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David A. SANTOS

dsantos@ccp.edu

January 2, 2010 REVISION

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Que a quien robe este libro, o lo tome prestado y no lo devuelva, se le convierta en una serpiente en las

manos y lo venza. Que sea golpeado por la parálisis y todos sus miembros arruinados. Que languidezca

de dolor gritando por piedad, y que no haya coto a su agonía hasta la última disolución. Que las polillas

roan sus entrañas y, cuando llegue al ﬁnal de su castigo, que arda en las llamas del Inﬁerno para siempre.

-Maldición anónima contra los ladrones de libros en el monasterio de San Pedro, Barcelona.

vi

Contents

Preface

These notes started in the summer of 1993 when I was teaching Number Theory at the Center for Talented Youth Summer

Program at the Johns Hopkins University. The pupils were between 13 and 16 years of age.

The purpose of the course was to familiarise the pupils with contest-type problem solving. Thus the majority of the prob-

lems are taken from well-known competitions:

AHSME American High School Mathematics Examination

AIME American Invitational Mathematics Examination

USAMO United States Mathematical Olympiad

IMO International Mathematical Olympiad

ITT International Tournament of Towns

MMPC Michigan Mathematics Prize Competition

(UM)

2

University of Michigan Mathematics Competition

STANFORD Stanford Mathematics Competition

MANDELBROT Mandelbrot Competition

Firstly, I would like to thank the pioneers in that course: Samuel Chong, Nikhil Garg, Matthew Harris, Ryan Hoegg, Masha

Sapper, Andrew Trister, Nathaniel Wise and Andrew Wong. I would also like to thank the victims of the summer 1994: Karen

Acquista, Howard Bernstein, Geoffrey Cook, Hobart Lee, Nathan Lutchansky, David Ripley, Eduardo Rozo, and Victor Yang.

I would like to thank Eric Friedman for helping me with the typing, and Carlos Murillo for proofreading the notes.

Due to time constraints, these notes are rather sketchy. Most of the motivation was done in the classroom, in the notes

I presented a rather terse account of the solutions. I hope some day to be able to give more coherence to these notes. No

theme requires the knowledge of Calculus here, but some of the solutions given use it here and there. The reader not knowing

Calculus can skip these problems. Since the material is geared to High School students (talented ones, though) I assume very

little mathematical knowledge beyond Algebra and Trigonometry. Here and there some of the problems might use certain

properties of the complex numbers.

A note on the topic selection. I tried to cover most Number Theory that is useful in contests. I also wrote notes (which I

have not transcribed) dealing with primitive roots, quadratic reciprocity, diophantine equations, and the geometry of numbers.

I shall ﬁnish writing them when laziness leaves my weary soul.

I would be very glad to hear any comments, and please forward me any corrections or remarks on the material herein.

David A. SANTOS

dsantos@ccp.edu

vii

Chapter 1

Preliminaries

1.1 Introduction

We can say that no history of mankind would ever be complete without a history of Mathematics. For ages numbers have

fascinated Man, who has been drawn to them either for their utility at solving practical problems (like those of measuring,

counting sheep, etc.) or as a fountain of solace.

Number Theory is one of the oldest and most beautiful branches of Mathematics. It abounds in problems that yet simple to

state, are very hard to solve. Some number-theoretic problems that are yet unsolved are:

1. (Goldbach’s Conjecture) Is every even integer greater than 2 the sum of distinct primes?

2. (Twin Prime Problem) Are there inﬁnitely many primes p such that p +2 is also a prime?

3. Are there inﬁnitely many primes that are 1 more than the square of an integer?

4. Is there always a prime between two consecutive squares of integers?

In this chapter we cover some preliminary tools we need before embarking into the core of Number Theory.

1.2 Well-Ordering

The set N = ¦0, 1, 2, 3, 4, . . .¦ of natural numbers is endowed with two operations, addition and multiplication, that satisfy the

following properties for natural numbers a, b, and c:

1. Closure: a +b and ab are also natural numbers.

2. Associative laws: (a +b) +c = a + (b +c) and a(bc) = (ab)c.

3. Distributive law: a(b +c) = ab +ac.

4. Additive Identity: 0 +a = a +0 = a

5. Multiplicative Identity: 1a = a1 = a.

One further property of the natural numbers is the following.

1 Axiom (Well-Ordering Axiom) Every non-empty subset S of the natural numbers has a least element.

As an example of the use of the Well-Ordering Axiom, let us prove that there is no integer between 0 and 1.

2 Example Prove that there is no integer in the interval ]0; 1[.

1

2 Chapter 1

Solution: Assume to the contrary that the set S of integers in ]0; 1[ is non-empty. Being a set of positive integers, it must

contain a least element, say m. Now, 0 < m

2

< m < 1, and so m

2

∈ S. But this is saying that S has a positive integer m

2

which is smaller than its least positive integer m. This is a contradiction and so S =∅.

We denote the set of all integers by Z, i.e.,

Z =¦. . . −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .¦.

A rational number is a number which can be expressed as the ratio

a

b

of two integers a, b, where b ,= 0. We denote the set of

rational numbers by Q. An irrational number is a number which cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers. Let us give

an example of an irrational number.

3 Example Prove that

√

2 is irrational.

Solution: The proof is by contradiction. Suppose that

√

2 were rational, i.e., that

√

2 =

a

b

for some integers a, b. This implies

that the set

A =¦n

√

2 : both n and n

√

2 positive integers¦

is nonempty since it contains a. By Well-Ordering A has a smallest element, say j = k

√

2. As

√

2−1 > 0,

j(

√

2−1) = j

√

2−k

√

2 = ( j −k)

√

2

is a positive integer. Since 2 < 2

√

2 implies 2 −

√

2 <

√

2 and also j

√

2 = 2k, we see that

( j −k)

√

2 = k(2 −

√

2) < k(

√

2) = j.

Thus ( j −k)

√

2 is a positive integer in A which is smaller than j. This contradicts the choice of j as the smallest integer in A

and hence, ﬁnishes the proof.

4 Example Let a, b, c be integers such that a

6

+2b

6

= 4c

6

. Show that a = b = c = 0.

Solution: Clearly we can restrict ourselves to nonnegative numbers. Choose a triplet of nonnegative integers a, b, c satisfying

this equation and with

max(a, b, c) > 0

as small as possible. If a

6

+2b

6

= 4c

6

then a must be even, a = 2a

1

. This leads to 32a

6

1

+b

6

= 2c

6

. Hence b = 2b

1

and so

16a

6

1

+32b

6

1

= c

6

. This gives c = 2c

1

, and so a

6

1

+2b

6

1

= 4c

6

1

. But clearly max(a

1

, b

1

, c

1

) < max(a, b, c). This means that all of

these must be zero.

5 Example (IMO 1988) If a, b are positive integers such that

a

2

+b

2

1 +ab

is an integer, then

a

2

+b

2

1 +ab

is a perfect square.

Solution: Suppose that

a

2

+b

2

1 +ab

= k is a counterexample of an integer which is not a perfect square, with max(a, b) as small as

possible. We may assume without loss of generality that a < b for if a = b then

0 < k =

2a

2

a

2

+1

< 2,

which forces k = 1, a perfect square.

Now, a

2

+b

2

−k(ab +1) = 0 is a quadratic in b with sum of the roots ka and product of the roots a

2

−k. Let b

1

, b be its

roots, so b

1

+b = ka and b

1

b = a

2

−k.

As a, k are positive integers, supposing b

1

< 0 is incompatible with a

2

+b

2

1

= k(ab

1

+1). As k is not a perfect square,

supposing b

1

= 0 is incompatible with a

2

+0

2

= k(0 a +1). Also

b

1

=

a

2

−k

b

<

b

2

−k

b

< b.

Practice 3

Thus we have found another positive integer b

1

for which

a

2

+b

2

1

1 +ab

1

= k and which is smaller than the smallest max(a, b). This

is a contradiction. It must be the case, then, that k is a perfect square.

Practice

Problem 1.2.1 Find all integer solutions of a

3

+2b

3

= 4c

3

. Problem 1.2.2 Prove that the equality x

2

+y

2

+z

2

=2xyz can

hold for whole numbers x, y, z only when x = y = z = 0.

1.3 Mathematical Induction

The Principle of Mathematical Induction is based on the following fairly intuitive observation. Suppose that we are to perform

a task that involves a certain number of steps. Suppose that these steps must be followed in strict numerical order. Finally,

suppose that we know how to perform the n-th task provided we have accomplished the n −1-th task. Thus if we are ever able

to start the job (that is, if we have a base case), then we should be able to ﬁnish it (because starting with the base case we go to

the next case, and then to the case following that, etc.).

Thus in the Principle of Mathematical Induction, we try to verify that some assertion P(n) concerning natural numbers is

true for some base case k

0

(usually k

0

= 1, but one of the examples below shows that we may take, say k

0

= 33.) Then we try

to settle whether information on P(n −1) leads to favourable information on P(n).

We will now derive the Principle of Mathematical Induction from the Well-Ordering Axiom.

6 Theorem (Principle of Mathematical Induction) If a setS of non-negative integers contains the integer 0, and also con-

tains the integer n +1 whenever it contains the integer n, then S = N.

Proof: Assume this is not the case and so, by the Well-Ordering Principle there exists a least positive integer k

not in S. Observe that k > 0, since 0 ∈ S and there is no positive integer smaller than 0. As k −1 < k, we see that

k −1 ∈ S. But by assumption k −1 +1 is also in S, since the successor of each element in the set is also in the

set. Hence k = k −1 +1 is also in the set, a contradiction. Thus S =N. u

The following versions of the Principle of Mathematical Induction should now be obvious.

7 Corollary If a set A of positive integers contains the integer m and also contains n+1 whenever it contains n, where n > m,

then A contains all the positive integers greater than or equal to m.

8 Corollary (Principle of Strong Mathematical Induction) If a set A of positive integers contains the integer m and also

contains n +1 whenever it contains m+1, m+2, . . . , n, where n > m, then A contains all the positive integers greater than or

equal to m.

We shall now give some examples of the use of induction.

9 Example Prove that the expression

3

3n+3

−26n −27

is a multiple of 169 for all natural numbers n.

Solution: For n = 1 we are asserting that 3

6

−53 = 676 = 169 4 is divisible by 169, which is evident. Assume the assertion is

true for n −1, n > 1, i.e., assume that

3

3n

−26n −1 = 169N

for some integer N. Then

3

3n+3

−26n −27 = 27 3

3n

−26n −27 = 27(3

3n

−26n −1) +676n

4 Chapter 1

which reduces to

27 169N+169 4n,

which is divisible by 169. The assertion is thus established by induction.

10 Example Prove that

(1 +

√

2)

2n

+ (1 −

√

2)

2n

is an even integer and that

(1 +

√

2)

2n

− (1 −

√

2)

2n

= b

√

2

for some positive integer b, for all integers n ≥1.

Solution: We proceed by induction on n. Let P(n) be the proposition: “(1+

√

2)

2n

+ (1−

√

2)

2n

is even and (1+

√

2)

2n

− (1−

√

2)

2n

= b

√

2 for some b ∈ N.” If n = 1, then we see that

(1 +

√

2)

2

+ (1 −

√

2)

2

= 6,

an even integer, and

(1 +

√

2)

2

− (1 −

√

2)

2

= 4

√

2.

Therefore P(1) is true. Assume that P(n −1) is true for n > 1, i.e., assume that

(1 +

√

2)

2(n−1)

+ (1 −

√

2)

2(n−1)

= 2N

for some integer N and that

(1 +

√

2)

2(n−1)

− (1 −

√

2)

2(n−1)

= a

√

2

for some positive integer a.

Consider now the quantity

(1 +

√

2)

2n

+ (1 −

√

2)

2n

= (1 +

√

2)

2

(1 +

√

2)

2n−2

+ (1 −

√

2)

2

(1 −

√

2)

2n−2

.

This simpliﬁes to

(3 +2

√

2)(1 +

√

2)

2n−2

+ (3 −2

√

2)(1 −

√

2)

2n−2

.

Using P(n −1), the above simpliﬁes to

12N+2

√

2a

√

2 = 2(6N+2a),

an even integer and similarly

(1 +

√

2)

2n

− (1 −

√

2)

2n

= 3a

√

2+2

√

2(2N) = (3a +4N)

√

2,

and so P(n) is true. The assertion is thus established by induction.

11 Example Prove that if k is odd, then 2

n+2

divides

k

2

n

−1

for all natural numbers n.

Solution: The statement is evident for n = 1, as k

2

−1 = (k −1)(k +1) is divisible by 8 for any odd natural number k because

both (k −1) and (k +1) are divisible by 2 and one of them is divisible by 4. Assume that 2

n+2

[k

2

n

−1, and let us prove that

2

n+3

[k

2

n+1

−1. As k

2

n+1

−1 = (k

2

n

−1)(k

2

n

+1), we see that 2

n+2

divides (k

2n

−1), so the problem reduces to proving that

2[(k

2n

+1). This is obviously true since k

2n

odd makes k

2n

+1 even.

Mathematical Induction 5

12 Example (USAMO 1978) An integer n will be called good if we can write

n = a

1

+a

2

+ +a

k

,

where a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

k

are positive integers (not necessarily distinct) satisfying

1

a

1

+

1

a

2

+ +

1

a

k

= 1.

Given the information that the integers 33 through 73 are good, prove that every integer ≥33 is good.

Solution: We ﬁrst prove that if n is good, then 2n +8 and 2n +9 are good. For assume that n = a

1

+a

2

+ +a

k

, and

1 =

1

a

1

+

1

a

2

+ +

1

a

k

.

Then 2n +8 = 2a

1

+2a

2

+ +2a

k

+4 +4 and

1

2a

1

+

1

2a

2

+ +

1

2a

k

+

1

4

+

1

4

=

1

2

+

1

4

+

1

4

= 1.

Also, 2n +9 = 2a

1

+2a

2

+ +2a

k

+3 +6 and

1

2a

1

+

1

2a

2

+ +

1

2a

k

+

1

3

+

1

6

=

1

2

+

1

3

+

1

6

= 1.

Therefore,

if n is good both 2n +8 and 2n +9 are good. (1.1)

We now establish the truth of the assertion of the problem by induction on n. Let P(n) be the proposition “all the integers

n, n +1, n +2, . . . , 2n +7” are good. By the statement of the problem, we see that P(33) is true. But (??) implies the truth of

P(n +1) whenever P(n) is true. The assertion is thus proved by induction.

We now present a variant of the Principle of Mathematical Induction used by Cauchy to prove the Arithmetic-Mean-

Geometric Mean Inequality. It consists in proving a statement ﬁrst for powers of 2 and then interpolating between powers of

2.

13 Theorem (Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-Mean Inequality) Let a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

n

be nonnegative real numbers. Then

n

√

a

1

a

2

a

n

≤

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

n

.

Proof: Since the square of any real number is nonnegative, we have

(

√

x

1

−

√

x

2

)

2

≥0.

Upon expanding,

x

1

+x

2

2

≥

√

x

1

x

2

, (1.2)

which is the Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-Mean Inequality for n =2. Assume that the Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-

Mean Inequality holds true for n = 2

k−1

, k > 2, that is, assume that nonnegative real numbers w

1

, w

2

, . . . , w

2

k−1

satisfy

w

1

+w

2

+ +w

2

k−1

2

k−1

≥(w

1

w

2

w

2

k−1 )

1/2

k−1

. (1.3)

Using (??) with

x

1

=

y

1

+y

2

+ +y

2

k−1

2

k−1

and

x

2

=

y

2

k−1

+1

+ +y

2

k

2

k−1

,

6 Chapter 1

we obtain that

y

1

+y

2

+ +y

2

k−1

2

k−1

+

y

2

k−1

+1

+ +y

2

k

2

k−1

2

≥

Å

(

y

1

+y

2

+ +y

2

k−1

2

k−1

)(

y

2

k−1

+1

+ +y

2

k

2

k−1

)

ã

1/2

.

Applying (??) to both factors on the right hand side of the above , we obtain

y

1

+y

2

+ +y

2

k

2

k

≥(y

1

y

2

y

2

k )

1/2

k

. (1.4)

This means that the 2

k−1

-th step implies the 2

k

-th step, and so we have proved the Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-

Mean Inequality for powers of 2.

Now, assume that 2

k−1

< n < 2

k

. Let

y

1

= a

1

, y

2

= a

2

, . . . , y

n

= a

n

,

and

y

n+1

= y

n+2

= = y

2

k =

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

n

.

Let

A =

a

1

+ +a

n

n

and G = (a

1

a

n

)

1/n

.

Using (??) we obtain

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

+ (2

k

−n)

a

1

+ +a

n

n

2

k

≥

_

a

1

a

2

a

n

(

a

1

+ +a

n

n

)

(2

k

−n)

_

1/2

k

,

which is to say that

nA+ (2

k

−n)A

2

k

≥(G

n

A

2

k

−n

)

1/2

k

.

This translates into A ≥G or

(a

1

a

2

a

n

)

1/n

≤

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

n

,

which is what we wanted.u

14 Example Let s be a positive integer. Prove that every interval [s; 2s] contains a power of 2.

Solution: If s is a power of 2, then there is nothing to prove. If s is not a power of 2 then it must lie between two consecutive

powers of 2, i.e., there is an integer r for which 2

r

< s < 2

r+1

. This yields 2

r+1

< 2s. Hence s < 2

r+1

< 2s, which gives the

required result.

15 Example Let M be a nonempty set of positive integers such that 4x and [

√

x] both belong to M whenever x does. Prove

that M is the set of all natural numbers.

Solution: We will prove this by induction. First we will prove that 1 belongs to the set, secondly we will prove that every power

of 2 is in the set and ﬁnally we will prove that non-powers of 2 are also in the set.

Since M is a nonempty set of positive integers, it has a least element, say a. By assumption

√

a also belongs to M, but

√

a < a unless a = 1. This means that 1 belongs to M.

Since 1 belongs to M so does 4, since 4 belongs to M so does 4 4 = 4

2

, etc.. In this way we obtain that all numbers of

the form 4

n

= 2

2n

, n = 1, 2, . . . belong to M. Thus all the powers of 2 raised to an even power belong to M. Since the square

roots belong as well to M we get that all the powers of 2 raised to an odd power also belong to M. In conclusion, all powers

of 2 belong to M.

Practice 7

Assume now that n ∈ N fails to belong to M. Observe that n cannot be a power of 2. Since n ,∈ M we deduce that

no integer in A

1

= [n

2

, (n +1)

2

) belongs to M, because every member of y ∈ A

1

satisﬁes [

√

y] = n. Similarly no member

z ∈ A

2

= [n

4

, (n +1)

4

) belongs to M since this would entail that z would belong to A

1

, a contradiction. By induction we can

show that no member in the interval A

r

= [n

2

r

, (n +1)

2

r

) belongs to M.

We will nowshowthat eventually these intervals are so large that they contain a power of 2, thereby obtaining a contradiction

to the hypothesis that no element of the A

r

belonged to M. The function

f :

R

∗

+

→ R

x → log

2

x

is increasing and hence log

2

(n +1) −log

2

n > 0. Since the function

f :

R → R

∗

+

x → 2

−x

is decreasing, for a sufﬁciently large positive integer k we have

2

−k

< log

2

(n +1) −log

2

n.

This implies that

(n +1)

2

k

> 2n

2

k

.

Thus the interval [n

2

k

, 2n

2

k

] is totally contained in [n

2

k

, (n +1)

2

k

). But every interval of the form [s, 2s] where s is a positive

integer contains a power of 2. We have thus obtained the desired contradiction.

Practice

Problem 1.3.1 Prove that 11

n+2

+12

2n+1

is divisible by 133

for all natural numbers n.

Problem 1.3.2 Prove that

1 −

x

1!

+

x(x −1)

2!

−

x(x −1)(x −2)

3!

+ + (−1)

n

x(x −1)(x −2) (x −n +1)

n!

equals

(−1)

n

(x −1)(x −2) (x −n)

n!

for all non-negative integers n.

Problem 1.3.3 Let n ∈ N. Prove the inequality

1

n +1

+

1

n +2

+ +

1

3n +1

> 1.

Problem 1.3.4 Prove that

_

2 +

»

2 + +

√

2

. ¸¸ .

n radical signs

= 2cos

π

2

n+1

for n ∈ N.

Problem 1.3.5 Let a

1

= 3, b

1

= 4, and a

n

= 3

a

n−1

, b

n

= 4

b

n−1

when n > 1. Prove that a

1000

> b

999

.

Problem 1.3.6 Let n ∈ N, n > 1. Prove that

1 3 5 (2n −1)

2 4 6 (2n)

<

1

√

3n +1

.

Problem 1.3.7 Prove that if n is a natural number, then

1 2 +2 5 + +n (3n −1) = n

2

(n +1).

Problem 1.3.8 Prove that if n is a natural number, then

1

2

+3

2

+5

2

+ + (2n −1)

2

=

n(4n

2

−1)

3

.

Problem 1.3.9 Prove that

4

n

n +1

<

(2n)!

(n!)

2

for all natural numbers n > 1.

Problem 1.3.10 Prove that the sum of the cubes of three con-

secutive positive integers is divisible by 9.

8 Chapter 1

Problem 1.3.11 If [x[ ,= 1, n ∈ N prove that

1

1 +x

+

2

1 +x

2

+

4

1 +x

2

+

8

1 +x

8

+ +

2

n

1 +x

2

n

equals

1

x −1

+

2

n+1

1 −x

2

n+1

.

Problem 1.3.12 Is it true that for every natural number n the

quantity n

2

+n +41 is a prime? Prove or disprove!

Problem 1.3.13 Give an example of an assertion which is not

true for any positive integer, yet for which the induction step

holds.

Problem 1.3.14 Give an example of an assertion which is true

for the ﬁrst two million positive integers but fails for every in-

teger greater than 2000000.

Problem 1.3.15 Prove by induction on n that a set having n

elements has exactly 2

n

subsets.

Problem 1.3.16 Prove that if n is a natural number,

n

5

/5 +n

4

/2 +n

3

/3 −n/30

is always an integer.

Problem 1.3.17 (Halmos) ) Every man in a village knows in-

stantly when another’s wife is unfaithful, but never when his

own is. Each man is completely intelligent and knows that ev-

ery other man is. The law of the village demands that when

a man can PROVE that his wife has been unfaithful, he must

shoot her before sundown the same day. Every man is com-

pletely law-abiding. One day the mayor announces that there

is at least one unfaithful wife in the village. The mayor always

tells the truth, and every man believes him. If in fact there

are exactly forty unfaithful wives in the village (but that fact

is not known to the men,) what will happen after the mayor’s

announcement?

Problem 1.3.18 1. Let a

1

, a

2

, . . . a

n

be positive real num-

bers with

a

1

a

2

a

n

= 1.

Use induction to prove that

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

≥n,

with equality if and only if a

1

= a

2

= = a

n

= 1.

2. Use the preceding part to give another proof of the

Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-Mean Inequality.

3. Prove that if n > 1, then

1 3 5 (2n −1) < n

n

.

4. Prove that if n > 1 then

n

Ä

(n +1)

1/n

−1

ä

< 1 +

1

2

+ +

1

n

.

5. Prove that if n > 1 then

1 +

1

2

+ +

1

n

< n

Å

1 −

1

(n +1)

1/n

+

1

n +1

ã

.

6. Given that u, v, w are positive, 0 < a ≤ 1, and that

u +v +w= 1, prove that

Å

1

u

−a

ãÅ

1

v

−a

ãÅ

1

w

−a

ã

≥27 −27a +9a

2

−a

3

.

7. Let y

1

, y

2

, . . . , y

n

be positive real numbers. Prove the

Harmonic-Mean- Geometric-Mean Inequality:

n

1

y

1

+

1

y

2

+ +

1

y

n

≤

n

√

y

1

y

2

y

n

.

8. Let a

1

, . . . , a

n

be positive real numbers, all different. Set

s = a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

.

(a) Prove that

(n −1)

1≤r≤n

1

s −a

r

<

1≤r≤n

1

a

r

.

(b) Deduce that

4n

s

< s

1≤r≤n

1

a

r

(s −a

r

)

<

n

n −1

1≤r≤n

1

a

r

.

Problem 1.3.19 Suppose that x

1

, x

2

, . . . , x

n

are nonnegative

real numbers with

x

1

+x

2

+ +x

n

≤1/2.

Prove that

(1 −x

1

)(1 −x

2

) (1 −x

n

) ≥1/2.

Problem 1.3.20 Given a positive integer n prove that there is

a polynomial T

n

such that cosnx = T

n

(cosx) for all real num-

bers x. T

n

is called the n-th Tchebychev Polynomial.

Problem 1.3.21 Prove that

1

n +1

+

1

n +2

+ +

1

2n

>

13

24

for all natural numbers n > 1.

Fibonacci Numbers 9

Problem 1.3.22 In how many regions will a sphere be divided

by n planes passing through its centre if no three planes pass

through one and the same diameter?

Problem 1.3.23 (IMO 1977) Let f , f : N →N be a function

satisfying

f (n +1) > f ( f (n))

for each positive integer n. Prove that f (n) = n for each n.

Problem 1.3.24 Let F

0

(x) = x, F(x) = 4x(1 −x), F

n+1

(x) =

F(F

n

(x)), n = 0, 1, . . . . Prove that

_

1

0

F

n

(x)dx =

2

2n−1

2

2n

−1

.

(Hint: Let x = sin

2

θ.)

1.4 Fibonacci Numbers

The Fibonacci numbers f

n

are given by the recurrence

f

0

= 0, f

1

= 1, f

n+1

= f

n−1

+ f

n

, n ≥1. (1.5)

Thus the ﬁrst few Fibonacci numbers are 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . . . A number of interesting algebraic identities can be

proved using the above recursion.

16 Example Prove that

f

1

+ f

2

+ + f

n

= f

n+2

−1.

Solution: We have

f

1

= f

3

− f

2

f

2

= f

4

− f

3

f

3

= f

5

− f

4

.

.

.

.

.

.

f

n

= f

n+2

− f

n+1

Summing both columns,

f

1

+ f

2

+ + f

n

= f

n+2

− f

2

= f

n+2

−1,

as desired.

17 Example Prove that

f

1

+ f

3

+ f

5

+ + f

2n−1

= f

2n

.

Solution: Observe that

f

1

= f

2

− f

0

f

3

= f

4

− f

2

f

5

= f

6

− f

4

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

f

2n−1

= f

2n

− f

2n−2

Adding columnwise we obtain the desired identity.

