove that 1 A1/n − B1/n < n for all n = 2. 3 1 1 1 + + ··· + .3. Problem 2. b are natural numbers such that 1 1 1 1 1 a = 1 − + − + ···− + . c be the lengths of the sides of a triangle. is the square of an integer.) Hint: What is (n2 + n − 1)2? Problem 2. .19 Let a > 1 be a real number. 2. c. . the unique square which is the product of four consecutive odd numbers. n 4′ s n−1 8′ s Chapter 2 Problem 2. Primes of the form 2n − 1 are called Problem 2. Simplify the expression » » √ √ a + 2 a − 1 + a − 2 a − 1.14 Prove that if an − 1.3. Suppose that A and B have more than half of their digits on the sinistral side in common.15 (Putnam. b. k = 1.3. Prove that a pair of the a. Show that if n is a called Fermat primes. b. Problem 2. . 444889.10 (Polish Mathematical Olympiad) Prove that if n is an even natural number. b 2 3 4 1318 1319 prove that 1979|a.3. Problem 2. Problem 2. .20 Let a.

Conversely. 7. 7.31 Show that if k is odd. 4. each raised to the fourth power.3. equals the ﬁfth raised to the fourth power? . Problem 2. n ∈ N.27 (Polish Mathematical Olympiad) A triangular number is one of the form 1 + 2 + .32 Are there ﬁve consecutive positive integers such that the sum of the ﬁrst four. 1 + 2 + ···+ n divides 1k + 2k + · · · + nk .3. 4n + 1 = x2 + y2 where x and y are expressed in terms of a and b. 3. 25 Problem 2.3. 5. Problem 2. .30 (Polish Mathematical Olympiad) Prove that amongst ten successive natural numbers. 9 can be the last digit of a triangular number.Practice Problem 2. a2 + a b2 + b n= + .3. 2 2 write 4n + 1 as the sum of two squares. . + n.28 Demonstrate that there are inﬁnitely many Problem 2.3.29 (Putnam.3. then n is the sum of two triangular numbers. Prove that none of the digits 2. there are always at least one and at most four numbers that are not divisible by any of the numbers 2. square triangular numbers. 1975) Supposing that an integer n is the sum of two triangular numbers. Problem 2. show that if 4n + 1 = x2 + y2 .

b. 65 Example Prove that 7 divides 32n+1 + 2n+2 for all natural numbers n. We start by mentioning some simple properties of congruences. These equalities give (1). Zn 3. Then 1. (2) and (3). and (5) follows from (4). 63 Lemma Let a. k ∈ with a ≡ b mod m and c ≡ d mod m. 26 mod 7. u Congruences mod 9 can sometimes be used to check multiplications. mod 9. a + c ≡ b + d mod m 2.1 Congruences The notation a ≡ b mod n is due to Gauß. For example. Solution: 62 ≡ −1 mod 37. Thus a ± c = b ± d + m(k1 ± k2 ) and ac = bd + m(k2 b + k1 d). we can ﬁnd k1 . Solution: Observe that 32n+1 ≡ 3 · 9n ≡ 3 · 2n mod 7 and 2n+2 ≡ 4 · 2n mod 7. Property (4) follows by successive application of (3). . and it means that n|(a − b). −8 ≡ −1 ≡ 6 ≡ 13 mod 7. Thus 61987 ≡ 6 · 61986 ≡ 6(62 )993 ≡ 6(−1)993 ≡ −6 ≡ 31 mod 37. ac ≡ bd mod m 4. For example 875961 · 2753 = 2410520633. c. m ∈ Z. which is patently false. Proof: As a ≡ b mod m and c ≡ d mod m. If f is a polynomial with integral coefﬁcients then f (a) ≡ f (b) mod m. Hence 32n+1 + 2n+2 ≡ 7 · 2n ≡ 0 for all natural numbers n. For if this were true then (8 + 7 + 5 + 9 + 6 + 1)(2 + 7 + 5 + 3) ≡ 2 + 4 + 1 + 0 + 5 + 2 + 0 + 6 + 3 + 3 But this says that 0 · 8 ≡ 8 mod 9. d. Since n|(a − b) implies that ∃k ∈ Z such that nk = a − b. a − c ≡ b − d mod m 3. k2 ∈ Z with a = b + k1 m and c = d + k2 m. we deduce that a ≡ b mod n if and only if there is an integer k such that a = b + nk. 64 Example Find the remainder when 61987 is divided by 37. It also indicates that a and b leave the same remainder upon division by n.Chapter 3 Congruences. ak ≡ bk mod m 5.

each remainder class modulo 7 is represented in the third column. has at least one Sunday the 1st. depending on whether the year is a leap year or not. etc.) Now. Now. and so 73 ≡ 72 · 7 ≡ −7 ≡ 3 mod 10 and 74 ≡ (72 )2 ≡ 1 mod 10. 62 ≡ 10 mod 13. has at least one Friday 13-th. 22 ≡ 4.Congruences 66 Example Prove the following result of Euler: 641|(232 + 1). Therefore the perfect squares mod 13 are 0. 67 Example Find the perfect squares mod 13. 70 Example Find the units digit of 77 . Hence 27 · 5 ≡ −1 mod 641 and 54 ≡ −24 mod 641. which means that 641|(232 + 1). 9. 7 7 mod 10. This last congruence and 54 ≡ −24 mod 641 yield −24 · 228 ≡ 1 mod 641. 5555 ≡ 4 mod 7 and 35 ≡ 5 mod 7. Also. Now. 3. 27 · 5 ≡ −1 mod 641 yields 54 · 228 = (5 · 27 )4 ≡ (−1)4 ≡ 1 mod 641. 42 ≡ 3. 12. because r2 ≡ (13 − r)2 mod 13. we obtain 02 ≡ 0. 71 Example Prove that every year. which means that there is an integer t such that 77 = 3 + 4t. including any leap year. Upon assembling all this. Solution: If x2 = 2 − 5y2. 69 Example Prove that 7|(22225555 + 55552222). Solution: 2222 ≡ 3 mod 7. thus each year. 27 Solution: Observe that 641 = 27 · 5 + 1 = 24 + 54 . 72 ≡ −1 mod 10. whether leap or not. 7 Solution: We must ﬁnd 77 mod 10. 72 ≡ 1 mod 4 and so 77 ≡ (72 )3 · 7 ≡ 3 mod 4. Solution: First observe that we only have to square all the numbers up to 6. the ﬁrst day of a month in each year falls in one of the following days: Month Day of the year mod 7 January 1 1 February 32 4 March 60 or 61 4 or 5 April 91 or 92 0 or 1 May 121 or122 2 or 3 June 152 or 153 5 or 6 July 182 or183 0 or 1 August 213 or 214 3 or 4 September 244 or 245 6 or 0 October 274 or 275 1 or 2 November 305 or 306 4 or 5 December 335 or 336 6 or 0 (The above table means that. Squaring the nonnegative integers up to 6. But 2 is not a perfect square mod 5. 4. 68 Example Prove that there are no integers with x2 − 5y2 = 2. and 10. 12 ≡ 1. that March 1st is the 50th or 51st day of the year. Now 22225555 + 55552222 ≡ 35555 + 42222 ≡ (35 )1111 + (42 )1111 ≡ 51111 − 51111 ≡ 0 mod 7. 1. Solution: It is enough to prove that each year has a Sunday the 1st. Now. then x2 ≡ 2 mod 5. 52 ≡ 12. . 77 ≡ 74t+3 ≡ (74 )t · 73 ≡ 1t · 3 ≡ 3 Thus the last digit is 3. 32 ≡ 9.

k = 1. Thus 2y + 15 ≡ 2. 48. 2. The perfect cubes mod 7 are 0.. . . 24 ≡ 2. 76 Example (USAMO. But 1599 ≡ 15 mod 16. Hence 23k + 27 ≡ 1 + 27 ≡ 0 mod 7 for all positive integers k. 1 2 14 Solution: There are no such solutions. . . (3)199 k 199 k=0 199 (−1)k k=0 Ç å 200 199−k a (−3)k ≡ 3199 k Ç k=0 å 200 = −3199 . This is an impossibility. k (−1) k k=0 Ç å 200 ≡ −3199 ≡ 3 mod 10. . 24. 2. never leaves remainder 1 when divided by 7. n14 ) if any. Now. apart from permutations. . produces the terms n2 − 1 = (3k + 1)2 − 1 which are the terms at even places of the sequence of 3. . k 199 1 a 200 Ç å 200 200−k a (−3)k ] = k 199 k=0 Ç å 200 199−k a (−3)k .. 22 ≡ 4. What is the remainder when the 1994-th term of the sequence is divided by 1000? Solution: We want 3|n2 − 1 = (n − 1)(n + 1). 24.28 72 Example Find inﬁnitely many integers n such that 2n + 27 is divisible by 7. or 6 upon division by 7. y such that x3 = 2y + 15? Solution: No. 2. of the Diophantine equation n4 + n4 + · · · + n4 = 1599. The sequence 3k + 1. . 1994) The increasing sequence 3. k = 1. . Chapter 3 Solution: Observe that 21 ≡ 2. k = 0. . . 1979) Determine all nonnegative integral solutions (n1 . 74 Example Prove that 2k − 5. and 6. . 24. k = 1. 3. consists of those positive multiples of 3 that are one less than a perfect square. this requires n = 3k + 1 or n = 3k − 1. 15. or 4 mod 7. Then [(1020000)/10100 +3] = [(a−3)200/a] = [ 200 Since k=0 (−1)k Ç å 200 = 0. 15. 77 Example (Putnam. and this cycle of three repeats. . 48. 73 Example Are there positive integers x. This produces the inﬁnitely many values sought. 2. This means that n4 + · · · + n4 1 14 can be at most 14 mod 16. . 26 ≡ 1 mod 7 and so 23k ≡ 1 mod 3 for all positive integers k. 25 ≡ 4. 1986) What is the units digit of 1020000 ? 10100 + 3 Solution: Set a−3 = 10100. . . the term sought is (3(997) + 1)2 − 1 ≡ (3(−3) + 1)2 − 1 ≡ 82 − 1 ≡ 63 mod 1000. Since 3 is prime. Solution: 21 ≡ 2. . . All perfect fourth powers mod 16 are ≡ 0 or 1 mod 16. k = 1. Thus 2k − 5 can leave only remainders 3. every power of 2 is congruent to 1. . or 5 mod 7. 1. k . As a ≡ 3 mod 10. 15. produces the terms n2 − 1 = (3k − 1)2 − 1 which are the terms at odd places of the sequence 3. . 4. The sequence 3k − 1... 23 ≡ 1 mod 7. .. . . 48. . . . Finally. . 23 ≡ 1. 2. . We must ﬁnd the 997th term of the sequence 3k + 1. 75 Example (AIME. 1. n2 . The remainder sought is 63. 22 ≡ 4. 2. 3.

The assertion follows. n ≥ k ≥ 2. −k ≡ b. n |(k + c). b. c belong to at most three different residue classes mod n. 82 Example Prove that 6n+2 Ç k=0 n(n − 1)(n − 2)!(1 − 1/2! + · · · + (−1)n−1 /(n − 1)! + (−1)n/n!) Ä ä (n − 1) m + (−1)n−1n/(n − 1) + (−1)n/(n − 1) (n − 1) (m + (−1)n) . Thus there must be a residue class. −23n+1 2k mod 23n+2 √ √ Also. where M is an integer. . 81 Example Let Prove that for all n ∈ N. and this may only happen if they are all equal. k ∈ N. with a = 2 + 3. Solution: As the sum of the 2n integers remaining is always even. The property stated in the problem is now shared by ak /2 or (ak − 1)/2. there is an integer k such that n |(k + a). depending on whether they are all even. 23n+1. 29 Solution: The integers a. or all odd. This solves the problem. when n is of the form 2k. Prove that a1 = a2 = . all the ak must have the same parity. no matter which of the ak be taken. Solution: We have n!! = n! (1/2! − 1/3! + · · ·+ (−1)n /n!). the remaining ones can be divided into two sets of n integers with equal sums. n ∈ N. . ≡ 3(3n+1)/2 mod 4 ≡ (−1)(n−1)/2 mod 4. Thus they are all congruent mod 4. say k for which −k ≡ a. b.Congruences 78 Example Prove that for any a. 2S := 2 3n+1 Ç k=0 å 6n + 2 k 3 ≡ 0. n!! ≡ n! n! − n!! = = = mod (n − 1). . b = 2 − 3. Since n > 3. we have more than three distinct residue classes. Solution: Using the Binomial Theorem. k ≤ n − 2. n > 3. a2 . . 79 Example (Putnam. mod r=0 (n + r) Solution: (kn)! = M(n − 1)!n(n + 1) · · ·(2n − 1) for some integer M ≥ 1. . mod n. if n is odd. n > 3. 1973) Let a1 . −k ≡ c. 80 Example Prove that n−1 (kn)! ≡ 0 if n. c ∈ Z. 2k 3n + 1 2 Ç3n + 1å r=0 1 3n+1 (a + b3n+1) 2 = 2r 23n+1−2r 3r . since (n − 2)! is divisible by k!. 4k + 3 or 4k + 1 respectively. = a2n+1. å √ √ 6n + 2 k 3 = (1 + 3)6n+2 + (1 − 3)6n+2 . . a2n+1 be a set of integers such that if any one of them is removed. . n |(k + b). Continuing in this manner we arrive at the conclusion that the ak are all congruent mod 2k for every k.

an is deﬁned to be ã Å 2 2 2 1/2 a1 + a2 + ··· + an n .10 Prove that if 7|a2 + b2 then 7|a and 7|b. . Problem 3.1.1.9 Prove that there are no integer solutions to the equation x2 − 7y = 3.1.. we have. 2k + 1 Problem 3. Problem 3. Problem 3.a2 .11 Prove that there are no integers with 800000007 = x2 + y2 + z2 . S ≡ (−1)(n−1)/2 23n+1 If n is even. . c.1. .1. 2(6n + 1)33n mod 8 4n + 2 mod 8. for odd n. The root mean square of n numbers a1 .12 Prove that the sum of the decimal digits of a n2 + 15n + 122 is divisible by 6. Problem 3. a3 − b3. Problem 3. are all integers.1.18 Find the last two digits of 3100 . Practice Problem 3. for which the root-mean-square of the ﬁrst n positive integers is an integer? Note. perfect square cannot be equal to 1991. then a and b must also be integers. a4 − b4 .13 Prove that Problem 3.1.1 Find the number of all n.1.17 Prove that every non-multiple of 3 is a perfect power of 2 mod 3n . 1 3n+1 (a + b3n+1) 2 = 2r≤3n Chapter 3 mod 23n+3.1. Problem 3. . 1986) What is the smallest integer n > 1. Ç å n n − [ ] is dip p n n Problem 3.1. S ≡ 23n+2 2n + 1 mod 23n+4 .8 (AHSME 1992) What is the size of the largest subset S of {1. visible by p. 2. . Problem 3.1. . Ç å 3n + 1 2r+1 3n−2r 2 3 2r + 1 ≡ ≡ So for even n. Problem 3.19 (USAMO. . b.30 As 2S = 23n+1 (a3n+1 + b3n+1). . Determine the remainder when a83 is divided by 49.1.1.3 (P OLISH M ATHEMATICAL O LYMPIAD ) What digits should be put instead of x and y in 30x0y03 in order to give a number divisible by 13? 7|42 + 22 + 1 for all natural numbers n. (Hint: n2 + 15n + 122 ≡ n2 + 3n + 2 = (n + 1)(n + 2) mod 6.14 Prove that 5 never divides Ç å n 2n + 1 23k .4 Prove that if 9|(a3 + b3 + c3 ).1. then 3|abc.1. for k=0 integers a.1.1. 1 ≤ n ≤ 25 such that Problem 3. 50} such that no pair of distinct elements Problem 3.2 (AIME 1983) Let an = 6n + 8n .1.5 Describe all integers n such that 10|n10 + 1. Problem 3.1.) Problem 3.6 Prove that if a − b. . of S has a sum divisible by 7? Problem 3.7 Find the last digit of 3100 .15 Prove that if p is a prime. a2 − b2.16 How many perfect squares are there mod 2n ? Problem 3. Problem 3. for all n ≥ p...

1. 1975) Let a1 . y. n is divisible by 11 if and only if the alternating sum of its digits is divisible by 11. . a > 1 and all prime numbers p. the sum of its digits is A. . we have 10 j ≡ (−1) j mod 11. the number is divisible by 3 but not by 9. b. Problem 3.1.21 Show that the number 16 is a perfect 8-th is divisible by x2 ± x + 1 if and only if power mod p for any prime p. For example. 912282219 ≡ 9−1+2−2+8−2+2−1+9 ≡ 7 mod 11 and so 912282219 is not divisible by 11. Problem 3. i = 0. that is. 1992) The two-digit integers from 19 to 92 are written consecutively in order to form the integer 192021222324 · · ·89909192.1. whereas 8924310064539 ≡ 8 − 9 + 2 − 4 + 3 − 1 + 0 − 0 + 6 − 4 + 4 − 3 + 9 ≡ 0 mod 11. and hence 44443 ≡ 73 ≡ 1 mod 9. this number is divisible by 9 if and only if 19 + 20 + 21 + · · ·+ 92 = 372 · 3 is. whence the theorem. Let C be the sum of the digits of B. It follows that n = ak 10k + · · · + a1 10 + a0 ≡ ak + · · · + a1 + a0 . it follows that C = 7. Prove that k ai (x2 + 1)3i i=0 k Problem 3. A criterion for divisibility by 11 can be established similarly. As 10 ≡ −1 mod 11. c. prove that n − n + n − 1 is divisible by (n − 1)2. The most famous one is perhaps the following. be an increasing sequence of positive integers. But since C ≡ 7 mod 9. 4444 log10 4444 < 4444 log10 104 = 17776. This means that 44444444 has at most 17776 digits. What is the largest power of 3 that divides this number? Solution: By the casting-out-nines rule.1.24 Let x and ai . q. r need not necessarily be different).Divisibility Tests Problem 3. Prove that for every s ≥ 1 there are inﬁnitely many am that can be written in the form am = xas + yat with positive integers x and y and t > s. p. Let B be the sum of the digits of A.1. b. k be arbitrary integers. . 7 ≡ 44444444 ≡ A ≡ B ≡ C mod 9. . 1975) When 44444444 is written in decimal notation. 83 Theorem (Casting-out 9’s) A natural number n is divisible by 9 if and only if the sum of it digits is divisible by 9. whence A ≤ 159984. Therefore. we have an ample number of rules of divisibility. Proof: Let n = ak 10k + ak−1 10k−1 + · · · + a1 10 + a0 be the base-10 expansion of n. a3 . 39 has the largest digital sum.22 (IMO. As 10 ≡ 1 mod 9. r which satisfy the equation pa = qb + r c (a. u 84 Example (AHSME. q. Now. . Problem 3. Amongst all natural numbers ≤ 159984 the one with maximal digit sum is 99999. namely 12. and so 8924310064539 is divisible by 11. 85 Example (IMO. . .1.23 For each integer n > 1. Thus the sum of the digits of B is at most 12.20 Find all integers a.25 ((UM)2C9 1992) If x. By the casting-out 9’s rule. prove that z cannot be a prime-power. Thus 44444444 = 44443(1481) · 4444 ≡ 1 · 7 ≡ 7 mod 9. so the sum of the digits of 44444444 is at most 9 · 17776 = 159984. Find the sum of the digits of B. we have 10 j ≡ 1 mod 9. Of all the natural numbers ≤ 45.2 Divisibility Tests Working base-ten. 3. 31 Problem 3. so it follows that B ≤ 45.1. . (A and B are written in decimal notation. Therefore n ≡ (−1)k ak + (−1)k−1 ak−1 + · · · − a1 + a0 mod 11. a2 . For let n = ak 10k + ak−1 10k−1 + · · · + a1 10 + a0. c. z are positive integers with xn + yn = zn for an odd integer n ≥ 3. n 2 (−1)i ai is divisible i=0 by x2 ± x + 1.) Solution: We have 4444 ≡ 7 mod 9.

Problem 3. then if we read these digits in the same How much did each chicken cost? direction beginning with any other digit. Problem 3.2.7 ((UM)2C8 1991) Suppose that a0 . Problem 3.2. Problem 3.2y.2. he Thus the last digit of a Fibonacci number recurs in cycles of takes one ﬁfth of the pile and goes back to sleep.2. a1 .9 (Lagrange) Prove that Problem 3. 2 divides 32. the new 1953-digit number is also divisible by 27. Prove that if the 1953-digit numbers obtained when we read Problem 3. 1952) Let Chapter 3 n f (x) = k=0 ak xn−k be a polynomial of degree n with integral coefﬁcients. Show that if 1 ≤ k ≤ n. Answer: 73 cents.3 Prove that a number is divisible by 2k . Suppose that x0 is a rational number such that p(x0 ) = 0. . one of them wakes up and decides to take his share. What . each throwing a coconut to the monkey and taking one ﬁfth of the remaining pile. It reads 88 chickens these digits in dextrogyral sense beginning with one of the digat the total of $x4. . prove that f (x) = 0 has no rational roots. . . its is divisible by 27. For example. . . Then 0 = bn f (a/b) = a0 bn + a1 bn−1 a + · · · + an−1 ban−1 + an an . whence a and b are both odd.1 (AHSME 1991) An n-digit integer is cute if its n digits are an arrangement of the set {1.32 86 Example (Putnam. After throwing a coconut to a monkey to make the division come out even.4 An old receipt has faded. By the relative primality of a and b it follows that a|a0 . an and f (1) are all odd. Practice Problem 3. is the smallest amount of coconuts that could have been in the original pile? Answer: 15621 Problem 3. How many cute sixdigit integers are there? Answer: 2.6 Prove that a number which consists of 3n identical digits is divisible by 3n . amongst themselves in the morning. Problem 3. and 3 divides 321. where a and b are relatively prime integers. one after the other. Problem 3. an are integers with an = 0.10 Prove that In the morning the ﬁve sailors throw a coconut to the monkey 2 2 f2n+1 ≡ fn+1 mod fn . then ak x0 + ak+1 x2 + · · · + anxn−k+1 0 is an integer. If a0 . 1 ≤ k ≤ n.2. and let p(x) = a0 + a1 x + · · · + anxn . mod 2. 2. where x and y are unreadable digits. and divide the remaining coconuts into ﬁve equal piles. n} and its ﬁrst k digits form an integer that is divisible by k for all k. During the night. 111 111 111 is divisible by 9. The other four length 60. Test whether 90908766123456789999872 is divisible by 8.2. b|an . sailors do likewise.2. For example.5 Five sailors plan to divide a pile of coconuts fn+60 ≡ fn mod 10.2. Solution: Suppose that f (a/b) = 0.8 1953 digits are written in a circular order.2 How many ways are there to roll two distinguishable dice to yield a sum that is divisible by three? Answer: 12.2. 321 is a cute three-digit number because 1 divides 3. .2. k ∈ N if and only if the number formed by its last k digits is divisible by 2k . Hence a0 bn + aabn−1 a + · · · + an−1ban−1 + anan ≡ a0 + a1 + · · · + an = f (1) ≡ 1 but this contradicts that a/b is a root of f .

e.1 Construct the addition tables for Z8 and Z9 . 1 represent all those integers that leave remainder 1 upon division by 3. this set will form a complete set of residues modulo n if and only if the set has n members and every member of the set is incongruent modulo n. We then deﬁne a +3 b to be equal to c. an is called a complete residue system modulo n if for every integer b there is exactly one index j such that b ≡ a j mod n. 2. but the set C = {−3. Table ?? contains all the possible additions. Similarly we deﬁne < Zn . 1. For example. 35} forms a complete residue set mod 6.2). As a further example we present the addition table for < Z6 ..3. +6 > on Table (1.3 Complete Residues The following concept will play a central role in our study of integers. 1. the set A = {0. 7.1: Addition Table for Z3 Table 3. Now. 15. We will explore later the multiplicative structure of Zn . let us take n = 3. +3 0 1 2 0 0 1 2 1 1 2 0 2 2 0 1 +6 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 2 3 4 5 0 2 2 3 4 5 0 1 3 3 4 5 0 1 2 4 4 5 0 1 2 3 5 5 0 1 2 3 4 Table 3. b) = (0. We denote the additive inverse of a by −a.Complete Residues 33 3.2: Addition Table for Z6 Tied up with the concept of complete residues is that of Zn . The element 0 ∈ Z3 is an identity element for Z3 . for all a. b. Given a. 2} such that a + b ≡ c mod 3. c ∈ Z3 we have a +3 (b +3 c) = (a +3 b) +3 c. as −3 ≡ 3 mod 6. −2. i. since any integer x is congruent to one and only one member of A . b ∈ Z3 we consider a + b mod 3. i. In Z3 we note that −0 = 0. . A set a1 . Every element a ∈ Z3 has an additive inverse b. and 2 all those integers that leave remainder 2 upon division by 3. We observe that Z3 together with the operation +3 as given in Table ?? satisﬁes the following properties: 1. Problem 3. 1. 3. that is. −1 = 2. 3. 6. +3 > forms a group and we call it the group of residues under addition mod 3. Practice Problem 3.3. Notice that the set B = {−40. 22. We then say that < Z3 . a2 . an element such that a +3 b = b +3 a = 0. It is clear that given any ﬁnite set of integers. 1. there is c ∈ {0. 0) are in Z12 such that a +12 b = 0? . . We now let 0 represent all those integers that are divisible by 3.2 How many distinct ordered pairs (a. 4. 2. −2 = 1. 3} does not. −1. 87 Deﬁnition If a ≡ b mod n then b is called a residue of a modulo n. . +n >. The operation addition in Z3 is associative. 0 satisﬁes 0 +3 a = a +3 0 = a for all a ∈ Z3 2.e. as the group of residues under addition mod n. 5} forms a complete set of residues mod 6. 2}. and consider the set Z3 = {0. As an example. We deﬁne addition in Z3 as follows.

Thus if d|a and d|b then d|(a. namely d. The theorem is thus proved. b is called the least common multiple of a and b. since c is a common multiple of both a and b. there are x0 . the smallest positive integer that is a multiple of a. This entails dq = a.e. Then r = a − dq = a(1 − qx0) − by0.Chapter 4 Unique Factorisation 4. then t|d. If r > 0. b) = 1. that is. b are not zero. Proof: As (a. by the Bachet-Bezout Theorem. d|b and that if t|a. From this it follows that a|c. gcd(1998. i. a contradiction. as wanted.e. Then a = tm. as both a. there are integers x. To do this we prove that d|a. then a|c. By the Well Ordering Principle. t|d. it must be divisible by the smallest common multiple of a and b.1 GCD and LCM If a. y ∈ Z}. there is an integer s with as = bc. x.. −6) = 2. because any common divisor of a and b must divide the largest common divisor of a and b. b) = ax + by. b are integers. b). b are relatively prime. y0 such that d = ax0 + by0 . Clearly one of ±a. b).t|b. Thus if a. (68.u 34 . 89 Lemma (Euclid’s Lemma) If a|bc and if (a. Assume that t|a. then r ∈ A is smaller than the smaller element of A . y with ax + by = 1. 0 ≤ r < d such that a = dq + r.t|b. b ∈ Z. not both zero. b) or sometimes by gcd(a. We ﬁrst prove that d|a. b]. d|a. b is divisible by (a. the largest positive integer that divides both a. Since a|bc. If a. there are integers x. y with (a. then [a. b). ±b is in A . b]|c. Thus r = 0. For example. r. b can be written as a linear combination of a and b. b is called the greatest common divisor of a and b. Proof: Let A = {ax + by|ax + by > 0. We prove that d = (a. b = tn for integers m. Hence d = ax0 + bx0 = t(mx0 + ny0 ). The most important theorem related to gcd’s is probably the following. Therefore. By the Division Algorithm. 88 Theorem (Bachet-Bezout Theorem) The greatest common divisor of any two integers a. not both zero. b) = 1. This is denoted by [a. We see then that if a|c and if b|c. i. This is denoted by (a. If (a. b). b) = 1. n. Then c = c · 1 = cax + cby = cax + asy. A has a smallest element. 1999) = 1. u It is clear that any linear combination of a. we can ﬁnd integers q. then they have no factor greater than 1 in common. we say that a and b are relatively prime or coprime. say d. We can similarly prove that d|b.

n) = (n. b)c) divides a and bc and hence gcd(a. b/d) divides this linear combination. 92 Lemma For nonzero integers a. b)2 . b/d) = 1. and hence By Theorem ??. In conclusion. n2 ) = (m2 . Thus cd2 is a common divisor of ca and cb and hence d1 |cd2 . i. Using the preceding problem again. b2 ) = (a. cb) = c(a. i. But then (a/d)x + (b/d)y = 1. which is what we wanted. n)m)n). As d2 |a and d2 |b. n) = 1. . this last quantity equals (m2 . there are integers x. b) (a. upon multiplying by (a. we deduce Ç b2 a2 . bc) = c(a. cd2 |d1 . c. b)c). (m2 . d d Proof: By the Bachet-Bezout Theorem. (a. Then (ca. n) = 1 implies (m2 . Proof: Since (a. But this is a linear combination of a/d. (m2 . n2 ) = 1. b) for any non-zero integer c. and a/d. Å b a . We prove that d1 |cd2 and cd2 |d1 . There is an integer s then such that sd2 = ax + by. As (m. We conclude that (a/d. b)2 . b)2 å = 1. (a. b)c it divides bc. b) ã = 1. u It follows similarly that (ca. b) = 1. (a2 . bc) divides a and c(a. (a.u 94 Example Let (a. b) and so it divides (a. (m2 . By the Bachet-Bezout Theorem we can ﬁnd integers x. Using the preceding lemma twice. hence it divides ac and bc. (a. b)c). b2 ) = (a. (n. Thus (m. bc) divides (ac. cb) = |c|(a. But ax + by is a linear combination of a. y such that ax + by = d. (a. n). On the other hand. b/d and so (a/d. It follows that d1 = csd2 .u 91 Theorem Let c be a positive integer. n)n) = (m2 . b)c) divides (a. Proof: Assume that (m. bc) = (a. a2 − ab + b2) = 1 or 3. b)2 . (m.. cb) and d2 = (a. b). y with d1 = acx + bcy = c(ax + by). b). ) = 1. b)2 (a. b). n) = 1. Thus gcd(a. then 35 a b ( . b/d are integers. (a. Therefore (a. Proof: Let d1 = (ca. divides 1. cd2 |cb.e. Prove that (a + b. b)c)| gcd(a. then cd2 |ca. n)m) = 1. (a.e. This ﬁnishes the proof. (a. By Theorem ??. (a.. (a. bc) divides a and bc. bc).GCD and LCM 90 Theorem If (a. b and so it is divisible by d2 . (m. b.u 93 Theorem (a2 . b) = d.

and 2m − 1 = kd. when in fact we have d ≤ m. n = 1. Thus d|( fn − fn−1 ) = fn−2 . an − 1). As td + 1 = ud − 1. d|3a2 . This means that any two terms of this progression are coprime. we must have d|2. 1985) The numbers in the sequence 101. n≥1 98 Example Prove that if m and n are natural numbers and m is odd. Therefore. 100 + (n + 1)2) = (100 + n2. Prove that Chapter 4 (am − 1.36 Solution: Let d = (a + b. . Suppose that d|(lm! + 1). The assertion is established. where t = k d . They cannot both be positive because then d ≥ m + n. l. d|(sm! + 1). a = 1. fn+1 ). 2n + 1). Find max dn . b2 ) = 3(a. an+1 ). since then d would be negative. As fn+1 − fn = fn−1 and d divides the sinistral side of this equality. . Notice that x and y must have opposite signs (they cannot obviously be both negative. . i. 100 Example Prove that any two consecutive Fibonacci numbers are relatively prime. 99 Example Prove that there are arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions in which the terms are pairwise relatively prime. Solution: The numbers km! + 1. . . an − 1) = a(m. 96 Example (IMO. Set t = (am − 1. n≥1 Solution: We have the following: dn = (100 + n2. . Hence d divides 3b(a + b) − 3ab = 3b2 . Thus the numerator and the denominator have no common factor greater than 1. Thus max dn = 401. then a200 = 100 + 2002 = 100(401) and a201 = 100 + 2012 = 40501 = 101(401). 2 Aliter: By Cassini’s Identity fn−1 fn+1 − fn = (−1)n . For each n let dn = (an . Therefore dn |(2(200−n)+(2n+1)) = 401. m.. . 1959) Prove that the fraction 21n + 4 is irreducible for every natural number n. . y ≤ 0. an − 1). Solution: Set d = (m. 3b2 ) = 3(a2 . So. Solution: Let d = (2m − 1. for some natural n−1 Ç å n n− j n− j−1 mn n numbers k. t|((amx − 1) − ad (a−ny − 1)) = ad − 1. Hence. Thus 1 ≤ d < m and so. Now. d ≤ n). 14n + 3 Solution: 2(21n + 4) − 3(14n + 3) = −1. Could it be that large? The answer is yes. But then d|(sm! + 1 − sm!) = 1. 100 + n2 + 2n + 1) = (100 + n2. . Thus dn |(2(100+n2)−n(2n+1)) = 200−n. by the Bachet-Bezout Theorem there are integers x. y with mx + ny = d. It follows that d must be an odd number. 2. In the same manner. k = 1. Then d|(s(lm! + 1) − l(sm! + 1)) = (s − l) < m. Now d divides (a + b)2 − a2 + ab − b2 = 3ab. Then t|(amx − 1) and t|(a−ny − 1). a2 − ab + b2). Then am − 1 = (ad )s − 1 is divisible by ad − 1 and similarly. assume without loss of generality that x > 0. d|m!. are of the form an = 100 + n2. d = 1. 1 ≤ l < s ≤ m.td = n. 95 Example Let a. m form an arithmetic progression of length m and common difference m!.e. This means that dn |401 for all n. 2n + 1) = 1. Similarly. n be positive integers. 97 Example (AIME. where we have used the fact that m is odd. Thus (ad − 1)|(am − 1. 116. 2n + 1). 2. . whence d = 1. Thus d|(−1)n . sd = m. 2 = (kd + 1) = td + 1. then (2m − 1. . for let n = 200. 104. 2n + 1 = ld. d| fn−1 . 109. an − 1 is divisible by ad − 1. n). 2mn = (ld − 1)m = j j=0 ud − 1.n) − 1. Iterating on this process we deduce that d| f1 = 1 and so d = 1. But then d|(3a2 . Solution: Let d = ( fn . b)2 = 3..

We will prove that c|d and d|c. fm )| fa . y > 0. If it were the case that ( fn .. . Thus they are of opposite signs. fn ) = ( f9 ..GCD and LCM 101 Example Prove that 37 ( fm . fn ). Observe that x. The case = 1 is a triviality. fn ) = f(9. which is what we wanted to prove. n).n) . n Ç åÇ å Ç å 2n 2n 2n . there are integers x. fn ) = f(n. Then (17. 102 Example Prove that no odd Fibonacci number is ever divisible by 17. As a|n. Hence ( fn . c = f(m.e. Since a|m and a|n. fm ). This means that d = (17. n+1 n Since 2n + 1 and n + 1 are relatively prime. a ≤ m. They cannot be both positive since then a = xm + yn ≥ m + n. then ( fn . Solution: Let d = (17. a|m we have a ≤ n. a = (m. it must be the case that n + 1 divides Ç å Ç å 2n + 1 2n + 1 2n = . 1 3 2n − 1 . 2 or 34. a contradiction.. fm )| fa f−xm+1 .n) = f1 . fm )| f−xm . y such that xm + yn = a. m|(−xm). fa | fm and fa | fn by Theorem ??. y cannot be both negative. Now. and since the dextral side is an integer. Solution: Set d = ( fn . fn ) = 1. Thus fa |( fm . fm )| fyn and ( fn . fm | f−xm . Solution: By the binomial absorption identity. i.m) . otherwise a would be negative. we have that fn | fyn .. Find the greatest common divisor of Ç å 2n . fm )| f−xm+1 . Ç å 2n 1 Cn = . fm )| f−xm . f3 or f9 . As n|yn. fm ) > 1. n+1 n n+1 104 Example Let n be a natural number. This implies that ( fn . a contradiction to the preceding problem in the case when ( fn . Therefore ( fn . fn ) = (34. which obviously must be odd. fm ). . Observe that fyn = fa−xm = fa−1 f−xm + fa f−xm+1 upon using the identity fs+t = fs−1 ft + fs ft+1 of Theorem ??. This forces d = 1. c|d. by the Bachet-Bezout Theorem. We saw earlier that ( fn . fm ) would be dividing two consecutive Fibonacci numbers.. 103 Example The Catalan number of order n is deﬁned as Prove that Cn is an integer for all natural numbers n. and we assume without loss of generality that x ≤ 0.

we may choose a = 2. Now. each of the summands being relatively prime.38 Solution: Since Chapter 4 å 2n = 22n−1. . If n = 4k. . If n is even. Solution: If n is odd. By the Inclusion-Exclusion Principle. Show that there are two that are relatively prime. 100}. where M is odd. etc. we see that it has divide 2l+1 . b = 2k − 1. then take a = 2k + 1. the problem amounts to ﬁnding those numbers less than 1260 which are not divisible by 2.2 Find lcm (23!41!. . Those two are relatively prime. 5. Since we are choosing ﬁfty one integers. 107 Example How many positive integers ≤ 1260 are relatively prime to 1260? Solution: As 1260 = 22 · 32 · 5 · 7. b)[a. Let A denote the set of integers ≤ 1260 which are multiples of 2. {3. 2.. k > 1 take a = 2k + 3. {99. Problem 4. as consecutive integers are relatively prime.1 Show that (a. We may write n = 2l m. n Ç Solution: Arrange the 100 integers into the 50 sets {1. 2}. . We claim that 2l+1 divides all of them. |A ∪ B ∪C ∪ D| = |A| + |B| + |C| + |D| −|A ∩ B| − |A ∩C| − |A ∩ D| −|B ∩C| − |B ∩ D| − |C ∩ D| +|A ∩ B ∩C| + |A ∩ B ∩ D| + |A ∩C∩ D| +|B ∩C ∩ D| − |A ∩ B ∩C ∩ D| 630 + 420 + 252 + 180 − 210 − 126 − 90 − 84 −60 − 36 + 42 + 30 + 18 + 12 − 6 = 972. 106 Example Prove that any natural number n > 6 can be written as the sum of two integers greater than 1.1. 2k − 1 k=1 Ç å 2n a the gcd must be of the form 2 . b.1. . These two are clearly relatively prime (why?). 6} . Ç å Ç å 2l+1 m 2l+1 m 2l+1 m − 1 = . Practice Problem 4. 4}. 100. 29!37!). b = 2k − 1. . there must be two that will lie in the same set. . then is either of the form 4k or 4k + 2. or 7. Since the gcd must divide = 2n. 2k − 1 2k − 1 2k − 2 But 2k − 1 |2l+1 for k > 1. 105 Example Let any ﬁfty one integers be taken from amongst the numbers 1. b = n − 2. where l is the largest 1 power of 2 that divides n. If n = 4k + 2. = The number of integers sought is then 1260 − 972 = 288. B the set of multiples of 3. {5. 3. b] = ab for all natural numbers a. This establishes the claim.

b ∈ N. .16 Prove that the binomial coefﬁcients have the tive integers there are three whose product is divisible following hexagonal property: by abc.13 Demonstrate that (n! + 1. 16n + 10n − 1. .1. and lcm (a.1. If a. Problem 4.5 Prove that (a. b such that a2 + b2 = 85113. n = 1. Clearly 2 is the only even prime and so 2 and 3 are the only consecutive integers which are prime.6 Let a ∈ N. . .1. b ∈ N with (a. Prove that gcd(an .3 Find two positive integers a.11 Let Fn = 22 + 1 be the n-th Fermat number.1. (n + 1)! + 1) = 1.15 Prove that there are no positive integers a. k. a < b. Problem 4. c. What is the largest number of elements in any conspiratorial subset of the integers 1 through 16? 4.1. n ∈ N. .8 Let the integers an .. b) = 1764.17 (Putnam. b.9 Prove or disprove the following two proposi. 2. (an − bn)|(an + bn ). (Hint: Consider n mod 12.4 Find a. Problem 4. a. n Problem 4. Problem 4. bn be deﬁned by the relation √ √ an + bn 2 = (1 + 2)n . Problem 4.1. [a. with proof. Find (Fn .1.1. ÇÇ åÇ åÇ åå n−1 n n+1 gcd . 7n3 + 18n2 − n − 2) = 1. Prove that the greatest common divisor of the numbers Ç åÇ å Ç å equals n n+1 n+k ÇÇ åÇ åÇ åå . . Write two of the summands in the form 6k + s and the third summand as a constant.Problem 4. Fm ). (Hint: Prove k j=0 Ç åÇ å k n+ j (−1) j = (−1)k . 1974) Call a set of integers conspiratorial if no three of them are pairwise relatively prime.1. n > 1 with tions: 1. then in any set of b consecutive integers there are two whose product is divisible by ab. 2. 108 Theorem If n > 1. then n is divisible by at least one prime. If a. a < b < c. An integer different from 1 which is not prime is called composite.1.1. b) = 12. 1 < a ≤ b < n. Find. b] = 432.Problem 4. . c are pairwise relatively prime natural numbers each exceeding 1. k k k n−1 n+1 n gcd ..14 Prove that any natural number n > 17 can be written as n = a + b + c where a. It is clear that if n > 1 is composite then we can write n as n = ab.2 Primes Recall that a prime number is a positive integer greater than 1 whose only positive divisors are itself and 1.1.10 Let n. Problem 4.. k−1 k+1 k Problem 4.) Problem 4. bn ) for all natural Problem 4. n ≥ k > 0 be integers. .12 Find the greatest common divisor of the sequence numbers n. bn ) = 1 ∀ n.7 Show that (n3 + 3n + 1. b.) j k Problem 4. 39 Problem 4. then in any set of c consecu. all b ∈ N such that (2b − 1)|(2a + 1). b. . b ∈ N. k k+1 k−1 is 1.1.1..1. ∈ N. b)n = (an .Primes Problem 4.

Proof: Any prime either equals 2. a contradiction. .. |A5 | = . it must have a prime divisor p. 5. which contradicts the minimality of q. p2 . . that the set of primes is inﬁnite. Let {p1 . Since each pk is ≥ 3. . If both a and b are > n. We claim that q is prime. Construct the integer n = p1 p2 · · · pk + 1. .u 109 Theorem (Euclid) There are inﬁnitely many primes. Let Am denote the multiples of M which are ≤ 100. and hence a prime factor. By the Well Ordering Principle. 3. k ≥ 2. for the product of any two primes of this form is again of this form. √ √ √ Proof: Suppose that n = ab. pk be a list of primes. Then |A2 | = 50. . i. Now either N is a prime. or it is a product of primes. in view of the preceding problem. |A3 | = 33. Construct the number N = 4p1 p2 · · · pn − 1. But then a is a divisor of n greater than 1 and smaller than q. it has at least one divisor > 1. all the composite numbers in the range 10 ≤ n ≤ 100 have a prime factor amongst 2. . Then each of the numbers k! + 2. .e. Proof: Let p1 . . √ Solution: Observe that 100 = 10. We will show that the collection of primes of the form 4k − 1 is inexhaustible.u 111 Theorem There are inﬁnitely many primes of the form 4n + 3. p2 . In the latter case. p2 . or 7.u 110 Lemma The product of two numbers of the form 4k + 1 is again of that form. Thus N must be divisible by some prime of the form 4k − 1 not on the list. Observe that p must be different from any of p1 . 1√ a ≤ b < n. We have thus shown that given any ﬁnite list of primes of the form 4k − 1 we can always construct an integer which is divisible by some prime of the form 4k − 1 not on that list. . 113 Theorem If the positive integer n is composite. .40 Chapter 4 Proof: Since n > 1. pk since n leaves remainder 1 upon division by any of the pi . Solution: Let k ∈ N. Proof: (4a + 1)(4b + 1) = 4(4ab + a + b) + 1. say q. k! + k is composite. Thus we have shown that no ﬁnite list of primes exhausts the set of primes. . The assertion follows. . u 112 Example Prove that there are arbitrarily long strings that do not contain a prime number. 1 < a ≤ b < q. N ≥ 11. u 114 Example Find the number of prime numbers ≤ 100. or is of the form 4k ± 1.. pn } be any ﬁnite collection of primes of the form 4k − 1. Observe that N is not divisible by any of the primes in our collection. then n = ab > n n = n. This integer is greater than 1 and so by the preceding problem. . then it must have a prime factor p with p ≤ √ n. For if not then we can write q as q = ab. By the preceding theorem. all of the prime factors of N cannot be of the form 4k + 1. which is ≤ n. n must have a least positive divisor greater than 1. in which case it is a prime of the form 4k − 1 not on the list. < √ Thus n has a factor = 1 and ≤ n.