18 Example Prove that

f

2

1

+ f

2

2

+ + f

2

n

= f

n

f

n+1

.

Solution: We have

f

n−1

f

n+1

= ( f

n+1

− f

n

)( f

n

+ f

n−1

) = f

n+1

f

n

− f

2

n

+ f

n+1

f

n−1

− f

n

f

n−1

.

Thus

f

n+1

f

n

− f

n

f

n−1

= f

2

n

,

10 Chapter 1

which yields

f

2

1

+ f

2

2

+ + f

2

n

= f

n

f

n+1

.

19 Theorem (Cassini’s Identity)

f

n−1

f

n+1

− f

2

n

= (−1)

n

, n ≥1.

Proof: Observe that

f

n−1

f

n+1

− f

2

n

= ( f

n

− f

n−2

)( f

n

+ f

n−1

) − f

2

n

= −f

n−2

f

n

− f

n−1

( f

n−2

− f

n

)

= −( f

n−2

f

n

− f

2

n−1

)

Thus if v

n

= f

n−1

f

n+1

− f

2

n

, we have v

n

= −v

n−1

. This yields v

n

= (−1)

n−1

v

1

which is to say

f

n−1

f

n+1

− f

2

n

= (−1)

n−1

( f

0

f

2

− f

2

1

) = (−1)

n

.

u

20 Example (IMO 1981) Determine the maximum value of

m

2

+n

2

,

where m, n are positive integers satisfying m, n ∈ ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , 1981¦ and

(n

2

−mn −m

2

)

2

= 1.

Solution: Call a pair (n, m) admissible if m, n ∈ ¦1, 2, . . . , 1981¦ and (n

2

−mn −m

2

)

2

= 1.

If m = 1, then (1, 1) and (2, 1) are the only admissible pairs. Suppose now that the pair (n

1

, n

2

) is admissible, with n

2

> 1.

As n

1

(n

1

−n

2

) = n

2

2

±1 > 0, we must have n

1

> n

2

.

Let now n

3

= n

1

−n

2

. Then 1 = (n

2

1

−n

1

n

2

−n

2

2

)

2

= (n

2

2

−n

2

n

3

−n

2

3

)

2

, making (n

2

, n

3

) also admissible. If n

3

> 1, in the

same way we conclude that n

2

> n

3

and we can let n

4

= n

2

−n

3

making (n

3

, n

4

) an admissible pair. We have a sequence of

positive integers n

1

> n

2

> . . ., which must necessarily terminate. This terminates when n

k

= 1 for some k. Since (n

k−1

, 1)

is admissible, we must have n

k−1

= 2. The sequence goes thus 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, . . . , 987, 1597, i.e., a truncated Fibonacci sequence.

The largest admissible pair is thus (1597, 987) and so the maximum sought is 1597

2

+987

2

.

Let τ =

1 +

√

5

2

be the Golden Ratio. Observe that τ

−1

=

√

5−1

2

. The number τ is a root of the quadratic equation

x

2

= x +1. We now obtain a closed formula for f

n

. We need the following lemma.

21 Lemma If x

2

= x +1, n ≥2 then we have x

n

= f

n

x + f

n−1

.

Proof: We prove this by induction on n. For n = 2 the assertion is a triviality. Assume that n > 2 and that

x

n−1

= f

n−1

x + f

n−2

. Then

x

n

= x

n−1

x

= ( f

n−1

x + f

n−2

)x

= f

n−1

(x +1) + f

n−2

x

= ( f

n−1

+ f

n−2

)x + f

n−1

= f

n

x + f

n−1

u

22 Theorem (Binet’s Formula) The n-th Fibonacci number is given by

f

n

=

1

√

5

ÇÇ

1 +

√

5

2

å

n

−

Ç

1 −

√

5

2

å

n

å

n = 0, 2, . . . .

Practice 11

Proof: The roots of the equation x

2

= x +1 are τ =

1 +

√

5

2

and 1 −τ =

1 −

√

5

2

. In virtue of the above lemma,

τ

n

= τ f

n

+ f

n−1

and

(1 −τ)

n

= (1 −τ) f

n

+ f

n−1

.

Subtracting

τ

n

− (1 −τ)

n

=

√

5 f

n

,

from where Binet’s Formula follows.u

23 Example (Cesàro) Prove that

n

k=0

Ç

n

k

å

2

k

f

k

= f

3n

.

Solution: Using Binet’s Formula,

n

k=0

Ç

n

k

å

2

k

f

k

=

n

k=0

Ç

n

k

å

2

k

τ

k

− (1 −τ)

k

√

5

=

1

√

5

_

n

k=0

Ç

n

k

å

τ

k

−

n

k=0

Ç

n

k

å

2

k

(1 −τ)

k

_

=

1

√

5

((1 +2τ)

n

− (1 +2(1 −τ))

n

).

As τ

2

= τ +1, 1 +2τ = τ

3

. Similarly 1 +2(1 −τ) = (1 −τ)

3

. Thus

n

k=0

Ç

n

k

å

2

k

f

k

=

1

√

5

Ä

(τ)

3n

+ (1 −τ)

3n

ä

= f

3n

,

as wanted.

The following theorem will be used later.

24 Theorem If s ≥1, t ≥0 are integers then

f

s+t

= f

s−1

f

t

+ f

s

f

t+1

.

Proof: We keep t ﬁxed and prove this by using strong induction on s. For s = 1 we are asking whether

f

t+1

= f

0

f

t

+ f

1

f

t+1

,

which is trivially true. Assume that s > 1 and that f

s−k+t

= f

s−k−1

f

t

+ f

s−k

f

t+1

for all k satisfying 1 ≤k ≤ s −1.

We have

f

s+t

= f

s+t−1

+ f

s+t−2

by the Fibonacci recursion,

= f

s−1+t

+ f

s−2+t

trivially,

= f

s−2

f

t

+ f

s−1

f

t+1

+ f

s−3

f

t

+ f

s−2

f

t+1

by the inductive assumption

= f

t

( f

s−2

+ f

s−3

) + f

t+1

( f

s−1

+ f

s−2

) rearranging,

= f

t

f

s−1

+ f

t+1

f

s

by the Fibonacci recursion.

This ﬁnishes the proof.u

Practice

12 Chapter 1

Problem 1.4.1 Prove that

f

n+1

f

n

− f

n−1

f

n−2

= f

2n−1

, n > 2.

Problem 1.4.2 Prove that

f

2

n+1

= 4 f

n

f

n−1

+ f

2

n−2

, n > 1.

Problem 1.4.3 Prove that

f

1

f

2

+ f

2

f

3

+ + f

2n−1

f

2n

= f

2

2n

.

Problem 1.4.4 Let N be a natural number. Prove that the

largest n such that f

n

≤N is given by

n =

log

Å

N +

1

2

ã

√

5

log

Ç

1 +

√

5

2

å .

Problem 1.4.5 Prove that f

2

n

+ f

2

n−1

= f

2n+1

.

Problem 1.4.6 Prove that if n > 1,

f

2

n

− f

n+l

f

n−l

= (−1)

n+l

f

2

l

.

Problem 1.4.7 Prove that

n

k=1

f

2k

=

n

k=0

(n −k) f

2k+1

.

Problem 1.4.8 Prove that

∞

n=2

1

f

n−1

f

n+1

= 1.

Hint: What is

1

f

n−1

f

n

−

1

f

n

f

n+1

?

Problem 1.4.9 Prove that

∞

n=1

f

n

f

n+1

f

n+2

= 1.

Problem 1.4.10 Prove that

∞

n=0

1/ f

2

n = 4 −τ.

Problem 1.4.11 Prove that

∞

n=1

arctan

1

f

2n+1

= π/4.

Problem 1.4.12 Prove that

lim

n→∞

f

n

τ

n

=

1

√

5

.

Problem 1.4.13 Prove that

lim

n→∞

f

n+r

f

n

= τ

r

.

Problem 1.4.14 Prove that

n

k=0

1

f

2

k

= 2 +

f

2

n

−2

f

2

n

.

Deduce that

∞

k=0

1

f

2

k

=

7 −

√

5

2

.

Problem 1.4.15 (Cesàro) Prove that

n

k=0

Ç

n

k

å

f

k

= f

2n

.

Problem 1.4.16 Prove that

∞

n=1

f

n

10

n

is a rational number.

Problem 1.4.17 Find the exact value of

1994

k=1

(−1)

k

Ç

1995

k

å

f

k

.

Problem 1.4.18 Prove the converse of Cassini’s Identity: If k

and m are integers such that [m

2

−km−k

2

[ = 1, then there is

an integer n such that k =±f

n

, m =±f

n+1

.

Pigeonhole Principle 13

1.5 Pigeonhole Principle

The Pigeonhole Principle states that if n +1 pigeons ﬂy to n holes, there must be a pigeonhole containing at least two pigeons.

This apparently trivial principle is very powerful. Let us see some examples.

25 Example (Putnam 1978) Let A be any set of twenty integers chosen from the arithmetic progression 1, 4, . . . , 100. Prove

that there must be two distinct integers in A whose sum is 104.

Solution: We partition the thirty four elements of this progression into nineteen groups ¦1¦, ¦52¦, ¦4, 100¦ , ¦7, 97¦, ¦10, 94¦,

. . . ¦49, 55¦. Since we are choosing twenty integers and we have nineteen sets, by the Pigeonhole Principle there must be two

integers that belong to one of the pairs, which add to 104.

26 Example Show that amongst any seven distinct positive integers not exceeding 126, one can ﬁnd two of them, say a and b,

which satisfy

b < a ≤2b.

Solution: Split the numbers ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , 126¦ into the six sets

¦1, 2¦, ¦3, 4, 5, 6¦, ¦7, 8, . . ., 13, 14¦, ¦15, 16, . . ., 29, 30¦,

¦31, 32, . . . , 61, 62¦ and ¦63, 64, . . . , 126¦.

By the Pigeonhole Principle, two of the seven numbers must lie in one of the six sets, and obviously, any such two will satisfy

the stated inequality.

27 Example Given any set of ten natural numbers between 1 and 99 inclusive, prove that there are two disjoint nonempty

subsets of the set with equal sums of their elements.

Solution: There are 2

10

−1 = 1023 non-empty subsets that one can form with a given 10-element set. To each of these subsets

we associate the sum of its elements. The maximum value that any such sum can achieve is 90 +91 + +99 = 945 < 1023.

Therefore, there must be at least two different subsets that have the same sum.

28 Example No matter which ﬁfty ﬁve integers may be selected from

¦1, 2, . . . , 100¦,

prove that one must select some two that differ by 10.

Solution: First observe that if we choose n +1 integers from any string of 2n consecutive integers, there will always be some

two that differ by n. This is because we can pair the 2n consecutive integers

¦a +1, a +2, a +3, . . ., a +2n¦

into the n pairs

¦a +1, a +n +1¦, ¦a+2, a+n+2¦, . . ., ¦a +n, a +2n¦,

and if n +1 integers are chosen from this, there must be two that belong to the same group.

So now group the one hundred integers as follows:

¦1, 2, . . . 20¦, ¦21, 22, . . . , 40¦,

¦41, 42, . . . , 60¦, ¦61, 62, . . . , 80¦

and

¦81, 82, . . . , 100¦.

If we select ﬁfty ﬁve integers, we must perforce choose eleven from some group. From that group, by the above observation

(let n = 10), there must be two that differ by 10.

14 Chapter 1

29 Example (AHSME 1994) Label one disc “1”, two discs “2”, three discs “3”, . . . , ﬁfty discs ‘‘50”. Put these 1+2+3+ +

50 = 1275 labeled discs in a box. Discs are then drawn from the box at random without replacement. What is the minimum

number of discs that must me drawn in order to guarantee drawing at least ten discs with the same label?

Solution: If we draw all the 1 +2 + +9 = 45 labelled “1”, . . . , “9” and any nine from each of the discs “10”, . . . , “50”, we

have drawn 45 +9 41 = 414 discs. The 415-th disc drawn will assure at least ten discs from a label.

30 Example (IMO 1964) Seventeen people correspond by mail with one another—each one with all the rest. In their letters

only three different topics are discussed. Each pair of correspondents deals with only one of these topics. Prove that there at

least three people who write to each other about the same topic.

Solution: Choose a particular person of the group, say Charlie. He corresponds with sixteen others. By the Pigeonhole Principle,

Charlie must write to at least six of the people of one topic, say topic I. If any pair of these six people corresponds on topic I,

then Charlie and this pair do the trick, and we are done. Otherwise, these six correspond amongst themselves only on topics

II or III. Choose a particular person from this group of six, say Eric. By the Pigeonhole Principle, there must be three of the

ﬁve remaining that correspond with Eric in one of the topics, say topic II. If amongst these three there is a pair that corresponds

with each other on topic II, then Eric and this pair correspond on topic II, and we are done. Otherwise, these three people only

correspond with one another on topic III, and we are done again.

31 Example Given any seven distinct real numbers x

1

, . . . x

7

, prove that we can always ﬁnd two, say a, b with

0 <

a −b

1 +ab

<

1

√

3

.

Solution: Put x

k

= tana

k

for a

k

satisfying −

π

2

< a

k

<

π

2

. Divide the interval (−

π

2

,

π

2

) into six non-overlapping subintervals of

equal length. By the Pigeonhole Principle, two of seven points will lie on the same interval, say a

i

< a

j

. Then 0 < a

j

−a

i

<

π

6

.

Since the tangent increases in (−π/2, π/2), we obtain

0 < tan(a

j

−a

i

) =

tana

j

−tana

i

1 +tana

j

tana

i

< tan

π

6

=

1

√

3

,

as desired.

32 Example (Canadian Math Olympiad 1981) Let a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

7

be nonnegative real numbers with

a

1

+a

2

+. . . +a

7

= 1.

If

M = max

1≤k≤5

a

k

+a

k+1

+a

k+2

,

determine the minimum possible value that M can take as the a

k

vary.

Solution: Since a

1

≤a

1

+a

2

≤a

1

+a

2

+a

3

and a

7

≤a

6

+a

7

≤a

5

+a

6

+a

7

we see that M also equals

max

1≤k≤5

¦a

1

, a

7

, a

1

+a

2

, a

6

+a

7

, a

k

+a

k+1

+a

k+2

¦.

We are thus taking the maximum over nine quantities that sum 3(a

1

+a

2

+ +a

7

) = 3. These nine quantities then average

3/9 = 1/3. By the Pigeonhole Principle, one of these is ≥ 1/3, i.e. M ≥1/3. If a

1

= a

1

+a

2

= a

1

+a

2

+a

3

= a

2

+a

3

+a

4

=

a

3

+a

4

+a

5

=a

4

+a

5

+a

6

=a

5

+a

6

+a

7

=a

7

=1/3, we obtain the 7-tuple (a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, a

4

, a

5

, a

6

, a

7

) = (1/3, 0, 0, 1/3, 0, 0, 1/3),

which shows that M = 1/3.

Practice

Practice 15

Problem 1.5.1 (AHSME 1991) A circular table has exactly

sixty chairs around it. There are N people seated at this table

in such a way that the next person to be seated must sit next to

someone. What is the smallest possible value of N?

Answer: 20.

Problem 1.5.2 Show that if any ﬁve points are all in, or on,

a square of side 1, then some pair of them will be at most at

distance

√

2/2.

Problem 1.5.3 (Eötvös, 1947) Prove that amongst six people

in a room there are at least three who know one another, or at

least three who do not know one another.

Problem 1.5.4 Show that in any sum of non-negative real

numbers there is always one number which is at least the av-

erage of the numbers and that there is always one member that

it is at most the average of the numbers.

Problem 1.5.5 We call a set “sum free” if no two elements of

the set add up to a third element of the set. What is the maxi-

mum size of a sum free subset of ¦1, 2, . . . , 2n −1¦.

Hint: Observe that the set ¦n+1, n+2, . . . , 2n−1¦ of n+1 el-

ements is sum free. Show that any subset with n +2 elements

is not sum free.

Problem 1.5.6 (MMPC 1992) Suppose that the letters of the

English alphabet are listed in an arbitrary order.

1. Prove that there must be four consecutive consonants.

2. Give a list to show that there need not be ﬁve consecu-

tive consonants.

3. Suppose that all the letters are arranged in a circle.

Prove that there must be ﬁve consecutive consonants.

Problem 1.5.7 (Stanford 1953) Bob has ten pockets and

forty four silver dollars. He wants to put his dollars into

his pockets so distributed that each pocket contains a differ-

ent number of dollars.

1. Can he do so?

2. Generalise the problem, considering p pockets and n

dollars. The problem is most interesting when

n =

(p −1)(p −2)

2

.

Why?

Problem 1.5.8 No matter which ﬁfty ﬁve integers may be se-

lected from

¦1, 2, . . . , 100¦,

prove that you must select some two that differ by 9, some two

that differ by 10, some two that differ by 12, and some two that

differ by 13, but that you need not have any two that differ by

11.

Problem 1.5.9 Let mn + 1 different real numbers be given.

Prove that there is either an increasing sequence with at least

n +1 members, or a decreasing sequence with at least m+1

members.

Problem 1.5.10 If the points of the plane are coloured with

three colours, show that there will always exist two points of

the same colour which are one unit apart.

Problem 1.5.11 Show that if the points of the plane are

coloured with two colours, there will always exist an equilat-

eral triangle with all its vertices of the same colour. There

is, however, a colouring of the points of the plane with two

colours for which no equilateral triangle of side 1 has all its

vertices of the same colour.

Problem 1.5.12 Let r

1

, r

2

, . . . , r

n

, n >1 be real numbers of ab-

solute value not exceeding 1 and whose sum is 0. Show that

there is a non-empty proper subset whose sum is not more than

2/n in size. Give an example in which any subsum has abso-

lute value at least

1

n −1

.

Problem 1.5.13 Let r

1

, r

2

, . . . , r

n

be real numbers in the in-

terval [0, 1]. Show that there are numbers ε

k

, 1 ≤ k ≤ n, ε

k

=

−1, 0, 1 not all zero, such that

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

n

k=1

ε

k

r

k

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤

n

2

n

.

Problem 1.5.14 (USAMO, 1979) Nine mathematicians meet

at an international conference and discover that amongst any

three of them, at least two speak a common language. If

each of the mathematicians can speak at most three languages,

prove that there are at least three of the mathematicians who

can speak the same language.

Problem 1.5.15 (USAMO, 1982) In a party with 1982 per-

sons, amongst any group of four there is at least one person

who knows each of the other three. What is the minimum num-

ber of people in the party who know everyone else?

16 Chapter 1

Problem 1.5.16 (USAMO, 1985) There are n people at a

party. Prove that there are two people such that, of the re-

maining n −2 people, there are at least n/2−1 of them,

each of whom knows both or else knows neither of the two.

Assume that “knowing” is a symmetrical relationship.

Problem 1.5.17 (USAMO, 1986) During a certain lecture,

each of ﬁve mathematicians fell asleep exactly twice. For each

pair of these mathematicians, there was some moment when

both were sleeping simultaneously. Prove that, at some mo-

ment, some three were sleeping simultaneously.

Problem 1.5.18 Let P

n

be a set of en!+1 points on the

plane. Any two distinct points of P

n

are joined by a straight

line segment which is then coloured in one of n given colours.

Show that at least one monochromatic triangle is formed.

(Hint: e =

∞

n=0

1/n!.)

Chapter 2

Divisibility

2.1 Divisibility

33 Deﬁnition If a ,= 0, b are integers, we say that a divides b if there is an integer c such that ac = b. We write this as a[b.

If a does not divide b we write a ,[b. The following properties should be immediate to the reader.

34 Theorem 1. If a, b, c, m, n are integers with c[a, c[b, then c[(am+nb).

2. If x, y, z are integers with x[y, y[z then x[z.

Proof: There are integers s, t with sc = a, tc = b. Thus

am+nb = c(sm+tn),

giving c[(am+bn).

Also, there are integers u, v with xu = y, yv = z. Hence xuv = z, giving x[z.

It should be clear that if a[b and b ,= 0 then 1 ≤[a[ ≤[b[.u

35 Example Find all positive integers n for which

n +1[n

2

+1.

Solution: n

2

+1 = n

2

−1 +2 = (n −1)(n +1) +2. This forces n +1[2 and so n +1 = 1 or n +1 = 2. The choice n +1 = 1 is

out since n ≥1, so that the only such n is n = 1.

36 Example If 7[3x +2 prove that 7[(15x

2

−11x −14.).

Solution: Observe that 15x

2

−11x −14 = (3x +2)(5x −7). We have 7s = 3x +2 for some integer s and so

15x

2

−11x −14 = 7s(5x −7),

giving the result.

Among every two consecutive integers there is an even one, among every three consecutive integers there is one divisible

by 3, etc.The following theorem goes further.

37 Theorem The product of n consecutive integers is divisible by n!.

17

18 Chapter 2

Proof: Assume ﬁrst that all the consecutive integers m+1, m+2, . . . , m+n are positive. If this is so, the divisibility

by n! follows from the fact that binomial coefﬁcients are integers:

Ç

m+n

n

å

=

(m+n)!

n!m!

=

(m+n)(m+n −1) (m+1)

n!

.

If one of the consecutive integers is 0, then the product of them is 0, and so there is nothing to prove. If all the n

consecutive integers are negative, we multiply by (−1)

n

, and see that the corresponding product is positive, and so

we apply the ﬁrst result.u

38 Example Prove that 6[n

3

−n, for all integers n.

Solution: n

3

−n = (n −1)n(n +1) is the product of 3 consecutive integers and hence is divisible by 3! = 6.

39 Example (Putnam 1966) Let 0 < a

1

< a

2

< . . . < a

mn+1

be mn +1 integers. Prove that you can ﬁnd either m+1 of them

no one of which divides any other, or n +1 of them, each dividing the following.

Solution: Let, for each 1 ≤k ≤mn+1, n

k

denote the length of the longest chain, starting with a

k

and each dividing the following

one, that can be selected from a

k

, a

k+1

, . . . , a

mn+1

. If no n

k

is greater than n, then the are at least m+1 n

k

’s that are the same.

However, the integers a

k

corresponding to these n

k

’s cannot divide each other, because a

k

[a

l

implies that n

k

≥n

l

+1.

40 Theorem If k[n then f

k

[ f

n

.

Proof: Letting s = kn, t = n in the identity f

s+t

= f

s−1

f

t

+ f

s

f

t+1

we obtain

f

(k+1)n

= f

kn+n

= f

n−1

f

kn

+ f

n

f

kn+1

.

It is clear that if f

n

[ f

kn

then f

n

[ f

(k+1)n

. Since f

n

[ f

n1

, the assertion follows.u

Practice

Problem 2.1.1 Given that 5[(n +2), which of the following

are divisible by 5

n

2

−4, n

2

+8n +7, n

4

−1, n

2

−2n?

Problem 2.1.2 Prove that n

5

−5n

3

+4n is always divisible by

120.

Problem 2.1.3 Prove that

(2m)!(3n)!

(m!)

2

(n!)

3

is always an integer.

Problem 2.1.4 Demonstrate that for all integer values n,

n

9

−6n

7

+9n

5

−4n

3

is divisible by 8640.

Problem 2.1.5 Prove that if n >4 is composite, then n divides

(n −1)!.

(Hint: Consider, separately, the cases when n is and is not a

perfect square.)

Problem 2.1.6 Prove that there is no prime triplet of the form

p, p +2, p +4, except for 3, 5, 7.

Problem 2.1.7 Prove that for n ∈ N, (n!)! is divisible by

n!

(n−1)!

Problem 2.1.8 (AIME 1986) What is the largest positive in-

teger n for which

(n +10)[(n

3

+100)?

(Hint: x

3

+y

3

= (x +y)(x

2

−xy +y

2

).)

Problem 2.1.9 (Olimpíada matemática española, 1985) If

n is a positive integer, prove that (n + 1)(n + 2) (2n) is

divisible by 2

n

.

Division Algorithm 19

2.2 Division Algorithm

41 Theorem (Division Algorithm) If a, b are positive integers, then there are unique integers q, r such that a =bq+r, 0 ≤r <b.

Proof: We use the Well-Ordering Principle. Consider the set S = ¦a −bk : k ∈ Z and a ≥ bk¦. Then S is a

collection of nonnegative integers and S ,= ∅ as a −b 0 ∈ S. By the Well-Ordering Principle, S has a least

element, say r. Now, there must be some q ∈ Z such that r = a −bq since r ∈ S. By construction, r ≥ 0. Let us

prove that r < b. For assume that r ≥ b. Then r > r −b = a −bq −b = a − (q +1)b ≥0, since r −b ≥0. But then

a− (q+1)b ∈ S and a− (q+1)b <r which contradicts the fact that r is the smallest member of S. Thus we must

have 0 ≤r < b. To show that r and q are unique, assume that bq

1

+r

1

= a = bq

2

+r

2

, 0 ≤r

1

< b, 0 ≤r

2

< b. Then

r

2

−r

1

= b(q

1

−q

2

), that is b[(r

2

−r

1

). But [r

2

−r

1

[ < b, whence r

2

= r

1

. From this it also follows that q

1

= q

2

.

This completes the proof. u

It is quite plain that q =a/b, where a/b denotes the integral part of a/b.

It is important to realise that given an integer n > 0, the Division Algorithm makes a partition of all the integers according

to their remainder upon division by n. For example, every integer lies in one of the families 3k, 3k +1 or 3k +2 where k ∈ Z.

Observe that the family 3k +2, k ∈ Z, is the same as the family 3k −1, k ∈ Z. Thus

Z = A∪B∪C

where

A =¦. . . , −9, −6, −3, 0, 3, 6, 9, . . .¦

is the family of integers of the form 3k, k ∈ Z,

B =¦. . . −8, −5, −2, 1, 4, 7, . . .¦

is the family of integers of the form 3k +1, k ∈ Z and

C = ¦. . . −7, −4, −1, 2, 5, 8, . . .¦

is the family of integers of the form 3k −1, k ∈ Z.

42 Example (AHSME 1976) Let r be the remainder when 1059, 1417 and 2312 are divided by d > 1. Find the value of d −r.

Solution: By the Division Algorithm, 1059 = q

1

d +r, 1417 = q

2

d +r, 2312 = q

3

d +r, for some integers q

1

, q

2

, q

3

. From this,

358 = 1417 −1059 = d(q

2

−q

1

), 1253 = 2312 −1059 = d(q

3

−q

1

) and 895 = 2312 −1417 = d(q

3

−q

2

). Hence d[358 =

2 179, d[1253 = 7 179 and 7[895 = 5 179. Since d > 1, we conclude that d = 179. Thus (for example) 1059 = 5 179+164,

which means that r = 164. We conclude that d −r = 179 −164 = 15.