n ∈ Z.2. By Euclid’s Lemma. 2. Practice Problem 4. or 7 ≤ 100 − 1 4 + 100 − (50 + 33 + 20 + 14) + (16 + 10 + 7 + 6 + 4 + 2) −(3 + 2 + 1 + 0) − 0 − 1 25. p + 2. Prove Fermat’s Little Theorem: if p |n. p |k!. Problem 4. |A21 | = 4. Prove. Prove that Å ã necessarily distinct) primes. |A30 | = 3. Problem 4. |A7 | = 14. Problem 4. Prove that 42|n7 − n.5 Let p be an odd prime and let (a.Practice 41 20. 5. 5. Ç å p 115 Lemma If p is a prime. Extend this result to all n ∈ Z. Thus the number of primes ≤ 100 is = = = = 100 − ( number of composites ≤ 1) − 1 4 + 100 − multiples of 2. 3. . |A70 | = 1. n ∈ Z. k Proof: Ç å p p(p − 1) · · ·(p − k + 1) = k! k yields 116 Example Prove that if p is a prime. |A10 | = 10.2. then p divides 2 p − 2.2. 7 is the only prime triplet of the form p. |A105 | = 0. |A35 | = 2. is divisible by p for all 0 < k < p. 1 2 p−1 p p Ç å Ç å p p as = = 1. because 1 is neither prime nor composite. |A6| = 16. that p|(n p − n). then p|(n p−1 − 1). prove that the prime factorisation of p + q has at least three (not Problem 4. |A210 | = 0.1 Prove that there are inﬁnitely many primes of the form 6n + 5. divides p. it must be the case that p| . Let p be a prime and let n ∈ N.2. |A42 | = 2.u k k Ç å p k! = p(p − 1) · · ·(p − k + 1). 4. |A15 | = 6. |A14 | = 7.2. b) = 1.2 Use the preceding problem to show that there are inﬁnitely many primes p such that p − 2 is not a prime. by induction on n.3 If p and q are consecutive odd primes. This establishes 0 p the assertion.2. ap + bp a + b.6 Prove that 3. By the preceding lemma. Now. p + 4.4 1. where we have subtracted the 1. Ç å Ç å p p whence p|k! . 3. a+b Problem 4. p divides each of the terms on the dextral side of the above. as k < p. k Solution: By the Binomial Theorem: Ç å Ç å Ç å p p p 2 − 2 = (1 + 1) − 2 = + + ··· + . Prove that 30|n5 − n. 5.

b) = p1 and also [a. If n is a prime. ak > 0. the canonical factorisation of n. . 118 Theorem (Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic) Every integer > 1 can be represented as a product of primes in only a p1 < p2 < · · · < pk . Assume that n is composite and let q1 be its least proper divisor.b1 ) min(a2 . Eventually we then have n = q1 q2 · · · qs .2) we conclude that every p must be a q and every q must be a p.5. u a It is easily seen. 111 is also divisible by 3 and so we obtain 1332 = 2 · 2 · 3 · 3 · 37. then the other is composite. By Euclid’s Lemma (example 1. q1 is a prime. .3 Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic Consider the integer 1332. Similarly. Also. . u We may arrange the prime factorisation obtained in the preceding Theorem as follows. y) + min(x. 1 < n2 < n1 < n.7 Let n > 2. assume that n1 is composite. 117 Theorem Every integer greater than 1 is a product of prime numbers. and this process must stop before n steps. We call the preceding factorisation of n. b)[a. We can write then n = q1 q2 n2 . We will show now that such decomposition is always possible for a positive integer greater than 1. Proof: We prove that a positive integer greater than 1 can only have one canonical factorisation. then we arrived at the result.2. 1 2 where the p j are primes. apart from the order of the factors. upon dividing by p j j . a2 > 0. from p1 < p2 < · · · < ps and q1 < q2 < · · · < qt we conclude that p j = q j . If n1 is a prime. it clearly follows that ab = (a. and let q2 be its least prime divisor. Continuing the argument. 666 is clearly divisible by 6. 1 < n1 < n. 1 ≤ j ≤ s. Otherwise. Proof: Let n > 1. n = pa1 pa2 · · · pk k .b ) p2 · · · pn n n .b2 ) min(a . (it may be the case that some of the ak and some of the bk are zero) then n (a.1) max(a1 . b]. This ﬁnishes the proof. b] = p1 min(a1 .5. By Theorem 4. 4. If a j > b j for some j then. Now. then we have nothing to prove. a1 > 0. as the sinistral side is divisible by p j and the dextral side is not. by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic.b2 ) max(an . s s 1 2 b b b which is impossible. (4. Assume that n = pa1 pa2 · · · pas = qb1 qb2 · · · qtbt s 1 2 1 2 are two canonical factorisations of n. Finally. the alternative a j < b j for some j is ruled out and so a j = b j for all j.42 Chapter 4 Problem 4. and so 1332 = 2 · 2 · 3 · 111. (4.bn ) p2 · · · pn . . This implies that s = t. as all 2. 3. as guaranteed by Theorem 4. that if a has the prime factorisation a = p11 pa2 · · · pan and b n 2 b1 b2 has the prime factorisation b = p1 p2 · · · pbn . we obtain p a1 p a2 · · · p j j 1 2 a −b j j−1 j+1 · · · pas = pb1 pb2 · · · p j−1 p j+1 · · · pbs . as n is a positive integer. It is clearly divisible by 2 and so we obtain 1332 = 2 · 666. we arrive at a chain n > n1 > n2 · · · > 1.b1 ) max(a2 . one way. We cannot further decompose 1332 as a product of positive integers greater than 1. Set n = q1 n1 . Prove that if one of the numbers 2n − 1 and 2n + 1 is prime. For example 23 32 52 73 is the canonical factorisation of 617400.2) Since x + y = max(x. . y). 37 are prime.

by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. Assume that there is an integer M with p(m) = 14. a perfect square or a perfect cube. Solution: Observe that m5 + 3m4 n − 5m3n2 − 15m2n3 + 4mn4 + 12n5 = (m − 2n)(m − n)(m + n)(m + 2n)(m + 3n). and 33 is clearly not a ﬁfth power.. 122 Example Prove that m5 + 3m4 n − 5m3n2 − 15m2n3 + 4mn4 + 12n5 is never equal to 33. as 33 is the product of 4 different factors and the expression above is the product of 5 different factors for n = 0. the product of the factors is m5 . Then 2b2 = a2 . If n = 0.Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic 119 Example Prove that 43 √ 2 is irrational. Assume that p(ak ) − 7 = 0 for distinct ak . This contradicts the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. and P the product of all the odd natural numbers not exceeding n. by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. Then p(x) − 7 = (x − a1)(x − a2 )(x − a3 )(x − a4 )q(x) for a polynomial q with integer coefﬁcients. This is impossible. we have decomposed the integer 7 into at least four different factors. n2 − 1 and n2 would be consecutive perfect kth powers. n2 − 1 is a perfect kth power (k ≥ 2) and n is also a perfect kth power. the factors in the above product are all different. √ Solution: Assume that 2 = a/b with relatively prime natural numbers a. The 1 number 2k−1 PS is a sum.. Solution: Let k be the largest integer such that 2k ≤ n. except for 2k−1 P k . The sinistral side of this last equality has an odd number of prime factors (including repetitions). . 123 Example Prove that the sum S = 1/2 + 1/3 + 1/4 + · · ·+ 1/n is never an integer. Since n2 −1 and n are relatively prime. Since the factors m − ak are all distinct. Solution: Let the integer be (n −1)n(n + 1) = (n2 −1)n. b.). 33 can be decomposed as the product of at most four different integers 33 = (−11)(3)(1)(−1). 2 124 Example Prove that there is exactly one natural number n for with 28 + 211 + 2n is a perfect square. They cannot be multiply to 33. Then 7 = p(m) − 7 = (m − a1 )(m − a2)(m − a3 )(m − a4 )q(m). by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic.e. etc. Solution: First observe that the integer 7 can be decomposed into at most three different integer factors 7 = −7(1)(−1). 120 Example Prove that if the polynomial p(x) = a0 xn + a1 xn−1 + · · · + an−1x + an with integral coefﬁcients assumes the value 7 for four integral values of x. If n = 0. 1 ≤ k ≤ 4. then it cannot take the value 14 for any integral value of x. are integers. But then. all whose terms. whereas the dextral side has an even number of prime factors. sheer nonsense. Now. 121 Example Prove that the product of three consecutive integers is never a perfect power (i.

odd) is one such class. we may assume. γk ) − max(αk . we will have two different ones whose product is a square. a perfect square. The assertion is equivalent to showing 2 max(αk . and thus the smaller will divide the larger. a fourth power. a] (a. with primes pk . . even. Now.t − s = 2. n = 736. b. k − 48 = 2s . Thus if we gather 513 of these numbers.44 Chapter 4 Solution: If k2 = 28 + 211 + 2n = 2304 + 2n = 482 + 2n . . k + 48 = 2t . i = j. βk ) − max(αk . 2 From the 1981 integers remaining. such that ci c j = a2 . we are able to gather 737 pairs ak . βk ) − min(αk . Since there are only ﬁfty odd integers between 1 and 100. γk ) − min(βk . s + t = n. From the 1983 integers remaining. 23}. Solution: Any of the ﬁfty one integers can be written in the form 2a m. according to the parity of the components. Thus two (at least) of the integers chosen must share the same odd part. 1 Delete this pair. Thus we may perform this operation n + 1 times. βk . These vectors come in 32 different ﬂavours. γk ) − min(αk . Thus we have found four distinct numbers in our set whose product is a fourth power. we associate a vector (a. odd. f ). Therefore. s = 5. b = pk k . Delete this pair. 13. c]2 = . giving s + t = n = 12. The equation to be established reduces thus to the identity 2αk − αk − αk − βk = 2γk − βk − γk − γk . 1985) Given a set M of 1985 distinct positive integers. without loss of generality. odd. . that αk ≥ βk ≥ γk . b)(b. c][c. we may ﬁnd two distinct cm say ci and c j . the 737 numbers k ck have all their prime factors smaller than 26. Show that there must be one that divides some other. 128 Example (USAMO 1972) Prove that (a. there are only ﬁfty possibilities for m. By symmetry. For example (even. Thus to each number in the set. none with a prime factor greater than 26. γk ). were n is the largest positive integer such that 1985 − 2n ≥ 513. c. βk . b. 2. and since 737 > 513. then k2 − 482 = (k − 48)(k + 48) = 2n .e. Since we have 1985 > 513 numbers. we can ﬁnd a pair a3 . we can ﬁnd a pair of distinct a1 . Start weeding out squares. bk such that ak bk = c2 .. b][b. and the product of these two will be a square. c)(c. Solution: Any number in our set is going to have the form 5a 7b 11c 13d 23 f . 125 Example Prove that in any set of 33 distinct integers with prime factors amongst {5. γk ) = 2 min(αk . 127 Example Let any ﬁfty one integers be taken from amongst the numbers 1. 11. i. By unique factorisation. b3 such that a3 b3 = c2 . Since we have 33 integers. 126 Example (IMO. b2 such that a2 b2 = c2 . [a. By unique factorisation. c = pkk . c)2 [a. there must be two whose product is a square. But then ci c j = a2 implies that ai bi a j b j = a4 . d. . where m is odd. 100. 7. . b. prove that M contains a subset of four distinct elements whose product is the fourth power of an integer. b1 such that a1 b1 = c2 . two (at least) will have the same parity in their exponents. a) Solution: Put a= α β γ pk k . γk ) − max(βk . we can ﬁnd a pair of distinct a2 . We can continue this operation as long as 3 we have at least 513 integers. Solution: Any number in our set is going to be of the form 2a 3b 5c 7d 11 f 13g 17h 19 j 23k . But then 2t − 2s = 96 = 3 · 25 or 2s (2t−s − 1) = 3 · 25 .

and let k j be the √ √ √ k k +1 k +1 unique integers such that p j j ≤ n < p j j . . Moreover. n+1 . or [a1 . consider a1 = 2t1 A1 . d] = [c. 4. give 2k − 1 > n positive integers. 1 ≤ a ≤ 45 √ n. where k > a1 + a j = ar is soluble. pl be all the primes ≤ n. By hypothesis. Thus either [a1 . There are r = 6r2 ways 2 . . at least one of the integers is common to both sets. then 3a1 = 2t1 3A1 ≤ 2n. These contradictions establish the assertion. c. . d) such that 3r 7s = [a. 2. they coincide in some order with the set of all positive odd numbers less than 2n. By inspection. 3A1 = A j for some j. √ √ Solution: Suppose n is divisible by all the integers ≤ n. a j ] = 2t j 3A1 = a j ≤ 2n. and 3A1 < 2n. b. . Prove that this is possible if and only if n is a power of 2. S = l + (l + 1) + . Prove that a1 > 2n . if we take m = (s + 2k+1 − 1)/2 and l= ® 1 + m − 2k+1. . Ak odd. p2 = 3. 1 2 k k +1 Clearly then K = pk1 pk2 · · · pl l . c. together with the k given distinct a’s. n ) = K. each of a. a. Hence pk1 +1 pk2 +1 · · · pl l ≤ K 2 and thus nl/2 < K 2 . 0 ≤ n ≤ s. . since. . which has one factor even and one factor odd. 1 + m − s. Since there are n of them. we see that the only valid values for n are n = 2. d. 3 Solution: It is clear that no one of the numbers can divide another (otherwise we would have an lcm ≤ 2n). n − 1. If a1 ≤ 2n/3 . . . 12. This implies that l < 4 and so n < 49. 6. n/2 + 2. writing ak = 2tk Ak . . 2S = (l + m)(m − l + 1). Prove that 2 131 Example Let 0 < a1 < a2 < · · · < ak ≤ n. 133 Example (Putnam. + m is never divisible by n. 24. b]. 130 Example (Irving Kaplansky) A positive integer n has the property that for 0 < l < m < n. Solution: Set n = s2k with s odd. a j ] = 2t1 3A1 = 3a1 ≤ 2n. c. b. be integers. These. 0 ≤ m ≤ r. are clearly distinct. we see that all the Ak are different. n. Clearly nl/2 < pk1 +1 pk2 +1 · · · pl l . so that at least once ar − a1 = a j . b. Solution: The k − 1 positive integers ai − a1. n must be divisible by K 1 2 1 2 and so K ≤ n. 2 ≤ i ≤ k. Since 3A1 would then be an odd number < 2n. cannot be divisible by 2n = 2k+1 . with 0 < l < m < n. s < 2k+1 . each not greater than n. 1980) Derive a formula for the number of quadruples (a. c] = [b.. Consequently. Hence. The sequence n/2 + 1. a] = [d.Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic 129 Example Prove that n = 24 is the largest natural number divisible by all integral a. Solution: By unique factorisation. Let lcm(1. But if s > 1. and a j = 2t j 3A1 . . Hence. Now. nl/2 < n2 . and n must equal s for at least two of the four numbers. Let p1 = 2. shows that for k = (n + 1)/2 the result is false. 3. then S is divisible by n. 8. If s = 1. d must be of the form 3m 7n . s > 2k+1 . 132 Example Let 0 < a1 < a2 < · · · < an ≤ 2n be integers such that the least common multiple of any two exceeds 2n. . . M must equal Ç å 4 2 r for at least two of the four numbers. its even factor is less than 2n.

1 Prove that log10 7 is irrational. Answer: t (1 + min(ak .3. . There is a j. 5. Factorisations differing in order are considered the same. Find the number of the common factors of m and n. p2 . .46 Chapter 4 Ç å 4 of choosing exactly two of the four numbers to have exponent r. c] = [a. at be natural numbers. for which p j > n − j + 1.4 How many integers from 1 to 1020 inclusive.3. . . pt be different primes and Problem 4. c] = 2000. then t is prime. pn fail to divide t p1 p2 · · · ps−1 − 1. Practice Problem 4. Answer: 2t−1 − 1.3.3. Problem 4. 1. . n+1 Problem 4. (Hint: Look at the largest power of 3 ≤ n). 1 ≤ k≤ j 2. 3.3. Thus there is a total of 1 + 4r + 6r2 of choosing at least two of the 4 four numbers to have exponent r. Problem 4. Each pi .3. .2 Prove that log 3 log 2 is irrational.10 Let n = pa1 pa2 · · · ptat and m = pb1 pb2 · · · ptbt . divides at most one of the N pk . Factorisations differing in order are considered the same. b] = 1000. Problem 4. or perfect ﬁfth powers? Problem 4.3. . there are 1 + 4s + 6s2 ways of choosing at least two of the four numbers to have exponent s.5 Prove that the sum 1/3 + 1/5 + 1/7 + · · ·+ 1/(2n + 1) is never an integer. j ≤ i ≤ n.3. Similarly. r = 4r ways of choosing exactly three to have exponent 3 Ç å 4 r and = 1 of choosing the four to have exponent r. c) of positive integers for which [a. and Prove N p j = p j p1 p2 · · · p j−1 − 1 (Hint: Why is 36k − 1 − 5k = 0?) Problem 4. such that all of p1 . Let s be the smallest j for which p j > n − j + 1. . Problem 4. .3. . and hence pn+1 < p1 p2 · · · ps . Find the number of ways of following property: if 1 ≤ t ≤ n and (t.11 (USAMO 1973) Show that the cube roots of three distinct prime numbers cannot be three terms (not necessarily consecutive) of an arithmetic progression. N2 = 2p1 p2 · · · p j−1 − 1.3. [b. 1 ≤ t ≤ ps . k≥1 factoring pa1 pa2 · · · ptat as the product of two positive relatively 1 2 prime factors each greater than 1.3 Find the smallest positive integer such that n/2 is a square and n/3 is a cube. 1 < j < n.9 Let p1 . The required formula is thus (1 + 4r + 6r2)(1 + 4s + 6s2). .13 Prove that 30 is the only integer n with the a1 . n) = 1. . Problem 4.3. perfect cubes. p2 < p1 · · · pn . . Problem 4.8 Find the number of ways of factoring 1332 as the product of two positive relatively prime factors each greater than 1. are not perfect squares. k=1 Problem 4. The s above is > 4 and so ps−1 − 2 ≥ s and p1 p2 · · · ps < ps+1 · · · pn . (Bonse’s Inequality) For n ≥ 4. . 3 = p2 .12 Let 2 = p1 .3.7 (AIME 1987) Find the number of ordered triples (a. Problem 4. Set N1 = p1 p2 · · · p j−1 − 1. . 1 2 1 2 the p’s being different primes.3. b. . 4. a2 . Answer: 3. be the primes in their natural order and suppose that n ≥ 10 and that 1 < j < n. bk )).6 Find min 36k − 5k . . There is a t.

.3. prove that if |a + b 2 + c 3| > 10−21 . a2 . whose sum. xn each of which √ √ is equal to ±1. triplet of integers (a. . whose difference. it is alinteger. Problem 4. 0) for which √ √ Problem 4. one |a + b 2 + c 3| < 10−11 . . c).20 Given n numbers x1 .3. Is there an inﬁnite set S of distinct positive integers such that the geometric mean of any ﬁnite subset of S is an Problem 4. number) whose sum is divisible by 100. not all zero and each of absolute value less than a million.15 1. . such that Problem 4. . Prove that Problem 4. n. the x1 x2 + x2 x3 + · · · + xn x1 = 0. .16 (E˝ tv˝ s 1906) Let a1 . . .17 Prove that from any sequence formed by arranging in a certain way the numbers from 1 to 101.3. (Putnam 1980) Let a. For which positive product integers n is there a ﬁnite set Sn of n distinct positive (a1 − 1)(a2 − 2) · · · (an − n) integers such that the geometric mean of any subset of is an even number. 3. divisible by 100.18 Prove that from any ﬁfty two integers it is ala + b 2 + c 3 = 0. (Putnam 1955) Prove that there is no increasing or a decreasing sequence. x2 .14 (USAMO 1984) 1. Prove that if n is odd. c) = (0. Sn is an integer? 47 2. or else.Practice Problem 4. except for (a. . (Putnam 1980) Prove that there exist integers a. . b.3. . an be any pero o mutation of the numbers 1. not all zero and each of absolute value less than a million. . b. . 2.3. c be integers. is 2.3. c. then n is a multiple of 4. ways to choose two. b. b.19 Prove that from any one hundred integers it √ √ is always possible to choose several numbers (or perhaps.3. ways possible to choose 11 numbers (which must not necessarily be consecutive members of the sequence) which form an Problem 4. 0.

246) = (158. b) = (b. (88. r3 ) = · · · = (rn−1 . b). . 246) = (158. b. As d|a. Hence (3456. r2 ) = (r2 . . Proof: Set d = (a. r2 q2 + r3 r3 q3 + r4 . 0 < r3 < r2 . then (a. by the preceding example. It is called the Euclidean Algorithm and it is described as follows. . 0 < rn < rn−1 .Chapter 5 Linear Diophantine Equations 5. 16) = 2. to be proved below. On the other hand. c|b imply that c|((a + nb) − nb) = a. 48 . (158. 88) = (18.1 Euclidean Algorithm We now examine a procedure that avoids factorising two integers in order to obtain their greatest common divisor. r3 . 136 Theorem If rn is the last non-zero remainder found in the process of the Euclidean Algorithm. we ﬁnd the sequence of equalities a b r2 . Now. c = (a + nb. . This completes the proof. it follows that d|(a + nb). Finally. . The Euclidean Algorithm rests on the fact. d|b. 246). After using the Division Algorithm repeatedly. n are positive integers. then rn = (a. Thus c is a common divisor of a and b. r2 . 246) = (13 · 246 + 158. b). 70) = (16. c|(a + nb). . rn−2 rn−1 = = = . (5. b be positive integers. since b. 0 < r2 < b. 0 < r4 < r3 . u 135 Example Use Theorem ?? to ﬁnd (3456. rn ) = rn . 18) = (2. . b). . implying that c|d. b). . = = bq1 + r2 . is a monotonically decreasing sequence of integers. b) = (a + nb. . rn−1 qn−1 + rn rn qn . Thus d is a common divisor of both (a + nb) and b. 246). . that (a. Solution: (3456. 158). .1) The sequence of remainders will eventually reach a rn+1 which will be zero. and cannot contain more than b positive terms. 134 Theorem Prove that if a. 158) = (70. Let a. 158 + 88) = (88. 246) = 2. This implies that d|c.

r|r3 . 23(−35) + 29(28) = 7. . u 137 Example Find (23. 29) = 1. rn = = = . Solution: We work upwards. rn |a. rn−2 − rn−1 qn−1 49 Let r = (a.Euclidean Algorithm Proof: From equations ?? r2 r3 r4 . rn |rn−2 . . 23 = 3 · 6 + 5. Upon iterating the process. 138 Example Find integers x. 29) by means of the Euclidean Algorithm. Solution: We have 29 = 1 · 23 + 6. The last non-zero remainder is 1. . From the ﬁrst equation. b). with x = −5. 139 Example Find integer solutions to 5 = 23 − 3 · 6. starting from the penultimate equality in the preceding problem: 1 = 6 − 1 · 5. . thus (23. . which solves the problem. we see that r|rn . rn |b. An equation which requires integer solutions is called a diophantine equation. . This gives the desired result. . Thus rn is a common divisor of a and b and so rn |(a. we see that rn |rn−1 . But starting at the last equation ?? and working up. r|r2 . 6 = 1 · 5 + 1. . Multiplying both sides of this equality by 7. b). 23(−5) + 29(4) = 1. y = 4. The Euclidean Algorithm is an efﬁcient means to ﬁnd a solution to this equation. 6 = 29 · 1 − 23. 1 = = = = = This solves the equation. 23x + 29y = 7. we see that the linear diophantine equation ax + by = c has a solution in integers if and only if (a. rn |r2 . Solution: From the preceding example. By the Bachet-Bezout Theorem. y that satisfy the linear diophantine equation 23x + 29y = 1. From the second equation. = a − bq1 b − r2q2 r2 − r3 q3 . b)|c. 5 = 5 · 1. Hence. 6−1·5 6 − 1 · (23 − 3 · 6) 4 · 6 − 1 · 23 4(29 · 1 − 23) − 1 · 23 4 · 29 − 5 · 23. . .

b) and t ∈ Z. we have a(x′ − x0 ) = b(y0 − y′ ). (34567. Solution: By inspection. Let us prove that any solution will have this form. a a |(y0 − y′ ).1. We can ﬁnd a family of solutions by letting x = −5 + 29t. 3456(−1) + 246(15) = 234.50 140 Example Find inﬁnitely many integer solutions to Chapter 5 23x + 29y = 1.t ∈ Z. b). Let (x′ . From this b a a ′ (x − x0 ) = t . 246) = 2 and 2 |73. d d Since (a/d. t ∈ Z. y = 15 − 1728t. By Theorem ??. Then given any solution (x0 . y such that 3456x + 246y = 73? Solution: No. then x = x0 + tb/d. (560. As ax0 + by0 = c also. y = y0 − t . d d where d = (a. b. (4554. b/d) = 1. provided solutions exist: 4. 36) Problem 5. y = y0 − ta/d. Thus there is an integer t such that t = y0 − y′ . a ′ b (x − x0 ) = (y0 − y′ ).2 Solve the following linear diophantine equations. y0 ) is a solution of ax + by = c. 8173826342) . 600) 3. Proof: It is clear that if (x0 . Solution: By Example ??. This ﬁnishes the proof. y = 4 − 23t. all the solutions are given by x = −1 + 123t. y0 ) of the linear diophantine equation ax + by = c any other solution of this equation will have the form b a x = x0 + t . the pair x0 = −5. Practice Problem 5. 142 Theorem Assume that a. 141 Example Can you ﬁnd integers x. in virtue of Euclid’s Lemma. u 143 Example Find all solutions in integers to 3456x + 246y = 234. (3456. 987) 2.1 Find the following: 1. y0 = 4 is a solution. c are integers such that (a. Dividing by d = (a. b)|c. y′ ) satisfy ax′ + by′ = c. (8098643070. d d d which is to say x′ = x0 + tb/d. d d that is. y = y0 − ta/d is also a solution.1.

then there are d incongruent solutions mod n. If the congruence ax ≡ b mod n has a solution. 1. ((a. Letting t take on the values t = 0. 1 2 which gives 1 = 5 − 2 · 2 = 5 − 2(7 − 5 · 1) = 5 · 3 − 7 · 2. It is clear then that the congruence ax ≡ b mod n has a solution if and only if (a. y0 satisfy ax0 + ny = b. (b. 3x ≡ 6 mod 12. 0). y = y0 − at/d. 3456x + 246y = 44 3. By the Euclidean Algorithm 7 = 5 = 2 = Hence. Thus x ≡ 2 mod 7. 146 Example Solve the congruence 5·1+2 2·2+1 2 · 1. 2 51 Problem 5.69 and each egg costs $0.4 A woman pays $2. ax ≡ b mod n is soluble if and only if the linear diophantine equation ax + ny = b is soluble. We ﬁrst solve the linear diophantine equation 5x + 7y = 1.u 145 Example Find all solutions to the congruence 5x ≡ 3 mod 7 Solution: Notice that according to Theorem ??. Thus if there is a solution to the congruence. there should only be one solution mod 7. Hence. 1998x + 2000y = 33 Problem 5. Then x = = ≡ x0 + n(qd + r)/d x0 + nq + nr/d x0 + nr/d mod n. then it has (a. b.78 for some bananas and eggs. a). how many eggs and how many bananas did the woman buy? 5. n) − 1). n) mutually incongruent solutions.t ∈ Z. n) incongruent solutions mod n. n be integers. 144 Theorem Let a. 0 ≤ r < d. the congruencial equation in x. where x0 . n)|b. we obtain (a.35.1. . Thus every solution of the congruence ax ≡ b mod n is congruent mod n to one and only one of the d values x0 + nt/d. since the absolute difference between any two of them is less than n. This gives 5 · 9 ≡ 3 mod 7 which is the same as 5 · 2 ≡ 3 mod 7. n). (x. = 5−2·2 = 7 − 5 · 1. Whence 3 = 5(9) − 7(6). y) is |by − ax| . 7) = 1.1. If each banana costs $0. . we write t ′ as t ′ = qd + r. .Linear Congruences 1. 24x + 25y = 18 2. as (5. Proof: From Theorem ?? we know that the solutions of the linear diophantine equation ax + ny = b have the form x = x0 + nt/d. 0 ≤ t ≤ d − 1.3 Prove that the area of the triangle whose vertices are (0. If x = x0 + nt ′ /d is any other solution. d = (a. .2 Linear Congruences We recall that the expression ax ≡ b mod n means that there is t ∈ Z such that ax = b + nt.

As (a. 149 Theorem (Frobenius) Let a. If (a. . we must have n |(x − y). 1. n) Since (a/(a. b be positive integers. n) upon multiplying by a.52 Chapter 5 Solution: As (3. 38 ≤ x ≤ 289 satisfy 3x ≡ 8 mod 11? 5. By inspection we see that x = 2 is a solution. We will prove the following theorem of Frobenius that tells un when we will ﬁnd nonnegative solutions to ax + by = n. b) = 1 then the number of positive integers m that cannot be written in the form ar + bs = m for nonnegative integers r. This gives the required result. n) ax ≡ ay mod an . n). y be integers and let a. 10. there is always an integer solution to ax + by = n regardless of the integer n. n) (a.t ∈ Z. n) = 1. We now add a few theorems and deﬁnitions that will be of use in the future. By letting t = 0. all the solutions are thus of the form x = 2 + 4t. 147 Theorem Let x. (a. then x ≡ y mod n. If (a. n) mod n . (a. (a. n be non-zero integers. Then ax ≡ ay if and only if x≡y mod n n . b) = 1. the above congruence implies a fortiori that ax − ay = tn for some integer t.u Theorem ?? gives immediately the following corollary. the three incongruent solutions modulo 12 are t = 2. n) divides a.2.2. b) = d > 1 then the linear form ax + by skips all non-multiples of d. n) mod Proof: If ax ≡ ay mod n then a(x − y) = sn for some integer s. Problem 5. By Theorem ??.1 Solve the congruence 50x ≡ 12 mod 14. n) by Euclid’s Lemma (Lemma ??). 6. s equals (a − 1)(b − 1)/2.2 How many x. Practice Problem 5. (a. the congruence has three mutually incongruent solutions.3 A theorem of Frobenius If (a. 2. 148 Corollary If ax ≡ ay mod n and (a. This yields (x − y) a n =s . This implies that x≡y Conversely if x ≡ y mod n implies (a. (a. n)) = 1 by Theorem ??. 12) = 3 and 3|6. n/(a.

. 1994) Ninety-four bricks. As 58 = 0 · 71 + 2 · 29. . w ≤ a − 1. which gives the following theorem. 0 ≤ v ≤ a − 1 is non-attainable. hence the greatest value that is not attainable is (a − 1)b − a. 10) and thus it does not pass through a lattice point in the ﬁrst quadrant. vb and wb with 0 ≤ v. and his score accumulates from play to play.. so is n + ka. . This implies that y ≡ v mod b. Consider the inﬁnite array 0 1 2 . b = 2 and a = 11. w ≤ a − 1 can belong to the same column. b) = 1 we invoke Corollary 5. .A theorem of Frobenius Proof: Let us say that an integer n is attainable if there are nonnegative integers r.u The greatest unattainable integer occurs just above (a − 1)b. . a 2 as we wanted to show. For a number directly above vb is of the form vb −ka for some natural number k. 152 Example (AIME.. .. b be relatively prime positive integers. The line 11x + 8y = 58 passes through (6.. . each measuring 4′′ × 10′′ × 19′′ . The conditions a > b. then the equation is soluble in nonnegative integers. b ∈ N. there are inﬁnitely many such integers. Clearly. are to be stacked one on top of another to form a tower 94 bricks tall. b = 8. Hence a(v − w) ≡ 0 mod a. k . −1) and (−2. . 1971) A game of solitaire is played as follows.. Hence (a. . Clearly all multiples of b are attainable. (a.. . 2a − 1 2a 2a + 1 2a + 2 . on the j-th column. we must have v = w. 0 ≤ v ≤ a − 1. b) = 1 yield the two possibilities a = 71. It has been noticed that there are thirty ﬁve non-attainable scores and that one of these is 58. a − 1 a a + 1 a + 2 . Find a and b. b) = 1. The columns of this array are arithmetic progressions with common difference a. On the other hand. 150 Theorem Let a. (a − 1)(b − 1) = 70 = 2(35) = 5(14) = 7(10). Thus the number of unattainable numbers is precisely the numbers that occur just above a number of the form vb. there are (vb − j)/a values above vb. If this were so then we would have vb ≡ wb mod a. two numbers on the same column are congruent mod a. 0 ≤ y < v < a.. This yields by ≤ ax + by = vb − ka < vb. We claim that no two distinct multiples of b. the player receives either a or b points. How many different tower heights can be achieved using all 94 of the bricks? ... implying thus that if an integer n is attainable so is every integer directly below it. a > b). If n > ab −a −b. . After each play. (a. If (a. . Each brick can be oriented so it contributes 4′′ or 10′′ or 19′′ to the total height of the tower.. y for n = ab −a −b. 2a + k . Since (a. y... if n is attainable. 151 Example (Putnam.. If vb −ka were attainable. . Now. Hence. Hence the number of unattainable numbers is given by a−1 a−1 v=0 j=0 53 vb − j (a − 1)(b − 1) = ..1 to deduce v − w ≡ 0 mod a. Therefore. The unique solution is a = 11. This contradicts the fact that 0 ≤ y < v < a.. Now we show that any number directly above one of the multiples vb. b) > 1.. then ax+ by = vb −ka for some nonnegative integers x. By Theorem ??. the ﬁrst alternative is dismissed. The numbers directly below a number n have the form n + ka where k is a natural number... s with ar + bs = n. a + k . b = 8. Therefore we deduce vb ≡ bv − ka ≡ ax + by mod a which yields bv ≡ by mod a. Then the equation ax + by = n is unsoluble in nonnegative integers x. the number of non-attainable scores is (a − 1)(b − 1)/2. By Corollary ?? we obtain v ≡ y mod a. Solution: The attainable scores are the nonnegative integers of the form ax + by.. Since 0 ≤ v. according to the outcome. 3a − 1 .

and 469 can be thus represented. a. Then every integer n. 1991 181m 11m 1991 r s and r. 10′′ . Letting x = 94 − y − z. Then the number Problem 5. Similarly. mn = 11a + 181b. 1991) = 1. and the number of different sums is 471 − 6 = 465. y. ab ab bcx + acy + abz. 468.4 Let a. n ≤ 180.3.3 Let a > 0. Let (n. b. (b) Any n > 170. c be positive real numbers. n Problem 5. b) = 1. 7. We are asking for the number of different sums 4x + 10y + 19z with the constraints x ≥ 0. For mn > 181 except if m = 1. we may suppose r = 181r1 . and (∗) follows. Prove that 1991 only if there exist integers m.54 Chapter 5 Solution: Let there be x. 1983) Let a. 2. but 170m < 181. 468. The answer is thus 170/1991. Demonstrate that 2abc − ab − bc − ca is the to largest integer not of the form n n [ ] or [ ] + 1.2 (AIME. b) = 1. 2. 1995) What is largest positive integer Evaluate that is not the sum of a positive integral multiple of 42 and a positive composite integer? ax + by = n. b. n. c be pairwise relatively of nonnegative solutions to the equation ax + by = n is equal prime integers.3. Solution: (a) If (∗) holds then But n = 170 does not satisfy (∗). By Theorem ?? there are (3 − 1)(5 − 1)/2 = 4 exceptions.3. namely n = 1. r) = (b. s) = 1. b ≥ 1. By Theorem ??. 0 ≤ n ≤ 470 except for 1. ax + by ≤ c. x + y + z = 94. b with (∗) 1 ≤ m ≤ 10. (n.5 (IMO. if = + for a. y ≥ 0.1 Let a. for we would have 170 ≡ 181b mod 11. a ≥ 1. n a b n a b = + does the trick. Conversely. (Hint: [s] − [t] = [s − t] or [s − t] + 1. n→∞ lim S(n) . y + z ≤ 94. we see that 469 can be written in the form n = 2y+ 5z. Practice Problem 5. x ≥ 0. Thus of the 471 nonnegative integers n ≤ 470. every integer ≥ (2 − 1)(5 − 1) = 4 can be written in the form 2y + 5z. and 19′′ respectively. s = 11s1 and then nr1 s1 = 11as1 + 181br1. and the number of exceptions is (2 − 1)(5 − 1)/2 = 2. namely n = 1 and n = 3.) . s < 1991. y ≥ 0. This means that 463. Problem 5. Let S(n) denote the there are at least c2 /2ab pairs of integers (x. Using x = 96 −x−y. 1991) = 1 satisﬁes (∗) with b = 1 and M such that mn is of the form mn ≡ 181 mod 11. Find the largest positive rational with denominator 1991 that cannot be written as the sum of two positive rationals each with denominators less than 1991. b ∈ N. Now. each ≤ 8. s1 |r1 . whence r1 = s1 = m. y ≥ 0. Prove that Problem 5. 4x + 10y + 19z ≤ 19 · 94 = 1786. which yields b ≥ m. 466.3. that is 2y + 5z ≤ 470. b ≥ 1. b > 0. y) satisfying number of nonnegative solutions to x ≥ 0.3. 3. 4. y + z ≤ 94. say. so b ≡ m mod 11. we count the number of different nonnegative integral solutions to the inequality 376 + 3(2y + 5z) ≤ 1786. z ≥ 0. (a. (a. but then n would not be of the form n ≡ 181 mod 11. z ≥ 0. and 469 are not representable in the form 4x + 10y + 19z. z bricks of height 4′′ . 153 Example n is the sum of two positive integers with denominator < 1991 if an 1. (a. which leads to r1 |11as1 and so r1 |s1 . 466. 463. 4 ≤ n ≤ 470 will be “good” only if we have 470 − n = 3x + 5z.

we have 5x = 35 + 55b. . One may check that x = 147 satisﬁes the requirements. . This number clearly satisﬁes the conditions of the theorem. ak be arbitrary integers. . and let a1 . mod 7. . 1 ≤ j ≤ k. mod 140. ≡ a1 a2 . In the language of congruences we are seeking x such that x ≡ 2 mod 5. Let Q j be the inverse of Pj mod m j . This means that x ≡ −37 ≡ 18 mod 55. which we know exists since all the mi are pairwise relatively prime. mk be pairwise relatively prime positive integers. x has a unique solution modulo m1 m2 · · · mk .e. when divided by 5 leaves remainder 1. Then the system of congruences x x . . . mod 140.t ∈ Z. . . m2 . Consider the following problem: ﬁnd an integer x which leaves remainder 2 when divided by 5. x ≡ 0 mod 7. Solution: Since x = 3 + 5a. ak mod m1 mod m2 mod mk Proof: Set Pj = m1 m2 · · · mk /m j . The method is credited to the ancient Chinese. 155 Example Find a number n such that when divided by 4 leaves remainder 2. we have 11x = 33 + 55a. Thus x = 11x − 10x = 33 − 70 + 55a − 110b. and it is thus called the Chinese Remainder Theorem. and when divided by 7 leaves remainder 1. u . . we have n ≡ 3(35n − 28n) − 20n ≡ 3(70 − 28) − 20 ≡ 106 mod 140. One veriﬁes that all the numbers x = 18 + 55t. .Chinese Remainder Theorem 55 5. 154 Example Find x such that x≡3 mod 5 and x ≡ 7 mod 11. mod 5. . mod 140. We will develop a method to solve congruences like this one. and that in fact. Solution: We want n such that n≡ 2 n≡ 1 n≡ 1 35n ≡ 28n ≡ 20n ≡ 70 28 20 mod 4. and leaves remainder 4 when divided by 11. As n = 21n − 20n. The uniqueness of the solution modulo m1 m2 · · · mk can be easily established. a2 . Pj Q j ≡ 1 mod m j . so does the parametric family x = 147 + 385t. . each exceeding 1.4 Chinese Remainder Theorem In this section we consider the case when we have multiple congruences. As x = 7 + 11b. is divisible by 7. ≡ ≡ .. Form the number x = a1 P1 Q1 + a2 P2 Q2 + · · · + ak Pk Qk . x ≡ 4 mod 11.t ∈ Z verify the given congruences. i. Thus all n ≡ 106 mod 140 will 156 Theorem (Chinese Remainder Theorem) Let m1 . This implies that do.

≡ −1 −2 . . . . . 3x ≡ 2 mod 9. By the Chinese Remainder Theorem. −1000000 mod p2 . x + 2. 5x ≡ 2 mod 8. . 4x ≡ 3 mod 7. . x ≡ 2 mod 5 2. p2 .4. Let p1 . x + 1000000 are a million consecutive integers. . p1000000 be a million different primes.4. there exists a solution to the following system of congruences. Do there exist twenty-one consecutive integers each of which is divisible by one or more primes p. . 2 ≤ p ≤ 11? 2. each of which is divisible by the square of a prime. .56 157 Example Can one ﬁnd one million consecutive integers that are not square-free? Chapter 5 Solution: Yes. x ≡ ≡ . . .2 (USAMO 1986) 1. Do there exist fourteen consecutive positive integers each of which is divisible by one or more primes p. . . The numbers x + 1. .1 Solve the following systems: 1. x ≡ −1 mod 4. 1 mod p2 . 2 2 mod p1000000. . x x . x ≡ 0 mod 11 Problem 5. 2 ≤ p ≤ 13? . . . Practice Problem 5. x ≡ 10 mod 11 3.

we deduce by (1) that α = n α /n + nθ = n α /n + nθ .e. α + β is less than the integer α + β + 2. and so 0 ≤ nθ /n < 1. We also utilise the notation {x} = x − x .Chapter 6 n∈Z Number-Theoretic Functions 6. This means that m − a = α . Since α + β is an integer less than or equal to α + β . The greatest integer function enjoys the following properties: 158 Theorem Let α . 0 ≤ θ < 1. We obtain thus α + β ≤ α + β . and ||x|| = min |x − n| to denote the distance of a real number to its nearest integer. u 57 . it must be less than or equal to the integral part of α + β . Since n α /n is an integer. 0 ≤ nθ ≤ nθ < n.1 Greatest Integer Function The largest integer not exceeding x is denoted by x or x . so its integer part α + β must be less than α + β + 2. 3. Then m ≤ α + a < m + 1. can also be written as x ≤ x < x + 1. 0 ≤ {x} < 1. but α + β < α + β + 2 yields α + β ≤ α + β + 1. From the inequalities α − 1 < α ≤ α . This proves the inequalities. β − 1 < β ≤ β we get α + β − 2 < α + β ≤ α + β . n ∈ N. i. α + β . Thus x satisﬁes the inequalities x − 1 < x ≤ x. to denote the fractional part of x. which. We also call this function the ﬂoor function. 0 ≤ Θ < 1. 3. β ∈ R. Let m = α + a . Then 1. n n This yields the required result. 2. of course. Write α /n as α /n = α /n + θ . which is what we wanted. 2. Also. Now. is often of use. A useful fact is that we can write any real number x in the form x = x + {x}. α +a = α +a α = n α n α + β ≤ α +β ≤ α + β +1 Proof: 1. The fact that x is the unique integer satisfying these inequalities. Hence m − a ≤ α < m − a + 1. we obtain α α = + Θ. a ∈ Z. If we let Θ = nθ /n.

Solution: We claim that 3[2t] − 2[3t] = 0. 1) as [0. Since l < 2n < l + 1. we observe that x has unit period. 1/2) then [3t] = 1 and [2t] = 0. If t ∈ [0. 160 Example Describe all integers n such that 1 + √ 2n 2n. then 2t = 1. We can then take P(x. 1/2) ∪ [1/2. and so 3 2t − 2 3t = 1. l = 2 161 Example Prove that the integers with n a nonnegative integer. √ √ (6 + 35)1980 + (6 − 35)1980 = 2k. are alternately even or odd. If m ≥ 2n +1. and for n even 2N := (1 + 2)n + (1 − 2) = (1 + 2)n + 1. y) = (3x − 2y)(3x − 2y − 1)(3x − 2y + 1)(3x − 2y + 2). If t ∈ [1/2. always even. it must be the case that (1 − 2)n is the fractional part of (1 + 2)n or (1 + 2)n + 1 √ √ √ √ depending on whether n is odd or even. If m ≤ √2n − 1 then 2n ≤ ( 2n − 1)( 2n + 1) = 2n 2 − 1 ≤ 2n − 1 < 2n. If t ∈ [1/3. always odd for even n. √ √ l(l + 1) 2n . 1/3). and so (1 + 2)n = 2N − 1. 1) = [0.58 159 Example Find a non-zero polynomial P(x. then [2t] = 1. then 2n ≥ ( 2n +1) ≥ 2n+1. In order to prove the claim. We divide [0. Solution: By the Binomial Theorem Ä √ än 1+ 2 Ç å n (2) := 2N. 3t ) = 0 for all real t. a Solution: Let 2n = m(1 + √ √ 2 2 contradiction. [3t] = 1. then both 2t and 3t are = 0. 1). (1 + 2)n − 1 <√ + 2)n + (1 − 2)n < √ + 2)n . (1 (1 √ n √ n √ n whence (1 + √2) + (1 − 2) = (1 + 2)n . 3t = 2. 2/3) ∪ [2/3. another contradiction. Since −1 < 1 − 2 < 0. 1/3) ∪ [1/3. √ √ √ √ √ 2n ). Thus for odd n. 162 Example Prove that the ﬁrst thousand digits after the decimal point in √ (6 + 35)1980 are all 9’s. Conversely. So all the integers with the required property are the . let n = triangular numbers. 2/3). It must be the case that m = 2n .√ respectively. 1). 2k k √ √ (1 + 2)n + (1 − 2)n = 2 0≤k≤n/2 √ √ √ √ an even integer. 1). ±1 or −2. so it is enough to prove the claim for t ∈ [0. and so 3 2t − 2 3t = −2. y) such that Chapter 6 P( 2t . and so 3 2t − 2 3t = 0. and 3 2t − 2 3t = −1. If t ∈ [2/3. . Solution: Reasoning as in the preceding problem.

f ( f (m)). m2 − m. (1 + 21)). f (m). that is to say. . 1 1 Since n. these inequalities imply m2 − m + < n < m2 + m + . . This means that either f (m) is a square or f (m) ∈ A. There is a natural number m such that m2 < Tn < (m + 1)2 . for x ∈ R. Thus the n-th non-square is Tn = n + n + 1/2 . it is easy to see that √ √ n+ n+1 = 4n + 2 . 10 1979 nines This proves the assertion of the problem. with 0 ≤ j − k − 1 ≤ k − 1 < k + 1.9 . so √ √ 4n + 2 = 4n + 3 . and the result follows. whence we reach a square. m2 + m + 1 are all integers. As m = k. . √ √ √ √ 4n + 1 < n + n + 1 < 4n + 3.Greatest Integer Function 59 √ √ 1 < 6 − 35. k < j < 2k + 1. Solution: Let Tn be the n-th non-square. . 2 2 2 . As there are m squares less than Tn and n non-squares up to Tn . Prove that for every positive integer m. √ Observe that k2 ≤ m < (k + 1)2 = k2 + 2k + 1. If j = 0. the set A of all the m with excess j. and an even integer. in which case m + k = k and f ( f (m)) = f (m + k) = m + 2k = (k + 1)2 + j − 1. 0 ≤ j ≤ k and the set B with all those m’s with excess j. (for if 10 √ hence 0 < (6 − 35)1980 < 10−1980 which yields √ 1 2k − 1 + 0. 164 Example Find a formula for the n-th non-square. Assume that m ∈ B. which is clearly nonsense). f ( f ( f (m))). 9 = 2k − 1980 < (6 + 35)1980 < 2k. demonstrate that √ Solution: By squaring. This means that f ( f (m)) is either a square or f ( f (m)) ∈ A with an excess j − 1 smaller than the excess j of m. Hence. contains at least one square of an integer. But 0 < 6 − 35 < 1/10. 2 165 Example (Putnam 1983) Let f (n) = n + √ n . . Split the m’s into two sets. Solving these inequalities it is easy to see that the solution is thus √ √ √ 1 1 1 x ∈ (−1. Neither 4n + 2 nor 4n + 3 are squares since squares are either congruent to 0 or 1 mod 4. the given equation has a solution if and only if |x2 − 2x − 2| < 1. (m − 1/2)2 < 4 4 √ √ 1 2 n < (m + 1/2) . √ It is thus enough to consider the alternative m ∈ A. upon squaring 3500 < 3481. 163 Example (Putnam 1948) If n is a positive integer. k + 1) which happens if and only if |a − b| < 1. the sequence m. Solution: Observe that a = b if and only if ∃k ∈ Z with a. 166 Example Solve the equation x2 − x − 2 = x . we have nothing to prove. We have then m2 < n + m < (m + 1)2 or m2 − m < n < m2 + m + 1. we see that Tn = n + m. 0 ≤ j ≤ 2k. But then m = n + . (1 − 5)] ∪ [ (1 + 17). At each iteration the excess will reduce and eventually it will hit 0. b ∈ [k. Solution: Let m = k2 + j. f (m) = k2 + j + k = (k + 1)2 + j − k − 1.