43 Example Show that n

2

+23 is divisible by 24 for inﬁnitely many n.

Solution: n

2

+23 =n

2

−1+24 = (n−1)(n+1)+24. If we take n =24k±1, k =0, 1, 2, . . . , all these values make the expression

divisible by 24.

44 Deﬁnition A prime number p is a positive integer greater than 1 whose only positive divisors are 1 and p. If the integer

n > 1 is not prime, then we say that it is composite.

For example, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 are prime, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20 are composite. The number 1 is neither

a prime nor a composite.

45 Example Show that if p > 3 is a prime, then 24[(p

2

−1).

Solution: By the Division Algorithm, integers come in one of six ﬂavours: 6k, 6k ±1, 6k ±2 or 6k +3. If p > 3 is a prime, then

p is of the form p = 6k ±1 (the other choices are either divisible by 2 or 3). But (6k ±1)

2

−1 = 36k

2

±12k = 12k(3k −1).

Since either k or 3k −1 is even, 12k(3k −1) is divisible by 24.

20 Chapter 2

46 Example Prove that the square of any integer is of the form 4k or 4k +1.

Solution: By the Division Algorithm, any integer comes in one of two ﬂavours: 2a or 2a +1. Squaring,

(2a)

2

= 4a

2

, (2a +1)

2

= 4(a

2

+a) +1

and so the assertion follows.

47 Example Prove that no integer in the sequence

11, 111, 1111, 11111, . . .

is the square of an integer.

Solution: The square of any integer is of the form 4k or 4k +1. All the numbers in this sequence are of the form 4k −1, and so

they cannot be the square of any integer.

48 Example Show that from any three integers, one can always choose two so that a

3

b −ab

3

is divisible by 10.

Solution: It is clear that a

3

b −ab

3

= ab(a −b)(a +b) is always even, no matter which integers are substituted. If one of the

three integers is of the form 5k, then we are done. If not, we are choosing three integers that lie in the residue classes 5k ±1 or

5k ±2. Two of them must lie in one of these two groups, and so there must be two whose sum or whose difference is divisible

by 5. The assertion follows.

49 Example Prove that if 3[(a

2

+b

2

), then 3[a and 3[b

Solution: Assume a = 3k ±1 or b = 3m±1. Then a

2

= 3x +1, b

2

= 3y +1. But then a

2

+b

2

= 3t +1 or a

2

+b

2

= 3s +2, i.e.,

3 ,[(a

2

+b

2

).

Practice

Problem 2.2.1 Prove the following extension of the Division

Algorithm: if a and b ,= 0 are integers, then there are unique

integers q and r such that a = qb +r, 0 ≤r <[b[.

Problem 2.2.2 Show that if a and b are positive integers,

then there are unique integers q and r, and ε = ±1 such that

a = qb +εr, −

b

2

< r ≤

b

2

.

Problem 2.2.3 Show that the product of two numbers of the

form 4k +3 is of the form 4k +1.

Problem 2.2.4 Prove that the square of any odd integer leaves

remainder 1 upon division by 8.

Problem 2.2.5 Demonstrate that there are no three consec-

utive odd integers such that each is the sum of two squares

greater than zero.

Problem 2.2.6 Let n > 1 be a positive integer. Prove that if

one of the numbers 2

n

−1, 2

n

+1 is prime, then the other is

composite.

Problem 2.2.7 Prove that there are inﬁnitely many integers n

such that 4n

2

+1 is divisible by both 13 and 5.

Problem 2.2.8 Prove that any integer n >11 is the sum of two

positive composite numbers.

Hint: Think of n −6 if n is even and n −9 if n is odd.

Problem 2.2.9 Prove that 3 never divides n

2

+1.

Problem 2.2.10 Show the existence of inﬁnitely many natural

numbers x, y such that x(x +1)[y(y +1) but

x ,[y and (x +1) ,[y,

and also

x ,[(y +1) and (x +1) ,[(y +1).

Hint: Try x = 36k +14, y = (12k +5)(18k +7).

Some Algebraic Identities 21

2.3 Some Algebraic Identities

In this section we present some examples whose solutions depend on the use of some elementary algebraic identities.

50 Example Find all the primes of the form n

3

−1, for integer n > 1.

Solution: n

3

−1 = (n −1)(n

2

+n +1). If the expression were prime, since n

2

+n +1 is always greater than 1, we must have

n −1 = 1, i.e. n = 2. Thus the only such prime is 7.

51 Example Prove that n

4

+4 is a prime only when n = 1 for n ∈ N.

Solution: Observe that

n

4

+4 = n

4

+4n

2

+4 −4n

2

= (n

2

+2)

2

− (2n)

2

= (n

2

+2 −2n)(n

2

+2 +2n)

= ((n −1)

2

+1)((n +1)

2

+1).

Each factor is greater than 1 for n > 1, and so n

4

+4 cannot be a prime.

52 Example Find all integers n ≥1 for which n

4

+4

n

is a prime.

Solution: The expression is only prime for n =1. Clearly one must take n odd. For n ≥3 odd all the numbers below are integers:

n

4

+2

2n

= n

4

+2n

2

2

n

+2

2n

−2n

2

2

n

= (n

2

+2

n

)

2

−

Ä

n2

(n+1)/2

ä

2

= (n

2

+2

n

+n2

(n+1)/2

)(n

2

+2

n

−n2

(n+1)/2

).

It is easy to see that if n ≥3, each factor is greater than 1, so this number cannot be a prime.

53 Example Prove that for all n ∈ N , n

2

divides the quantity

(n +1)

n

−1.

Solution: If n = 1 this is quite evident. Assume n > 1. By the Binomial Theorem,

(n +1)

n

−1 =

n

k=1

Ç

n

k

å

n

k

,

and every term is divisible by n

2

.

54 Example Prove that if p is an odd prime and if

a

b

= 1 +1/2 + +1/(p −1),

then p divides a.

Solution: Arrange the sum as

1 +

1

p −1

+

1

2

+

1

p −2

+ +

1

(p −1)/2

+

1

(p +1)/2

.

After summing consecutive pairs, the numerator of the resulting fractions is p. Each term in the denominator is < p. Since p is

a prime, the p on the numerator will not be thus cancelled out.

22 Chapter 2

55 Example Prove that

x

n

−y

n

= (x −y)(x

n−1

+x

n−2

y +x

n−3

y

2

+ +xy

n−2

+y

n−1

)

Thus x −y always divides x

n

−y

n

.

Solution: We may assume that x ,= y, xy ,= 0, the result being otherwise trivial. In that case, the result follows at once from the

identity

n−1

k=0

a

k

=

a

n

−1

a −1

a ,= 1,

upon letting a = x/y and multiplying through by y

n

.

Without calculation we see that 8767

2345

−8101

2345

is divisible by 666.

56 Example (E˝ otv˝ os 1899) Show that

2903

n

−803

n

−464

n

+261

n

is divisible by 1897 for all natural numbers n.

Solution: By the preceding problem, 2903

n

−803

n

is divisible by 2903 −803 = 2100 = 7 300 =, and 261

n

−464

n

is divisible

by 261 −464 = −203 = 7 (−29). Thus the expression 2903

n

−803

n

−464

n

+261

n

is divisible by 7. Also, 2903

n

−464

n

is

divisible by 2903 −464 = 9 271 and 261

n

−803

n

is divisible by −542 = (−2)271. Thus the expression is also divisible by

271. Since 7 and 271 have no prime factors in common, we can conclude that the expression is divisible by 7 271 = 1897.

57 Example ((UM)

2

C

4

1987) Given that 1002004008016032 has a prime factor p > 250000, ﬁnd it.

Solution: If a = 10

3

, b = 2 then

1002004008016032 = a

5

+a

4

b +a

3

b

2

+a

2

b

3

+ab

4

+b

5

=

a

6

−b

6

a −b

.

This last expression factorises as

a

6

−b

6

a −b

= (a +b)(a

2

+ab +b

2

)(a

2

−ab +b

2

)

= 1002 1002004 998004

= 4 4 1002 250501 k,

where k < 250000. Therefore p = 250501.

58 Example (Grünert, 1856) If x, y, z, n are natural numbers n ≥z, then the relation

x

n

+y

n

= z

n

does not hold.

Solution: It is clear that if the relation x

n

+y

n

= z

n

holds for natural numbers x, y, z then x < z and y < z. By symmetry, we may

suppose that x < y. So assume that x

n

+y

n

= z

n

and n ≥z. Then

z

n

−y

n

= (z −y)(z

n−1

+yz

n−2

+ +y

n−1

) ≥1 nx

n−1

> x

n

,

contrary to the assertion that x

n

+y

n

= z

n

. This establishes the assertion.

Practice 23

59 Example Prove that for n odd,

x

n

+y

n

= (x +y)(x

n−1

−x

n−2

y +x

n−3

y

2

− + − + −xy

n−2

+y

n−1

).

Thus if n is odd, x +y divides x

n

+y

n

.

Solution: This is evident by substituting −y for y in example 1.11 and observing that (−y)

n

= −y

n

for n odd.

60 Example Show that 1001 divides

1

1993

+2

1993

+3

1993

+ +1000

1993

.

Solution: Follows at once from the previous problem, since each of 1

1993

+1000

1993

, 2

1993

+999

1993

, . . . , 500

1993

+501

1993

is

divisible by 1001.

61 Example (S250) Show that for any natural number n, there is another natural number x such that each term of the sequence

x +1, x

x

+1, x

x

x

+1, . . .

is divisible by n.

Solution: It sufﬁces to take x = 2n −1.

62 Example Determine inﬁnitely many pairs of integers (m, n) such that M and n share their prime factors and (m−1, n −1)

share their prime factors.

Solution: Take m = 2

k

−1, n = (2

k

−1)

2

, k = 2, 3, . . .. Then m, n obviously share their prime factors and m−1 = 2(2

k−1

−1)

shares its prime factors with n −1 = 2

k+1

(2

k−1

−1).

Practice

Problem 2.3.1 Show that the integer

1. . . 1

. ¸¸ .

91 ones

is composite.

Problem 2.3.2 Prove that 1

99

+2

99

+3

99

+4

99

is divisible by

5.

Problem 2.3.3 Show that if [ab[ ,=1, then a

4

+4b

4

is compos-

ite.

Problem 2.3.4 Demonstrate that for any natural number n,

the number

1 1

. ¸¸ .

2n 1

′

s

−2 2

. ¸¸ .

n 2

′

s

is the square of an integer.

Problem 2.3.5 Let 0 ≤a < b.

1. Prove that b

n

((n +1)a −nb) < a

n+1

.

2. Prove that for n = 1, 2, . . .,

Å

1 +

1

n

ã

n

<

Å

1 +

1

n +1

ã

n+1

n = 1, 2, . . . .

3. Show that

b

n+1

−a

n+1

b −a

> (n +1)a.

4. Show that

Å

1 +

1

n

ã

n+1

>

Å

1 +

1

n +1

ã

n+2

n = 1, 2, . . . .

Problem 2.3.6 If a, b are positive integers, prove that

(a +1/2)

n

+ (b +1/2)

n

is an integer only for ﬁnitely many positive integers n.

Problem 2.3.7 Prove that 100[11

10

−1.

24 Chapter 2

Problem 2.3.8 Let A and B be two natural numbers with the

same number of digits, A>B. Suppose that A and B have more

than half of their digits on the sinistral side in common. Prove

that

A

1/n

−B

1/n

<

1

n

for all n = 2, 3, 4, . . ..

Problem 2.3.9 Demonstrate that every number in the se-

quence

49, 4489, 444889, 44448889, . . ., 4 4

. ¸¸ .

n 4

′

s

8 8

. ¸¸ .

n−1 8

′

s

9,

is the square of an integer.

Problem 2.3.10 (Polish Mathematical Olympiad) Prove

that if n is an even natural number, then the number 13

n

+6 is

divisible by 7.

Problem 2.3.11 Find, with proof, the unique square which is

the product of four consecutive odd numbers.

Problem 2.3.12 Prove that the number 2222

5555

+5555

2222

is

divisible by 7.

(Hint: Consider

2222

5555

+4

5555

+5555

2222

−4

2222

+4

2222

−4

5555

.)

Problem 2.3.13 Prove that if a

n

+1, 1 < a ∈ N, is prime, then

a is even and n is a power of 2. Primes of the form 2

2

k

+1 are

called Fermat primes.

Problem 2.3.14 Prove that if a

n

−1, 1 < a ∈ N, is prime, then

a = 2 and n is a prime. Primes of the form 2

n

−1 are called

Mersenne primes.

Problem 2.3.15 (Putnam, 1989) How many primes amongst

the positive integers, written as usual in base-ten are such that

their digits are alternating 1’s and 0’s, beginning and ending

in 1?

Problem 2.3.16 Find the least value achieved by 36

k

−5

k

, k =

1, 2, . . . .

Problem 2.3.17 Find all the primes of the form n

3

+1.

Problem 2.3.18 Find a closed formula for the product

P = (1 +2)(1 +2

2

)(1 +2

2

2

) (1 +2

2

n

).

Use this to prove that for all positive integers n, 2

2

n

+1 divides

2

2

2

n

+1

−2.

Problem 2.3.19 Let a > 1 be a real number. Simplify the ex-

pression

»

a +2

√

a −1+

»

a −2

√

a −1.

Problem 2.3.20 Let a, b, c, d be real numbers such that

a

2

+b

2

+c

2

+d

2

= ab +bc +cd+da.

Prove that a = b = c = d.

Problem 2.3.21 Let a, b, c be the lengths of the sides of a tri-

angle. Show that

3(ab +bc +ca) ≤(a +b +c)

2

≤4(ab +bc +ca).

Problem 2.3.22 (ITT, 1994) Let a, b, c, d be complex num-

bers satisfying

a +b +c +d = a

3

+b

3

+c

3

+d

3

= 0.

Prove that a pair of the a, b, c, d must add up to 0.

Problem 2.3.23 Prove that the product of four consecutive

natural numbers is never a perfect square.

Hint: What is (n

2

+n −1)

2

?

Problem 2.3.24 Let k ≥ 2 be an integer. Show that if n is a

positive integer, then n

k

can be represented as the sum of n

successive odd numbers.

Problem 2.3.25 (Catalan) Prove that

1 −

1

2

+

1

3

−

1

4

+ +

1

2n −1

−

1

2n

equals

1

n +1

+

1

n +2

+ +

1

2n

.

Problem 2.3.26 (IMO, 1979) If a, b are natural numbers

such that

a

b

= 1 −

1

2

+

1

3

−

1

4

+ −

1

1318

+

1

1319

,

prove that 1979[a.

Practice 25

Problem 2.3.27 (Polish Mathematical Olympiad) A trian-

gular number is one of the form 1 +2 +. . . +n, n ∈ N. Prove

that none of the digits 2, 4, 7, 9 can be the last digit of a trian-

gular number.

Problem 2.3.28 Demonstrate that there are inﬁnitely many

square triangular numbers.

Problem 2.3.29 (Putnam, 1975) Supposing that an integer n

is the sum of two triangular numbers,

n =

a

2

+a

2

+

b

2

+b

2

,

write 4n+1 as the sum of two squares, 4n+1 = x

2

+y

2

where

x and y are expressed in terms of a and b.

Conversely, show that if 4n+1 = x

2

+y

2

, then n is the sum

of two triangular numbers.

Problem 2.3.30 (Polish Mathematical Olympiad) Prove

that amongst ten successive natural numbers, there are always

at least one and at most four numbers that are not divisible by

any of the numbers 2, 3, 5, 7.

Problem 2.3.31 Show that if k is odd,

1 +2 + +n

divides

1

k

+2

k

+ +n

k

.

Problem 2.3.32 Are there ﬁve consecutive positive integers

such that the sum of the ﬁrst four, each raised to the fourth

power, equals the ﬁfth raised to the fourth power?

Chapter 3

Congruences. Z

n

3.1 Congruences

The notation a ≡ b mod n is due to Gauß, and it means that n[(a −b). It also indicates that a and b leave the same remainder

upon division by n. For example, −8 ≡ −1 ≡ 6 ≡ 13 mod 7. Since n[(a −b) implies that ∃k ∈ Z such that nk = a −b, we

deduce that a ≡b mod n if and only if there is an integer k such that a = b +nk.

We start by mentioning some simple properties of congruences.

63 Lemma Let a, b, c, d, m∈ Z, k ∈ with a ≡b mod m and c ≡d mod m. Then

1. a +c ≡b +d mod m

2. a −c ≡b −d mod m

3. ac ≡bd mod m

4. a

k

≡b

k

mod m

5. If f is a polynomial with integral coefﬁcients then f (a) ≡ f (b) mod m.

Proof: As a ≡ b mod m and c ≡ d mod m, we can ﬁnd k

1

, k

2

∈ Z with a = b +k

1

m and c = d +k

2

m. Thus

a±c = b±d +m(k

1

±k

2

) and ac = bd +m(k

2

b+k

1

d). These equalities give (1), (2) and (3). Property (4) follows

by successive application of (3), and (5) follows from (4). u

Congruences mod 9 can sometimes be used to check multiplications. For example 875961 2753 ,= 2410520633. For if

this were true then

(8 +7 +5 +9 +6+1)(2 +7+5+3) ≡2 +4 +1 +0 +5+2+0+6+3+3 mod 9.

But this says that 0 8 ≡8 mod 9, which is patently false.

64 Example Find the remainder when 6

1987

is divided by 37.

Solution: 6

2

≡−1 mod 37. Thus 6

1987

≡6 6

1986

≡6(6

2

)

993

≡6(−1)

993

≡−6 ≡31 mod 37.

65 Example Prove that 7 divides 3

2n+1

+2

n+2

for all natural numbers n.

Solution: Observe that 3

2n+1

≡3 9

n

≡3 2

n

mod 7 and 2

n+2

≡4 2

n

mod 7. Hence

3

2n+1

+2

n+2

≡7 2

n

≡0 mod 7,

for all natural numbers n.

26

Congruences 27

66 Example Prove the following result of Euler: 641[(2

32

+1).

Solution: Observe that 641 = 2

7

5 +1 = 2

4

+5

4

. Hence 2

7

5 ≡ −1 mod 641 and 5

4

≡ −2

4

mod 641. Now, 2

7

5 ≡ −1

mod 641 yields 5

4

2

28

= (5 2

7

)

4

≡ (−1)

4

≡ 1 mod 641. This last congruence and 5

4

≡ −2

4

mod 641 yield −2

4

2

28

≡ 1

mod 641, which means that 641[(2

32

+1).

67 Example Find the perfect squares mod 13.

Solution: First observe that we only have to square all the numbers up to 6, because r

2

≡ (13 −r)

2

mod 13. Squaring the

nonnegative integers up to 6, we obtain 0

2

≡0, 1

2

≡1, 2

2

≡ 4, 3

2

≡9, 4

2

≡3, 5

2

≡ 12, 6

2

≡ 10 mod 13. Therefore the perfect

squares mod 13 are 0, 1, 4, 9, 3, 12, and 10.

68 Example Prove that there are no integers with x

2

−5y

2

= 2.

Solution: If x

2

= 2 −5y

2

, then x

2

≡2 mod 5. But 2 is not a perfect square mod 5.

69 Example Prove that 7[(2222

5555

+5555

2222

).

Solution: 2222 ≡ 3 mod 7, 5555 ≡ 4 mod 7 and 3

5

≡ 5 mod 7. Now 2222

5555

+5555

2222

≡ 3

5555

+4

2222

≡ (3

5

)

1111

+

(4

2

)

1111

≡5

1111

−5

1111

≡0 mod 7.

70 Example Find the units digit of 7

7

7

.

Solution: We must ﬁnd 7

7

7

mod 10. Now, 7

2

≡ −1 mod 10, and so 7

3

≡ 7

2

7 ≡ −7 ≡ 3 mod 10 and 7

4

≡ (7

2

)

2

≡ 1

mod 10. Also, 7

2

≡ 1 mod 4 and so 7

7

≡ (7

2

)

3

7 ≡ 3 mod 4, which means that there is an integer t such that 7

7

= 3 +4t.

Upon assembling all this,

7

7

7

≡7

4t+3

≡(7

4

)

t

7

3

≡1

t

3 ≡3 mod 10.

Thus the last digit is 3.

71 Example Prove that every year, including any leap year, has at least one Friday 13-th.

Solution: It is enough to prove that each year has a Sunday the 1st. Now, the ﬁrst day of a month in each year falls in one of the

following days:

Month Day of the year mod 7

January 1 1

February 32 4

March 60 or 61 4 or 5

April 91 or 92 0 or 1

May 121 or122 2 or 3

June 152 or 153 5 or 6

July 182 or183 0 or 1

August 213 or 214 3 or 4

September 244 or 245 6 or 0

October 274 or 275 1 or 2

November 305 or 306 4 or 5

December 335 or 336 6 or 0

(The above table means that, depending on whether the year is a leap year or not, that March 1st is the 50th or 51st day of the

year, etc.) Now, each remainder class modulo 7 is represented in the third column, thus each year, whether leap or not, has at

least one Sunday the 1st.

28 Chapter 3

72 Example Find inﬁnitely many integers n such that 2

n

+27 is divisible by 7.

Solution: Observe that 2

1

≡ 2, 2

2

≡ 4, 2

3

≡ 1, 2

4

≡ 2, 2

5

≡ 4, 2

6

≡ 1 mod 7 and so 2

3k

≡ 1 mod 3 for all positive integers k.

Hence 2

3k

+27 ≡1 +27 ≡0 mod 7 for all positive integers k. This produces the inﬁnitely many values sought.

73 Example Are there positive integers x, y such that x

3

= 2

y

+15?

Solution: No. The perfect cubes mod 7 are 0, 1, and 6. Now, every power of 2 is congruent to 1, 2, or 4 mod 7. Thus

2

y

+15 ≡2, 3, or 5 mod 7. This is an impossibility.

74 Example Prove that 2

k

−5, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . never leaves remainder 1 when divided by 7.

Solution: 2

1

≡2, 2

2

≡4, 2

3

≡ 1 mod 7, and this cycle of three repeats. Thus 2

k

−5 can leave only remainders 3, 4, or 6 upon

division by 7.

75 Example (AIME, 1994) The increasing sequence

3, 15, 24, 48, . . . ,

consists of those positive multiples of 3 that are one less than a perfect square. What is the remainder when the 1994-th term of

the sequence is divided by 1000?

Solution: We want 3[n

2

−1 = (n −1)(n +1). Since 3 is prime, this requires n = 3k +1 or n = 3k −1, k = 1, 2, 3, . . .. The

sequence 3k +1, k = 1, 2, . . . produces the terms n

2

−1 = (3k +1)

2

−1 which are the terms at even places of the sequence of

3, 15, 24, 48, . . .. The sequence 3k −1, k = 1, 2, . . . produces the terms n

2

−1 = (3k −1)

2

−1 which are the terms at odd places

of the sequence 3, 15, 24, 48, . . .. We must ﬁnd the 997th term of the sequence 3k +1, k = 1, 2, . . .. Finally, the term sought is

(3(997) +1)

2

−1 ≡(3(−3) +1)

2

−1 ≡8

2

−1 ≡63 mod 1000. The remainder sought is 63.

76 Example (USAMO, 1979) Determine all nonnegative integral solutions

(n

1

, n

2

, . . . , n

14

)

if any, apart from permutations, of the Diophantine equation

n

4

1

+n

4

2

+ +n

4

14

= 1599.

Solution: There are no such solutions. All perfect fourth powers mod 16 are ≡0 or 1 mod 16. This means that

n

4

1

+ +n

4

14

can be at most 14 mod 16. But 1599 ≡15 mod 16.

77 Example (Putnam, 1986) What is the units digit of

10

20000

10

100

+3

?

Solution: Set a−3 =10

100

. Then [(10

20000

)/10

100

+3] = [(a−3)

200

/a] = [

1

a

200

k=0

Ç

200

k

å

a

200−k

(−3)

k

] =

199

k=0

Ç

200

k

å

a

199−k

(−3)

k

.

Since

200

k=0

(−1)

k

Ç

200

k

å

= 0, (3)

199

199

k=0

(−1)

k

Ç

200

k

å

= −3

199

. As a ≡3 mod 10,

199

k=0

Ç

200

k

å

a

199−k

(−3)

k

≡3

199

199

k=0

(−1)

k

Ç

200

k

å

≡−3

199

≡3 mod 10.

Congruences 29

78 Example Prove that for any a, b, c ∈ Z, n ∈ N, n > 3, there is an integer k such that n ,[(k +a), n ,[(k +b), n ,[(k +c).

Solution: The integers a, b, c belong to at most three different residue classes mod n. Since n > 3, we have more than three

distinct residue classes. Thus there must be a residue class, say k for which −k ,≡ a, −k ,≡ b, −k ,≡ c, mod n. This solves the

problem.

79 Example (Putnam, 1973) Let a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

2n+1

be a set of integers such that if any one of them is removed, the remaining

ones can be divided into two sets of n integers with equal sums. Prove that a

1

= a

2

= . . . = a

2n+1

.

Solution: As the sum of the 2n integers remaining is always even, no matter which of the a

k

be taken, all the a

k

must have the

same parity. The property stated in the problem is now shared by a

k

/2 or (a

k

−1)/2, depending on whether they are all even, or

all odd. Thus they are all congruent mod 4. Continuing in this manner we arrive at the conclusion that the a

k

are all congruent

mod 2

k

for every k, and this may only happen if they are all equal.

80 Example Prove that

(kn)! ≡0 mod

n−1

r=0

(n +r)

if n, k ∈ N, n ≥k ≥2.

Solution: (kn)! = M(n −1)!n(n +1) (2n −1) for some integer M ≥1. The assertion follows.

81 Example Let

n!! = n! (1/2! −1/3! + + (−1)

n

/n!).

Prove that for all n ∈ N, n > 3,

n!! ≡n! mod (n −1).

Solution: We have

n! −n!! = n(n −1)(n −2)!(1 −1/2!

+ + (−1)

n−1

/(n −1)! + (−1)

n

/n!)