Thus for positive integer k. ). Now. ). m a kb kb The points Lk = (k.1. equals the number of lattice points on the upper half of the rectangle. a contradiction. b). Hence 1998 + 1/10 < The integral part sought is thus 1998. b).2 If x. 0). 1 √ < k+1 Summing from k = 1 to k = 10 − 1 we deduce 1 √ < k k=2 The integral is easily seen to be 1998. 0). the assertion follows. Since there b k=1 are (a − 1)(b − 1) lattice points in total. b are relatively prime natural numbers then a−1 k=1 Chapter 6 kb = a b−1 k=1 ka (a − 1)(b − 1) = . n). when is it true that x y ≤ xy ? [α ] > Problem 6. x + x + y + y ≤ 2x + 2y holds. 3 106 106 1 6 k+1 k 106 1 dx √ <√ . y.1.e. prove that α .e. k k=1 Solution: The function x → x−1/2 is decreasing. For if there were a lattice point n b (m. (0. y real numbers. b 2 Consider the rectangle with vertices at (0. (a. k 1 √ < 1999. u 168 Example Find the integral part of b−1 1 √ .1 Prove that for all real numbers x.60 167 Theorem If a. This rectangle is split into two halves by the line y = .3 If n > 1 is a natural number and α ≥ 1 is a real number. This rectangle contains (a − 1)(b − 1) xb lattice points. except for the endpoints. 0 < n < b. Problem 6. then = . i. Similarly. n . 1 ≤ k ≤ a − 1 are each on this line.. points with integer coordinates. x k dx √ < x 106 −1 k=1 1 √ . 0 < m < a.1. (a. Thus n/m is a reduction for the irreducible fraction b/a. and their number is shared equally by the halves. equals the number of lattice points on the a a a−1 kb kb is the number of lattice points on the lower half of the vertical line that goes from (k. 0) to (k. a a Proof: k=1 ka rectangle. i. k k=1 106 Practice Problem 6. a We claim that there are no lattice points on this line.

14 (IMO 1968) For every natural number n. 5.1.22 A triangular number is a number of the form 1+2+· · ·+n. b a 4 1≤n≤(b−1)/2 1≤n≤(a−1)/2 Problem 6. n are positive integers.6 Prove that √ (2 + 3)n is an odd integer. Prove that … y m for all natural numbers n. 25 Problem 6.12 Solve the equation x x = .1. Find a formula for the nth non-triangular number. β ] be an interval which contains no sand positive integers can be expressed in the form integers. Problem 6.1. 5. n.1. 1≤n≤b−1 Problem 6. Prove where there are n occurrences of the integer n is 2n + 1/2 . prove that = y . b).17 (Circle Problem) Let r > 0 and let T denote √ the number of lattice points of the domain x2 + y2 ≤ r2 . 2x + 4x + 6x + 8x ? .16 (Dirichlet’s principle of the hyperbola) Let N be the number of integer solutions to xy ≤ n. T = 1+4 r +8 Problem 6. Problem 6.1.10 If a. b. n ∈ N. 2.1.11 If n is a natural number. prove that n + 2 − n/25 3 = 8n + 24 .15 (Putnam 1973) Prove that if n ∈ N. . 61 Problem 6. 4.7 Show that the n-th element of the sequence 1.5 Let α be a real number.1.1.1. 3.1. 4. Prove that an (a − 1)(b − 1) d − 1 = + . b. √ 4n + 1 . nβ ] still contains no integers but has length at least 1/6. Prove that there is a positive integer n such that [nα .1. 5.1. d are positive real numbers such that Problem 6. . 4.8 Prove Hermite’s Identity: if x is a real number √ 2 0<x≤r 2 and n is a natural number then nx = x + x + 1 2 n−1 + x+ + ···+ x + . the equality m+n n−m+1 + =n 2 2 holds. n n n Problem 6.20 Let m ∈ N with m > 1 and let y be a positive na + nb = nc + nd real number. x x a + b = c + d. b 2 2 Problem 6.13 Let [α . min(k + n/k ) = k∈N Problem 6. that r r 2 − x2 + 4 √ 2 .23 (AIME 1985) How many of the ﬁrst thouProblem 6.1. b are odd. k Problem 6. 1994 1995 Problem 6. 4. 3. prove that ab b ≥a .1. Problem 6. 2. 2k+1 k=0 Problem 6.1.Practice Problem 6. where the summation runs through all positive integers x not divisible by the mth power of an integer exceeding 1. b) = 1 and a. n n Problem 6. Problem 6.1.1. y > 0. Prove that [α ] + [−α ] = −1 or 0 and that α − 2 α /2 = 0 or 1.4 If a.21 For which natural numbers n will 112 divide √ 4n − (2 + 2)n ? Problem 6.19 (Eisenstein) If (a. c. 5.9 Prove that for all integers m.18 Let d = (a.1. 5.1. Prove that n N= k=1 n =2 k √ 1≤k≤ n √ 2 n − n . . x > 0. evaluate the sum ∞ n + 2k . then an (a − 1)(b − 1) bn + = . 3.1.

1 n n lim dx = log3 (4/π ). Find the exact numerical value of 1995 1 ...33 Prove that √ √ √ √ n+ n+1 = n+ n+2 . .32 Prove that Ç 1 (−1) 1994x + 1995x 0 1993 1994x åÇ 1994 1995x å dx = 0. Prove that » √ k x = k x . Problem 6. Problem 6. when n is a natural number. .30 (AIME 1991) Suppose that r is a real number for which 91 k r+ = 546. .1. Problem 6.1.26 Prove that the n-th number not of the form ek .28 Let k ≥ 2 be a natural number and x a positive real number. . 100 k=19 Find the value of 100r ..34 (Putnam 1976) Prove that ã Å n 2n −2 = ln 4 − 1.25 Prove that if p is an odd prime. then √ (2 + 5) p − 2 p+1 is divisible by p. f (n) n=1 Problem 6. .1. is Tn = n + ln(n + 1 + ln(n + 1) ) . 169 Theorem (De Polignac’s Formula) The highest power of a prime p dividing n! is given by ∞ k=1 n . Prove that for any real number x = 0 at least one of x. Problem 6. lim n→∞ k k 1≤k≤n 6.2 De Polignac’s Formula We will consider now the following result due to De Polignac. Can you improve the “gap” between 34 and 79? 2 2 4 4 6 6 8 8 π · · · · · · · ··· = . Chapter 6 Problem 6. 2. . 34x have no 7’s in their decimal expansions.1. 1 3 3 5 5 7 7 9 2 Problem 6. Find a real number x = 0 such that Problem 6.1. k = 1.62 Problem 6.1. Problem 6.29 1.1.1. 2x. etc.27 (Leningrad Olympiad) How many different integers are there in the sequence 12 22 19802 . pk Proof: The number of integers contributing a factor of p is n/p .1..1. 2x.31 (AIME 1995) Let f (n) denote the integer closest to n1/4.35 (Putnam 1983) Prove that x.u 170 Example How many zeroes are at the end of 300!? . You may appeal to Wallis Product Formula: 3.. 79x has a 7 in its decimal expansion. . n→∞ n 1 x 2.1. .24 (AIME 1987) What is the largest positive integer n for which there is a unique integer k such that 8 n 7 < < ? 15 n + k 13 Problem 6. . ? 1980 1980 1980 Problem 6.1. . . the number of factors contributing a second factor of p is n/p2 .

For any prime p. Since there are more factors of 2 in 300! than factors of 5. the power of p dividing n! is n/p j = j≥1 j≥1 (n1 + n2 + · · · + nk )/p j . Similarly. 173 Example Given a positive integer n > 3. Prove that the quantity n! n1 !n2 ! · · · nk ! is an integer. whose factors xi are the positive integers with x1 + x2 + · · · xk ≤ n. By De Polignac’s Formula this is ∞ 300/5k = 60 + 12 + 2 = 74. is less than n!. Since = (500!)2 500 Ç å Ç å 1000 1000 is 164 − 2 · 82 = 0. Ç 1000 1000! . Solution: From (3) in Theorem ?? we deduce by induction that a1 + a2 + · · · + al ≤ a1 + a2 + · · · + al . the highest power of 7 that divides the highest power of 7 dividing into 500! is 71 + 10 + 1 = 82. 500 500 Ç å 1000 ? 500 172 Example Let n = n1 + n2 + · · · + nk where the ni are nonnegative integers. Solution: We claim that the least common multiple of the numbers in question is p p n/p . k=1 171 Example Does 7 2 Solution: The highest power of 7 dividing into 1000! is 1000/7 + 1000/7å + 1000/73 = 142 + 20 + 2 = 164. we see that the power of any prime dividing the numerator of n! n1 !n2 ! · · · nk ! is at least the power of the same prime dividing the denominator. the number of zeroes is thus determined by the highest power of 5 in 300!. prove that the least common multiple of the products x1 x2 · · · xk (k ≥ 1). which establishes the assertion. p prime .De Polignac’s Formula 63 Solution: The number of zeroes is determined by how many times 10 divides into 300. The power of p dividing n1 !n2 ! · · · nk ! is j≥1 n1 /p j + n2 /p j + · · · nk /p j . Since n1 /p j + n2/p j + · · · + nk /p j ≤ (n1 + n2 + · · · + nk )/p j . and so 7 does not divide .

But on choosing x1 = · · · = xk = p.2. .2. (n. . Suppose that pα j |x j . i.8 (AIME 1992) Deﬁne a positive integer n to be Problem 6. How many positive integers less than 1992 are not factorial Problem 6. n.2. . equals 1. 2. Spec(α ) ∩ Spec(β ) = ∅ and Spec(α ) ∪ Spec(β ) = N. pα j +1 |x j . 2.2. .. Clearly pα1 + · · · + pαk ≤ n and since pα ≥ α p. p(α1 + · · · αk ) ≤ n or α1 + · · · + αk ≤ p Hence it follows that the exponent of an arbitrary prime p is at most n/p . . Problem 6. n m n We deﬁne the spectrum of a real number α to be the inﬁnite multiset of integers Spec(α ) = { α . then (2n − 4)! n!(n − 2)! Problem 6. . the base-ten representation of m! ends with exactly n zeroes.2 Find the highest power of 17 that divides a “factorial tail” if there is some positive integer m such that (17n − 2)! for a positive integer n.}. . The assertion of the problem now follows upon applying De Polignac’s Formula and the claim. and an arbitrary prime p. Problem 6.11 Prove that ÇÇ å Ç å Ç åå n n n lcm(1. Using the result of part 1 or otherwise. = 1 n+1 2 n 6.4 Find the largest power of 7 in 300!. . Ç å 200 ? Ç å 100 √ 2n Problem 6.e. 6) = 1.2. we see that there is at least one product for which equality is achieved. Problem 6.2. Two sequences Spec(α ) and Spec(β ) are said to be complementary if they partition the natural numbers. prove that (5m)!(5n)! m!n!(3m + n)!(3n + m)! is an integer for all positive integers m.. 3α .1 (AHSME 1977) Find the largest possible n such that 10n divides 1005!.3 Complementary Sequences Problem 6.10 If p is a prime divisor of with p ≥ 2n n Ç å Problem 6.64 Chapter 6 Consider an arbitrary product x1 x2 · · · xk . n + 1) lcm . Practice Problem 6.12 ProveåÇ å the following result of Catalan: Ç å Ç m+n 2m 2n divides .5 (AIME 1983) What is the largest two-digit m!n! prime factor of the integer is an integer. k = n/p .3 Find the exponent of the highest power of 24 tails? that divides 300!. This proves the claim.2. is an integer. .2.2. 2α .9 Prove that if m and n are relatively prime positive integers then (m + n − 1)! Problem 6.2.7 Prove that if n > 1. Problem 6.. Prove that 2n prove that the exponent of p in the factorisation of n 5x + 5y ≥ 3x + y + 3y + x ..2. we have n . .6 (USAMO 1975) 1.2.

. 9. and we delete a3 + 3 = 7. If Spec(α ) ∩ Spec(β ) is ﬁnite. the last inequality being strict because both α . 17.} 65 are complementary. The following theorem establishes a criterion for spectra to be complementary. But N/α − 1 + N/β − 1 < N/α + [N/β ] < N/α + N/β . then α . As 1/α + 1/β = 1. 17. . 175 Theorem (Bang’s Theorem. 25. 3. Solution: What we are asking for is a sequence {Sn } which is complementary to the sequence {S√+ n}. 15. 51. 8.}. 10. . 4. 47. Thus the next available integer is 4 = a3 . 11. 1957) If the sequences Spec(α ) and Spec(β ) Spec(α ) and Spec(β ) are complementary.Practice For example. Thereby we leave the integers 1. If 0 < α ≤ 1. given n there is an M for which mα − 1 < n ≤ mα . . Since the sandwiched quantity is an integer. 24. 40. But then τ = (1 + 5)/2. the Golden ratio. 34. 44. 20. lim n→∞ n 1 but since ( n/α + n/β ) → 1/α + 1/β as n → ∞. n nτ and nτ + n = n(τ + 1) are complementary if 1/τ + 1/(τ + 1) = 1. it follows that 1/α + 1/β = 1. . 2. The n-th term is thus an = nτ .. 14. 12. 8. Spec(α ) and Spec(β ) are each sequences of distinct terms. 16. Spec(β ) eventually contain the same integers. 16. we gather that N −2 < N/α + N/β < N. 18. 4. 27. 6. It follows that Spec(α ) ∪ Spec(β ) = N. Proof: Since α > 1. it is clear that Spec(α ). β are rational numbers. u n 176 Example Suppose we sieve the positive integers as follows: we choose a1 = 1 and then delete a1 + 1 = 2. Spec(α ) ∩ Spec(β ) = ∅. 37. it appears that the two sequences √ Spec( 2) = {1. . 19. By Beatty’s Theorem. The next term is 3. β > 1. u The converse of Beatty’s Theorem is also true. . whence α > 1 (and so β > 1 also). n + 1) contains exactly one such term. Thus the total number of terms not exceeding N in Spec(α ) and Spec(β ) is N − 1. 14. hence n = [mα ]. then n/α + n/β = 1. 1926) If α > 1 is irrational and 1 1 + = 1. as this is true for any N ≥ 1 each interval (n. β are positive irrational numbers with 1 1 + = 1. 23. 174 Theorem (Beatty’s Theorem. 9. 30. 5. we deduce [N/α ]+ [N/β ] = N −1. which we call a2 . α β Proof: If both α . . and √ Spec(2 + 2) = {3. which implies that Spec(α ) = N. Find a formula for an . 12. 21. α β then the sequences are complementary. and then we delete a2 + 2 = 5. etc. 13. 22. and the total number of terms not exceeding N taken together in both sequences is N/α + N/β . 6. Practice . 7. β are irrational. Thus α and β must be irrational. . and so are not disjoint. 11.

b are natural numbers with (a. u . we see that φ (20) = 8. 10 and 20 are the divisors of 20. n. 19 are the positive integers not exceeding 20 and relatively prime to 20. This completes the proof. if n = ab. Hence. If f is an arithmetic function which is not identically 0 such that f (mn) = f (m) f (n) for every pair of relatively prime natural numbers m. the number of positive integers not exceeding n and relative prime to n. Hence f (a) = f (1 · a) = f (1) f (a) which entails that f (1) = 1.n)=1 (The symbol || in p ||n is read exactly divides and it signiﬁes that pα |n but pα +1 |n. (d1 . σ (n) = d|n d. 6. ω (n) Ω(n) In symbols the above functions are: d(n) = d|n 1.4 Arithmetic Functions An arithmetic function f is a function whose domain is the set of positive integers and whose range is a subset of the complex numbers. If f (mn) = f (m) f (n) for every pair of natural numbers m.1 (Skolem) Let τ = { τ τn 2 Chapter 6 Prove that the three sequences (n ≥ 1) }.66 √ 1+ 5 Ratio. ω (20) = 2. The following functions are of considerable importance in Number Theory: d(n) σ (n) φ (n) the number of positive divisors of the number n.3. Let f be multiplicative and let n have the prime factorisation n = pa1 pa2 · · · par . counting multiplicity. we say that f is then a multiplicative function. 3. 5. 2. Ω(n) = pα ||n α. 4. We will now show that the functions d and σ are multiplicative. b) = 1 then F(n) = d|n f (d) = d1 |a d2 |b f (d1 d2 ). ω (n) = p|n 1. (a. d2 |b. 7. r 1 2 A multiplicative function is thus determined by its values at prime powers. If f is multiplicative.) For example. 11. every divisor d of ab has the form d = d1 d2 where d1 |a. the number of primes dividing n. { τ τ 2 n }. n we say then that f is totally multiplicative. Then r 1 2 f (n) = f (pa1 ) f (pa2 ) · · · f (par ). then there is a positive integer a such that f (a) = 0. Since the numbers 1. { τ 2 n } are complementary. we have d(20) = 6. 9. d2 ) = 1. be the Golden Problem 6. σ (20) = 42. Since f is multiplicative the dextral side of the above equals f (d1 ) f (d2 ) = d1 |a d2 |b d1 |a f (d1 ) d2 |b f (d2 ) = F(a)F(b). d2 of positive divisors of a and b. 13. (k. the number of distinct prime divisors of n. α 177 Theorem Let f be a multiplicative function and let F(n) = d|n f (d). Thus there is a one-to-one correspondence between positive divisors d of ab and pairs d1 . the sum of the positive divisors of n. By the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. Then F is also multiplicative. since 1. Ω(20) = 3. and φ (n) = 1≤k≤n 1. b) = 1. For this we need ﬁrst the following result. Proof: Suppose that a. 17.

Thus n = pα qβ and either 1 + α = 2. 182 Example (Putnam 1967) A certain locker room contains n lockers numbered 1. Solution: Observe that locker m. 1 + β = 1. 181 Example Prove that n n d(k) = k=1 j=1 n j Solution: We have n n d(k) = k=1 k=1 j|k 1. . q are distinct primes. T2 . pa and so d|n d(pa ) = a + 1. the divisors of pa are 1. 1 + β = 3 or 1 + α = 6. Now. p and q. This entails that if n has the prime factorisation n = pa1 pa2 · · · par . Prove this mathematically. It follows that n must divide 180. the desired n must have only two distinct prime factors. This gives at most 2 n divisors. . . . 180 Example Find all positive integers n such that d(n) = 6. . because n ≥ 3 and so we must exclude the divisors 1 and 2. n and are originally locked. . The assertion is proved. Tn whereby with the operation Tk . 1 ≤ k ≤ n. the answer is 16. After all the n operations have been performed it is observed that all lockers whose numbers are perfect squares (and only those lockers) are now open or unlocked. 2. will be unlocked after n operations if and only if m has an odd number of divisors. d(2904) = d(23 · 3 · 112) = d(23 )d(3)d(112 ) = (1 + 3)(1 + 1)(1 + 2) = 24. say. An attendant performs a sequence of operations T1 . the theorem above shows that d(n) = 1 is a multiplicative function. 1 ≤ m ≤ n. We give now some examples pertaining to the divisor function.Arithmetic Functions 67 Since the function f (n) = 1 for all natural numbers n is clearly multiplicative (indeed. where p. . Interchanging the order of summation 1= j≤n k≡0 j≤k≤n j≤n n . n must be of one of the forms pq2 or p5 . Since n there are 18 divisors of 180. . totally multiplicative). . 178 Example (AHSME 1993) For how many values of n will an n-sided polygon have interior angles with integral degree measures? (n − 2)180 Solution: The measure of an interior angle of a regular n-sided polygon is . Solution: Since 6 can be factored as 2 · 3 and 6 · 1. p. one of these divisors must be a a √ √ ≤ n. . . . For example. √ n n Solution: Each positive divisor a of n can paired with its complementary divisor . As n = a · . the condition of being locked or unlocked is changed for all those lockers and only those lockers whose numbers are multiples of k. Hence. then r 1 2 d(n) = (1 + a1)(1 + a2) · · · (1 + ar ). p2 . If p is a prime. j mod j which is what we wanted to prove. d(m) is odd if and only if m is a perfect square. . 179 Example Prove that d(n) ≤ 2 n. p3 .

then clearly σ (pa ) = 1 + p + p2 + · · ·+ pa . m odd. r 1 2 then 2 σ (n) = (1 + p1 + p1 + · · · + pa1 )(1 + p2 + p2 + · · · + pa2 ) · · · (1 + pr + p2 + · · · + par ). let n be an even perfect number.68 Chapter 6 Since the function f (n) = n is multiplicative (indeed. This implies that 24| d. n/d ≡ 7 mod 8 or vice versa. The following theorem is classical. One deduces that 2s+1 |σ (m). n/d ≡ 5 mod 8 or vice versa. the above theorem entails that σ is multiplicative. n ≡ 1 or 2 mod 3 and d ≡ 1. 184 Theorem An even number is perfect if and only if it is of the form 2 p−1 (2 p − 1) where both p and 2 p − 1 are primes. Write n = 2s m. σ (2 p−1(2 p − 1)) = σ (2 p−1 )σ (2 p − 1) = (1 + 2 + 22 + · · · + 2 p−1)(1 + 2 p − 1) = (2 p − 1)2(2 p−1). totally multiplicative). If p is a prime. Conversely. Hence (2s+1 − 1)σ (m) = 2s+1 m. and 2 p−1 (2 p − 1) is perfect. Since (2 p−1 . whence 24 divides d + n/d. n Solution: Since 24|n + 1. 10) = 1. As d( ) ≡ −1 mod 3 or mod 8. We propose to show that b = 1. Then σ (x2 ) = σ (y2 ) = 31σ (s2 ). which yields σ (m) ≥ 1 + b + m. Prove that the sum of all divisors of n is also divisible by 24. For example. n/d ≡ 2 mod 3 or vice versa. d ≡ 3. since n perfect is. 183 Example (Putnam 1969) Let n be a positive integer such that 24|n + 1. If b = 1. 2 p − 1 are primes. Then σ (2 p − 1) = 1 + 2 p − 1. 3. Then σ (n) = σ (2s )σ (m) = (2s+1 − 1)σ (m). This entails that if n has the prime factorisation n = pa1 pa2 · · · par . b = m. d|n We say that a natural number is perfect if it is the sum of its proper divisors. and so b|m. 2 p − 1) = 1. p1 − 1 p2 − 1 pr − 1 We present now some examples related to the function σ . d ≡ 1. As d ≡ n/d. 5 or 7 mod 8. (s. a contradiction. Solution: Let s ≥ n.u 185 Example Prove that for every natural number n there exist natural numbers x and y such that x − y ≥ n and σ (x2 ) = σ (y2 ).d=6 d= 1 + 2 + 3. Practice . It is easy to see that a natural number is perfect if and only if 2n = d|n d. This means that 2s+1 − 1 is a Mersenne prime and hence s + 1 must be a prime. Also. σ (n) = 2n = 2s+1 m. no divisor is used twice in the pairing. But then (2s+1 − 1)b = m. 6 is perfect because 6 = d|6. and so σ (m) = 2s+1 b for some natural number b. Proof: Suppose that p. y = 4s. and so m = (2s+1 − 1)b = 2s+1 − 1 is a prime. 2 w r r 1 This last product also equals a a p11 +1 − 1 p22 +1 − 1 par +1 − 1 · ··· r . In all cases d + n/d ≡ 0 mod 3 and mod 8. then there are at least three divisors of m. b and m. namely 1. Thus b = 1. We take x = 5s. Observe that b + m = (2s+1 − 1)b + b = 2s+1 b = σ (m). the only possibilities d are d ≡ 1.

4 Prove that d(n) ≤ 3n with equality if and only if n = 12. c} such that a × b × c = 462. Problem 6. Problem 6.4. Describe dk (n) for sufﬁciently large k.4.4. This requires more work than that done for d and σ .4.4.4. if the highest power of p occurring in n is pa . σ (k) = k=1 j=1 j n . d|n Problem 6. 6.4.4.19 Show that an odd perfect number must contain one prime factor p such that.4. dk (n) = d(dk−1 (n)).4. Problem 6.16 Prove that 1 1 σ (n!) Problem 6.8 Let n be a perfect number. Problem 6.18 Prove that in an odd perfect number.4.4. then σ (n) > Problem √ Ω(1024) and φ (1024).13 Prove that σ (n) = n + k. How many positive integer divisors of n2 are less than n but do not di.9 Prove that d=n d|n d(n)/2 .4. Show that 1 = 2.Problem 6.10 Prove that the power of a prime cannot be a perfect number.17 Prove that an odd perfect number must have n=1 n=1 at least two distinct prime factors. 3. all the others occur to an even power.. First we need the following deﬁnitions. b.20 Prove that every odd perfect number having three distinct prime factors must have two of its prime factors 3 and 5.4.1 Find the numerical values of d(1024).12 Prove that if n is composite. 6. Problem 6. 1995) Let n = 2 3 . Problem 6.6 Let d1 (n) = d(n). Problem 6.22 Prove that Problem 6. Problem 6. .4. d Problem 6. n + n. number has only ﬁnitely many solutions. Reduced Residues 69 Problem 6.11 (AIME.Euler’s Function. Problem 6.5 Euler’s Function. . k > 1 a ﬁxed natural d(n) = 10.2 Describe all natural numbers n such that Problem 6.3 Prove that d(2n − 1) ≥ d(n).23 Find the number of sets of positive integers vide n? {a. . ω (1024).21 Prove that there do not exist odd perfect numbers having exactly three distinct prime factors.4. k = 2. only one of its prime factors occurs to an odd power. 31 19 n n Problem 6. j Problem 6. .5 Prove that the following Lambert expansion ≥ 1 + + ··· + . both p and a are congruent to 1 modulo 4.15 Prove that p is a prime if and only if σ (p) = √ 1 + p.4.7 Let m ∈ N be given. Problem 6. 1 − tn Problem 6. all other prime factors must occur to an even power.4. Problem 6. Reduced Residues Recall that Euler’s φ (n) function counts the number of positive integers a ≤ n that are relatively prime to n. Problem 6.4.4. Prove that the set A = {n ∈ N : m|d(n)} contains an inﬁnite arithmetic progression.4. holds: n! 2 n ∞ ∞ tn d(n)t n = .4.14 Characterise all n for which σ (n) is odd. σ (1024).4. We will prove now that φ is multiplicative.

This means that exactly φ (a)φ (b) integers on the array are relatively prime to ab.. a 2a 3a . pm−1 p are the only positive integers ≤ pm sharing any prime factors with pm . Proof: Let n be a natural number with n = ab... an integer r is relatively prime to m if and only if it is relatively prime to a and b. the canonical reduced residues mod 12 are 1. . b − 1] which implies that |i − j| < b. . 1 2 3 a+1 a+2 a+3 2a + 1 2a + 2 2a + 3 . . b − 1. (b − 1)a + k . . There are φ (a) integers relatively prime to a in the ﬁrst row. a+k . 2a + k . 2p.. How many of the fractions 1/n.. Since φ is multiplicative. .. .. we deduce that i − j ≡ 0 mod b thanks to Corollary ??... (n − 1)/n. congruent to the integers 0. n/n are irreducible? n Solution: This number is clearly k=1 φ (k). φ (48) = φ (24 · 3) = φ (24 )φ (3) = (24 − 23 )(3 − 1) = 16. For example.. For if ia + k ≡ ja + k mod b then a(i − j) ≡ 0 mod b. 11 and the set {−11. ... This means that there are exactly φ (a) columns of integers that are relatively prime to a. .... 1 ≤ k ≤ a. . Since (a.. . 189 Example Let n be a natural number. k will have a common factor with a if and only if ma + k does.. (b − 1)a + 1 (b − 1)a + 2 (b − 1)a + 3 . 5. . .. .. This forces i = j. b) = 1. b) = 1. 187 Deﬁnition A reduced residue system modulo n. .. ab as follows. 2/n.70 Chapter 6 186 Deﬁnition Let n > 1. the integers p. . 3p. . Now i. then 1 a φ (n) = (pa1 − p11 −1 ) · · · (pk k − pk k 1 a a −1 ). n > 1 is a set of φ (n) incongruent integers modulo n that are relatively prime to n. k .u If p is a prime and m a natural number. We shall determine ﬁrst the number of integers in the above array that are relatively prime to a and ﬁnd out how may of them are also relatively prime to b. which is what we wanted to show.. We arrange the ab integers 1. . But exactly φ (b) of these are relatively prime to b.. if a n = pa1 · · · pk k is the factorisation of n into distinct primes. For example. . 1. We claim that no two integers k. . Thus φ (pm ) = pm − pm−1 . .. 5. (b − 1)a + k on the k-th column are congruent modulo b.. Now consider the k-th column. a + k. 23} forms a reduced residue system modulo 12. and φ (550) = φ (2 · 52 · 11) = φ (2) · φ (52 ) · φ (11) = (2 − 1)(52 − 5)(11 − 1) = 1 · 20 · 10 = 200. j ∈ [0. .. 7. in some order. .. The φ (n) integers 1 = a1 < a2 < · · · < aφ (n) = n − 1 less than n and relatively prime to n are called the canonical reduced residues modulo n. 188 Theorem The function φ is multiplicative. .. ba Now.. 19. As k ≡ ma + k mod a. . This means that the b integers in any of these φ (n) columns are. . Each integer on this column is of the form ma + k. We must determine how many of these integers are relatively prime to b. . (a. We are now ready to prove the main result of this section. 0 ≤ m ≤ b − 1. 2... . . .

But d there are exactly φ (n/d) such a. . Thus S= 1≤a≤n a= 1≤a≤n n − a. Proof: For each divisor d of n. n/d runs through the divisors of n in reverse order. This implies that (a. Solution: Observe that p > 4 must be a multiple of 6. (a. . But then ( . 6) = 1. d d d d n Therefore counting the elements of Td (n) is the same as counting the integers a with 1 ≤ a ≤ n/d. 1 ≤ n − a ≤ n and (n − a. 191 Theorem Let n be a positive integer. prove that 3φ (p) ≤ p. d|n We claim that Td (n) has φ (n/d) elements. Reduced Residues 190 Example Prove that for n > 1. 2 (a. As d varies over the divisors of n. We gather that n= d|n φ (n/d).n)=1 whence 2S = 1≤a≤n n = nφ (n). ) = 1.n)=1 Solution: Clearly if 1 ≤ a ≤ n and (a. then k = ad. ) = 1. φ (n/d) = d|n But as d runs through the divisors of n. d. 2d. 193 Example Let n ∈ N. so p = 2a 3b m.u d|n 192 Example If p − 1 and p + 1 are twin primes. whence n = φ (d). Note that the elements of Td (n) are found amongst the integers n k n n d. let Td (n) be the set of positive integers ≤ n whose gcd with n is d. (m. (a. ) = 1. n) = 1. . Prove that the equation φ (x) = n! is soluble. the Td partition the set {1. n) = 1. Then d|n φ (d) = n. If k ∈ Td (n). . .n)=1 (a. ab ≥ 1. (a. We then have φ (p) ≤ 2a 3b−1 φ (m) ≤ 2a 3b−1 m = p/3. and p > 4. . 2. n) = d.Euler’s Function. 1 ≤ a ≤ n/d and (k.n)=1 The assertion follows. 71 a= 1≤a≤n nφ (n) . . . n} and so Td (n) = n.

2.5. . then n must be of the form 2a 3b for nonnegative integers a. Then φ (11k ) = 11k − 11k−1 = 10 · 11k−1.5. . Then x = pα ||n pα . The integer x will have the same prime factors as n provided that p−1 (p − 1)|n. p 1 p 2 · · · p ar ≥ ··· r p1 p2 pr 2 pa1 /2 pa2 /2 · · · par /2 r 1 2 … » √ √ 1 1 1 1 This last quantity equals n/2. k = 1.2 Prove that if n is composite then φ (n) ≤ n − √ n. Answer: 400 Problem 6. Solution: Take n = 11k .8 (Mandelbrot 1994) Four hundred people are standing in a circle. φ (n) = n p|n 1− Problem 6. . It follows that x = n2 /φ (n). . . Show that ∀ k ∈ N. 4 φ (n) = 195 Example Find inﬁnitely many integers n such that 10|φ (n). 194 Example Let φk (n) = φ (φk−1 (n)).72 Chapter 6 Solution: We want to solve the equation φ (x) = n with the constraint that x has precisely the same prime factors as n. Problem 6.4 Prove that φ (n) ≥ n2−ω (n). continuing until you tag someone for the second time.5. Problem 6. then n must be squarefree.5. φk (n) > 1 for all sufﬁciently large n. b.3 (AIME 1992) Find the sum of all positive rational numbers that are less than 10 and have denominator 30 when written in lowest terms. . k = 1. .1 Prove that Å 1 . 2. Problem 6. You tag one person. then n has at least four prime factors. then tag another. and so on.5. If n = k!.5 Prove that φ (n) > √ n for n > 6.9 Prove that if φ (n)|n − 1 and n is composite. Solution: Let pa1 pa2 · · · par be the prime factorisation of n.5. then n has at least three distinct prime factors. this last condition is clearly satisﬁed. Therefore φ1 (n) > φ (n) > n = n1/4 . p ã Problem 6.5.5. . Clearly r 1 2 p 11 p 22 · · · p r r Hence a /2 a /2 a /2 > 2r−1 ≥ pr 1 p1 ··· .5.. It is p|n clear then that a necessary and sufﬁcient condition for φ (x) = n to be soluble under the restriction that x has precisely the same prime factors as n is (p − 1)|n. We conclude that n ≥ 22 implies that φk (n) > 1. An explicit solution to the problem is thus p|n x = (k!)2 /φ (k!).5.7 Prove that if φ (n)|n − 1.6 If φ (n)|n. When is equality achieved? Problem 6. then skip k people. skip k. Problem 6. Let n = pα ||n pα . 2 p1 − 1 pr − 1 a a 1 p 11 p 22 · · · p ar p r − 1 a1 a2 p1 − 1 p2 − 1 r .10 Prove that if φ (n)|n − 1 and n is composite. This restriction implies that φ (x)/x = φ (n)/n. where φ0 (n) = φ (n). Practice Problem 6. For how many positive values of k less than 400 will every person in the circle get tagged at least once? Problem 6. In general we can show that φk (n) > 2 2 4 4 1 2−k−1 k+2 n .

Prove that ω (n) ≤ g(n). n) = 1. The answer is thus 4 ·6 2 = 2. This is a linear combination of a and n and hence divisible by (a. Hence x ≡ y mod n. For example. By inspection we see that this is x ≡ 3 mod 7. which entails the existence of an integer s such that ab − 1 = sn.5. We need to be able to identify the invertible elements of Zn .5 we saw that Zn endowed with the operation of addition +n becomes a group. 3. let us consider Table ??. we see that 0. This implies that (a.. ab − sn = 1. and 4 do not have a multiplicative inverse. This immediately yields ax ≡ 1 mod n. How to deﬁne multiplication in Zn ? If we want to multiply a ·n b we simply multiply a · b and reduce the result mod n. a be integers. 197 Theorem Let n > 1. Proof: Assume that b is the inverse of a mod n. As an example. We are now going to investigate the multiplicative structure of Zn .1: Multiplication Table for Z6 196 Deﬁnition Let n > 1 be a natural number. To obtain 4 ·6 2 we ﬁrst multiplied 4 · 2 = 8 and then reduced mod 6 obtaining 8 ≡ 2 mod 6.u 198 Example Find the inverse of 5 mod 7. Then ab ≡ 1 mod n.12 Prove that a necessary and sufﬁcient condition for n to be a prime is that max ak+1 − ak to be the maximum gap between the ak . Why is it interesting? We have multiplied to non-zero entities and obtained a zero entity! Does Z6 form a group under ·6 ? What is the multiplicative identity? In analogy with the rational numbers. i. Another look at the table shows the interesting product 3 ·6 2 = 0. Solution: We are looking for a solution to the congruence 5x ≡ 1 mod 7. For if x. Then a possesses an inverse modulo n if and only if a is relatively prime to n.e. Deﬁne the Jacobsthal function g(n) := 1≤k≤φ (n)−1 73 (Hint: Use the Chinese Remainder Theorem). we would like 1 to be the multiplicative identity. n) = 1. y are inverses to a mod n then ax ≡ 1 mod n and ay ≡ 1 mod n. i. n). we encounter some problems. (ya)x ≡ y mod n. ·6 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 2 0 2 4 0 2 4 3 0 3 0 3 0 3 4 0 4 2 0 4 2 5 0 5 4 3 2 1 Table 6. a has an inverse mod n.11 For n > 1 let 1 = a1 < a2 < · · · < aφ (n) = n − 1 be the positive integers less than n that are relatively prime to n.5. 2. . y such that ax + ny = 1.Multiplication in Zn Problem 6. 6.e. For that we need the following. But then. by the Bachet-Bezout Theorem there are integers x. It is easy to see that inverses are unique mod n.6 Multiplication in Zn In section 3. σ (n) + φ (n) = nd(n). Problem 6. We would then deﬁne the multiplicative inverse of a to be that b that has the property that a ·6 b = b ·6 a = 1. Multiplying by y the ﬁrst of these congruences. Conversely if (a. An integer b is said to be the inverse of an integer a modulo n if ab ≡ 1 mod n.

. the preceding theorem tells us that there is a positive integer k with ak ≡ 1 mod n. n) = 1.t with 1 ≤ s < t ≤ n + 1 such that as ≡ at mod n. an+1 mod n. 25 ≡ 4 mod 7. Now. we say that a has order m mod n. 24 ≡ 2 mod 7. repeats thus cyclically. u The following theorem is of utmost importance. By the Well-Ordering Principle. i. 22 ≡ 4. We conclude that Z× is a group under the operation ·n . If y > 0 we would have a positive integer smaller than ordn a with the property ay ≡ 1 mod n. n) = 1 and let t be an integer. n We now give some assorted examples. 31 ≡ 3. Hence. . Clearly a = 0. a2 . . n). 23 ≡ 1 mod 7.74 Chapter 6 According to the preceding theorem. n) = 1. This prompts the following deﬁnition. which proves the result. 0 ≤ y < ordn a. This contradicts the deﬁnition of ordn a as the smallest positive integer with that property. Conversely. we can ﬁnd s. For example. 1 ≤ t − s ≤ n. 202 Theorem Let n > 1 be a positive integer. n) = 1 we must have (a j . 36 ≡ 1 mod 7. Then a ∈ Z has an order mod n if and only if (a. .. n since it inherits associativity from the integers. 201 Deﬁnition If m is the least positive integer with the property that am ≡ 1 mod n.u If (a. there exists a positive integer k ≤ n such that ak ≡ 1 mod n. 1. because then am ≡ 0 mod n for all positive integers m. aφ (n) }. 203 Theorem Let (a. Proof: Assume that ordn a|t. Proof: If (a.u . Proof: Since (a. ordn a|t. assume that at ≡ 1 mod n and t = x · ordn a + y. etc. 33 ≡ 6. As there are n + 1 numbers and only n residues mod n. a2 . 34 ≡ 4. 200 Theorem If a is relatively prime to the positive integer n.e. Then ay ≡ at−xordn a ≡ at · (aordn a )−x ≡ 1 · 1−x ≡ 1 mod n. It is easy to see that the operation ·n is associative. not all integers a are going to have an order mod n. Then there is an integer s such that sordn a = t. This entails that (a. This is clear if n|a. n) = 1 for all j ≥ 1. 4. the Pigeonhole Principle two of these powers must have the same remainder mod n. . Hence assume that a has an order mod n. Solution: Observe that 21 ≡ 2. The pattern 2. 199 Example (IMO 1964) Prove that there is no positive integer n for which 2n + 1 is divisible by 7. . a3 . 26 ≡ 1 mod 7. This gives at ≡ asordn a ≡ (aordn a )s ≡ 1s ≡ 1 mod n. We write this fact as ord7 3 = 6. We thus see that only the reduced residues mod n have an inverse. This says that there is no power of 2 which is ≡ −1 ≡ 6 mod 7. there is an integer s with am + sn = 1 or a · am−1 + sn = 1. Hence y = 0 and thus t = x · ordn a. We let Z× = {a1 . . Using Corollary ?? we gather that at−s ≡ 1 mod n. Hence as ≡ at mod n gives at−s as ≡ at−s at mod n. 35 ≡ 5. then a has an order in view of Theorem ?? and the Well-Ordering Principle. n) = 1. . Consider the sequence a. n) = 1. there must be a smallest positive integer with this property. Then at ≡ 1 mod n if and only if ordn a|t. n) = 1. That is. Given n. The question as to which integers are going to have an order mod n is answered in the following theorem. a will have a multiplicative inverse if and only if (a. and so the order of 3 mod 7 is 6. This is a linear combination of a and n and hence divisible by (a. The existence of an order entails the existence of a positive integer m such that am ≡ 1 mod n. 32 ≡ 2. which is to say at ≡ at−s at mod n.

Again. . n) = 1. 5. Thus n = 3. . . then ar1 + b. 35. and 0 for non-square free integers. . . 12. 0 if n > 1. . . If r1 . ar2 + b. . Practice Problem 6.7 Möbius Function 1 µ (n) = (−1)ω (n) 0 if n = 1. We want 2n ≡ 1 mod 7. n) = 1.u For example. 25. .Practice 204 Example (IMO 1964) Find all positive integers n for which 2n − 1 is divisible by 7. 35. If one of m. If both M and n are square-free then µ (m)µ (n) = (−1)ω (m) (−1)ω (n) = (−1)ω (m)+ω (n) = µ (mn). . 7. It must then be the case that 3|n. 9. r2 . 55 in some order and 1 · 5 · 7 · 11 ≡ 5 · 25 · 35 · 55 mod 12. 207 Deﬁnition The Möbius function is deﬁned for positive integer n as follows: Thus µ is 1 for n = 1 and square free integers with an even number of prime factors. Since (a.. . rφ (n) is a reduced set of residues modulo n. . The following result will be used repeatedly. arφ (n) + b is also a reduced set of residues modulo n. 11 is a reduced residue system modulo 12 and (12. 208 Theorem The Möbius Function µ is multiplicative. . 5.1 Find the order of 5 modulo 12. the 1. 75 Solution: Observe that the order of 2 mod 7 is 3. 6. r2 . a ∈ Z. then ar1 . 11 are the 5. n) = 1. ar2 . This contradicts the fact that the r’s are incongruent. a. . Thus for example µ (6) = 1. If r1 . 7. n) = 1. This proves the theorem. .6. µ (30) = −1 and µ (18) = 0. so the theorem follows. −1 for square free integers with an odd number of prime factors. 6. . . arφ (n) are mutually incongruent mod n. 5) = 1. rφ (n) is a reduced set of residues modulo n. ar2 . 25. Suppose that ari ≡ ar j mod n for some i = j. . we deduce from Corollary ?? that ri ≡ r j mod n. . the set 5. (a. b ∈ Z. arφ (n) is also a reduced set of residues modulo n. . . u 209 Theorem µ (d) = d|n ß 1 if n = 1. . 205 Theorem Let n > 1. if ω (n) = Ω(n). as 1. Proof: Assume (m. 206 Corollary Let n > 1. Proof: We just need to show that the φ (n) numbers ar1 . 55 is also a reduced residue system modulo 12. (a. The following corollary to Theorem ?? should be immediate. if ω (n) < Ω(n). . n is not square-free then µ (m)µ (n) = 0 = µ (mn). .