= (n −1)

Ä

m+ (−1)

n−1

n/(n −1) + (−1)

n

/(n −1)

ä

= (n −1)(m+ (−1)

n

) ,

where M is an integer, since (n −2)! is divisible by k!, k ≤n −2.

82 Example Prove that

6n+2

k=0

Ç

6n +2

2k

å

3

k

≡0, 2

3n+1

, −2

3n+1

mod 2

3n+2

when n is of the form 2k, 4k +3 or 4k +1 respectively.

Solution: Using the Binomial Theorem,

2S := 2

3n+1

k=0

Ç

6n +2

2k

å

3

k

= (1 +

√

3)

6n+2

+ (1 −

√

3)

6n+2

.

Also, if n is odd, with a = 2 +

√

3, b = 2 −

√

3,

1

2

(a

3n+1

+b

3n+1

) =

3n +1

2

r=0

Ç

3n +1

2r

å

2

3n+1−2r

3

r

.

≡ 3

(3n+1)/2

mod 4

≡ (−1)

(n−1)/2

mod 4.

30 Chapter 3

As 2S = 2

3n+1

(a

3n+1

+b

3n+1

), we have, for odd n,

S ≡(−1)

(n−1)/2

2

3n+1

mod 2

3n+3

.

If n is even,

1

2

(a

3n+1

+b

3n+1

) =

2r≤3n

Ç

3n +1

2r +1

å

2

2r+1

3

3n−2r

≡ 2(6n +1)3

3n

mod 8

≡ 4n +2 mod 8.

So for even n, S ≡2

3n+2

2n +1 mod 2

3n+4

.

Practice

Problem 3.1.1 Find the number of all n, 1 ≤n ≤25 such that

n

2

+15n +122 is divisible by 6.

(Hint: n

2

+15n+122 ≡n

2

+3n+2 = (n+1)(n+2) mod 6.)

Problem 3.1.2 (AIME 1983) Let a

n

=6

n

+8

n

. Determine the

remainder when a

83

is divided by 49.

Problem 3.1.3 (POLISH MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD)

What digits should be put instead of x and y in 30x0y03 in

order to give a number divisible by 13?

Problem 3.1.4 Prove that if 9[(a

3

+b

3

+c

3

), then 3[abc, for

integers a, b, c.

Problem 3.1.5 Describe all integers n such that 10[n

10

+1.

Problem 3.1.6 Prove that if

a −b, a

2

−b

2

, a

3

−b

3

, a

4

−b

4

, . . .

are all integers, then a and b must also be integers.

Problem 3.1.7 Find the last digit of 3

100

.

Problem 3.1.8 (AHSME 1992) What is the size of the largest

subset S of ¦1, 2, . . . , 50¦ such that no pair of distinct elements

of S has a sum divisible by 7?

Problem 3.1.9 Prove that there are no integer solutions to the

equation x

2

−7y = 3.

Problem 3.1.10 Prove that if 7[a

2

+b

2

then 7[a and 7[b.

Problem 3.1.11 Prove that there are no integers with

800000007 = x

2

+y

2

+z

2

.

Problem 3.1.12 Prove that the sum of the decimal digits of a

perfect square cannot be equal to 1991.

Problem 3.1.13 Prove that

7[4

2

n

+2

2

n

+1

for all natural numbers n.

Problem 3.1.14 Prove that 5 never divides

n

k=0

2

3k

Ç

2n +1

2k +1

å

.

Problem 3.1.15 Prove that if p is a prime,

Ç

n

p

å

− [

n

p

] is di-

visible by p, for all n ≥ p.

Problem 3.1.16 How many perfect squares are there

mod 2

n

?

Problem 3.1.17 Prove that every non-multiple of 3 is a per-

fect power of 2 mod 3

n

.

Problem 3.1.18 Find the last two digits of 3

100

.

Problem 3.1.19 (USAMO, 1986) What is the smallest inte-

ger n >1, for which the root-mean-square of the ﬁrst n positive

integers is an integer?

Note. The root mean square of n numbers a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

n

is deﬁned to be

Å

a

2

1

+a

2

2

+ +a

2

n

n

ã

1/2

.

Divisibility Tests 31

Problem 3.1.20 Find all integers a, b, c, a > 1 and all prime

numbers p, q, r which satisfy the equation

p

a

= q

b

+r

c

(a, b, c, p, q, r need not necessarily be different).

Problem 3.1.21 Show that the number 16 is a perfect 8-th

power mod p for any prime p.

Problem 3.1.22 (IMO, 1975) Let a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, . . . be an increas-

ing sequence of positive integers. Prove that for every s ≥ 1

there are inﬁnitely many a

m

that can be written in the form

a

m

= xa

s

+ya

t

with positive integers x and y and t > s.

Problem 3.1.23 For each integer n > 1, prove that n

n

−n

2

+

n −1 is divisible by (n −1)

2

.

Problem 3.1.24 Let x and a

i

, i = 0, 1, . . . , k be arbitrary inte-

gers. Prove that

k

i=0

a

i

(x

2

+1)

3i

is divisible by x

2

±x +1 if and only if

k

i=0

(−1)

i

a

i

is divisible

by x

2

±x +1.

Problem 3.1.25 ((UM)

2

C

9

1992) If x, y, z are positive inte-

gers with

x

n

+y

n

= z

n

for an odd integer n ≥3, prove that z cannot be a prime-power.

3.2 Divisibility Tests

Working base-ten, we have an ample number of rules of divisibility. The most famous one is perhaps the following.

83 Theorem (Casting-out 9’s) A natural number n is divisible by 9 if and only if the sum of it digits is divisible by 9.

Proof: Let n = a

k

10

k

+a

k−1

10

k−1

+ +a

1

10 +a

0

be the base-10 expansion of n. As 10 ≡ 1 mod 9, we have

10

j

≡1 mod 9. It follows that n = a

k

10

k

+ +a

1

10 +a

0

≡a

k

+ +a

1

+a

0

, whence the theorem. u

84 Example (AHSME, 1992) The two-digit integers from 19 to 92 are written consecutively in order to form the integer

192021222324 89909192.

What is the largest power of 3 that divides this number?

Solution: By the casting-out-nines rule, this number is divisible by 9 if and only if

19 +20 +21 + +92 = 37

2

3

is. Therefore, the number is divisible by 3 but not by 9.

85 Example (IMO, 1975) When 4444

4444

is written in decimal notation, the sum of its digits is A. Let B be the sum of the

digits of A. Find the sum of the digits of B. (A and B are written in decimal notation.)

Solution: We have 4444 ≡7 mod 9, and hence 4444

3

≡7

3

≡1 mod 9. Thus 4444

4444

=4444

3(1481)

4444 ≡1 7 ≡7 mod 9.

Let C be the sum of the digits of B.

By the casting-out 9’s rule, 7 ≡4444

4444

≡A ≡B ≡C mod 9. Now, 4444log

10

4444 <4444log

10

10

4

=17776. This means

that 4444

4444

has at most 17776 digits, so the sum of the digits of 4444

4444

is at most 9 17776 = 159984, whence A ≤159984.

Amongst all natural numbers ≤ 159984 the one with maximal digit sum is 99999, so it follows that B ≤ 45. Of all the natural

numbers ≤45, 39 has the largest digital sum, namely 12. Thus the sum of the digits of B is at most 12. But since C ≡7 mod 9,

it follows that C = 7.

A criterion for divisibility by 11 can be established similarly. For let n = a

k

10

k

+a

k−1

10

k−1

+ +a

1

10+a

0

. As 10 ≡−1

mod 11, we have 10

j

≡(−1)

j

mod 11. Therefore n ≡(−1)

k

a

k

+(−1)

k−1

a

k−1

+ −a

1

+a

0

mod 11, that is, n is divisible by

11 if and only if the alternating sumof its digits is divisible by 11. For example, 912282219≡9−1+2−2+8−2+2−1+9 ≡7

mod 11 and so 912282219 is not divisible by 11, whereas 8924310064539≡8−9+2−4+3−1+0−0+6−4+4−3+9 ≡0

mod 11, and so 8924310064539 is divisible by 11.

32 Chapter 3

86 Example (Putnam, 1952) Let

f (x) =

n

k=0

a

k

x

n−k

be a polynomial of degree n with integral coefﬁcients. If a

0

, a

n

and f (1) are all odd, prove that f (x) = 0 has no rational roots.

Solution: Suppose that f (a/b) = 0, where a and b are relatively prime integers. Then 0 = b

n

f (a/b) = a

0

b

n

+a

1

b

n−1

a + +

a

n−1

ba

n−1

+a

n

a

n

. By the relative primality of a and b it follows that a[a

0

, b[a

n

, whence a and b are both odd. Hence

a

0

b

n

+a

a

b

n−1

a + +a

n−1

ba

n−1

+a

n

a

n

≡a

0

+a

1

+ +a

n

= f (1) ≡1 mod 2,

but this contradicts that a/b is a root of f .

Practice

Problem 3.2.1 (AHSME 1991) An n-digit integer is cute if its

n digits are an arrangement of the set ¦1, 2, . . . , n¦ and its ﬁrst

k digits forman integer that is divisible by k for all k, 1 ≤k ≤n.

For example, 321 is a cute three-digit number because 1 di-

vides 3, 2 divides 32, and 3 divides 321. How many cute six-

digit integers are there?

Answer: 2.

Problem 3.2.2 How many ways are there to roll two distin-

guishable dice to yield a sum that is divisible by three?

Answer: 12.

Problem 3.2.3 Prove that a number is divisible by 2

k

, k ∈ N if

and only if the number formed by its last k digits is divisible by

2

k

. Test whether

90908766123456789999872

is divisible by 8.

Problem 3.2.4 An old receipt has faded. It reads 88 chickens

at the total of $x4.2y, where x and y are unreadable digits.

How much did each chicken cost?

Answer: 73 cents.

Problem 3.2.5 Five sailors plan to divide a pile of coconuts

amongst themselves in the morning. During the night, one of

them wakes up and decides to take his share. After throwing

a coconut to a monkey to make the division come out even, he

takes one ﬁfth of the pile and goes back to sleep. The other four

sailors do likewise, one after the other, each throwing a co-

conut to the monkey and taking one ﬁfth of the remaining pile.

In the morning the ﬁve sailors throw a coconut to the monkey

and divide the remaining coconuts into ﬁve equal piles. What

is the smallest amount of coconuts that could have been in the

original pile?

Answer: 15621

Problem 3.2.6 Prove that a number which consists of 3

n

iden-

tical digits is divisible by 3

n

. For example, 111 111 111 is

divisible by 9.

Problem 3.2.7 ((UM)

2

C

8

1991) Suppose that a

0

, a

1

, . . . a

n

are integers with a

n

,= 0, and let

p(x) = a

0

+a

1

x + +a

n

x

n

.

Suppose that x

0

is a rational number such that p(x

0

) =0. Show

that if 1 ≤k ≤n, then

a

k

x

0

+a

k+1

x

2

0

+ +a

n

x

n−k+1

is an integer.

Problem 3.2.8 1953 digits are written in a circular order.

Prove that if the 1953-digit numbers obtained when we read

these digits in dextrogyral sense beginning with one of the dig-

its is divisible by 27, then if we read these digits in the same

direction beginning with any other digit, the new 1953-digit

number is also divisible by 27.

Problem 3.2.9 (Lagrange) Prove that

f

n+60

≡ f

n

mod 10.

Thus the last digit of a Fibonacci number recurs in cycles of

length 60.

Problem 3.2.10 Prove that

f

2n+1

≡ f

2

n+1

mod f

2

n

.

Complete Residues 33

3.3 Complete Residues

The following concept will play a central role in our study of integers.

87 Deﬁnition If a ≡b mod n then b is called a residue of a modulo n. A set a

1

, a

2

, . . . a

n

is called a complete residue system

modulo n if for every integer b there is exactly one index j such that b ≡a

j

mod n.

It is clear that given any ﬁnite set of integers, this set will form a complete set of residues modulo n if and only if the

set has n members and every member of the set is incongruent modulo n. For example, the set A = ¦0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5¦ forms

a complete set of residues mod 6, since any integer x is congruent to one and only one member of A. Notice that the set

B = ¦−40, 6, 7, 15, 22, 35¦ forms a complete residue set mod 6, but the set C = ¦−3, −2, −1, 1, 2, 3¦ does not, as −3 ≡ 3

mod 6.

+

3

0 1 2

0 0 1 2

1 1 2 0

2 2 0 1

Table 3.1: Addition Table for Z

3

+

6

0 1 2 3 4 5

0 0 1 2 3 4 5

1 1 2 3 4 5 0

2 2 3 4 5 0 1

3 3 4 5 0 1 2

4 4 5 0 1 2 3

5 5 0 1 2 3 4

Table 3.2: Addition Table for Z

6

Tied up with the concept of complete residues is that of Z

n

. As an example, let us take n = 3. We now let 0 represent all

those integers that are divisible by 3, 1 represent all those integers that leave remainder 1 upon division by 3, and 2 all those

integers that leave remainder 2 upon division by 3, and consider the set Z

3

= ¦0, 1, 2¦. We deﬁne addition in Z

3

as follows.

Given a, b ∈ Z

3

we consider a +b mod 3. Now, there is c ∈ ¦0, 1, 2¦ such that a +b ≡ c mod 3. We then deﬁne a +

3

b to be

equal to c. Table ?? contains all the possible additions.

We observe that Z

3

together with the operation +

3

as given in Table ?? satisﬁes the following properties:

1. The element 0 ∈ Z

3

is an identity element for Z

3

, i.e. 0 satisﬁes 0 +

3

a = a +

3

0 = a for all a ∈ Z

3

2. Every element a ∈ Z

3

has an additive inverse b, i.e., an element such that a +

3

b = b +

3

a = 0. We denote the additive

inverse of a by −a. In Z

3

we note that −0 = 0, −1 = 2, −2 = 1.

3. The operation addition in Z

3

is associative, that is, for all a, b, c ∈ Z

3

we have a +

3

(b+

3

c) = (a +

3

b) +

3

c.

We then say that <Z

3

, +

3

> forms a group and we call it the group of residues under addition mod 3.

Similarly we deﬁne < Z

n

, +

n

>, as the group of residues under addition mod n. As a further example we present the

addition table for <Z

6

, +

6

> on Table (1.2). We will explore later the multiplicative structure of Z

n

.

Practice

Problem 3.3.1 Construct the addition tables for Z

8

and Z

9

. Problem 3.3.2 How many distinct ordered pairs (a, b) ,=

(0, 0) are in Z

12

such that a +

12

b = 0?

Chapter 4

Unique Factorisation

4.1 GCD and LCM

If a, b ∈ Z, not both zero, the largest positive integer that divides both a, b is called the greatest common divisor of a and b. This

is denoted by (a, b) or sometimes by gcd(a, b). Thus if d[a and d[b then d[(a, b), because any common divisor of a and b must

divide the largest common divisor of a and b. For example, (68, −6) = 2, gcd(1998, 1999) = 1.

If (a, b) = 1, we say that a and b are relatively prime or coprime. Thus if a, b are relatively prime, then they have no factor

greater than 1 in common.

If a, b are integers, not both zero, the smallest positive integer that is a multiple of a, b is called the least common multiple

of a and b. This is denoted by [a, b]. We see then that if a[c and if b[c, then [a, b][c, since c is a common multiple of both a and

b, it must be divisible by the smallest common multiple of a and b.

The most important theorem related to gcd’s is probably the following.

88 Theorem (Bachet-Bezout Theorem) The greatest common divisor of any two integers a, b can be written as a linear

combination of a and b, i.e., there are integers x, y with

(a, b) = ax +by.

Proof: Let A = ¦ax +by[ax +by > 0, x, y ∈ Z¦. Clearly one of ±a, ±b is in A, as both a, b are not zero. By the

Well Ordering Principle, A has a smallest element, say d. Therefore, there are x

0

, y

0

such that d = ax

0

+by

0

. We

prove that d = (a, b). To do this we prove that d[a, d[b and that if t[a, t[b, then t[d.

We ﬁrst prove that d[a. By the Division Algorithm, we can ﬁnd integers q, r, 0 ≤r < d such that a = dq +r. Then

r = a −dq = a(1 −qx

0

) −by

0

.

If r > 0, then r ∈ A is smaller than the smaller element of A, namely d, a contradiction. Thus r = 0. This entails

dq = a, i.e. d[a. We can similarly prove that d[b.

Assume that t[a, t[b. Then a = tm, b = tn for integers m, n. Hence d = ax

0

+bx

0

= t(mx

0

+ny

0

), that is, t[d. The

theorem is thus proved. u

It is clear that any linear combination of a, b is divisible by (a, b).

89 Lemma (Euclid’s Lemma) If a[bc and if (a, b) = 1, then a[c.

Proof: As (a, b) = 1, by the Bachet-Bezout Theorem, there are integers x, y with ax +by = 1. Since a[bc, there is

an integer s with as = bc. Then c = c 1 = cax +cby = cax +asy. From this it follows that a[c, as wanted.u

34

GCD and LCM 35

90 Theorem If (a, b) = d, then

(

a

d

,

b

d

) = 1.

Proof: By the Bachet-Bezout Theorem, there are integers x, y such that ax+by =d. But then (a/d)x+(b/d)y =1,

and a/d, b/d are integers. But this is a linear combination of a/d, b/d and so (a/d, b/d) divides this linear

combination, i.e., divides 1. We conclude that (a/d, b/d) = 1.u

91 Theorem Let c be a positive integer. Then

(ca, cb) = c(a, b).

Proof: Let d

1

= (ca, cb) and d

2

= (a, b). We prove that d

1

[cd

2

and cd

2

[d

1

. As d

2

[a and d

2

[b, then cd

2

[ca, cd

2

[cb.

Thus cd

2

is a common divisor of ca and cb and hence d

1

[cd

2

. By the Bachet-Bezout Theorem we can ﬁnd integers

x, y with d

1

= acx +bcy = c(ax +by). But ax +by is a linear combination of a, b and so it is divisible by d

2

. There

is an integer s then such that sd

2

= ax +by. It follows that d

1

= csd

2

, i.e., cd

2

[d

1

. u

It follows similarly that (ca, cb) =[c[(a, b) for any non-zero integer c.

92 Lemma For nonzero integers a, b, c,

(a, bc) = (a, (a, b)c).

Proof: Since (a, (a, b)c) divides (a, b)c it divides bc. Thus gcd(a, (a, b)c) divides a and bc and hence gcd(a, (a, b)c)[ gcd(a, bc).

On the other hand, (a, bc) divides a and bc, hence it divides ac and bc. Therefore (a, bc) divides (ac, bc) = c(a, b).

In conclusion, (a, bc) divides a and c(a, b) and so it divides (a, (a, b)c). This ﬁnishes the proof.u

93 Theorem (a

2

, b

2

) = (a, b)

2

.

Proof: Assume that (m, n) = 1. Using the preceding lemma twice,

(m

2

, n

2

) = (m

2

, (m

2

, n)n) = (m

2

, (n, (m, n)m)n).

As (m, n) = 1, this last quantity equals (m

2

, n). Using the preceding problem again,

(m

2

, n) = (n, (m, n)m) = 1.

Thus (m, n) = 1 implies (m

2

, n

2

) = 1.

By Theorem ??,

Å

a

(a, b)

,

b

(a, b)

ã

= 1,

and hence

Ç

a

2

(a, b)

2

,

b

2

(a, b)

2

å

= 1.

By Theorem ??, upon multiplying by (a, b)

2

, we deduce

(a

2

, b

2

) = (a, b)

2

,

which is what we wanted.u

94 Example Let (a, b) = 1. Prove that (a +b, a

2

−ab +b

2

) = 1 or 3.

36 Chapter 4

Solution: Let d = (a +b, a

2

−ab +b

2

). Now d divides

(a +b)

2

−a

2

+ab −b

2

= 3ab.

Hence d divides 3b(a +b) −3ab = 3b

2

. Similarly, d[3a

2

. But then d[(3a

2

, 3b

2

) = 3(a

2

, b

2

) = 3(a, b)

2

= 3.

95 Example Let a, a ,= 1, m, n be positive integers. Prove that

(a

m

−1, a

n

−1) = a

(m,n)

−1.

Solution: Set d = (m, n), sd = m, td = n. Then a

m

−1 = (a

d

)

s

−1 is divisible by a

d

−1 and similarly, a

n

−1 is divisible by

a

d

−1. Thus (a

d

−1)[(a

m

−1, a

n

−1). Now, by the Bachet-Bezout Theoremthere are integers x, y with mx+ny =d. Notice that

x and y must have opposite signs (they cannot obviously be both negative, since then d would be negative. They cannot both be

positive because then d ≥ m+n, when in fact we have d ≤ m, d ≤ n). So, assume without loss of generality that x > 0, y ≤ 0.

Set t = (a

m

−1, a

n

−1). Then t[(a

mx

−1) and t[(a

−ny

−1). Hence, t[((a

mx

−1) −a

d

(a

−ny

−1)) = a

d

−1. The assertion is

established.

96 Example (IMO, 1959) Prove that the fraction

21n +4

14n +3

is irreducible for every natural number n.

Solution: 2(21n +4) −3(14n +3) = −1. Thus the numerator and the denominator have no common factor greater than 1.

97 Example (AIME, 1985) The numbers in the sequence

101, 104, 109, 116, . . .

are of the form a

n

= 100 +n

2

, n = 1, 2, . . .. For each n let d

n

= (a

n

, a

n+1

). Find max

n≥1

d

n

.

Solution: We have the following: d

n

= (100 +n

2

, 100 + (n +1)

2

) = (100 +n

2

, 100 +n

2

+2n +1) = (100 +n

2

, 2n +1). Thus

d

n

[(2(100+n

2

)−n(2n+1)) =200−n. Therefore d

n

[(2(200−n)+(2n+1)) =401. This means that d

n

[401 for all n. Could it be

that large? The answer is yes, for let n = 200, then a

200

= 100+200

2

= 100(401) and a

201

= 100+201

2

= 40501 = 101(401).

Thus max

n≥1

d

n

= 401.

98 Example Prove that if m and n are natural numbers and m is odd, then (2

m

−1, 2

n

+1) = 1.

Solution: Let d = (2

m

−1, 2

n

+1). It follows that d must be an odd number, and 2

m

−1 = kd, 2

n

+1 = ld, for some natural

numbers k, l. Therefore, 2

mn

= (kd +1)

n

= td +1, where t =

n−1

j=0

Ç

n

j

å

k

n−j

d

n−j−1

. In the same manner, 2

mn

= (ld −1)

m

=

ud −1, where we have used the fact that m is odd. As td +1 = ud −1, we must have d[2, whence d = 1.

99 Example Prove that there are arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions in which the terms are pairwise relatively prime.

Solution: The numbers km! +1, k = 1, 2, . . . , m form an arithmetic progression of length m and common difference m!. Suppose

that d[(lm! +1), d[(sm! +1), 1 ≤l < s ≤m. Then d[(s(lm! +1) −l(sm! +1)) = (s −l) < m. Thus 1 ≤d < m and so, d[m!. But

then d[(sm! +1 −sm!) = 1. This means that any two terms of this progression are coprime.

100 Example Prove that any two consecutive Fibonacci numbers are relatively prime.

Solution: Let d = ( f

n

, f

n+1

). As f

n+1

− f

n

= f

n−1

and d divides the sinistral side of this equality, d[ f

n−1

. Thus d[( f

n

− f

n−1

) =

f

n−2

. Iterating on this process we deduce that d[ f

1

= 1 and so d = 1.

Aliter: By Cassini’s Identity f

n−1

f

n+1

− f

2

n

= (−1)

n

. Thus d[(−1)

n

, i.e., d = 1.

GCD and LCM 37

101 Example Prove that

( f

m

, f

n

) = f

(n,m)

.

Solution: Set d = ( f

n

, f

m

), c = f

(m,n)

, a = (m, n). We will prove that c[d and d[c.

Since a[m and a[n, f

a

[ f

m

and f

a

[ f

n

by Theorem ??. Thus

f

a

[( f

m

, f

m

),

i.e., c[d.

Now, by the Bachet-Bezout Theorem, there are integers x, y such that xm+yn =a. Observe that x, y cannot be both negative,

otherwise a would be negative. As a[n, a[m we have a ≤n, a ≤m. They cannot be both positive since then a =xm+yn ≥m+n,

a contradiction. Thus they are of opposite signs, and we assume without loss of generality that x ≤0, y > 0.

Observe that

f

yn

= f

a−xm

= f

a−1

f

−xm

+ f

a

f

−xm+1

upon using the identity

f

s+t

= f

s−1

f

t

+ f

s

f

t+1

of Theorem ??. As n[yn, m[(−xm), we have that f

n

[ f

yn

, f

m

[ f

−xm

. This implies that ( f

n

, f

m

)[ f

yn

and ( f

n

, f

m

)[ f

−xm

. Hence

( f

n

, f

m

)[ f

a

f

−xm+1

.

We saw earlier that ( f

n

, f

m

)[ f

−xm

. If it were the case that

( f

n

, f

m

)[ f

−xm+1

,

then ( f

n

, f

m

) would be dividing two consecutive Fibonacci numbers, a contradiction to the preceding problem in the case when

( f

n

, f

m

) > 1. The case = 1 is a triviality. Therefore ( f

n

, f

m

)[ f

a

, which is what we wanted to prove.

102 Example Prove that no odd Fibonacci number is ever divisible by 17.

Solution: Let d = (17, f

n

), which obviously must be odd. Then (17, f

n

) = (34, f

n

) = ( f

9

, f

n

) = f

(9,n)

= f

1

, f

3

or f

9

. This means

that d = (17, f

n

) = 1, 2 or 34. This forces d = 1.

103 Example The Catalan number of order n is deﬁned as

C

n

=

1

n +1

Ç

2n

n

å

.

Prove that C

n

is an integer for all natural numbers n.

Solution: By the binomial absorption identity,

2n +1

n +1

Ç

2n

n

å

=

Ç

2n +1

n +1

å

.

Since 2n+1 and n+1 are relatively prime, and since the dextral side is an integer, it must be the case that n+1 divides

Ç

2n

n

å

.

104 Example Let n be a natural number. Find the greatest common divisor of

Ç

2n

1

å

,

Ç

2n

3

å

, . . . ,

Ç

2n

2n −1

å

.