Proof: We have f (d) d|n = d|n s|d µ (s)F(d/s) µ (d/s)F(s) d|n s|d = = s|n µ (r)F(s). Proof: There are k The sum in question is thus å ω (n) Ç ω (n) µ (d) = (−1)k .2 If f is an arithmetical function and F(n) = φ (n) = n d|n µ (d) . Proof: We have d|n µ (d)F(n/d) = d|n d|n = ds|n f (s) n s| d µ (d) f (s) f (s) µ (d). d . For all such d. the inner sum will be 0 unless s = n. k d|n k=0 By the Binomial Theorem this last sum is (1 − 1)ω (n) = 0. 211 Theorem Let f . Hence only the term s = n in the outer s sum survives. Then f (n) = d|n µ (d)F(n/d) = d|n µ (n/d)F(d). in which case the entire sum reduces to F(n).7. µ (d) = (−1)k .u 210 Theorem (Möbius Inversion Formula) Let f be an arithmetical function and F(n) = d|n f (d).u Practice Problem 6. n r| s Using Theorem ??.7.76 Ç Chapter 6 å ω (n) square-free divisors d of n with exactly k prime factors. Then F(n) = d|n f (d). n d| s n In view of theorem ??.u = s|n We now show the converse to Theorem ??.1 Prove that Problem 6. the inner sum is different from 0 only when = 1. which means that the above sums simplify to f (n). F be arithmetic functions with f (n) = d|n µ (d)F(n/d) for all natural numbers n.

f (n) = j=1 µ ( j)F([n/ j]). f (n) = j=1 µ (n + 1) = µ (n + 2) = · · · = µ (n + k). k=1 . then k=1 |µ (d)| = 2ω (n) . Problem 6.7. prove that there n n exist inﬁnitely many integers n with µ (k)F([n/k]).6 Given any positive integer k. Problem 6.3 If F is an arithmetical function such that Problem 6.7.5 Prove that d|n µ (d)d(d) = (−1)ω (n) . prove that F(n) = f ( j).4 Prove that d|n n f ([n/k]).Practice n 77 Problem 6.7.7.

Chapter

7

a p−1 ≡ 1 mod p. mod p in view of

More on Congruences

7.1 Theorems of Fermat and Wilson

212 Theorem (Fermat’s Little Theorem) Let p be a prime and let p |a. Then

Proof: Since (a, p) = 1, the set a · 1, a · 2, . . . , a · (p − 1) is also a reduced set of residues Theorem ??. Hence (a · 1)(a · 2) · · ·(a · (p − 1)) ≡ 1 · 2 · · ·(p − 1) mod p, or a p−1(p − 1)! ≡ (p − 1)! mod p.

As ((p − 1)!, p) = 1 we may cancel out the (p − 1)!’s in view of Corollary ??. This proves the theorem.u As an obvious corollary, we obtain the following.

213 Corollary For every prime p and for every integer a,

ap ≡ a

mod p.

Proof: Either p|a or p |a. If p|a, a ≡ 0 ≡ a p mod p and there is nothing to prove. If p |a, Fermat’s Little Theorem yields p|a p−1 − 1. Hence p|a(a p−1 − 1) = a p − a, which again gives the result.u The following corollary will also be useful.

214 Corollary Let p be a prime and a an integer. Assume that p |a. Then ord p a|p − 1.

**Proof: This follows immediately from Theorem ?? and Fermat’s Little Theorem.u
**

215 Example Find the order of 8 mod 11.

**Solution: By Corollary ?? ord11 8 is either 1, 2, 5 or 10. Now 82 ≡ −2 mod 11, 84 ≡ 4 mod 11 and 85 ≡ −1 mod 11. The order is thus ord11 8 = 10.
**

216 Example Let a1 = 4, an = 4an−1 , n > 1. Find the remainder when a100 is divided by 7.

78

Theorems of Fermat and Wilson

79

Solution: By Fermat’s Little Theorem, 46 ≡ 1 mod 7. Now, 4n ≡ 4 mod 6 for all positive integers n, i.e., 4n = 4 + 6t for some integer t. Thus a100 ≡ 4a99 ≡ 44+6t ≡ 44 · (46 )t ≡ 4 mod 7.

217 Example Prove that for m, n ∈ Z, mn(m60 − n60) is always divisible by 56786730.

Solution: Let a = 56786730 = 2 · 3 · 5 · 7 · 11 · 13 · 31 · 61. Let Q(x, y) = xy(x60 − y60 ). Observe that (x − y)|Q(x, y), (x2 − y2 )|Q(x, y), (x3 − y3 )|Q(x, y), (x4 − y4 )|Q(x, y), (x6 − y6 )|Q(x, y), (x10 − y10 )|Q(x, y), (x12 − y12 )|Q(x, y), and (x30 − y30 )|Q(x, y). If p is any one of the primes dividing a, the Corollary to Fermat’s Little Theorem yields m p − m ≡ 0 mod p and n p − n ≡ 0 mod p. Thus n(m p − m) − m(n p − n) ≡ 0 mod p, i.e., mn(m p−1 − n p−1) ≡ 0 mod p. Hence, we have 2|mn(m − n)|Q(m, n), 3|mn(m2 −n2 )|Q(m, n), 5|mn(m4 −n4 )|Q(m, n), 7|mn(m6 −n6 )|Q(m, n), 11|mn(m10 −n10 )|Q(m, n), 13|mn(m12 −n12 )|Q(m, n), 31|m n30 )|Q(m, n) and 61|mn(m60 − n60 )|Q(m, n). Since these are all distinct primes, we gather that a|mnQ(m, n), which is what we wanted.

218 Example (Putnam 1972) Show that given an odd prime p, there are always inﬁnitely many integers n for which p|n2n + 1.

**Answer: For any odd prime p, take n = (p − 1)2k+1, k = 0, 1, 2, . . .. Then n2n + 1 ≡ (p − 1)2k+1 (2 p−1 )(p−1) + 1 ≡ (−1)2k+1 12k + 1 ≡ 0
**

2k

mod p.

219 Example Prove that there are no integers n > 1 with n|2n − 1.

Solution: If n|2n − 1 for some n > 1, then n must be odd and have a smallest odd prime p as a divisor. By Fermat’s Little Theorem, 2 p−1 ≡ 1 mod p. By Corollary ?? , ord p2 has a prime factor in common with p − 1. Now, p|n|2n − 1 and so 2n ≡ 1 mod p. Again, by Corollary ??, ord p 2 must have a common prime factor with n (clearly ord p2 > 1). This means that n has a smaller prime factor than p, a contradiction.

220 Example Let p be a prime. Prove that

1.

2.

Ç

å p−1 ≡ (−1)n n Ç å p+1 ≡0 n

mod p, 1 ≤ n ≤ p − 1.

mod p, 2 ≤ n ≤ p − 1.

3. If p = 5 is an odd prime, prove that either f p−1 or f p+1 is divisible by p. Solution: (1) (p − 1)(p − 2) · · ·(p − n) ≡ (−1)(−2) · · · (−n) ≡ (−1)n n! mod p. The assertion follows from this. (2) (p + 1)(p)(p − 1) · · ·(p − n + 2) ≡ (1)(0)(−1) · · · (−n + 2) ≡ 0 mod p. The assertion follows from this. (3) Using the Binomial Theorem and Binet’s Formula ÇÇ å Ç å Ç å å n n 1 n +5 fn = n−1 + 52 + ··· . 1 2 3 5 From this and (1), 2 p−2 f p−1 ≡ p − 1 − (5 + 52 + · · · + 5(p−3)/2) ≡ − 5(p−1)/2 − 1 4 mod p.

80 Using (2), Thus But by Fermat’s Little Theorem, 5 2 p f p+1 ≡ p + 1 + 5(p−1)/2 ≡ 5(p−1)/2 + 1 2 p f p−1 f p+1 ≡ 5 p−1 − 1 mod p. mod p.

Chapter 7

p−1

≡ 1 mod p for p = 5. The assertion follows.

221 Lemma If a2 ≡ 1 mod p, then either a ≡ 1 mod p or a ≡ −1 mod p.

Proof: We have p|a2 − 1 = (a − 1)(a + 1). Since p is a prime, it must divide at least one of the factors. This proves the lemma.u

222 Theorem (Wilson’s Theorem) If p is a prime, then (p − 1)! ≡ −1 mod p.

In other words,

Proof: If p = 2 or p = 3, the result follows by direct veriﬁcation. So assume that p > 3. Consider a, 2 ≤ a ≤ p − 2. To each such a we associate its unique inverse a mod p, i.e. aa ≡ 1 mod p. Observe that a = a since then we would have a2 ≡ 1 mod p which violates the preceding lemma as a = 1, a = p − 1. Thus in multiplying all a in the range 2 ≤ a ≤ p − 2, we pair them of with their inverses, and the net contribution of this product is therefore 1. In symbols, 2 · 3 · · ·(p − 2) ≡ 1 mod p. (p − 1)! ≡ 1 · Ñ j é · (p − 1) ≡ 1 · 1 · (p − 1) ≡ −1 mod p.

2≤a≤p−2

This gives the result. u

223 Example If p ≡ 1 mod 4, prove that

As (−1)(p−1)/2 = 1, we obtain the result.

**Solution: In the product (p − 1)! we pair off j, 1 ≤ j ≤ (p − 1)/2 with p − j. Observe that j(p − j) ≡ − j2 mod p. Hence Å ã p−1 −1 ≡ (p − 1)! ≡ − j2 ≡ (−1)(p−1)/2 ! mod p. 2
**

1≤ j≤(p−1)/2

Å

ã p−1 ! ≡ −1 2

mod p.

224 Example (IMO 1970) Find the set of all positive integers n with the property that the set

{n, n + 1, n + 2, n + 3, n + 4, n + 5} can be partitioned into two sets such that the product of the numbers in one set equals the product of the numbers in the other set. Solution: We will show that no such partition exists. Suppose that we can have such a partition, with one of the subsets having product of its members equal to A and the other having product of its members equal to B. We might have two possibilities. The ﬁrst possibility is that exactly one of the numbers in the set {n, n + 1, n + 2, n + 3, n + 4, n + 5} is divisible by 7, in which case exactly one of A or B is divisible by 7, and so A · B is not divisible by 72 , and so A · B is not a square. The second possibility is that all of the members of the set are relatively prime to 7. In this last case we have n(n + 1) · · ·(n + 6) ≡ 1 · 2 · · ·6 ≡ A · B ≡ −1 mod 7.

But if A = B then we are saying that there is an integer A such that A2 ≡ −1 mod 7, which is an impossibility, as −1 is not a square mod 7. This ﬁnishes the proof.

225 Theorem (Euler’s Theorem) Let (a. .7 Let p and q be distinct primes. .1.8 If p is an odd prime prove that n p ≡ n mod 2p for all integers n.6 If (mn.1. Problem 7. n) = 1. . 2 2 2 2 2 2 (p−1)/2 Problem 7.1. 42) = 1 prove that 168|m − n . Thus aa1 · aa2 · · · aaφ (n) ≡ a1 a2 · · · aφ (n) or aφ (n) a1 a2 · · · aφ (n) ≡ a1 a2 · · · aφ (n) mod n. due to Euler.1. a2 . . .1. 227 Example Find the last two digits of 31000 . . mod n. Then aφ (n) ≡ 1 mod n.1.1.2 Prove that there are inﬁnitely many integers n with n|2n + 2. Problem 7. n) = 1.2 Euler’s Theorem In this section we obtain a generalisation of Fermat’s Little Theorem. n) = 1.10 Prove that n > 1 is a prime if and only if (n − 1)! ≡ −1 mod n. Problem 7. The proof is analogous to that of Fermat’s Little Theorem. 6k+2 + 3) for all nonnegative 7. As (a1 a2 · · · aφ (n) . by Euler’s Theorem.u Using Theorem ?? we obtain the following corollary.Practice 81 Practice Problem 7. 6 6 Problem 7. Problem 7. . As (a. Then ordn a|φ (n). aa1 .12 Prove that 19|(22 integers k. aaφ (n) also forms a set of incongruent reduced residues. Thus 31000 = (340 )25 ≡ 125 = 1 and so the last two digits are 01. Proof: Let a1 . mod 100. Problem 7. we may cancel the product a1 a2 · · · aφ (n) from both sides of the congruence to obtain Euler’s Theorem. aφ (n) be the canonical reduced residues mod n. Prove that q p−1 + pq−1 ≡ 1 mod pq.3 Find all primes p such that p|2 p + 1. Problem 7.9 If p is an odd prime and p|m p + n p prove that p2 |m p + n p. Problem 7. n) = 1.1 Find all the natural numbers n for which 3|(n2n + 1).1.1.5 If p is a prime prove that p|a p + (p − 1)!a for 1 ·3 · · · (p −2) ≡ 2 ·4 · · · (p −1) ≡ (−1) all integers a. 340 ≡ 1 mod 100.1. Problem 7. . . aa2 .11 Prove that if p is an odd prime mod p Problem 7. Solution: As φ (100) = 40. Answer: p = 3 only.1.1.4 If p and q are distinct primes prove that pq|(a pq − a p − aq − a) for all integers a. 226 Corollary Let (a.

229 Example (IMO 1978) m. n = 103. 1978s ≡ 3s ≡ 1 mod 5. Now. Hence. Using the Binomial Theorem we have (a + b)7 − a7 − b7 = = = = = The given hypotheses can be thus simpliﬁed to (i)′ ab(a + b) is not divisible by 7..e. 230 Example (IMO 1984) Find one pair of positive integers a. Similarly 197820 ≡ 19784 · (19784)4 ≡ 6 · 64 ≡ 6 · 46 ≡ 26 mod 125. (ii)′ a2 + ab + b2 is divisible by 73 . m + n = 106. Solution: First observe that φ (100) = φ (22 )φ (52 ) = (22 − 2)(52 − 5) = 40. Since s|100. Finally.3 s|100. Justify your answer. This means that 71000 = 1 + 40t for some integer t. mod 125. φ (40) = φ (23 )φ (5) = 4 · 4 = 16. to the last three digits of 1978n. we take n −m = s = 100 and m = 3. Since s is the smallest positive integer with 1978s ≡ 1 mod 125. the last three digits of 1000 ≡ 71+40t ≡ 7 · (740)t ≡ 7 mod 100. Solution: We ﬁrst factorise (a + b)7 − a7 − b7 as ab(a + b)(a2 + ab + b2)2 . . we minimise n − m. This means that 71000 ≡ (716 )62 78 ≡ 162 78 ≡ (74 )2 ≡ 12 ≡ 1 mod 40. i. Since 125|(1978 − 1) we have 5|(1978s − 1). and ﬁnally. hence 716 ≡ 1 mod 40. 7(a6 b + ab6 + 3(a5b2 + a2 b5 ) + 5(a4b3 + a3 b4 )) 7ab(a5 + b5 + 3ab(a3 + b3) + 5(a2 b2 )(a + b)) 7ab(a + b)(a4 + b4 − a3 b − ab3 + a2 b2 +3ab(a2 − ab + b2) + 5ab) 7ab(a + b)(a4 + b4 + 2(a3b + ab3) + 3a2b2 ) 7ab(a + b)(a2 + ab + b2)2 . In their decimal representations. 1978m are equal. 23 must divide the ﬁrst and so m ≥ 3.. s 1978100 ≡ 1 mod 125 This means that s = 20 and so s = 100. Observe that 19784 ≡ (−22)4 ≡ 24 · 114 ≡ (4 · 121)2 ≡ (−16)2 ≡ 6 This means that s = 4. respectively. ord1251978 is the smallest positive integer s with 1978s ≡ 1 mod 125. or 100. By Euler’s Theorem and so by Corollary 7.e.82 228 Example Find the last two digits of 77 1000 Chapter 7 . 1000 = 16 · 62 + 8. by Euler’s Theorem. (ii) (a + b)7 − a7 − b7 is divisible by 77 . m = 3. b such that: (i) ab(a + b) is not divisible by 7. 740 ≡ 1 mod 100. Solution: As m + n = n − m + 2m. We are given that 1978n − 1978m = 1978m(1978n−m − 1) is divisible by 1000 = 23 53 . 20. Find m. Upon assembling all this 77 This means that the last two digits are 07. this last congruence implies that s = 4. Now. n such that m + n has its least value. n are natural numbers with 1 ≤ m < n. i. Since the second factor is odd. We now rule out the ﬁrst two possibilities.

3 Prove that for odd integer n > 0. Using trial and error.7 Find the last two digits of a1001 if a1 = 7.10 (USAMO 1982) Prove that there exists a positive integer k such that k · 2n + 1 is composite for every positive integer n. Problem 7.9 Prove that for every natural number n there exists some power of 2 whose ﬁnal n digits are all ones and 11 . Let us look for more solutions by means of Euler’s Theorem.2. Prove that p divides inﬁnitely many numbers of the form Problem 7. and so if x is not divisible by 7 we have (x98 )3 ≡ 1 mod 73 .2. We leave to the reader to verify that a = 324. such that the sum of the digits of n equals s.2. . we obtain a + b ≥ 19. b = 1 is another solution.2.Practice 83 As (a + b)2 > a2 + ab + b2 ≥ 73 . 11. Letting x = 3 we ﬁnd that 398 ≡ 324 mod 73 . As a3 − b3 = (a − b)(a2 + ab + b2). twos. letting x = 2 we see that 298 ≡ 4 mod 7. Prove that mφ (n) + nφ (n) ≡ 1 mod mn. as 12 + 1 · 18 + 182 = 343 = 73 . there is an integer n divisible by s.6 Let (m.8 Find the remainder of 1010 + 1010 + · · · + 1010 upon division by 7. . (ii)’ is implied by ß 3 a ≡ b3 mod 73 ′′ (ii) a ≡ b mod 7.2.2.5 Find all natural numbers n that divide 1 + 2 + · · · + (n − 1) . b = 18 give an answer.2. n n n Problem 7. Practice Problem 7. b = 1.2.2. Problem 7.11 (Putnam 1985) Describe the sequence a1 = 3. we ﬁnd that a = 1. Problem 7. . For example. Thus letting a = 298 .4 Let p |10 be a prime. Problem 7.1 Show that for all natural numbers s.2 Prove that 504|n9 − n3 . Problem 7. Now φ (73 ) = (7 − 1)72 = 3 · 98.2. n! Problem 7. n|(2 − 1). 2 10 Problem 7.2. an = 7an−1 . n) = 1. Problem 7. We must verify now the conditions of non-divisibility. which gives the ﬁrst part of (ii)’. an = 3an−1 mod 100 for large n.

So x2 − 10x − 22 < x. 233 Example A whole number decreases an integral number of times when its last digit is deleted. that is. If x = 11. 0 . Solution: Let x have the form x = a0 + a1 10 + a2102 + · · · + an−110n−1. P(x) = 1. j ≥ 1. 0 ≤ a j ≤ 9. Find all such numbers. P(x) = 0. and we deduce that x < 13. The condition of the problem stipulates that 6 · 10n + y = 25 · y whence y= 6 · 10n . Let P(x) be the product of the digits of x. 84 . n−2 zeroes 232 Example (IMO 1968) Find all natural numbers x such that the product of their digits (in decimal notation) equals x2 − 10x − 22. whence x has either one digit or x = 10. If x = 12. 13. where y is a number with n digits (it may begin with one or several zeroes). P(x) = 2 and x2 − 10x − 22 = 2. Therefore. x = 12 is the only solution. . y = 25 · 10k−2. 11. but this equation has no integral solutions. If x = 10. Then this number can be written as 6 · 10n + y. For example. P(x) = x2 − 10x − 22. ak ≤ 9. then a0 = x2 − 10x − 22. Now.1 The Decimal Scale As we all know. 24 From this we gather that n ≥ 2 (otherwise. 6 · 10n would not be divisible by 24). Solution: Let the number sought have n + 1 digits. y has the form 250 · · ·0(n − 2 zeroes). Scales of Notation 8. but x2 − 10x − 22 = 1. For n ≥ 2. 231 Example Find all whole numbers which begin with the digit 6 and decrease 25 times when this digit is deleted. If x had one digit. 65789 = 6 · 104 + 5 · 103 + 7 · 102 + 8 · 10 + 9. We conclude that all the numbers sought have the form 625 0 . but x2 − 10x − 22 = 0. . P(x) = a0 a1 · · · an−1 ≤ 9n−1 an−1 < 10n−1an−1 ≤ x (strict inequality occurs when x has more than one digit).Chapter 8 n = a0 10k + a1 10k−1 + · · · + ak−1 10 + ak. an−1 = 0. any natural number n can be written in the form where 1 ≤ a0 ≤ 9.

37|s. and A′ be a number written with the aid of the same digits with are arranged in some other order. once for 101. By the Inclusion-Exclusion Principle. then A is divisible by 10. a1 be the consecutive digits of A and A′ = a′ a′ . once for 110. (If n has only one digit. once for 011. 111 is repeated various times. If y = 0. which equals 463 − 1.abc. 66. 1 235 Example (AIME 1994) Given a positive integer n. 44. This implies that j must be odd. a′ . we see that the sinistral side of the above equality is the even number 2(a1 + a2 + · · · + s a10 ). we just have to substitute the (possible) zeroes in the decimal representation. c are not necessarily distinct. .) The total number of distinct numerators in the set of reduced fractions is thus 640 + 12 = 660. and j = 9 10 implies that there are no sums of the form al + a′ . and we obtain the multiples of 10. x = 1 or x = 2 and we obtain 12 and 22. If abc is neither divisible by 3 nor 37. once for 001. 39.The Decimal Scale 85 Solution: Let 0 ≤ y ≤ 9. there are 999 − (999/3 + 999/37) + 999/3 · 37 = 648 such numbers. 810. To write the elements of S as fractions in lowest terms. Prove that if A + A′ = 1010 . and thus not in S. 77. 28. 234 Example Let A be a positive integer. If y = 2. 108. 236 Example (AIME 1992) Let S be the set of all rational numbers r. . (In the last sum. and so p(1) + p(2) + · · · + p(n) = 111 + 112 + · · ·+ 999 = (1 + 1 + 2 + · · ·+ 9)3 − 1. 15. where 3|s. (Observe that we do not consider fractions of the form l/3t . . 0 ≤ j ≤ 9 for which a1 +a′ = a2 +a′ = · · · = a j +a′j = 0. and 999 = 33 · 37. x = 1. There are 12 fractions of this kind. . Solution: Clearly A and A′ must have ten digits. 55. Now. 16. . 26. 1 2 10 Since the a′ are a permutation of the as . where we subtracted a 0 in order to eliminate 000. where the digits a. If y = 1. Notice that j = 0 implies that there are no sums of the form a j+k + a′j+k . This requires 10 + y/x = m. and 10x + y = mx. then p(n) is equal to that digit. 11. 37 |s are in S. a j+1 +a′j+1 = 10. fractions of the form s/37. . On adding all these sums. Also. 24. and we obtain 11. because fractions of this form are greater than 1. We must have x|y. we gather l a1 + a′ + a2 + a′ + · · · + a10 + a′ = 10 + 9(9 − j). how many different numerators are required? abc . the fraction is already Solution: Observe that 0. What is the largest prime factor of S? Solution: Observe that non-zero digits are the ones that matter. 10 9 1 A+A′ = 1010 if and only if there is a j. Continuing in this fashion. 800. that have a repeating decimal expansion of the form 0. the sought numbers are: the multiples of 10. Thus (0 + 1 + 2 · · · + 9)3 − 0 = 001 + 002 + · · ·+ 999. We obtain all the three digit numbers from 001 to 999 by expanding the product (0 + 1 + 2 + · · ·+ 9)3 − 0. which gives the result. 48. 3 |l. 19. 12. But this implies that a1 + a′ = 0. 0 < r < 1. the number required is 103. by 1’s. 18. the numbers 180.) As 463 − 1 = 33 · 5 · 7 · 103. So. an integer. m and x natural numbers.) Let S = p(1) + p(2) + · · · + p(999). let p(n) be the product of the non-zero digits of n. etc. any natural number x will do.abcabcabc . . 1 ≤ l ≤ j. 13. Let A = a10 a9 . 88. and 811 have the same value p(n). .22. a j+2 +a′j+2 = 1 2 a j+3 + a′j+3 = · · · = a10 + a′ = 9. In order to obtain p(n) for a particular number. = 999 in lowest terms. 17. 14. 36. 118. once for 100. 33. .abcabcabc . k ≥ 2. = 0. for example. and 99. b.

. Practice Problem 8.10 (AIME 1986) In the parlor game.6 Given that n ≥ 2.86 Chapter 8 237 Example (Putnam 1956) Prove that every positive integer has a multiple whose decimal representation involves all 10 digits.d25d25d25d25 . Thus g(1983) < 1983 · 101983 < 9 9 j=1 104 · 101983 = 101987 and g(1984) > 1983 · 101984 > 103 · 101984.11 The integer n is the smallest multiple of 15 let N be number obtained from m by writing the same digits in such that every digit of n is either 0 or 8. f (1987). Problem 8. b. Solution: Let n be an arbitrary positive integer with k digits. . 238 Example (Putnam 1987) The sequence of digits 12345678910111213141516171819202122 . Problem 8. n) of nonnegative integers is called simple if the addition m + n requires no carrying.1.8 (AIME 1988) Find the smallest positive integer whose cube ends in 888. . Problem 8.1. Then all of the n consecutive integers m + 1. Prove that there is a positive integer n such that the decimal expansion of nt contains a 7. Find f1988 (11). Find.1. The total number of digits in numbers with at most r digits is g(r) = r 10r − 1 10r − 1 j · 9 · 10r−1 = r10r − . The magician asks his victim to form {1000. cab and cba. with proof. Problem 8. 2000} the numbers acb. Find all whole numbers with that property. 1 1 1 e = 2 + + + + ··· .7 Let t be a positive real number.1. Let m = 123456789 · 10k+1. . to add the number and to reveal their sum N.1. bers N that are divisible by 11 and such that N/11 equals the . deﬁne f (n) to be m. . . Solution: There are 9 · 10 j−1 j-digit positive integers. Problem 8.2 A whole number is equal to the arithmetic mean of all the numbers obtained from the given number with the aid of all possible permutations of its digits.1. bac.gician” asks one of the participants to think of a three-digit number abc. Find the number of simple ordered pairs of nonnegative integers that sum 1492.13 (IMO 1969) Determine all three-digit numprove that e is irrational.1. the “maProblem 8.1. Problem 8.12 (AIME 1988) For any positive integer k.1. As 0 < < 10r . . we get (r − 1)10r < g(r) < r10r .1. m + 2. reversed order. is obtained by writing the positive integers in order. 2! 3! 4! Problem 8. . 810 Problem 8. Find n if n = 0.1. let fn (k) = f1 ( fn−1 (k)). If told the value of N. . Play the magician and determine abc if N = 319. let f1 (k) denote the square of the sums of the digits of k. Prove that at least one digit in the decimal representation of the number M + N is even.m + n begin with 1234567890 and one of them is divisible by n. because the hundredth digit enters the sequence in the placement of the two-digit integer 55.1... c represent the digits of the number utive integers in in the order indicated.3 (AIME 1989) Suppose that n is a positive integer and d is a single digit in base-ten.1. For example f (2) = 2. Compute n/15.1 Prove that there is no whole number which decreases 35 times when its initial digit is deleted.9 (AIME 1987) An ordered pair (m. Therefore f (1987) = 1984. .4 (AIME 1992) For how many pairs of consec. where a. Problem 8. 1001.5 Let m be a seventeen-digit positive integer and Problem 8. If the 10n digit of this sequence occurs in the part in which the m-digit numbers are placed. For Problem 8. the magician can is no carrying required when the two integers are added? identity abc.

.1. We gather that a2 = 5. Dividing 411 by 73 we obtain 1 + proper fraction = a3 + proper fraction. ﬁnd the last thousand digits of 1 + 50 + 502 + · · · + 50999.. 240 Example Express the decimal number 13/16 in base-six. however. Prove or disprove that π is the sum of two Liouville numbers. 8.020408163265306122448979591836734693877551. . it must be the case that a4 = 2. Multiply by 62 to obtain 6 6 5 + proper fraction = a2 + proper fraction. Since a4 is an integer. 2.1.16 A Liouville number is a real number x such that for every positive k there exist integers a and b ≥ 2. we deduce that 13/16 = . Problem 8. a4 ≤ 6. Thus 5213 − 2 · 74 = 411 = a3 73 + a2 72 + a1 7 + a0 . Solution: Write Multiply by 6 to obtain 13 a1 a2 a3 = + + + . + 2 = 2+ r r r .. Show that Champernowne’s number Problem 8.17 Given that 1/49 = 0. the resulting number is four times as large as the original number. such Problem 8. Now.. a4 = 0. we can. We thus want to ﬁnd 0 ≤ a0 . Let r ∈ Q and let ε > 0 be given.that ber having last digit is 6 and if this 6 is erased and put in front |x − a/b| < b−k .41 is a perfect square in any scale of notation. .. 87 Problem 8. Prove that there exists a positive integer n such that |10n χ − r| < ε . 241 Example Prove that 4. Hence 13/16 − 4/6 = 7/48 = 2 + 3 + .41 is in scale r. 16 6 62 63 4 + proper fraction = a1 + proper fraction. Solution: Observe that 5213 < 75 .41 = 4 + ã Å 1 2 4 1 .45136. Thus a3 = 1.123456789101112131415161718192021 . Solution: If 4. Continuing in this fashion. divide by 74 to obtain 2 + proper fraction = a4 + proper fraction. . . express any number in base r.1.14 (IMO 1962) Find the smallest natural num. 239 Example Express the decimal number 5213 in base-seven. . . χ = 0.15 is irrational.Non-decimal Scales sum of the squares of the digits of N.2 Non-decimal Scales The fact that most people have ten ﬁngers has ﬁxed our scale of notation to the decimal.1. 1. Continuing in this way we deduce that 5213 = 211257. of the other digits. then 4. . a2 a3 Thus a1 = 4. such that 5213 = a4 74 + a373 + a2 72 + a1 7 + a0. Given any positive integer r > 1.

. Find the hundredth term of the sequence. This will happen if and only if x0 has a repeating expansion with a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 as the repeating block . . . This cannot be because 31a1 + 15a2 + 7a3 + 3a4 + a5 ≤ 31 + 15 + 7 + 3 + 1 = 57 < 60. 10. 3. 110. 8x = 8 · 195 + 4a1 + 2a2 + a3 .. To obtain the 100-th term of the sequence we just write 100 in binary 100 = 11001002 and translate this into ternary: 11001003 = 36 + 35 + 32 = 981. But if a1 = a2 = · · · = a5 = 1. . . . . consists of all those positive integers which are powers of 3 or sums distinct powers of 3. they comprise the positive integers which do not contain the digit 2. Write then x in base-two: a1 a2 a3 x = 195 + + 2 + 3 + . Thus. 11. . these numbers are. = 0. 1. 32x = 32 · 195 + 16a1 + 8a2 + 4a3 + 2a4 + a5. 4.a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 . 9. . 16x = 16 · 195 + 8a1 + 4a2 + 2a3 + a4 .a6 a7 a8 a9 a10 a11 a12 .. . Does the equation Chapter 8 x + 2x + 4x + 8x + 16x + 32x = 12345 have a solution? Solution: We show that there is no such x. The total number of values for which x0 = x5 is thus 32 − 1 = 31. . . Then 2x = 2 · 195 + a1. 2. . 10.88 242 Example Let x denote the greatest integer less than or equal to x. . Practice . 2n The algorithm given just moves the binary point one unit to the right. 111. 12. In the binary scale. Solution: If the terms of the sequence are written in base-3. i. 3. 244 Example (AIME 1986) The increasing sequence 1. 2 2 2 with ak = 0 or 1. . the terms of the sequence in ascending order are thus 1. 31a1 + 15a2 + 7a3 + 3a4 + a5 = 60. For how many x0 is it true that x0 = x5 ? Solution: Write x0 in base-two. Recall that x satisﬁes the inequalities x − 1 < x ≤ x. For x0 to equal x5 we need 0. let xn = for all integers n > 0. 100. Hence 195 < x < 196. 13. . Adding we ﬁnd that x + 2x + 4x + 8x + 16x + 32x = 63 · 195 + 31a1 + 15a2 + 7a3 + 3a4 + a5 . Thus x − 1 + 2x − 1 + 4x − 1 + · · ·+ 32x − 1 < ≤ x + 2x + 4x + 8x + 16x + 32x x + 2x + 4x + · · ·+ 32x.e. 101. of course. 4x = 4 · 195 + 2a1 + a2 . 1). which is outside [0. then x0 = 1. x0 = k=1 ∞ ß 2xn−1 if 2xn−1 < 1 2xn−1 − 1 if 2xn−1 ≥ 1 an an = 0 or 1. . There are 25 = 32 such blocks. From this we see that 63x − 6 < 12345 ≤ 63x. 243 Example (AHSME 1993) Given 0 ≤ x0 < 1.

4 (AHSME. is called balanced if xn < 1/2 for all 1 ≤ n ≤ 3.2 Prove that for x ∈ R. Calculate E(n) lim 2 .2. 1987) For each positive integer n.1 (Putnam. let α (n) be the number of zeroes in the base-three representation of n. pk . x3 ) = (x′ .7 Let B(n) be the number of 1’s in the base-two expansion of n.2. one performs the balancing act on it. (P UTNAM 1984) Express 2m −1 (−1)B(n) nm n=0 Problem 8. x′ ). p−1 ∞ m= k=1 n .2. when written in base-three.2. Show that no three integers in C are in arithmetic progression. Does continuation of this process always lead to a balanced triple after a ﬁnite number of performances of the balancing act? Problem 8. 1. x′ . If the new triple i is not balanced. 1982) The base-eight representation of a perfect square is ab3c with a = 0. 245 Theorem (Legendre) Let p be a prime and let n = a0 pk + a1 pk−1 + · · · + ak−1 p + ak be the base-p expansion of n. B(15) = B(11112) = 4. (P UTNAM 1981) Is ∞ xα (n) n3 converge? Problem 8. The exact power m of a prime p dividing n! is given by m= Proof: By De Polignac’s Formula n − (a0 + a1 + · · · + ak ) . 1977) An ordered triple of in the form (−1)m a f (m) (g(m))! where a is an integer (x1 . say x j > 1/2. g are polynomials.2. Problem 8. x2 . x ≥ 0.2. For example. one has ∞ n=1 (−1) 2n 2n x = 1 − 2(x − x ).2.5 (Putnam. For which positive real numbers x does the series ∞ n=1 89 where x′ = 2xi if xi = x j and x′j = 2x j − 1. Problem 8.A theorem of Kummer Problem 8.8 What is the largest integer that I should be “balancing act”: permitted to choose so that you may determine my number in twenty “yes” or “no” questions? B(x1 . 1 2 3 8. do not require the digit 2.6 Let C denote the class of positive integers which. Find the value of c. B(6) = B(1102) = 2.3 A theorem of Kummer We ﬁrst establish the following theorem. n→∞ n Problem 8. If a triple is not balanced.3 (Putnam. 1981) Let E(n) denote the largest k such that 5k is an integral divisor of 11 22 33 · · · nn .2. one performs the following Problem 8. exp n=1 B(n) n2 + n a rational number? 2. x3 ) of positive irrational numbers with x1 + x2 + x3 = 1 and f . x2 .

u . Let Sa = k j=0 a j . By adding all the equalities above. Sb = b j . . . . n/pk = a0 .90 Chapter 8 Now. b written in base p. be deﬁned as follows: a0 + b0 = ε0 p + c0. . ε0 + a1 + b1 = ε1 p + c1. 0 ≤ a j .u 246 Theorem (Kummer’s Theorem) The exact power of a prime p dividing the binomial coefﬁcient number of “carry-overs” when performing the addition of a. . . + εk−1 pk + εk pk+1 . Proof: k j=0 Ç å a+b is equal to the a Let a = a0 + a1 p + · · · + ak pk . = p−1 as wanted. and ε j = 0 or 1. n/p2 = a0 pk−2 + a1 pk−3 + · · · + ak−2 . Multiplying all these equalities successively by 1. (p − 1)m = (a + b) − Sa+b − a + Sa − b + Sb = (p − 1)(ε0 + ε1 + · · · + εk ). Upon using Legendre’s result from above. . and adding them: a + b + ε0 p + ε1 p2 + . p2 . . +c0 + c1 p + · · · + ck pk We deduce that a + b = c0 + c1 p + · · · + ck pk + εk pk+1 . and ak + bk > 0. b = b0 + b1 p + · · · + bk pk . . . εk−1 + ak + bk = εk p + ck . + εk−1 pk = ε0 p + ε1 p2 + . p. . which gives the result. 0 ≤ c j ≤ p − 1. n/p = a0 pk−1 + a1 pk−2 + · · · ak−2 p + ak−1 . . we obtain similarly: Sa + Sb + (ε0 + ε1 + · · · + εk−1 ) = (ε0 + ε1 + · · · + εk )p + Sa+b − εk . Thus ∞ n/pk k=1 = a0 (1 + p + p2 + · · · + pk−1 ) + a1(1 + p + p2 + · · · + pk−2 )+ · · · + ak−1 (1 + p) + ak pk − 1 pk−1 − 1 p2 − 1 p−1 = a0 + a1 + · · · + ak−1 + ak p−1 p−1 p−1 p−1 a0 pk + a1 pk−1 + · · · + ak − (a0 + a1 + · · · + ak ) = p−1 n − (a0 + a1 + · · · + ak ) . . b j ≤ p − 1. Let c j . ε1 + a2 + b2 = ε2 p + c2. .

n∈Fx 1 1 > .3 diverges as x → ∞. But ã Å 1 1 1 + O(1). Then Ü ê2 ∞ xp = p>2 p prime k=2 ak x2k ≤ C x4 . Assume that ak ≤ C ∀ k for some positive constant C. 1 − x2 This yields p>2 p prime x p−1 ≤ √ x C√ . the product on the sinistral side of 2.3. Solution: Let ak denote the number of ways in which 2k can be written as the sum of two odd primes. As the harmonic series diverges. n n≤x n This ﬁnishes the proof. (9. 1 + + 2 + ··· = p p p p≤x p≤x p prime p prime 248 Example Prove that for each positive integer k there exist inﬁnitely many even positive integers which can be written in more than k ways as the sum of two odd primes. Solution: Let Fx denote the family consisting of the integer 1 and the positive integers n all whose prime factors are less than or equal to x. By the Unique Factorisation Theorem Å ã 1 1 1 1 + + 2 + ··· = .1) p p n p≤x p prime n∈Fx Now.Chapter 9 p Miscellaneous Problems 247 Example Prove that 1 p p prime diverges. 1 − x2 91 .

with proof. Prove that the number of irreducible fractions a/b. . contained in the given interval is at most (n + 1)/2. We shall replace some of the ak so that the product is enlarged. which contradicts that the open interval is of length 1/n. Deﬁne us+k = ck sk .s mod p. k = 1. and we obtain a contradiction. . 1 ≤ b ≤ n. 2. 2(a − 1)}. but the sum remains the same. .tk . Therefore. r. k. We must take as many 2’s and 3’s as possible. But then |sk /tk − si /ti | = |msi − sk |/tk ≥ 1/n. sk }. where p is a prime (rs)! . ti |tk for some i. contradicting the hypothesis that the open interval is of length 1/n. in order to maximise the product. . Now. since we are assuming ak ≥ 4. Let sk . If we have an ak ≥ 4. the largest number which is the product of positive integers whose sum is 1976. 2 + 2 + 2 = 3 + 3. k = 1. n with equality if and only if a1 = a2 = · · · = an . we replace it by two numbers 2. 251 Example Let Qr. . 2. . ak − 2. s with denominators n/2 < vk ≤ n. 249 Example (IMO 1976) Determine. No two of the yl . Thus we want to make the ak as equal as possible. The set of denominators is a subset of {1. By the Pigeonhole Principle. where n is a positive integer. But the leftmost series is divergent. thus we should take no more than two 2’s. 250 Example (USAMO 1983) Consider an open interval of length 1/n on the real line. Then the sum is not affected. x + 1/n) into two sets: { |uk /vk − ui /vi | ≥ 1/vi ≥ 1/n. . the largest possible product is 2 · 3658. but 23 < 32 . . Aliter: Suppose to the contrary that we have at least (n + 1)/2 + 1 = a fractions. yk+r = uk+r /vk+r . . but 2(ak − 2) ≥ ak . Now. with denominators 1 ≤ tk ≤ n/2 and tk those uk /vk . Solution: Suppose that n a1 + a2 + · · · + an = 1976.92 Integrating term by term. for otherwise y j = yk would yield Solution: Divide the rational numbers in (x. 1 ≤ k ≤ a be the set of numerators and denominators. . where all these fractions are in reduced form. 1 ≤ l ≤ r + s are equal. 2. p>2 p prime Chapter 9 1 √ ≤ C p 1 0 √ x 1 − x2 dx = √ C. . we must take ak = 2 or ak = 3. . ak . r!s! . Since 1976 = 3 · 658 + 2. for every tk there are integers ck such that n/2 ≤ ck tk ≤ n.s = Show that Qr.ps ≡ Qr. say tk = mti . vs+k = ck tk . Hence the number of distinct rationals is r + s ≤ n − n/2 ≤ (n + 1)/2. By we want to maximise k=1 the arithmetic mean-geometric mean inequality n 1/n ak k=1 ≤ a1 + a2 + · · · + an .

0.0.0. ps − 1 å js − 1 s−1 mod p mod p. Problem 9.. z. Practice Problem 9.ps = r j=1 it follows from that (1 + x) j ps−1 ≡ (1 + x p) js−1 (1 + x) p−1 Ç å Ç å jps − 1 js − 1 ≡ ps − 1 s−1 Ç Ç å jps − 1 . whence the result. k! = y2 . . a3 +b3 +c3 −3abc = (a+b+c)(a2 +b2 +c2 −ab−bc−ca). where n ∈ N. k=1 Problem 9.10 Prove that are inﬁnitely many nonnegative integers n which cannot be written as n = x2 + y3 + z6 for nonnegative integers x. c such that 1987 = a3 + b3 + c3 − 3abc.0. y. x1985 .0. Problem 9. 1/1000.0. . x2 .0. .0.0.Practice Solution: As Qr. Problem 9. . Problem 9.2 Find all integral solutions of the equation x Problem 9. y such that 3x2 − 7y2 = −1.0.5 Show that the Diophantine equation 1 1 1 1 1 + + .4 (USAMO 1985) Determine whether there are any positive integral solutions to the simultaneous equations 2 x1 + x2 + · · · + x2 = y3 .7 (AIME 1987) Let M be the smallest positive square such that its ﬁrst two digits are equal to each other integer whose cube is of the form n + r.s = j=1 93 r and Qr.6 (AIME 1987) Find the largest possible value of k for which 311 is expressible as the sum of k consecutive positive integers. 2 1985 x3 + x3 + · · · + x3 = z2 1 2 1985 with distinct integers x1 ..13 Prove that 1. b.0. Find n. Find integers a. . Problem 9.12 Show that there are inﬁnitely many integers x. k=1 Problem 9.0. 0 < r < and its last two digits are equal to each other. xn+1 + yn+1 = zn .8 Determine two-parameter solutions for the “almost” Fermat Diophantine equations xn−1 + yn−1 = zn . xn+1 + yn−1 = zn .1 Find a four-digit number which is a perfect Problem 9.9 (AIME 1984) What is the largest even integer which cannot be written as the sum of two odd composite numbers? Problem 9. 2. Problem 9. Problem 9.3 Find all integral solutions of the equation x k! = yz .+ + + a1 a2 an−1 an a1 a2 · · · an has at least one solution for every n ∈ N.11 Find the integral solutions of x2 + x = y4 + y3 + y2 + y.0.

Problem 9.0. a . pk ≡ 0 mod p. pa a ≡ mod p.15 Prove that 19911991 is not the sum of two perfect squares. of the series at any point is also a perfect square.0.0.21 Determine an inﬁnite series of terms such that each term of the series is a perfect square and the sum for 0 < a < pk .0. 1/2. Problem 9.0. Determine the Problem 9. Show that Ç å p−1 ≡ (−1)k mod p k for all 0 ≤ k ≤ p − 1. the sum of any seven successive terms is negative. Problem 9.28 (Putnam 1977) Let p be a prime and let a ≥ exists a sequence of k consecutive positive integers none of b > 0 be integers. y. Can you ﬁnd integers a.0.0.0. 1. Problem 9.0. Ç å maximum number of terms in the sequence.0. Q. Problem 9.17 Find all positive integers with mn − nm = 1. Find polynomials P.94 3. Problem 9.29 Demonstrate that for a prime p and k ∈ N..14 Find all integers n such that n4 + n + 7 is a perfect square. b 2 3 p−1 then p2 |a. z > 1 such that x!y! = z!. and the sum of any eleven successive terms is positive. Chapter 9 Problem 9.30 Let p be a prime and let k. Problem 9. z such that P3 + Q3 + R3 − 3PQR = (x3 + y3 + z3 − 3xyz)2 4.27 Let p be a prime.0. . Show that ci ≡ 0 mod p for all i ≥ 1.19 Prove that for every positive integer k there Problem 9.0.22 Prove that any positive rational integer can be expressed as a ﬁnite sum of distinct terms of the harmonic series. .0.0.0. .24 Prove that the number of odd binomial coefﬁcients in any row of Pascal’s Triangle is a power of 2. a Problem 9.18 Find all integers with x4 − 2y2 = 1. b. Problem 9.0. Problem 9.26 Let the numbers ci be deﬁned by the power series identity (1 + x + x2 + · · · + x p−1 )/(1 − x) p−1 := 1 + c1x + c2 x2 + · · · .20 (IMO 1977) In a ﬁnite sequence of real numbers.0. Problem 9.23 (Wostenholme’s Theorem) Let p > 3 be a prime. y > 1. If a 1 1 1 = 1 + + + ··· + . c with 19872 = a3 + b3 + c3 − 3abc? Problem 9. Problem 9. 1/3. a ∈ N.16 Find inﬁnitely many integers x > 1. 0 ≤ a ≤ pk − 1. pb b Problem 9. R in x. Prove that Ç å Ç å which can be represented as the sum of two squares.25 Prove that the coefﬁcients of a binomial expansion are odd if and only if n is of the form 2k − 1. Demonstrate that Ç å pk − 1 ≡ (−1)a mod p.

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