38 Chapter 4

Solution: Since

n

k=1

Ç

2n

2k −1

å

= 2

2n−1

,

the gcd must be of the form 2

a

. Since the gcd must divide

Ç

2n

1

å

= 2n, we see that it has divide 2

l+1

, where l is the largest

power of 2 that divides n. We claim that 2

l+1

divides all of them. We may write n = 2

l

m, where M is odd. Now,

Ç

2

l+1

m

2k −1

å

=

2

l+1

m

2k −1

Ç

2

l+1

m−1

2k −2

å

.

But 2k −1 ,[2

l+1

for k > 1. This establishes the claim.

105 Example Let any ﬁfty one integers be taken from amongst the numbers 1, 2, . . . , 100. Show that there are two that are

relatively prime.

Solution: Arrange the 100 integers into the 50 sets

¦1, 2¦, ¦3, 4¦, ¦5, 6¦. . ., ¦99, 100¦.

Since we are choosing ﬁfty one integers, there must be two that will lie in the same set. Those two are relatively prime, as

consecutive integers are relatively prime.

106 Example Prove that any natural number n > 6 can be written as the sum of two integers greater than 1, each of the

summands being relatively prime.

Solution: If n is odd, we may choose a = 2, b = n −2. If n is even, then is either of the form 4k or 4k +2. If n = 4k, then take

a = 2k +1, b = 2k −1. These two are clearly relatively prime (why?). If n = 4k +2, k > 1 take a = 2k +3, b = 2k −1.

107 Example How many positive integers ≤1260 are relatively prime to 1260?

Solution: As 1260 = 2

2

3

2

5 7, the problem amounts to ﬁnding those numbers less than 1260 which are not divisible by

2, 3, 5, or 7. Let A denote the set of integers ≤ 1260 which are multiples of 2, B the set of multiples of 3, etc. By the

Inclusion-Exclusion Principle,

[A∪B∪C∪D[ = [A[ +[B[ +[C[ +[D[

−[A∩B[ −[A∩C[ −[A∩D[

−[B∩C[ −[B∩D[ −[C∩D[

+[A∩B∩C[ +[A∩B∩D[ +[A∩C∩D[

+[B∩C∩D[ −[A∩B∩C∩D[

= 630 +420 +252+180−210−126−90−84

−60 −36 +42 +30+18+12−6 = 972.

The number of integers sought is then 1260 −972 = 288.

Practice

Problem 4.1.1 Show that

(a, b)[a, b] = ab

for all natural numbers a, b.

Problem 4.1.2 Find lcm (23!41!, 29!37!).

Primes 39

Problem 4.1.3 Find two positive integers a, b such that

a

2

+b

2

= 85113, and lcm (a, b) = 1764.

Problem 4.1.4 Find a, b ∈ N with (a, b) = 12, [a, b] = 432.

Problem 4.1.5 Prove that (a, b)

n

= (a

n

, b

n

) for all natural

numbers n.

Problem 4.1.6 Let a ∈N. Find, with proof, all b ∈Nsuch that

(2

b

−1)[(2

a

+1).

Problem 4.1.7 Show that (n

3

+3n +1, 7n

3

+18n

2

−n −2) =

1.

Problem 4.1.8 Let the integers a

n

, b

n

be deﬁned by the rela-

tion

a

n

+b

n

√

2 = (1 +

√

2)

n

, n ∈ N.

Prove that gcd(a

n

, b

n

) = 1 ∀ n.

Problem 4.1.9 Prove or disprove the following two proposi-

tions:

1. If a, b ∈ N, a < b, then in any set of b consecutive inte-

gers there are two whose product is divisible by ab.

2. If a, b, c, ∈ N, a < b < c, then in any set of c consecu-

tive integers there are three whose product is divisible

by abc.

Problem 4.1.10 Let n, k, n ≥k > 0 be integers. Prove that the

greatest common divisor of the numbers

Ç

n

k

å

,

Ç

n +1

k

å

, . . . ,

Ç

n +k

k

å

is 1.

(Hint: Prove

k

j=0

(−1)

j

Ç

k

j

åÇ

n + j

k

å

= (−1)

k

.)

Problem 4.1.11 Let F

n

= 2

2

n

+1 be the n-th Fermat number.

Find (F

n

, F

m

).

Problem 4.1.12 Find the greatest common divisor of the se-

quence

16

n

+10n −1, n = 1, 2, . . . .

Problem 4.1.13 Demonstrate that (n! +1, (n +1)! +1) = 1.

Problem 4.1.14 Prove that any natural number n > 17 can

be written as n = a+b+c where a, b, c are pairwise relatively

prime natural numbers each exceeding 1.

(Hint: Consider n mod 12. Write two of the summands in the

form 6k +s and the third summand as a constant.)

Problem 4.1.15 Prove that there are no positive integers

a, b, n > 1 with

(a

n

−b

n

)[(a

n

+b

n

).

Problem 4.1.16 Prove that the binomial coefﬁcients have the

following hexagonal property:

gcd

ÇÇ

n −1

k −1

å

,

Ç

n

k +1

å

,

Ç

n +1

k

åå

equals

gcd

ÇÇ

n −1

k

å

,

Ç

n +1

k +1

å

,

Ç

n

k −1

åå

.

Problem 4.1.17 (Putnam, 1974) Call a set of integers con-

spiratorial if no three of them are pairwise relatively prime.

What is the largest number of elements in any conspiratorial

subset of the integers 1 through 16?

4.2 Primes

Recall that a prime number is a positive integer greater than 1 whose only positive divisors are itself and 1. Clearly 2 is the only

even prime and so 2 and 3 are the only consecutive integers which are prime. An integer different from 1 which is not prime is

called composite. It is clear that if n > 1 is composite then we can write n as n = ab, 1 < a ≤b < n, a, b ∈ N.

108 Theorem If n > 1, then n is divisible by at least one prime.

40 Chapter 4

Proof: Since n > 1, it has at least one divisor > 1. By the Well Ordering Principle, n must have a least positive

divisor greater than 1, say q. We claim that q is prime. For if not then we can write q as q = ab, 1 < a ≤b < q. But

then a is a divisor of n greater than 1 and smaller than q, which contradicts the minimality of q.u

109 Theorem (Euclid) There are inﬁnitely many primes.

Proof: Let p

1

, p

2

, . . . p

k

be a list of primes. Construct the integer

n = p

1

p

2

p

k

+1.

This integer is greater than 1 and so by the preceding problem, it must have a prime divisor p. Observe that p must

be different from any of p

1

, p

2

, . . . , p

k

since n leaves remainder 1 upon division by any of the p

i

. Thus we have

shown that no ﬁnite list of primes exhausts the set of primes, i.e., that the set of primes is inﬁnite.u

110 Lemma The product of two numbers of the form 4k +1 is again of that form.

Proof: (4a +1)(4b +1) = 4(4ab +a +b) +1.u

111 Theorem There are inﬁnitely many primes of the form 4n +3.

Proof: Any prime either equals 2, or is of the form 4k ±1. We will show that the collection of primes of the form

4k −1 is inexhaustible. Let

¦p

1

, p

2

, . . . p

n

¦

be any ﬁnite collection of primes of the form 4k −1. Construct the number

N = 4p

1

p

2

p

n

−1.

Since each p

k

is ≥3, N ≥11. Observe that N is not divisible by any of the primes in our collection. Now either N

is a prime, in which case it is a prime of the form 4k −1 not on the list, or it is a product of primes. In the latter

case, all of the prime factors of N cannot be of the form 4k +1, for the product of any two primes of this form is

again of this form, in view of the preceding problem. Thus N must be divisible by some prime of the form 4k −1

not on the list. We have thus shown that given any ﬁnite list of primes of the form 4k −1 we can always construct

an integer which is divisible by some prime of the form 4k −1 not on that list. The assertion follows. u

112 Example Prove that there are arbitrarily long strings that do not contain a prime number.

Solution: Let k ∈ N, k ≥2. Then each of the numbers

k! +2, . . . , k! +k

is composite.

113 Theorem If the positive integer n is composite, then it must have a prime factor p with p ≤

√

n.

Proof: Suppose that n = ab, 1 < a ≤b < n. If both a and b are >

√

n, then n = ab >

√

n

√

n = n, a contradiction.

Thus n has a factor ,= 1 and ≤

√

n, and hence a prime factor, which is ≤

√

n. u

114 Example Find the number of prime numbers ≤100.

Solution: Observe that

√

100 = 10. By the preceding theorem, all the composite numbers in the range 10 ≤ n ≤ 100 have

a prime factor amongst 2, 3, 5, or 7. Let A

m

denote the multiples of M which are ≤ 100. Then [A

2

[ = 50, [A

3

[ = 33, [A

5

[ =

Practice 41

20, [A

7

[ =14, [A

6

[ =16, [A

10

[ =10, [A

14

[ =7, [A

15

[ =6, [A

21

[ =4, [A

35

[ =2, [A

30

[ =3, [A

42

[ =2, [A

70

[ =1, [A

105

[ =0, [A

210

[ =0.

Thus the number of primes ≤100 is

= 100 − ( number of composites ≤1) −1

= 4 +100 − multiples of 2, 3, 5, or 7 ≤100 −1

= 4 +100 − (50 +33 +20+14) + (16+10 +7+6+4+2)

−(3 +2 +1 +0) −0−1

= 25,

where we have subtracted the 1, because 1 is neither prime nor composite.

115 Lemma If p is a prime,

Ç

p

k

å

is divisible by p for all 0 < k < p.

Proof:

Ç

p

k

å

=

p(p −1) (p −k +1)

k!

yields

k!

Ç

p

k

å

= p(p −1) (p −k +1),

whence p[k!

Ç

p

k

å

. Now, as k < p, p ,[k!. By Euclid’s Lemma, it must be the case that p[

Ç

p

k

å

.u

116 Example Prove that if p is a prime, then p divides 2

p

−2.

Solution: By the Binomial Theorem:

2

p

−2 = (1 +1)

p

−2 =

Ç

p

1

å

+

Ç

p

2

å

+ +

Ç

p

p −1

å

,

as

Ç

p

0

å

=

Ç

p

p

å

= 1. By the preceding lemma, p divides each of the terms on the dextral side of the above. This establishes

the assertion.

Practice

Problem 4.2.1 Prove that there are inﬁnitely many primes of

the form 6n +5.

Problem 4.2.2 Use the preceding problem to show that there

are inﬁnitely many primes p such that p −2 is not a prime.

Problem 4.2.3 If p and q are consecutive odd primes, prove

that the prime factorisation of p +q has at least three (not

necessarily distinct) primes.

Problem 4.2.4 1. Let p be a prime and let n ∈ N. Prove,

by induction on n, that p[(n

p

−n).

2. Extend this result to all n ∈ Z.

3. Prove Fermat’s Little Theorem: if p ,[n, then p[(n

p−1

−

1).

4. Prove that 42[n

7

−n, n ∈ Z.

5. Prove that 30[n

5

−n, n ∈ Z.

Problem 4.2.5 Let p be an odd prime and let (a, b) =1. Prove

that

Å

a +b,

a

p

+b

p

a +b

ã

divides p.

Problem 4.2.6 Prove that 3, 5, 7 is the only prime triplet of the

form p, p +2, p +4.

42 Chapter 4

Problem 4.2.7 Let n > 2. Prove that if one of the numbers 2

n

−1 and 2

n

+1 is prime, then the other is composite.

4.3 Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic

Consider the integer 1332. It is clearly divisible by 2 and so we obtain 1332 = 2 666. Now, 666 is clearly divisible by 6, and

so 1332 = 2 2 3 111. Finally, 111 is also divisible by 3 and so we obtain 1332 = 2 2 3 3 37. We cannot further decompose

1332 as a product of positive integers greater than 1, as all 2, 3, 37 are prime. We will show now that such decomposition is

always possible for a positive integer greater than 1.

117 Theorem Every integer greater than 1 is a product of prime numbers.

Proof: Let n > 1. If n is a prime, then we have nothing to prove. Assume that n is composite and let q

1

be its least

proper divisor. By Theorem 4.5, q

1

is a prime. Set n = q

1

n

1

, 1 < n

1

< n. If n

1

is a prime, then we arrived at the

result. Otherwise, assume that n

1

is composite, and let q

2

be its least prime divisor, as guaranteed by Theorem 4.5.

We can write then n = q

1

q

2

n

2

, 1 <n

2

< n

1

< n. Continuing the argument, we arrive at a chain n > n

1

>n

2

> 1,

and this process must stop before n steps, as n is a positive integer. Eventually we then have n = q

1

q

2

q

s

. u

We may arrange the prime factorisation obtained in the preceding Theorem as follows,

n = p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

k

k

, a

1

> 0, a

2

> 0, . . . , a

k

> 0,

p

1

< p

2

< < p

k

,

where the p

j

are primes. We call the preceding factorisation of n, the canonical factorisation of n. For example 2

3

3

2

5

2

7

3

is the

canonical factorisation of 617400.

118 Theorem (Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic) Every integer > 1 can be represented as a product of primes in only

one way, apart from the order of the factors.

Proof: We prove that a positive integer greater than 1 can only have one canonical factorisation. Assume that

n = p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

s

s

= q

b

1

1

q

b

2

2

q

b

t

t

are two canonical factorisations of n. By Euclid’s Lemma (example 1.2) we conclude that every p must be a q and

every q must be a p. This implies that s =t. Also, from p

1

< p

2

< < p

s

and q

1

<q

2

< <q

t

we conclude that

p

j

= q

j

, 1 ≤ j ≤s.

If a

j

> b

j

for some j then, upon dividing by p

b

j

j

, we obtain

p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

j

−b

j

j

p

a

s

s

= p

b

1

1

p

b

2

2

p

b

j−1

j−1

p

b

j+1

j+1

p

b

s

s

,

which is impossible, as the sinistral side is divisible by p

j

and the dextral side is not. Similarly, the alternative

a

j

< b

j

for some j is ruled out and so a

j

= b

j

for all j. This ﬁnishes the proof. u

It is easily seen, by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, that if a has the prime factorisation a = p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

n

n

and b

has the prime factorisation b = p

b

1

1

p

b

2

2

p

b

n

n

, (it may be the case that some of the a

k

and some of the b

k

are zero) then

(a, b) = p

min(a

1

,b

1

)

1

p

min(a

2

,b

2

)

2

p

min(a

n

,b

n

)

n

. (4.1)

and also

[a, b] = p

max(a

1

,b

1

)

1

p

max(a

2

,b

2

)

2

p

max(a

n

,b

n

)

n

. (4.2)

Since x +y = max(x, y) +min(x, y), it clearly follows that

ab = (a, b)[a, b].

Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic 43

119 Example Prove that

√

2 is irrational.

Solution: Assume that

√

2 = a/b with relatively prime natural numbers a, b. Then 2b

2

= a

2

. The sinistral side of this last

equality has an odd number of prime factors (including repetitions), whereas the dextral side has an even number of prime

factors. This contradicts the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic.

120 Example Prove that if the polynomial

p(x) = a

0

x

n

+a

1

x

n−1

+ +a

n−1

x +a

n

with integral coefﬁcients assumes the value 7 for four integral values of x, then it cannot take the value 14 for any integral value

of x.

Solution: First observe that the integer 7 can be decomposed into at most three different integer factors 7 = −7(1)(−1). Assume

that p(a

k

) −7 = 0 for distinct a

k

, 1 ≤k ≤4. Then

p(x) −7 = (x −a

1

)(x −a

2

)(x −a

3

)(x −a

4

)q(x)

for a polynomial q with integer coefﬁcients. Assume that there is an integer M with p(m) = 14. Then

7 = p(m) −7 = (m−a

1

)(m−a

2

)(m−a

3

)(m−a

4

)q(m).

Since the factors m−a

k

are all distinct, we have decomposed the integer 7 into at least four different factors. This is impossible,

by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic.

121 Example Prove that the product of three consecutive integers is never a perfect power (i.e., a perfect square or a perfect

cube, etc.).

Solution: Let the integer be (n−1)n(n+1) = (n

2

−1)n. Since n

2

−1 and n are relatively prime, by the Fundamental Theoremof

Arithmetic, n

2

−1 is a perfect kth power (k ≥2) and n is also a perfect kth power. But then, n

2

−1 and n

2

would be consecutive

perfect kth powers, sheer nonsense.

122 Example Prove that m

5

+3m

4

n −5m

3

n

2

−15m

2

n

3

+4mn

4

+12n

5

is never equal to 33.

Solution: Observe that

m

5

+3m

4

n −5m

3

n

2

−15m

2

n

3

+4mn

4

+12n

5

= (m−2n)(m−n)(m+n)(m+2n)(m+3n).

Now, 33 can be decomposed as the product of at most four different integers 33 = (−11)(3)(1)(−1). If n ,= 0, the factors in the

above product are all different. They cannot be multiply to 33, by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, as 33 is the product

of 4 different factors and the expression above is the product of 5 different factors for n ,= 0.. If n = 0, the product of the factors

is m

5

, and 33 is clearly not a ﬁfth power.

123 Example Prove that the sum

S = 1/2 +1/3 +1/4+ +1/n

is never an integer.

Solution: Let k be the largest integer such that 2

k

≤ n, and P the product of all the odd natural numbers not exceeding n. The

number 2

k−1

PS is a sum, all whose terms, except for 2

k−1

P

1

2

k

, are integers.

124 Example Prove that there is exactly one natural number n for with 2

8

+2

11

+2

n

is a perfect square.

44 Chapter 4

Solution: If k

2

= 2

8

+2

11

+2

n

= 2304 +2

n

= 48

2

+2

n

, then k

2

−48

2

= (k −48)(k +48) = 2

n

. By unique factorisation,

k −48 = 2

s

, k +48 = 2

t

, s +t = n. But then 2

t

−2

s

=96 = 3 2

5

or 2

s

(2

t−s

−1) =3 2

5

. By unique factorisation, s =5, t −s =2,

giving s +t = n = 12.

125 Example Prove that in any set of 33 distinct integers with prime factors amongst ¦5, 7, 11, 13, 23¦, there must be two

whose product is a square.

Solution: Any number in our set is going to have the form

5

a

7

b

11

c

13

d

23

f

.

Thus to each number in the set, we associate a vector (a, b, c, d, f ). These vectors come in 32 different ﬂavours, according to

the parity of the components. For example (even, odd, odd, even, odd) is one such class. Since we have 33 integers, two (at

least) will have the same parity in their exponents, and the product of these two will be a square.

126 Example (IMO, 1985) Given a set M of 1985 distinct positive integers, none with a prime factor greater than 26, prove

that M contains a subset of four distinct elements whose product is the fourth power of an integer.

Solution: Any number in our set is going to be of the form

2

a

3

b

5

c

7

d

11

f

13

g

17

h

19

j

23

k

.

Thus if we gather 513 of these numbers, we will have two different ones whose product is a square.

Start weeding out squares. Since we have 1985 > 513 numbers, we can ﬁnd a pair of distinct a

1

, b

1

such that a

1

b

1

= c

2

1

.

Delete this pair. From the 1983 integers remaining, we can ﬁnd a pair of distinct a

2

, b

2

such that a

2

b

2

= c

2

2

. Delete this pair.

From the 1981 integers remaining, we can ﬁnd a pair a

3

, b

3

such that a

3

b

3

= c

2

3

. We can continue this operation as long as

we have at least 513 integers. Thus we may perform this operation n +1 times, were n is the largest positive integer such that

1985 −2n ≥ 513, i.e., n = 736. Therefore, we are able to gather 737 pairs a

k

, b

k

such that a

k

b

k

= c

2

k

. Now, the 737 numbers

c

k

have all their prime factors smaller than 26, and since 737 > 513, we may ﬁnd two distinct c

m

say c

i

and c

j

, i ,= j, such that

c

i

c

j

= a

2

, a perfect square. But then c

i

c

j

= a

2

implies that a

i

b

i

a

j

b

j

= a

4

, a fourth power. Thus we have found four distinct

numbers in our set whose product is a fourth power.

127 Example Let any ﬁfty one integers be taken from amongst the numbers 1, 2, . . . , 100. Show that there must be one that

divides some other.

Solution: Any of the ﬁfty one integers can be written in the form 2

a

m, where m is odd. Since there are only ﬁfty odd integers

between 1 and 100, there are only ﬁfty possibilities for m. Thus two (at least) of the integers chosen must share the same odd

part, and thus the smaller will divide the larger.

128 Example (USAMO 1972) Prove that

[a, b, c]

2

[a, b][b, c][c, a]

=

(a, b, c)

2

(a, b)(b, c)(c, a)

.

Solution: Put

a =

p

α

k

k

, b =

p

β

k

k

, c =

p

γ

k

k

,

with primes p

k

. The assertion is equivalent to showing

2max(α

k

, β

k

, γ

k

) −max(α

k

, β

k

) −max(α

k

, γ

k

) −max(β

k

, γ

k

)

= 2min(α

k

, β

k

, γ

k

) −min(α

k

, β

k

) −min(α

k

, γ

k

) −min(β

k

, γ

k

).

By symmetry, we may assume, without loss of generality, that α

k

≥β

k

≥γ

k

. The equation to be established reduces thus to the

identity

2α

k

−α

k

−α

k

−β

k

= 2γ

k

−β

k

−γ

k

−γ

k

.

Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic 45

129 Example Prove that n = 24 is the largest natural number divisible by all integral a, 1 ≤a ≤

√

n.

Solution: Suppose n is divisible by all the integers ≤

√

n. Let p

1

= 2, p

2

= 3, . . . , p

l

be all the primes ≤

√

n, and let k

j

be the

unique integers such that p

k

j

j

≤

√

n < p

k

j

+1

j

. Clearly n

l/2

< p

k

1

+1

1

p

k

2

+1

2

p

k

l

+1

l

. Let lcm(1, 2, 3, . . . ,

√

n−1,

√

n) = K.

Clearly then K = p

k

1

1

p

k

2

2

p

k

l

l

. Hence p

k

1

+1

1

p

k

2

+1

2

p

k

l

+1

l

≤K

2

and thus n

l/2

< K

2

. By hypothesis, n must be divisible by K

and so K ≤ n. Consequently, n

l/2

< n

2

. This implies that l < 4 and so n < 49. By inspection, we see that the only valid values

for n are n = 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24.

130 Example (Irving Kaplansky) A positive integer n has the property that for 0 < l < m < n,

S = l + (l +1) +. . . +m

is never divisible by n. Prove that this is possible if and only if n is a power of 2.

Solution: Set n = s2

k

with s odd. If s = 1, 2S = (l +m)(m−l +1), which has one factor even and one factor odd, cannot be

divisible by 2n = 2

k+1

, since, its even factor is less than 2n. But if s > 1, then S is divisible by n, with 0 <l <m <n, if we take

m = (s +2

k+1

−1)/2

and

l =

®

1 +m−2

k+1

, s > 2

k+1

,

1 +m−s, s < 2

k+1

.

131 Example Let 0 < a

1

< a

2

< < a

k

≤n, where k >

n +1

2

, be integers. Prove that

a

1

+a

j

= a

r

is soluble.

Solution: The k −1 positive integers a

i

−a

1

, 2 ≤ i ≤ k, are clearly distinct. These, together with the k given distinct a’s, give

2k −1 > n positive integers, each not greater than n. Hence, at least one of the integers is common to both sets, so that at least

once a

r

−a

1

= a

j

.

The sequence n/2+1, n/2+2, . . ., n, shows that for k =(n +1)/2 the result is false.

132 Example Let 0 < a

1

< a

2

< < a

n

≤2n be integers such that the least common multiple of any two exceeds 2n. Prove

that a

1

>

2n

3

.

Solution: It is clear that no one of the numbers can divide another (otherwise we would have an lcm ≤ 2n). Hence, writing

a

k

= 2

t

k

A

k

, A

k

odd, we see that all the A

k

are different. Since there are n of them, they coincide in some order with the set of all

positive odd numbers less than 2n.

Now, consider a

1

= 2

t

1

A

1

. If a

1

≤2n/3, then 3a

1

= 2

t

1

3A

1

≤2n, and 3A

1

< 2n. Since 3A

1

would then be an odd number

< 2n, 3A

1

= A

j

for some j, and a

j

= 2

t

j

3A

1

. Thus either [a

1

, a

j

] = 2

t

1

3A

1

= 3a

1

≤ 2n, or [a

1

, a

j

] = 2

t

j

3A

1

= a

j

≤ 2n. These

contradictions establish the assertion.

133 Example (Putnam, 1980) Derive a formula for the number of quadruples (a, b, c, d) such that

3

r

7

s

= [a, b, c] = [b, c, d] = [c, d, a] = [d, a, b].

Solution: By unique factorisation, each of a, b, c, d must be of the form 3

m

7

n

, 0 ≤ m ≤ r, 0 ≤ n ≤ s. Moreover, M must equal

r for at least two of the four numbers, and n must equal s for at least two of the four numbers. There are

Ç

4

2

å

r

2

= 6r

2

ways

46 Chapter 4

of choosing exactly two of the four numbers to have exponent r,

Ç

4

3

å

r = 4r ways of choosing exactly three to have exponent

r and

Ç

4

4

å

= 1 of choosing the four to have exponent r. Thus there is a total of 1 +4r +6r

2

of choosing at least two of the

four numbers to have exponent r. Similarly, there are 1 +4s +6s

2

ways of choosing at least two of the four numbers to have

exponent s. The required formula is thus

(1 +4r +6r

2

)(1 +4s +6s

2

).

Practice

Problem 4.3.1 Prove that log

10

7 is irrational.

Problem 4.3.2 Prove that

log3

log2

is irrational.

Problem 4.3.3 Find the smallest positive integer such that

n/2 is a square and n/3 is a cube.

Problem 4.3.4 How many integers from 1 to 10

20

inclusive,

are not perfect squares, perfect cubes, or perfect ﬁfth powers?

Problem 4.3.5 Prove that the sum

1/3 +1/5 +1/7+ +1/(2n +1)

is never an integer.

(Hint: Look at the largest power of 3 ≤n).

Problem 4.3.6 Find min

k≥1

36

k

−5

k

.

(Hint: Why is 36

k

−1 −5

k

,= 0?)

Problem 4.3.7 (AIME 1987) Find the number of ordered

triples (a, b, c) of positive integers for which [a, b] =

1000, [b, c] = [a, c] = 2000.

Problem 4.3.8 Find the number of ways of factoring 1332

as the product of two positive relatively prime factors each

greater than 1. Factorisations differing in order are consid-

ered the same.

Answer: 3.

Problem 4.3.9 Let p

1

, p

2

, . . . , p

t

be different primes and

a

1

, a

2

, . . . a

t

be natural numbers. Find the number of ways of

factoring p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

t

t

as the product of two positive relatively

prime factors each greater than 1. Factorisations differing in

order are considered the same.

Answer: 2

t−1

−1.

Problem 4.3.10 Let n = p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

t

t

and m = p

b

1

1

p

b

2

2

p

b

t

t

,

the p’s being different primes. Find the number of the common

factors of m and n.

Answer:

t

k=1

(1 +min(a

k

, b

k

)).

Problem 4.3.11 (USAMO 1973) Show that the cube roots of

three distinct prime numbers cannot be three terms (not nec-

essarily consecutive) of an arithmetic progression.

Problem 4.3.12 Let 2 = p

1

, 3 = p

2

, . . . be the primes in their

natural order and suppose that n ≥10 and that 1 < j < n. Set

N

1

= p

1

p

2

p

j−1

−1, N

2

= 2p

1

p

2

p

j−1

−1, . . .

and

N

p

j

= p

j

p

1

p

2

p

j−1

−1

Prove

1. Each p

i

, j ≤ i ≤ n, divides at most one of the N

p

k

, 1 ≤

k ≤ j

2. There is a j, 1 < j < n, for which p

j

> n − j +1.

3. Let s be the smallest j for which p

j

> n − j +1. There

is a t, 1 ≤t ≤ p

s

, such that all of p

1

, . . . p

n

fail to divide

t p

1

p

2

p

s−1

−1, and hence p

n+1

< p

1

p

2

p

s

.

4. The s above is >4 and so p

s−1

−2 ≥s and p

1

p

2

p

s

<

p

s+1

p

n

.

5. (Bonse’s Inequality) For n ≥4, p

2

n+1

< p

1

p

n

.

Problem 4.3.13 Prove that 30 is the only integer n with the

following property: if 1 ≤t ≤n and (t, n) = 1, then t is prime.

Practice 47

Problem 4.3.14 (USAMO 1984) 1. For which positive

integers n is there a ﬁnite set S

n

of n distinct positive

integers such that the geometric mean of any subset of

S

n

is an integer?

2. Is there an inﬁnite set S of distinct positive integers such

that the geometric mean of any ﬁnite subset of S is an

integer.

Problem 4.3.15 1. (Putnam 1955) Prove that there is no

triplet of integers (a, b, c), except for (a, b, c) = (0, 0, 0)

for which

a +b

√

2 +c

√

3 = 0.

2. (Putnam 1980) Prove that there exist integers a, b, c,

not all zero and each of absolute value less than a mil-

lion, such that

[a +b

√

2+c

√

3[ < 10

−11

.

3. (Putnam 1980) Let a, b, c be integers, not all zero and

each of absolute value less than a million. Prove that

[a +b

√

2+c

√

3[ > 10

−21

.

Problem 4.3.16 (E˝ otv˝ os 1906) Let a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

n

be any per-

mutation of the numbers 1, 2, . . . , n. Prove that if n is odd, the

product

(a

1

−1)(a

2

−2) (a

n

−n)

is an even number.

Problem 4.3.17 Prove that from any sequence formed by ar-

ranging in a certain way the numbers from 1 to 101, it is al-

ways possible to choose 11 numbers (which must not neces-

sarily be consecutive members of the sequence) which form an

increasing or a decreasing sequence.

Problem 4.3.18 Prove that from any ﬁfty two integers it is al-

ways to choose two, whose sum, or else, whose difference, is

divisible by 100.

Problem 4.3.19 Prove that from any one hundred integers it

is always possible to choose several numbers (or perhaps, one

number) whose sum is divisible by 100.

Problem 4.3.20 Given n numbers x

1

, x

2

, . . . , x

n

each of which

is equal to ±1, prove that if

x

1

x

2

+x

2

x

3

+ +x

n

x

1

= 0,

then n is a multiple of 4.

Chapter 5

Linear Diophantine Equations

5.1 Euclidean Algorithm

We nowexamine a procedure that avoids factorising two integers in order to obtain their greatest common divisor. It is called the

Euclidean Algorithm and it is described as follows. Let a, b be positive integers. After using the Division Algorithm repeatedly,

we ﬁnd the sequence of equalities

a = bq

1

+r

2

, 0 < r

2

< b,

b = r

2

q

2

+r

3

0 < r

3

< r

2

,

r

2

= r

3

q

3

+r

4

0 < r

4

< r

3

,

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

r

n−2

= r

n−1

q

n−1

+r

n

0 < r

n

< r

n−1

,

r

n−1

= r

n

q

n

.

(5.1)

The sequence of remainders will eventually reach a r

n+1

which will be zero, since b, r

2

, r

3

, . . . is a monotonically decreasing

sequence of integers, and cannot contain more than b positive terms.

The Euclidean Algorithm rests on the fact, to be proved below, that (a, b) = (b, r

2

) = (r

2

, r

3

) = = (r

n−1

, r

n

) = r

n

.

134 Theorem Prove that if a, b, n are positive integers, then

(a, b) = (a +nb, b).

Proof: Set d = (a, b), c = (a +nb, b). As d[a, d[b, it follows that d[(a +nb). Thus d is a common divisor of both

(a+nb) and b. This implies that d[c. On the other hand, c[(a+nb), c[b imply that c[((a+nb) −nb) = a. Thus c is

a common divisor of a and b, implying that c[d. This completes the proof. u

135 Example Use Theorem ?? to ﬁnd (3456, 246).

Solution: (3456, 246) = (13 246 +158, 246) = (158, 246), by the preceding example. Now, (158, 246) = (158, 158 +88) =

(88, 158). Finally, (88, 158) = (70, 88) = (18, 70) = (16, 18) = (2, 16) = 2. Hence (3456, 246) = 2.

136 Theorem If r

n

is the last non-zero remainder found in the process of the Euclidean Algorithm, then

r

n

= (a, b).

48

Euclidean Algorithm 49

Proof: From equations ??

r

2

= a −bq

1

r

3

= b −r

2

q

2

r

4

= r

2

−r

3

q

3

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

r

n

= r

n−2

−r

n−1

q

n−1

Let r = (a, b). From the ﬁrst equation, r[r

2

. From the second equation, r[r

3

. Upon iterating the process, we see that

r[r

n

.

But starting at the last equation ?? and working up, we see that r

n

[r

n−1

, r

n

[r

n−2

, . . . r

n

[r

2

, r

n

[b, r

n

[a. Thus r

n

is a

common divisor of a and b and so r

n

[(a, b). This gives the desired result. u

137 Example Find (23, 29) by means of the Euclidean Algorithm.

Solution: We have

29 = 1 23 +6,

23 = 3 6 +5,

6 = 1 5 +1,

5 = 5 1.

The last non-zero remainder is 1, thus (23, 29) = 1.

An equation which requires integer solutions is called a diophantine equation. By the Bachet-Bezout Theorem, we see that

the linear diophantine equation

ax +by = c

has a solution in integers if and only if (a, b)[c. The Euclidean Algorithmis an efﬁcient means to ﬁnd a solution to this equation.

138 Example Find integers x, y that satisfy the linear diophantine equation

23x +29y = 1.

Solution: We work upwards, starting from the penultimate equality in the preceding problem:

1 = 6 −1 5,

5 = 23 −3 6,

6 = 29 1 −23.

Hence,

1 = 6 −1 5

= 6 −1 (23 −3 6)

= 4 6 −1 23

= 4(29 1 −23) −1 23

= 4 29 −5 23.

This solves the equation, with x = −5, y = 4.

139 Example Find integer solutions to

23x +29y = 7.

Solution: From the preceding example, 23(−5) +29(4) = 1. Multiplying both sides of this equality by 7,

23(−35) +29(28) = 7,

which solves the problem.

50 Chapter 5

140 Example Find inﬁnitely many integer solutions to

23x +29y = 1.

Solution: By Example ??, the pair x

0

= −5, y

0

= 4 is a solution. We can ﬁnd a family of solutions by letting

x = −5 +29t, y = 4 −23t, t ∈ Z.

141 Example Can you ﬁnd integers x, y such that 3456x +246y = 73?

Solution: No. (3456, 246) = 2 and 2 ,[73.

142 Theorem Assume that a, b, c are integers such that (a, b)[c. Then given any solution (x

0

, y

0

) of the linear diophantine

equation

ax +by = c

any other solution of this equation will have the form

x = x

0

+t

b

d

, y = y

0

−t

a

d

,

where d = (a, b) and t ∈ Z.

Proof: It is clear that if (x

0

, y

0

) is a solution of ax +by = c, then x = x

0

+tb/d, y = y

0

−ta/d is also a solution.

Let us prove that any solution will have this form.

Let (x

′

, y

′

) satisfy ax

′

+by

′

= c. As ax

0

+by

0

= c also, we have

a(x

′

−x

0

) = b(y

0

−y

′

).

Dividing by d = (a, b),

a

d

(x

′

−x

0

) =

b

d

(y

0

−y

′

).

Since (a/d, b/d) = 1,

a

d

[(y

0

−y

′

), in virtue of Euclid’s Lemma. Thus there is an integer t such that t

a

d

= y

0

−y

′

,

that is, y = y

0

−ta/d. From this

a

d

(x

′

−x

0

) =

b

d

t

a

d

,

which is to say x

′

= x

0

+tb/d. This ﬁnishes the proof. u

143 Example Find all solutions in integers to

3456x +246y = 234.

Solution: By inspection, 3456(−1) +246(15) = 234. By Theorem ??, all the solutions are given by x = −1 +123t, y = 15 −

1728t, t ∈ Z.

Practice

Problem 5.1.1 Find the following:

1. (34567, 987)

2. (560, 600)

3. (4554, 36)

4. (8098643070, 8173826342)

Problem 5.1.2 Solve the following linear diophantine equa-

tions, provided solutions exist:

Linear Congruences 51

1. 24x +25y = 18

2. 3456x +246y = 44

3. 1998x +2000y = 33

Problem 5.1.3 Prove that the area of the triangle whose ver-

tices are (0, 0), (b, a), (x, y) is

[by −ax[

2

.

Problem 5.1.4 A woman pays $2.78 for some bananas and

eggs. If each banana costs $0.69 and each egg costs $0.35,

how many eggs and how many bananas did the woman buy?

5.2 Linear Congruences

We recall that the expression ax ≡ b mod n means that there is t ∈ Z such that ax = b +nt. Hence, the congruencial equation

in x, ax ≡ b mod n is soluble if and only if the linear diophantine equation ax +ny = b is soluble. It is clear then that the

congruence

ax ≡b mod n

has a solution if and only if (a, n)[b.

144 Theorem Let a, b, n be integers. If the congruence ax ≡b mod n has a solution, then it has (a, n) incongruent solutions

mod n.

Proof: From Theorem ?? we know that the solutions of the linear diophantine equation ax +ny = b have the

form x = x

0

+nt/d, y = y

0

−at/d, d = (a, n), t ∈ Z, where x

0

, y

0

satisfy ax

0

+ny = b. Letting t take on the values

t = 0, 1, . . . ((a, n) −1), we obtain (a, n) mutually incongruent solutions, since the absolute difference between any

two of them is less than n. If x = x

0

+nt

′

/d is any other solution, we write t

′

as t

′

= qd +r, 0 ≤r < d. Then

x = x

0

+n(qd +r)/d

= x

0

+nq +nr/d

≡ x

0

+nr/d mod n.

Thus every solution of the congruence ax ≡ b mod n is congruent mod n to one and only one of the d values

x

0

+nt/d, 0 ≤ t ≤ d −1. Thus if there is a solution to the congruence, then there are d incongruent solutions

mod n.u

145 Example Find all solutions to the congruence 5x ≡3 mod 7

Solution: Notice that according to Theorem ??, there should only be one solution mod 7, as (5, 7) = 1. We ﬁrst solve the

linear diophantine equation 5x +7y = 1. By the Euclidean Algorithm

7 = 5 1 +2

5 = 2 2 +1

2 = 2 1.

Hence,

1 = 5 −2 2

2 = 7 −5 1,

which gives

1 = 5 −2 2 = 5 −2(7 −5 1) = 5 3 −7 2.

Whence 3 = 5(9) −7(6). This gives 5 9 ≡3 mod 7 which is the same as 5 2 ≡3 mod 7. Thus x ≡2 mod 7.

146 Example Solve the congruence

3x ≡6 mod 12.

52 Chapter 5

Solution: As (3, 12) = 3 and 3[6, the congruence has three mutually incongruent solutions. By inspection we see that x = 2 is

a solution. By Theorem ??, all the solutions are thus of the form x = 2 +4t, t ∈ Z. By letting t = 0, 1, 2, the three incongruent

solutions modulo 12 are t = 2, 6, 10.

We now add a few theorems and deﬁnitions that will be of use in the future.

147 Theorem Let x, y be integers and let a, n be non-zero integers. Then

ax ≡ay mod n

if and only if

x ≡y mod

n

(a, n)

.

Proof: If ax ≡ay mod n then a(x −y) = sn for some integer s. This yields

(x −y)

a

(a, n)

= s

n

(a, n)

.

Since (a/(a, n), n/(a, n)) = 1 by Theorem ??, we must have

n

(a, n)

[(x −y),

by Euclid’s Lemma (Lemma ??). This implies that

x ≡y mod

n

(a, n)

.

Conversely if x ≡y mod

n

(a, n)

implies

ax ≡ay mod

an

(a, n)

,

upon multiplying by a. As (a, n) divides a, the above congruence implies a fortiori that ax −ay = tn for some

integer t. This gives the required result.u

Theorem ?? gives immediately the following corollary.

148 Corollary If ax ≡ay mod n and (a, n) = 1, then x ≡y mod n.

Practice

Problem 5.2.1 Solve the congruence 50x ≡12 mod 14. Problem 5.2.2 How many x, 38 ≤x ≤289 satisfy

3x ≡8 mod 11?

5.3 A theorem of Frobenius

If (a, b) = d > 1 then the linear form ax +by skips all non-multiples of d. If (a, b) = 1, there is always an integer solution

to ax +by = n regardless of the integer n. We will prove the following theorem of Frobenius that tells un when we will ﬁnd

nonnegative solutions to ax +by = n.

149 Theorem (Frobenius) Let a, b be positive integers. If (a, b) = 1 then the number of positive integers m that cannot be

written in the form ar +bs = m for nonnegative integers r, s equals (a −1)(b −1)/2.

A theorem of Frobenius 53

Proof: Let us say that an integer n is attainable if there are nonnegative integers r, s with ar +bs = n. Consider

the inﬁnite array

0 1 2 . . . k . . . a −1

a a +1 a +2 . . . a +k . . . 2a −1

2a 2a +1 2a +2 . . . 2a +k . . . 3a −1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The columns of this array are arithmetic progressions with common difference a. The numbers directly below a

number n have the form n +ka where k is a natural number. Clearly, if n is attainable, so is n +ka, implying thus

that if an integer n is attainable so is every integer directly below it. Clearly all multiples of b are attainable. We

claim that no two distinct multiples of b, vb and wb with 0 ≤ v, w ≤ a −1 can belong to the same column. If this

were so then we would have vb ≡ wb mod a. Hence a(v −w) ≡ 0 mod a. Since (a, b) = 1 we invoke Corollary

5.1 to deduce v −w ≡0 mod a. Since 0 ≤v, w ≤a −1, we must have v = w.

Now we show that any number directly above one of the multiples vb, 0 ≤v ≤a−1 is non-attainable. For a number

directly above vb is of the form vb−ka for some natural number k. If vb−ka were attainable, then ax+by =vb−ka

for some nonnegative integers x, y. This yields by ≤ ax +by = vb −ka < vb. Hence, 0 ≤ y < v < a. This implies

that y ,≡ v mod b. On the other hand, two numbers on the same column are congruent mod a. Therefore we

deduce vb ≡ bv −ka ≡ ax +by mod a which yields bv ≡ by mod a. By Corollary ?? we obtain v ≡ y mod a.

This contradicts the fact that 0 ≤y < v < a.

Thus the number of unattainable numbers is precisely the numbers that occur just above a number of the form

vb, 0 ≤v ≤a−1. Now, on the j-th column, there are (vb− j)/a values above vb. Hence the number of unattainable

numbers is given by

a−1

v=0

a−1

j=0

vb − j

a

=

(a −1)(b −1)

2

,

as we wanted to show.u

The greatest unattainable integer occurs just above (a −1)b, hence the greatest value that is not attainable is (a −1)b −a,

which gives the following theorem.

150 Theorem Let a, b be relatively prime positive integers. Then the equation

ax +by = n

is unsoluble in nonnegative integers x, y for n =ab−a−b. If n >ab−a−b, then the equation is soluble in nonnegative integers.

151 Example (Putnam, 1971) A game of solitaire is played as follows. After each play, according to the outcome, the player

receives either a or b points, (a, b ∈ N, a > b), and his score accumulates from play to play. It has been noticed that there are

thirty ﬁve non-attainable scores and that one of these is 58. Find a and b.

Solution: The attainable scores are the nonnegative integers of the form ax +by. If (a, b) > 1, there are inﬁnitely many such

integers. Hence (a, b) =1. By Theorem??, the number of non-attainable scores is (a−1)(b−1)/2. Therefore, (a−1)(b−1) =

70 = 2(35) = 5(14) = 7(10). The conditions a > b, (a, b) = 1 yield the two possibilities a = 71, b = 2 and a = 11, b = 8. As

58 = 0 71 +2 29, the ﬁrst alternative is dismissed. The line 11x +8y = 58 passes through (6, −1) and (−2, 10) and thus it

does not pass through a lattice point in the ﬁrst quadrant. The unique solution is a = 11, b = 8.

152 Example (AIME, 1994) Ninety-four bricks, each measuring 4

′′

10

′′

19

′′

, are to be stacked one on top of another to

form a tower 94 bricks tall. Each brick can be oriented so it contributes 4

′′

or 10

′′

or 19

′′

to the total height of the tower. How

many different tower heights can be achieved using all 94 of the bricks?

54 Chapter 5

Solution: Let there be x, y, z bricks of height 4

′′

, 10

′′

, and 19

′′

respectively. We are asking for the number of different sums

4x +10y +19z

with the constraints x ≥0, y ≥0, z ≥0, x +y +z = 94.

Now, 4x +10y +19z ≤ 19 94 = 1786. Letting x = 94 −y −z, we count the number of different nonnegative integral

solutions to the inequality 376+3(2y +5z) ≤1786, y +z ≤94, that is 2y +5z ≤470, y +z ≤94. By Theorem ??, every integer

≥(2−1)(5−1) =4 can be written in the form 2y+5z, and the number of exceptions is (2−1)(5−1)/2 =2, namely n =1 and

n =3. Thus of the 471 nonnegative integers n ≤470, we see that 469 can be written in the formn =2y+5z. Using x =96−x−y,

n, 4 ≤ n ≤ 470 will be “good” only if we have 470 −n = 3x +5z. By Theorem ?? there are (3 −1)(5 −1)/2 = 4 exceptions,

each ≤ 8, namely n = 1, 2, 4, 7. This means that 463, 466, 468, and 469 are not representable in the form 4x +10y +19z. Then

every integer n, 0 ≤n ≤ 470 except for 1, 3, 463, 466, 468, and 469 can be thus represented, and the number of different sums

is 471 −6 = 465.

153 Example 1. Let (n, 1991) = 1. Prove that

n

1991

is the sum of two positive integers with denominator < 1991 if an

only if there exist integers m, a, b with

(∗) 1 ≤m ≤10, a ≥1, b ≥1, mn = 11a +181b.

2. Find the largest positive rational with denominator 1991 that cannot be written as the sum of two positive rationals each

with denominators less than 1991.

Solution: (a) If (∗) holds then

n

1991

=

a

181m

+

b

11m

does the trick. Conversely, if

n

1991

=

a

r

+

b

s

for a, b ≥1, (a, r) = (b, s) =1,

and r, s < 1991, we may suppose r = 181r

1

, s = 11s

1

and then nr

1

s

1

= 11as

1

+181br

1

, which leads to r

1

[11as

1

and so r

1

[s

1

.

Similarly, s

1

[r

1

, whence r

1

= s

1

= m, say, and (∗) follows.

(b) Any n > 170, (n, 1991) = 1 satisﬁes (∗) with b = 1 and M such that mn is of the form mn ≡ 181 mod 11. For mn > 181

except if m = 1, n ≤180; but then n would not be of the form n ≡181 mod 11.

But n = 170 does not satisfy (∗); for we would have 170 ≡ 181b mod 11, so b ≡ m mod 11, which yields b ≥ m, but

170m < 181. The answer is thus 170/1991.

Practice

Problem 5.3.1 Let a, b, c be positive real numbers. Prove that

there are at least c

2

/2ab pairs of integers (x, y) satisfying

x ≥0, y ≥0, ax +by ≤c.

Problem 5.3.2 (AIME, 1995) What is largest positive integer

that is not the sum of a positive integral multiple of 42 and a

positive composite integer?

Problem 5.3.3 Let a > 0, b > 0, (a, b) = 1. Then the number

of nonnegative solutions to the equation ax +by = n is equal

to

[

n

ab

] or [

n

ab

] +1.

(Hint: [s] − [t] = [s −t] or [s −t] +1.)

Problem 5.3.4 Let a, b ∈ N, (a, b) = 1. Let S(n) denote the

number of nonnegative solutions to

ax +by = n.

Evaluate

lim

n→∞

S(n)

n

.

Problem 5.3.5 (IMO, 1983) Let a, b, c be pairwise relatively

prime integers. Demonstrate that 2abc −ab −bc −ca is the

largest integer not of the form

bcx +acy +abz, x ≥0, y ≥0, z ≥0.

Chinese Remainder Theorem 55

5.4 Chinese Remainder Theorem

In this section we consider the case when we have multiple congruences. Consider the following problem: ﬁnd an integer x

which leaves remainder 2 when divided by 5, is divisible by 7, and leaves remainder 4 when divided by 11. In the language of

congruences we are seeking x such that

x ≡ 2 mod 5,

x ≡ 0 mod 7,

x ≡ 4 mod 11.

One may check that x = 147 satisﬁes the requirements, and that in fact, so does the parametric family x = 147 +385t, t ∈ Z.

We will develop a method to solve congruences like this one. The method is credited to the ancient Chinese, and it is thus

called the Chinese Remainder Theorem.

154 Example Find x such that

x ≡3 mod 5 and x ≡7 mod 11.

Solution: Since x = 3 +5a, we have 11x = 33 +55a. As x = 7 +11b, we have 5x = 35 +55b. Thus x = 11x −10x = 33 −70 +

55a −110b. This means that x ≡ −37 ≡ 18 mod 55. One veriﬁes that all the numbers x = 18 +55t, t ∈ Z verify the given

congruences.

155 Example Find a number n such that when divided by 4 leaves remainder 2, when divided by 5 leaves remainder 1, and

when divided by 7 leaves remainder 1.

Solution: We want n such that

n ≡ 2 mod 4,

n ≡ 1 mod 5,

n ≡ 1 mod 7.

This implies that

35n ≡ 70 mod 140,

28n ≡ 28 mod 140,

20n ≡ 20 mod 140.

As n = 21n −20n, we have n ≡ 3(35n −28n) −20n ≡ 3(70 −28) −20 ≡ 106 mod 140. Thus all n ≡ 106 mod 140 will

do.

156 Theorem (Chinese Remainder Theorem) Let m

1

, m

2

, . . . m

k

be pairwise relatively prime positive integers, each exceed-

ing 1, and let a

1

, a

2

, . . . a

k

be arbitrary integers. Then the system of congruences

x ≡ a

1

mod m

1

x ≡ a

2

mod m

2

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

x ≡ a

k

mod m

k

has a unique solution modulo m

1

m

2

m

k

.

Proof: Set P

j

= m

1

m

2

m

k

/m

j

, 1 ≤ j ≤ k. Let Q

j

be the inverse of P

j

mod m

j

, i.e., P

j

Q

j

≡ 1 mod m

j

, which

we know exists since all the m

i

are pairwise relatively prime. Form the number

x = a

1

P

1

Q

1

+a

2

P

2

Q

2

+ +a

k

P

k

Q

k

.

This number clearly satisﬁes the conditions of the theorem. The uniqueness of the solution modulo m

1

m

2

m

k

can

be easily established. u

56 Chapter 5

157 Example Can one ﬁnd one million consecutive integers that are not square-free?

Solution: Yes. Let p

1

, p

2

, . . . , p

1000000

be a million different primes. By the Chinese Remainder Theorem, there exists a solution

to the following system of congruences.

x ≡ −1 mod p

2

1

,

x ≡ −2 mod p

2

2

,

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

x ≡ −1000000 mod p

2

1000000

.

The numbers x+1, x+2, . . . , x+1000000 are a million consecutive integers, each of which is divisible by the square of a prime.

Practice

Problem 5.4.1 Solve the following systems:

1. x ≡−1 mod 4; x ≡2 mod 5

2. 4x ≡3 mod 7; x ≡10 mod 11

3. 5x ≡2 mod 8; 3x ≡2 mod 9; x ≡0 mod 11

Problem 5.4.2 (USAMO 1986) 1. Do there exist fourteen

consecutive positive integers each of which is divisible

by one or more primes p, 2 ≤ p ≤11?

2. Do there exist twenty-one consecutive integers each of

which is divisible by one or more primes p, 2 ≤ p ≤13?

Chapter 6

Number-Theoretic Functions

6.1 Greatest Integer Function

The largest integer not exceeding x is denoted by x or x. We also call this function the ﬂoor function. Thus x satisﬁes

the inequalities x −1 < x ≤ x, which, of course, can also be written as x ≤ x < x+1. The fact that x is the unique

integer satisfying these inequalities, is often of use. We also utilise the notation ¦x¦ = x −x, to denote the fractional part of

x, and [[x[[ = min

n∈Z

[x −n[ to denote the distance of a real number to its nearest integer. A useful fact is that we can write any real

number x in the form x =x+¦x¦, 0 ≤¦x¦ < 1.

The greatest integer function enjoys the following properties:

158 Theorem Let α, β ∈ R, a ∈ Z, n ∈ N. Then

1. α +a =α+a

2.

α

n

=

α

n

3. α+β ≤α +β ≤α+β+1

Proof:

1. Let m = α +a. Then m ≤ α +a < m+1. Hence m−a ≤ α < m−a +1. This means that m−a = α,

which is what we wanted.

2. Write α/n as α/n =α/n+θ, 0 ≤θ < 1. Since nα/n is an integer, we deduce by (1) that

α =nα/n+nθ = nα/n+nθ.

Now, 0 ≤nθ ≤nθ < n, and so 0 ≤nθ/n < 1. If we let Θ =nθ/n, we obtain

α

n

=

α

n

+Θ, 0 ≤Θ < 1.

This yields the required result.

3. From the inequalities α −1 < α ≤ α, β −1 < β ≤ β we get α +β −2 < α+β ≤ α +β. Since

α+β is an integer less than or equal to α+β, it must be less than or equal to the integral part of α+β,

i.e. α +β. We obtain thus α+β ≤α +β. Also, α +β is less than the integer α+β+2, so

its integer part α +β must be less than α+β+2, but α +β < α+β+2 yields α +β ≤

α+β+1. This proves the inequalities.

u

57

58 Chapter 6

159 Example Find a non-zero polynomial P(x, y) such that

P(2t, 3t) = 0

for all real t.

Solution: We claim that 3[2t] −2[3t] = 0, ±1 or −2. We can then take

P(x, y) = (3x −2y)(3x −2y −1)(3x −2y +1)(3x −2y +2).

In order to prove the claim, we observe that x has unit period, so it is enough to prove the claim for t ∈ [0, 1). We divide

[0, 1) as

[0, 1) = [0, 1/3) ∪[1/3, 1/2) ∪[1/2, 2/3) ∪[2/3, 1).

If t ∈ [0, 1/3), then both 2t and 3t are = 0, and so 32t−23t = 0. If t ∈ [1/3, 1/2) then [3t] = 1 and [2t] = 0, and so

32t−23t= −2. If t ∈[1/2, 2/3), then [2t] =1, [3t] =1, and so 32t−23t=1. If t ∈[2/3, 1), then 2t =1, 3t =2,

and 32t−23t = −1.

160 Example Describe all integers n such that 1 +

√

2n

¸

¸

¸2n.

Solution: Let 2n = m(1 +

√

2n). If m ≤

√

2n−1 then 2n ≤ (

√

2n−1)(

√

2n+1) =

√

2n

2

−1 ≤ 2n −1 < 2n, a

contradiction. If m≥

√

2n+1, then 2n ≥(

√

2n

2

+1)

2

≥2n+1, another contradiction. It must be the case that m=

√

2n.

Conversely, let n =

l(l +1)

2

. Since l <

√

2n < l +1, l =

√

2n. So all the integers with the required property are the

triangular numbers.

161 Example Prove that the integers

Ä

1 +

√

2

ä

n

**with n a nonnegative integer, are alternately even or odd.
**

Solution: By the Binomial Theorem

(1 +

√

2)

n

+ (1 −

√

2)

n

= 2

0≤k≤n/2

(2)

k

Ç

n

2k

å

:= 2N,

an even integer. Since −1 < 1−

√

2 < 0, it must be the case that (1−

√

2)

n

is the fractional part of (1+

√

2)

n

or (1+

√

2)

n

+1

depending on whether n is odd or even, respectively. Thus for odd n, (1 +

√

2)

n

−1 < (1 +

√

2)

n

+ (1 −

√

2)

n

< (1 +

√

2)

n

,

whence (1+

√

2)

n

+ (1−

√

2)

n

=(1+

√

2)

n

, always even, and for n even 2N := (1+

√

2)

n

+ (1−

√

2)

n

= (1+

√

2)

n

+1,

and so (1 +

√

2)

n

= 2N−1, always odd for even n.

162 Example Prove that the ﬁrst thousand digits after the decimal point in

(6 +

√

35)

1980

are all 9’s.

Solution: Reasoning as in the preceding problem,

(6 +

√

35)

1980

+ (6 −

√

35)

1980

= 2k,

Greatest Integer Function 59

an even integer. But 0 < 6 −

√

35 < 1/10, (for if

1

10

< 6 −

√

35, upon squaring 3500 < 3481, which is clearly nonsense), and

hence 0 < (6 −

√

35)

1980

< 10

−1980

which yields

2k −1 + 0.9. . . 9

. ¸¸ .

1979 nines

= 2k −

1

10

1980

< (6 +

√

35)

1980

< 2k,

This proves the assertion of the problem.

163 Example (Putnam 1948) If n is a positive integer, demonstrate that

√

n+

√

n +1 =

√

4n +2.

Solution: By squaring, it is easy to see that

√

4n +1 <

√

n+

√

n +1 <

√

4n +3.

Neither 4n +2 nor 4n +3 are squares since squares are either congruent to 0 or 1 mod 4, so

√

4n +2 =

√

4n +3,

and the result follows.

164 Example Find a formula for the n-th non-square.

Solution: Let T

n

be the n-th non-square. There is a natural number m such that m

2

< T

n

< (m+1)

2

. As there are m squares less

than T

n

and n non-squares up to T

n

, we see that T

n

= n+m. We have then m

2

< n+m < (m+1)

2

or m

2

−m < n < m

2

+m+1.

Since n, m

2

−m, m

2

+m+1 are all integers, these inequalities imply m

2

−m+

1

4

<n < m

2

+m+

1

4

, that is to say, (m−1/2)

2

<

n < (m+1/2)

2

. But then m =

√

n+

1

2

. Thus the n-th non-square is T

n

= n +

√

n+1/2.

165 Example (Putnam 1983) Let f (n) = n +

√

n. Prove that for every positive integer m, the sequence

m, f (m), f ( f (m)), f ( f ( f (m))), . . .

contains at least one square of an integer.

Solution: Let m = k

2

+ j, 0 ≤ j ≤ 2k. Split the m’s into two sets, the set A of all the m with excess j, 0 ≤ j ≤ k and the set B

with all those m’s with excess j, k < j < 2k +1.

Observe that k

2

≤ m < (k +1)

2

= k

2

+2k +1. If j = 0, we have nothing to prove. Assume that m ∈ B. As

√

m = k,

f (m) =k

2

+ j +k = (k +1)

2

+ j −k −1, with 0 ≤ j −k −1 ≤k −1 <k +1. This means that either f (m) is a square or f (m) ∈A.

It is thus enough to consider the alternative m ∈ A, in which case

√

m+k = k and

f ( f (m)) = f (m+k) = m+2k = (k +1)

2

+ j −1.

This means that f ( f (m)) is either a square or f ( f (m)) ∈ A with an excess j −1 smaller than the excess j of m. At each iteration

the excess will reduce and eventually it will hit 0, whence we reach a square.

166 Example Solve the equation

x

2

−x −2 =x,

for x ∈ R.

Solution: Observe that a = b if and only if ∃k ∈ Z with a, b ∈ [k, k +1) which happens if and only if [a −b[ < 1. Hence,

the given equation has a solution if and only if [x

2

−2x −2[ < 1. Solving these inequalities it is easy to see that the solution is

thus

x ∈ (−1,

1

2

(1 −

√

5)] ∪[

1

2

(1 +

√

17),

1

2

(1 +

√

21)).

60 Chapter 6

167 Theorem If a, b are relatively prime natural numbers then

a−1

k=1

kb

a

=

b−1

k=1

ka

b

=

(a −1)(b −1)

2

.

Proof: Consider the rectangle with vertices at (0, 0), (0, b), (a, 0), (a, b). This rectangle contains (a −1)(b −1)

lattice points, i.e., points with integer coordinates. This rectangle is split into two halves by the line y =

xb

a

.

We claim that there are no lattice points on this line, except for the endpoints. For if there were a lattice point

(m, n), 0 <m<a, 0 <n <b, then

n

m

=

b

a

. Thus n/m is a reduction for the irreducible fraction b/a, a contradiction.

The points L

k

= (k,

kb

a

), 1 ≤k ≤a −1 are each on this line. Now,

kb

a

equals the number of lattice points on the

vertical line that goes from (k, 0) to (k,

kb

a

), i.e.

a−1

k=1

kb

a

is the number of lattice points on the lower half of the

rectangle. Similarly,

b−1

k=1

ka

b

equals the number of lattice points on the upper half of the rectangle. Since there

are (a−1)(b−1) lattice points in total, and their number is shared equally by the halves, the assertion follows. u

168 Example Find the integral part of

10

6

k=1

1

√

k

.

Solution: The function x →x

−1/2

is decreasing. Thus for positive integer k,

1

√

k +1

<

_

k+1

k

dx

√

x

<

1

√

k

.

Summing from k = 1 to k = 10

6

−1 we deduce

10

6

k=2

1

√

k

<

_

10

6

1

dx

√

x

<

10

6

−1

k=1

1

√

k

.

The integral is easily seen to be 1998. Hence

1998 +1/10

3

<

10

6

k=1

1

√

k

< 1999.

The integral part sought is thus 1998.

Practice

Problem 6.1.1 Prove that for all real numbers x, y,

x+x +y+y ≤2x+2y

holds.

Problem 6.1.2 If x, y real numbers, when is it true that

xy ≤xy?

Problem 6.1.3 If n > 1 is a natural number and α ≥ 1 is a

real number, prove that

[α] >

α

n

.

Practice 61

Problem 6.1.4 If a, b, n are positive integers, prove that

ab

n

≥a

b

n

.

Problem 6.1.5 Let α be a real number. Prove that [α] +

[−α] = −1 or 0 and that α−2α/2 = 0 or 1.

Problem 6.1.6 Prove that

(2 +

√

3)

n

**is an odd integer.
**

Problem 6.1.7 Show that the n-th element of the sequence

1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, . . .

where there are n occurrences of the integer n is

√

2n+1/2.

Problem 6.1.8 Prove Hermite’s Identity: if x is a real number

and n is a natural number then

nx =x+x +

1

n

+x +

2

n

+ +x +

n −1

n

.

Problem 6.1.9 Prove that for all integers m, n, the equality

m+n

2

+

n −m+1

2

= n

holds.

Problem 6.1.10 If a, b, c, d are positive real numbers such

that

na+nb =nc+nd

for all natural numbers n, prove that

a +b = c +d.

Problem 6.1.11 If n is a natural number, prove that

n +2 −n/25

3

=

8n +24

25

.

Problem 6.1.12 Solve the equation

x

1994

=

x

1995

.

Problem 6.1.13 Let [α, β] be an interval which contains no

integers. Prove that there is a positive integer n such that

[nα, nβ] still contains no integers but has length at least 1/6.

Problem 6.1.14 (IMO 1968) For every natural number n,

evaluate the sum

∞

k=0

n +2

k

2

k+1

.

Problem 6.1.15 (Putnam 1973) Prove that if n ∈ N,

min

k∈N

(k +n/k) =

√

4n +1.

Problem 6.1.16 (Dirichlet’s principle of the hyperbola)

Let N be the number of integer solutions to xy ≤n, x >0, y >0.

Prove that

N =

n

k=1

n

k

= 2

1≤k≤

√

n

n

k

−

√

n

2

.

Problem 6.1.17 (Circle Problem) Let r > 0 and let T denote

the number of lattice points of the domain x

2

+y

2

≤ r

2

. Prove

that

T = 1 +4r+8

0<x≤r

√

2

_

r

2

−x

2

+4

r

√

2

2

.

Problem 6.1.18 Let d = (a, b). Prove that

1≤n≤b−1

an

b

=

(a −1)(b −1)

2

+

d −1

2

.

Problem 6.1.19 (Eisenstein) If (a, b) = 1 and a, b are odd,

then

1≤n≤(b−1)/2

an

b

+

1≤n≤(a−1)/2

bn

a

=

(a −1)(b −1)

4

.

Problem 6.1.20 Let m ∈ N with m > 1 and let y be a positive

real number. Prove that

x

m

…

y

x

=y,

where the summation runs through all positive integers x not

divisible by the mth power of an integer exceeding 1.

Problem 6.1.21 For which natural numbers n will 112 divide

4

n

−(2 +

√

2)

n

?

Problem 6.1.22 A triangular number is a number of the form

1+2+ +n, n ∈N. Find a formula for the nth non-triangular

number.

Problem 6.1.23 (AIME 1985) How many of the ﬁrst thou-

sand positive integers can be expressed in the form

2x+4x+6x+8x?

62 Chapter 6

Problem 6.1.24 (AIME 1987) What is the largest positive in-

teger n for which there is a unique integer k such that

8

15

<

n

n +k

<

7

13

?

Problem 6.1.25 Prove that if p is an odd prime, then

(2 +

√

5)

p

−2

p+1

is divisible by p.

Problem 6.1.26 Prove that the n-th number not of the form

e

k

, k = 1, 2, . . . is

T

n

= n +ln(n +1 +ln(n +1)).

Problem 6.1.27 (Leningrad Olympiad) How many different

integers are there in the sequence

1

2

1980

,

2

2

1980

, . . . ,

1980

2

1980

?

Problem 6.1.28 Let k ≥ 2 be a natural number and x a posi-

tive real number. Prove that

k

√

x =

k

»

x.

Problem 6.1.29 1. Find a real number x ,= 0 such that

x, 2x, . . . , 34x have no 7’s in their decimal expansions.

2. Prove that for any real number x ,= 0 at least one of

x, 2x, . . . 79x has a 7 in its decimal expansion.

3. Can you improve the “gap” between 34 and 79?

Problem 6.1.30 (AIME 1991) Suppose that r is a real num-

ber for which

91

k=19

r +

k

100

= 546.

Find the value of 100r.

Problem 6.1.31 (AIME 1995) Let f (n) denote the integer

closest to n

1/4

, when n is a natural number. Find the exact

numerical value of

1995

n=1

1

f (n)

.

Problem 6.1.32 Prove that

_

1

0

(−1)

1994x+1995x

Ç

1993

1994x

åÇ

1994

1995x

å

dx = 0.

Problem 6.1.33 Prove that

√

n+

√

n +1 =

√

n+

√

n +2.

Problem 6.1.34 (Putnam 1976) Prove that

lim

n→∞

1≤k≤n

Å

2n

k

−2

n

k

ã

= ln4 −1.

Problem 6.1.35 (Putnam 1983) Prove that

lim

n→∞

1

n

_

n

1

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

n

x

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸ dx = log

3

(4/π).

You may appeal to Wallis Product Formula:

2

1

2

3

4

3

4

5

6

5

6

7

8

7

8

9

=

π

2

.

6.2 De Polignac’s Formula

We will consider now the following result due to De Polignac.

169 Theorem (De Polignac’s Formula) The highest power of a prime p dividing n! is given by

∞

k=1

n

p

k

.

Proof: The number of integers contributing a factor of p is n/p, the number of factors contributing a second

factor of p is n/p

2

, etc..u

170 Example How many zeroes are at the end of 300!?

De Polignac’s Formula 63

Solution: The number of zeroes is determined by how many times 10 divides into 300. Since there are more factors of 2 in 300!

than factors of 5, the number of zeroes is thus determined by the highest power of 5 in 300!. By De Polignac’s Formula this is

∞

k=1

300/5

k

= 60 +12 +2 = 74.

171 Example Does

7

¸

¸

¸

Ç

1000

500

å

?

Solution: The highest power of 7 dividing into 1000! is 1000/7+1000/7

2

+1000/7

3

= 142+20+2 = 164. Similarly,

the highest power of 7 dividing into 500! is 71 +10 +1 = 82. Since

Ç

1000

500

å

=

1000!

(500!)

2

, the highest power of 7 that divides

Ç

1000

500

å

is 164 −2 82 = 0, and so 7 does not divide

Ç

1000

500

å

.

172 Example Let n = n

1

+n

2

+ +n

k

where the n

i

are nonnegative integers. Prove that the quantity

n!

n

1

!n

2

! n

k

!

is an integer.

Solution: From (3) in Theorem ?? we deduce by induction that

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

l

≤a

1

+a

2

+ +a

l

.

For any prime p, the power of p dividing n! is

j≥1

n/p

j

=

j≥1

(n

1

+n

2

+ +n

k

)/p

j

.

The power of p dividing n

1

!n

2

! n

k

! is

j≥1

n

1

/p

j

+n

2

/p

j

+ n

k

/p

j

.

Since

n

1

/p

j

+n

2

/p

j

+ +n

k

/p

j

≤(n

1

+n

2

+ +n

k

)/p

j

,

we see that the power of any prime dividing the numerator of

n!

n

1

!n

2

! n

k

!

is at least the power of the same prime dividing the denominator, which establishes the assertion.

173 Example Given a positive integer n > 3, prove that the least common multiple of the products x

1

x

2

x

k

(k ≥ 1), whose

factors x

i

are the positive integers with

x

1

+x

2

+ x

k

≤n,

is less than n!.

Solution: We claim that the least common multiple of the numbers in question is

p

p prime

p

n/p

.

64 Chapter 6

Consider an arbitrary product x

1

x

2

x

k

, and an arbitrary prime p. Suppose that p

α

j

[x

j

, p

α

j

+1

,[x

j

. Clearly p

α

1

+ + pα

k

≤n

and since p

α

≥αp, we have

p(α

1

+ α

k

) ≤n or α

1

+ +α

k

≤

n

p

.

Hence it follows that the exponent of an arbitrary prime p is at most n/p. But on choosing x

1

= = x

k

= p, k =n/p, we

see that there is at least one product for which equality is achieved. This proves the claim.

The assertion of the problem now follows upon applying De Polignac’s Formula and the claim.

Practice

Problem 6.2.1 (AHSME 1977) Find the largest possible n

such that 10

n

divides 1005!.

Problem 6.2.2 Find the highest power of 17 that divides

(17

n

−2)! for a positive integer n.

Problem 6.2.3 Find the exponent of the highest power of 24

that divides 300!.

Problem 6.2.4 Find the largest power of 7 in 300!.

Problem 6.2.5 (AIME 1983) What is the largest two-digit

prime factor of the integer

Ç

200

100

å

?

Problem 6.2.6 (USAMO 1975) 1. Prove that

5x+5y ≥3x +y+3y +x.

2. Using the result of part 1 or otherwise, prove that

(5m)!(5n)!

m!n!(3m+n)!(3n +m)!

is an integer for all positive integers m, n.

Problem 6.2.7 Prove that if n > 1, (n, 6) = 1, then

(2n −4)!

n!(n −2)!

is an integer.

Problem 6.2.8 (AIME 1992) Deﬁne a positive integer n to be

a “factorial tail” if there is some positive integer m such that

the base-ten representation of m! ends with exactly n zeroes.

How many positive integers less than 1992 are not factorial

tails?

Problem 6.2.9 Prove that if m and n are relatively prime pos-

itive integers then

(m+n −1)!

m!n!

is an integer.

Problem 6.2.10 If p is a prime divisor of

Ç

2n

n

å

with p ≥

√

2n

prove that the exponent of p in the factorisation of

Ç

2n

n

å

equals 1.

Problem 6.2.11 Prove that

lcm

ÇÇ

n

1

å

,

Ç

n

2

å

, . . . ,

Ç

n

n

åå

=

lcm(1, 2, . . . , n +1)

n +1

.

Problem 6.2.12 Prove the following result of Catalan:

Ç

m+n

n

å

divides

Ç

2m

m

åÇ

2n

n

å

.

6.3 Complementary Sequences

We deﬁne the spectrum of a real number α to be the inﬁnite multiset of integers

Spec(α) = ¦α, 2α, 3α, . . .¦.

Two sequences Spec(α) and Spec(β) are said to be complementary if they partition the natural numbers, i.e. Spec(α) ∩

Spec(β) = ∅ and Spec(α) ∪Spec(β) =N.

Practice 65

For example, it appears that the two sequences

Spec(

√

2) = ¦1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 24, 25, . . .¦,

and

Spec(2 +

√

2) =¦3, 6, 10, 13, 17, 20, 23, 27, 30, 34, 37, 40, 44, 47, 51, . . .¦

are complementary. The following theorem establishes a criterion for spectra to be complementary.

174 Theorem (Beatty’s Theorem, 1926) If α > 1 is irrational and

1

α

+

1

β

= 1,

then the sequences

Spec(α) and Spec(β)

are complementary.

Proof: Since α > 1, β > 1, Spec(α) and Spec(β) are each sequences of distinct terms, and the total number of

terms not exceeding N taken together in both sequences is N/α+N/β. But N/α −1+N/β −1 <N/α+

[N/β] <N/α+N/β, the last inequality being strict because both α, β are irrational. As 1/α+1/β =1, we gather

that N−2 <N/α+N/β<N. Since the sandwiched quantity is an integer, we deduce [N/α] +[N/β] =N−1.

Thus the total number of terms not exceeding N in Spec(α) and Spec(β) is N−1, as this is true for any N ≥1 each

interval (n, n+1) contains exactly one such term. It follows that Spec(α)∪Spec(β) =N, Spec(α)∩Spec(β) =∅.

u

The converse of Beatty’s Theorem is also true.

175 Theorem (Bang’s Theorem, 1957) If the sequences

Spec(α) and Spec(β)

are complementary, then α, β are positive irrational numbers with

1

α

+

1

β

= 1.

Proof: If both α, β are rational numbers, it is clear that Spec(α), Spec(β) eventually contain the same integers,

and so are not disjoint. Thus α and β must be irrational. If 0 < α ≤ 1, given n there is an M for which

mα −1 < n ≤ mα; hence n = [mα], which implies that Spec(α) = N, whence α > 1 (and so β > 1 also). If

Spec(α) ∩Spec(β) is ﬁnite, then

lim

n→∞

n/α+n/β

n

= 1,

but since (n/α+n/β)

1

n

→1/α +1/β as n →∞, it follows that 1/α +1/β = 1. u

176 Example Suppose we sieve the positive integers as follows: we choose a

1

= 1 and then delete a

1

+1 = 2. The next term

is 3, which we call a

2

, and then we delete a

2

+2 = 5. Thus the next available integer is 4 = a

3

, and we delete a

3

+3 = 7, etc.

Thereby we leave the integers 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17, . . .. Find a formula for a

n

.

Solution: What we are asking for is a sequence ¦S

n

¦ which is complementary to the sequence ¦S

n

+n¦. By Beatty’s Theorem,

nτ and nτ+n = n(τ +1) are complementary if 1/τ +1/(τ +1) = 1. But then τ = (1 +

√

5)/2, the Golden ratio. The

n-th term is thus a

n

=nτ.

Practice

66 Chapter 6

Problem 6.3.1 (Skolem) Let τ =

1 +

√

5

2

be the Golden

Ratio. Prove that the three sequences (n ≥ 1)

¦ττn¦, ¦ττ

2

n¦, ¦τ

2

n¦ are complementary.

6.4 Arithmetic Functions

An arithmetic function f is a function whose domain is the set of positive integers and whose range is a subset of the complex

numbers. The following functions are of considerable importance in Number Theory:

d(n) the number of positive divisors of the number n.

σ(n) the sum of the positive divisors of n.

φ(n) the number of positive integers not exceeding

n and relative prime to n.

ω(n) the number of distinct prime divisors of n.

Ω(n) the number of primes dividing n, counting multiplicity.

In symbols the above functions are:

d(n) =

d[n

1, σ(n) =

d[n

d, ω(n) =

p[n

1, Ω(n) =

p

α

[[n

α,

and

φ(n) =

1≤k≤n

(k,n)=1

1.

(The symbol [[ in p

α

[[n is read exactly divides and it signiﬁes that p

α

[n but p

α+1

,[n.)

For example, since 1, 2, 4, 5, 10 and 20 are the divisors of 20, we have d(20) =6, σ(20) =42, ω(20) =2, Ω(20) =3. Since

the numbers 1, 3, 7, 9, 11, 13, 17, 19 are the positive integers not exceeding 20 and relatively prime to 20, we see that φ(20) =8.

If f is an arithmetic function which is not identically 0 such that f (mn) = f (m) f (n) for every pair of relatively prime natural

numbers m, n, we say that f is then a multiplicative function. If f (mn) = f (m) f (n) for every pair of natural numbers m, n we

say then that f is totally multiplicative.

Let f be multiplicative and let n have the prime factorisation n = p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

r

r

. Then

f (n) = f (p

a

1

1

) f (p

a

2

2

) f (p

a

r

r

).

A multiplicative function is thus determined by its values at prime powers. If f is multiplicative, then there is a positive integer

a such that f (a) ,= 0. Hence f (a) = f (1 a) = f (1) f (a) which entails that f (1) = 1.

We will now show that the functions d and σ are multiplicative. For this we need ﬁrst the following result.

177 Theorem Let f be a multiplicative function and let F(n) =

d[n

f (d). Then F is also multiplicative.

Proof: Suppose that a, b are natural numbers with (a, b) = 1. By the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, every

divisor d of ab has the form d = d

1

d

2

where d

1

[a, d

2

[b, (d

1

, d

2

) = 1. Thus there is a one-to-one correspondence

between positive divisors d of ab and pairs d

1

, d

2

of positive divisors of a and b. Hence, if n = ab, (a, b) = 1 then

F(n) =

d[n

f (d) =

d

1

[a

d

2

[b

f (d

1

d

2

).

Since f is multiplicative the dextral side of the above equals

d

1

[a

d

2

[b

f (d

1

) f (d

2

) =

d

1

[a

f (d

1

)

d

2

[b

f (d

2

) = F(a)F(b).

This completes the proof. u

Arithmetic Functions 67

Since the function f (n) = 1 for all natural numbers n is clearly multiplicative (indeed, totally multiplicative), the theorem

above shows that d(n) =

d[n

1 is a multiplicative function. If p is a prime, the divisors of p

a

are 1, p, p

2

, p

3

, . . . , p

a

and so

d(p

a

) = a +1. This entails that if n has the prime factorisation n = p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

r

r

, then

d(n) = (1 +a

1

)(1 +a

2

) (1 +a

r

).

For example, d(2904) = d(2

3

3 11

2

) = d(2

3

)d(3)d(11

2

) = (1 +3)(1 +1)(1 +2) = 24.

We give now some examples pertaining to the divisor function.

178 Example (AHSME 1993) For how many values of n will an n-sided polygon have interior angles with integral degree

measures?

Solution: The measure of an interior angle of a regular n-sided polygon is

(n −2)180

n

. It follows that n must divide 180. Since

there are 18 divisors of 180, the answer is 16, because n ≥3 and so we must exclude the divisors 1 and 2.

179 Example Prove that d(n) ≤2

√

n.

Solution: Each positive divisor a of n can paired with its complementary divisor

n

a

. As n = a

n

a

, one of these divisors must be

≤

√

n. This gives at most 2

√

n divisors.

180 Example Find all positive integers n such that d(n) = 6.

Solution: Since 6 can be factored as 2 3 and 6 1, the desired n must have only two distinct prime factors, p and q, say. Thus

n = p

α

q

β

and either 1 +α = 2, 1 +β = 3 or 1 +α = 6, 1 +β = 1. Hence, n must be of one of the forms pq

2

or p

5

, where p, q

are distinct primes.

181 Example Prove that

n

k=1

d(k) =

n

j=1

n

j

Solution: We have

n

k=1

d(k) =

n

k=1

j[k

1.

Interchanging the order of summation

j≤n

j≤k≤n

k≡0 mod j

1 =

j≤n

n

j

,

which is what we wanted to prove.

182 Example (Putnam 1967) A certain locker room contains n lockers numbered 1, 2, . . . , n and are originally locked. An

attendant performs a sequence of operations T

1

, T

2

, . . . , T

n

whereby with the operation T

k

, 1 ≤ k ≤ n, the condition of being

locked or unlocked is changed for all those lockers and only those lockers whose numbers are multiples of k. After all the n

operations have been performed it is observed that all lockers whose numbers are perfect squares (and only those lockers) are

now open or unlocked. Prove this mathematically.

Solution: Observe that locker m, 1 ≤m ≤n, will be unlocked after n operations if and only if m has an odd number of divisors.

Now, d(m) is odd if and only if m is a perfect square. The assertion is proved.

68 Chapter 6

Since the function f (n) = n is multiplicative (indeed, totally multiplicative), the above theorem entails that σ is multiplica-

tive. If p is a prime, then clearly σ(p

a

) =1+p+p

2

+ +p

a

. This entails that if n has the prime factorisation n = p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

r

r

,

then

σ(n) = (1 + p

1

+ p

2

1

+ + p

a

1

1

)(1 + p

2

+ p

2

2

+ + p

a

2

w

) (1 + p

r

+ p

2

r

+ + p

a

r

r

).

This last product also equals

p

a

1

+1

1

−1

p

1

−1

p

a

2

+1

2

−1

p

2

−1

p

a

r

+1

r

−1

p

r

−1

.

We present now some examples related to the function σ.

183 Example (Putnam 1969) Let n be a positive integer such that 24[n +1. Prove that the sum of all divisors of n is also

divisible by 24.

Solution: Since 24[n+1, n ≡1 or 2 mod 3 and d ≡1, 3, 5 or 7 mod 8. As d(

n

d

) ≡−1 mod 3 or mod 8, the only possibilities

are

d ≡1, n/d ≡2 mod 3 or vice versa,

d ≡1, n/d ≡7 mod 8 or vice versa,

d ≡3, n/d ≡5 mod 8 or vice versa.

In all cases d +n/d ≡ 0 mod 3 and mod 8, whence 24 divides d +n/d. As d ,≡ n/d, no divisor is used twice in the pairing.

This implies that 24[

d[n

d.

We say that a natural number is perfect if it is the sum of its proper divisors. For example, 6 is perfect because 6 =

d[6,d,=6

d =

1 +2 +3. It is easy to see that a natural number is perfect if and only if 2n =

d[n

d. The following theorem is classical.

184 Theorem An even number is perfect if and only if it is of the form 2

p−1

(2

p

−1) where both p and 2

p

−1 are primes.

Proof: Suppose that p, 2

p

−1 are primes. Then σ(2

p

−1) = 1 +2

p

−1. Since (2

p−1

, 2

p

−1) = 1, σ(2

p−1

(2

p

−

1)) = σ(2

p−1

)σ(2

p

−1) = (1 +2 +2

2

+ +2

p−1

)(1 +2

p

−1) = (2

p

−1)2(2

p−1

), and 2

p−1

(2

p

−1) is perfect.

Conversely, let n be an even perfect number. Write n = 2

s

m, m odd. Then σ(n) = σ(2

s

)σ(m) = (2

s+1

−1)σ(m).

Also, since n perfect is, σ(n) = 2n = 2

s+1

m. Hence (2

s+1

−1)σ(m) = 2

s+1

m. One deduces that 2

s+1

[σ(m), and

so σ(m) = 2

s+1

b for some natural number b. But then (2

s+1

−1)b = m, and so b[m, b ,= m.

We propose to show that b = 1. Observe that b +m = (2

s+1

−1)b +b = 2

s+1

b = σ(m). If b ,= 1, then there are at

least three divisors of m, namely 1, b and m, which yields σ(m) ≥ 1 +b +m, a contradiction. Thus b = 1, and so

m = (2

s+1

−1)b = 2

s+1

−1 is a prime. This means that 2

s+1

−1 is a Mersenne prime and hence s +1 must be a

prime.u

185 Example Prove that for every natural number n there exist natural numbers x and y such that x−y ≥n and σ(x

2

) =σ(y

2

).

Solution: Let s ≥n, (s, 10) = 1. We take x = 5s, y = 4s. Then σ(x

2

) = σ(y

2

) = 31σ(s

2

).

Practice

Euler’s Function. Reduced Residues 69

Problem 6.4.1 Find the numerical values of d(1024), σ(1024), ω(1024),

Ω(1024) and φ(1024).

Problem 6.4.2 Describe all natural numbers n such that

d(n) = 10.

Problem 6.4.3 Prove that

d(2

n

−1) ≥d(n).

Problem 6.4.4 Prove that d(n) ≤

√

3n with equality if and

only if n = 12.

Problem 6.4.5 Prove that the following Lambert expansion

holds:

∞

n=1

d(n)t

n

=

∞

n=1

t

n

1 −t

n

.

Problem 6.4.6 Let d

1

(n) = d(n), d

k

(n) = d(d

k−1

(n)), k =

2, 3, . . .. Describe d

k

(n) for sufﬁciently large k.

Problem 6.4.7 Let m ∈ N be given. Prove that the set

A =¦n ∈ N : m[d(n)¦

contains an inﬁnite arithmetic progression.

Problem 6.4.8 Let n be a perfect number. Show that

d[n

1

d

= 2.

Problem 6.4.9 Prove that

d[n

d = n

d(n)/2

.

Problem 6.4.10 Prove that the power of a prime cannot be a

perfect number.

Problem 6.4.11 (AIME, 1995) Let n = 2

31

3

19

. How many

positive integer divisors of n

2

are less than n but do not di-

vide n?

Problem 6.4.12 Prove that if n is composite, then σ(n) >

n +

√

n.

Problem 6.4.13 Prove that σ(n) =n+k, k >1 a ﬁxed natural

number has only ﬁnitely many solutions.

Problem 6.4.14 Characterise all n for which σ(n) is odd.

Problem 6.4.15 Prove that p is a prime if and only if σ(p) =

1 + p.

Problem 6.4.16 Prove that

σ(n!)

n!

≥1 +

1

2

+ +

1

n

.

Problem 6.4.17 Prove that an odd perfect number must have

at least two distinct prime factors.

Problem 6.4.18 Prove that in an odd perfect number, only one

of its prime factors occurs to an odd power; all the others oc-

cur to an even power.

Problem 6.4.19 Show that an odd perfect number must con-

tain one prime factor p such that, if the highest power of p

occurring in n is p

a

, both p and a are congruent to 1 modulo

4; all other prime factors must occur to an even power.

Problem 6.4.20 Prove that every odd perfect number having

three distinct prime factors must have two of its prime factors

3 and 5.

Problem 6.4.21 Prove that there do not exist odd perfect num-

bers having exactly three distinct prime factors.

Problem 6.4.22 Prove that

n

k=1

σ(k) =

n

j=1

j

n

j

.

Problem 6.4.23 Find the number of sets of positive integers

¦a, b, c¦ such that a b c = 462.

6.5 Euler’s Function. Reduced Residues

Recall that Euler’s φ(n) function counts the number of positive integers a ≤n that are relatively prime to n. We will prove now

that φ is multiplicative. This requires more work than that done for d and σ.

First we need the following deﬁnitions.

70 Chapter 6

186 Deﬁnition Let n > 1. The φ(n) integers 1 = a

1

< a

2

< < a

φ(n)

= n −1 less than n and relatively prime to n are called

the canonical reduced residues modulo n.

187 Deﬁnition A reduced residue system modulo n, n > 1 is a set of φ(n) incongruent integers modulo n that are relatively

prime to n.

For example, the canonical reduced residues mod 12 are 1, 5, 7, 11 and the set ¦−11, 5, 19, 23¦ forms a reduced residue

system modulo 12.

We are now ready to prove the main result of this section.

188 Theorem The function φ is multiplicative.

Proof: Let n be a natural number with n = ab, (a, b) = 1. We arrange the ab integers 1, 2, . . . , ab as follows.

1 2 3 . . . k . . . a

a +1 a +2 a +3 . . . a +k . . . 2a

2a +1 2a +2 2a +3 . . . 2a +k . . . 3a

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b −1)a +1 (b −1)a +2 (b −1)a +3 . . . (b −1)a +k . . . ba

Now, an integer r is relatively prime to m if and only if it is relatively prime to a and b. We shall determine ﬁrst the

number of integers in the above array that are relatively prime to a and ﬁnd out how may of them are also relatively

prime to b.

There are φ(a) integers relatively prime to a in the ﬁrst row. Now consider the k-th column, 1 ≤k ≤a. Each integer

on this column is of the form ma +k, 0 ≤m ≤ b −1. As k ≡ ma +k mod a, k will have a common factor with a if

and only if ma +k does. This means that there are exactly φ(a) columns of integers that are relatively prime to a.

We must determine how many of these integers are relatively prime to b.

We claim that no two integers k, a +k, . . . , (b −1)a +k on the k-th column are congruent modulo b. For if ia +k ≡

ja +k mod b then a(i − j) ≡0 mod b. Since (a, b) = 1, we deduce that i − j ≡0 mod b thanks to Corollary ??.

Now i, j ∈ [0, b −1] which implies that [i − j[ < b. This forces i = j. This means that the b integers in any of these

φ(n) columns are, in some order, congruent to the integers 0, 1, . . . , b −1. But exactly φ(b) of these are relatively

prime to b. This means that exactly φ(a)φ(b) integers on the array are relatively prime to ab, which is what we

wanted to show.u

If p is a prime and m a natural number, the integers

p, 2p, 3p, . . . , p

m−1

p

are the only positive integers ≤ p

m

sharing any prime factors with p

m

. Thus φ(p

m

) = p

m

− p

m−1

. Since φ is multiplicative, if

n = p

a

1

1

p

a

k

k

is the factorisation of n into distinct primes, then

φ(n) = (p

a

1

1

− p

a

1

−1

1

) (p

a

k

k

− p

a

k

−1

k

).

For example, φ(48) = φ(2

4

3) = φ(2

4

)φ(3) = (2

4

−2

3

)(3 −1) = 16, and φ(550) = φ(2 5

2

11) = φ(2) φ(5

2

) φ(11) =

(2 −1)(5

2

−5)(11 −1) = 1 20 10 = 200.

189 Example Let n be a natural number. How many of the fractions 1/n, 2/n, . . . , (n −1)/n, n/n are irreducible?

Solution: This number is clearly

n

k=1

φ(k).

Euler’s Function. Reduced Residues 71

190 Example Prove that for n > 1,

1≤a≤n

(a,n)=1

a =

nφ(n)

2

.

Solution: Clearly if 1 ≤a ≤n and (a, n) = 1, 1 ≤n −a ≤n and (n −a, n) = 1. Thus

S =

1≤a≤n

(a,n)=1

a =

1≤a≤n

(a,n)=1

n −a,

whence

2S =

1≤a≤n

(a,n)=1

n = nφ(n).

The assertion follows.

191 Theorem Let n be a positive integer. Then

d[n

φ(d) = n.

Proof: For each divisor d of n, let T

d

(n) be the set of positive integers ≤ n whose gcd with n is d. As d varies

over the divisors of n, the T

d

partition the set ¦1, 2, . . . , n¦ and so

d[n

T

d

(n) = n.

We claim that T

d

(n) has φ(n/d) elements. Note that the elements of T

d

(n) are found amongst the integers

d, 2d, . . .

n

d

d. If k ∈T

d

(n), then k =ad, 1 ≤a ≤n/d and (k, n) =d. But then (

k

d

,

n

d

) =1. This implies that (a,

n

d

) =1.

Therefore counting the elements of T

d

(n) is the same as counting the integers a with 1 ≤ a ≤ n/d, (a,

n

d

) = 1. But

there are exactly φ(n/d) such a. We gather that

n =

d[n

φ(n/d).

But as d runs through the divisors of n, n/d runs through the divisors of n in reverse order, whence n =

d[n

φ(n/d) =

d[n

φ(d).u

192 Example If p −1 and p +1 are twin primes, and p > 4, prove that 3φ(p) ≤ p.

Solution: Observe that p > 4 must be a multiple of 6, so

p = 2

a

3

b

m, ab ≥1, (m, 6) = 1.

We then have φ(p) ≤2

a

3

b−1

φ(m) ≤2

a

3

b−1

m = p/3.

193 Example Let n ∈ N. Prove that the equation

φ(x) = n!

is soluble.

72 Chapter 6

Solution: We want to solve the equation φ(x) = n with the constraint that x has precisely the same prime factors as n. This

restriction implies that φ(x)/x = φ(n)/n. It follows that x = n

2

/φ(n).

Let n =

p

α

[[n

p

α

. Then x =

p

α

[[n

p

α

p −1

. The integer x will have the same prime factors as n provided that

p[n

(p −1)[n. It is

clear then that a necessary and sufﬁcient condition for φ(x) = n to be soluble under the restriction that x has precisely the same

prime factors as n is

p[n

(p −1)[n. If n = k!, this last condition is clearly satisﬁed. An explicit solution to the problem is thus

x = (k!)

2

/φ(k!).

194 Example Let φ

k

(n) =φ(φ

k−1

(n)), k = 1, 2, . . . , where φ

0

(n) =φ(n). Show that ∀k ∈ N, φ

k

(n) >1 for all sufﬁciently large

n.

Solution: Let p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

r

r

be the prime factorisation of n. Clearly

p

a

1

/2

1

p

a

2

/2

2

p

a

r

/2

r

> 2

r−1

≥

1

2

p

1

p

1

−1

p

r

p

r

−1

.

Hence

φ(n) =

p

1

−1

p

1

p

2

−1

p

2

p

r

−1

p

r

p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

r

r

≥

1

2

p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

r

r

p

a

1

/2

1

p

a

2

/2

2

p

a

r

/2

r

.

This last quantity equals

√

n/2. Therefore φ

1

(n) >

1

2

»

φ(n) >

1

2

…

1

4

√

n =

1

4

n

1/4

. In general we can show that φ

k

(n) >

1

4

n

2

−k−1

. We conclude that n ≥2

2

k+2

implies that φ

k

(n) > 1.

195 Example Find inﬁnitely many integers n such that 10[φ(n).

Solution: Take n = 11

k

, k = 1, 2, . . .. Then φ(11

k

) = 11

k

−11

k−1

= 10 11

k−1

.

Practice

Problem 6.5.1 Prove that

φ(n) = n

p[n

Å

1 −

1

p

ã

.

Problem 6.5.2 Prove that if n is composite then φ(n) ≤ n −

√

n. When is equality achieved?

Problem 6.5.3 (AIME 1992) Find the sum of all positive ra-

tional numbers that are less than 10 and have denominator 30

when written in lowest terms.

Answer: 400

Problem 6.5.4 Prove that φ(n) ≥n2

−ω(n)

.

Problem 6.5.5 Prove that φ(n) >

√

n for n > 6.

Problem 6.5.6 If φ(n)[n, then n must be of the form 2

a

3

b

for

nonnegative integers a, b.

Problem 6.5.7 Prove that if φ(n)[n − 1, then n must be

squarefree.

Problem 6.5.8 (Mandelbrot 1994) Four hundred people are

standing in a circle. You tag one person, then skip k people,

then tag another, skip k, and so on, continuing until you tag

someone for the second time. For how many positive values

of k less than 400 will every person in the circle get tagged at

least once?

Problem 6.5.9 Prove that if φ(n)[n −1 and n is composite,

then n has at least three distinct prime factors.

Problem 6.5.10 Prove that if φ(n)[n −1 and n is composite,

then n has at least four prime factors.

Multiplication in Z

n

73

Problem 6.5.11 For n > 1 let 1 = a

1

< a

2

< < a

φ(n)

=

n −1 be the positive integers less than n that are relatively

prime to n. Deﬁne the Jacobsthal function

g(n) := max

1≤k≤φ(n)−1

a

k+1

−a

k

to be the maximum gap between the a

k

. Prove that ω(n) ≤

g(n).

(Hint: Use the Chinese Remainder Theorem).

Problem 6.5.12 Prove that a necessary and sufﬁcient condi-

tion for n to be a prime is that

σ(n) +φ(n) = nd(n).

6.6 Multiplication in Z

n

In section 3.5 we saw that Z

n

endowed with the operation of addition +

n

becomes a group. We are now going to investigate the

multiplicative structure of Z

n

.

How to deﬁne multiplication in Z

n

? If we want to multiply a

n

b we simply multiply a b and reduce the result mod n. As

an example, let us consider Table ??. To obtain 4

6

2 we ﬁrst multiplied 4 2 = 8 and then reduced mod 6 obtaining 8 ≡ 2

mod 6. The answer is thus 4

6

2 = 2.

Another look at the table shows the interesting product 3

6

2 = 0. Why is it interesting? We have multiplied to non-zero

entities and obtained a zero entity!

Does Z

6

form a group under

6

? What is the multiplicative identity? In analogy with the rational numbers, we would like

1 to be the multiplicative identity. We would then deﬁne the multiplicative inverse of a to be that b that has the property that

a

6

b = b

6

a = 1. But then, we encounter some problems. For example, we see that 0, 2, 3, and 4 do not have a multiplicative

inverse. We need to be able to identify the invertible elements of Z

n

. For that we need the following.

6

0 1 2 3 4 5

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 1 2 3 4 5

2 0 2 4 0 2 4

3 0 3 0 3 0 3

4 0 4 2 0 4 2

5 0 5 4 3 2 1

Table 6.1: Multiplication Table for Z

6

196 Deﬁnition Let n > 1 be a natural number. An integer b is said to be the inverse of an integer a modulo n if ab ≡1 mod n.

It is easy to see that inverses are unique mod n. For if x, y are inverses to a mod n then ax ≡1 mod n and ay ≡1 mod n.

Multiplying by y the ﬁrst of these congruences, (ya)x ≡y mod n. Hence x ≡y mod n.

197 Theorem Let n > 1, a be integers. Then a possesses an inverse modulo n if and only if a is relatively prime to n.

Proof: Assume that b is the inverse of a mod n. Then ab ≡1 mod n, which entails the existence of an integer s

such that ab −1 = sn, i.e. ab −sn = 1. This is a linear combination of a and n and hence divisible by (a, n). This

implies that (a, n) = 1.

Conversely if (a, n) = 1, by the Bachet-Bezout Theorem there are integers x, y such that ax +ny = 1. This immedi-

ately yields ax ≡1 mod n, i.e., a has an inverse mod n.u

198 Example Find the inverse of 5 mod 7.

Solution: We are looking for a solution to the congruence 5x ≡1 mod 7. By inspection we see that this is x ≡3 mod 7.

74 Chapter 6

According to the preceding theorem, a will have a multiplicative inverse if and only if (a, n) = 1. We thus see that only the

reduced residues mod n have an inverse. We let Z

n

= ¦a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

φ(n)

¦. It is easy to see that the operation

n

is associative,

since it inherits associativity from the integers. We conclude that Z

n

is a group under the operation

n

.

We now give some assorted examples.

199 Example (IMO 1964) Prove that there is no positive integer n for which 2

n

+1 is divisible by 7.

Solution: Observe that 2

1

≡ 2, 2

2

≡ 4, 2

3

≡ 1 mod 7, 2

4

≡ 2 mod 7, 2

5

≡ 4 mod 7, 2

6

≡ 1 mod 7, etc. The pattern 2, 4, 1,

repeats thus cyclically. This says that there is no power of 2 which is ≡−1 ≡6 mod 7.

200 Theorem If a is relatively prime to the positive integer n, there exists a positive integer k ≤n such that a

k

≡1 mod n.

Proof: Since (a, n) = 1 we must have (a

j

, n) = 1 for all j ≥1. Consider the sequence a, a

2

, a

3

, . . . , a

n+1

mod n.

As there are n +1 numbers and only n residues mod n, the Pigeonhole Principle two of these powers must have

the same remainder mod n. That is, we can ﬁnd s, t with 1 ≤ s < t ≤ n +1 such that a

s

≡ a

t

mod n. Now,

1 ≤ t −s ≤ n. Hence a

s

≡ a

t

mod n gives a

t−s

a

s

≡ a

t−s

a

t

mod n, which is to say a

t

≡ a

t−s

a

t

mod n. Using

Corollary ?? we gather that a

t−s

≡1 mod n, which proves the result.u

If (a, n) = 1, the preceding theorem tells us that there is a positive integer k with a

k

≡ 1 mod n. By the Well-Ordering

Principle, there must be a smallest positive integer with this property. This prompts the following deﬁnition.

201 Deﬁnition If m is the least positive integer with the property that a

m

≡1 mod n, we say that a has order m mod n.

For example, 3

1

≡ 3, 3

2

≡ 2, 3

3

≡ 6, 3

4

≡ 4, 3

5

≡ 5, 3

6

≡1 mod 7, and so the order of 3 mod 7 is 6. We write this fact as

ord

7

3 = 6.

Given n, not all integers a are going to have an order mod n. This is clear if n[a, because then a

m

≡ 0 mod n for all

positive integers m. The question as to which integers are going to have an order mod n is answered in the following theorem.

202 Theorem Let n > 1 be a positive integer. Then a ∈ Z has an order mod n if and only if (a, n) = 1.

Proof: If (a, n) = 1, then a has an order in view of Theorem ?? and the Well-Ordering Principle. Hence assume

that a has an order mod n. Clearly a ,= 0. The existence of an order entails the existence of a positive integer

m such that a

m

≡ 1 mod n. Hence, there is an integer s with a

m

+sn = 1 or a a

m−1

+sn = 1. This is a linear

combination of a and n and hence divisible by (a, n). This entails that (a, n) = 1. u

The following theorem is of utmost importance.

203 Theorem Let (a, n) = 1 and let t be an integer. Then a

t

≡1 mod n if and only if ord

n

a[t.

Proof: Assume that ord

n

a[t. Then there is an integer s such that sord

n

a =t. This gives

a

t

≡a

sord

n

a

≡(a

ord

n

a

)

s

≡1

s

≡1 mod n.

Conversely, assume that a

t

≡1 mod n and t = x ord

n

a +y, 0 ≤y < ord

n

a. Then

a

y

≡a

t−xord

n

a

≡a

t

(a

ord

n

a

)

−x

≡1 1

−x

≡1 mod n.

If y > 0 we would have a positive integer smaller than ord

n

a with the property a

y

≡ 1 mod n. This contradicts

the deﬁnition of ord

n

a as the smallest positive integer with that property. Hence y = 0 and thus t = x ord

n

a, i.e.,

ord

n

a[t.u

Practice 75

204 Example (IMO 1964) Find all positive integers n for which 2

n

−1 is divisible by 7.

Solution: Observe that the order of 2 mod 7 is 3. We want 2

n

≡ 1 mod 7. It must then be the case that 3[n. Thus n =

3, 6, 9, 12, . . ..

The following result will be used repeatedly.

205 Theorem Let n > 1, a ∈ Z, (a, n) = 1. If r

1

, r

2

, . . . , r

φ(n)

is a reduced set of residues modulo n, then ar

1

, ar

2

, . . . , ar

φ(n)

is

also a reduced set of residues modulo n.

Proof: We just need to showthat the φ(n) numbers ar

1

, ar

2

, . . . , ar

φ(n)

are mutually incongruent mod n. Suppose

that ar

i

≡ ar

j

mod n for some i ,= j. Since (a, n) = 1, we deduce from Corollary ?? that r

i

≡ r

j

mod n. This

contradicts the fact that the r’s are incongruent, so the theorem follows.u

For example, as 1, 5, 7, 11 is a reduced residue system modulo 12 and (12, 5) = 1, the set 5, 25, 35, 55 is also a reduced

residue system modulo 12. Again, the 1, 5, 7, 11 are the 5, 25, 35, 55 in some order and 1 5 7 11 ≡5 25 35 55 mod 12.

The following corollary to Theorem ?? should be immediate.

206 Corollary Let n > 1, a, b ∈ Z, (a, n) = 1. If r

1

, r

2

, . . . , r

φ(n)

is a reduced set of residues modulo n, then ar

1

+b, ar

2

+

b, . . . , ar

φ(n)

+b is also a reduced set of residues modulo n.

Practice

Problem 6.6.1 Find the order of 5 modulo 12.

6.7 Möbius Function

207 Deﬁnition The Möbius function is deﬁned for positive integer n as follows:

µ(n) =

_

_

_

1 if n = 1,

(−1)

ω(n)

if ω(n) = Ω(n),

0 if ω(n) < Ω(n).

Thus µ is 1 for n = 1 and square free integers with an even number of prime factors, −1 for square free integers with an

odd number of prime factors, and 0 for non-square free integers. Thus for example µ(6) = 1, µ(30) = −1 and µ(18) = 0.

208 Theorem The Möbius Function µ is multiplicative.

Proof: Assume (m, n) = 1. If both M and n are square-free then

µ(m)µ(n) = (−1)

ω(m)

(−1)

ω(n)

= (−1)

ω(m)+ω(n)

= µ(mn).

If one of m, n is not square-free then

µ(m)µ(n) = 0 = µ(mn).

This proves the theorem. u

209 Theorem

d[n

µ(d) =

ß

1 if n = 1,

0 if n > 1.

76 Chapter 6

Proof: There are

Ç

ω(n)

k

å

square-free divisors d of n with exactly k prime factors. For all such d, µ(d) = (−1)

k

.

The sum in question is thus

d[n

µ(d) =

ω(n)

k=0

Ç

ω(n)

k

å

(−1)

k

.

By the Binomial Theorem this last sum is (1 −1)

ω(n)

= 0.u

210 Theorem (Möbius Inversion Formula) Let f be an arithmetical function and F(n) =

d[n

f (d). Then

f (n) =

d[n

µ(d)F(n/d) =

d[n

µ(n/d)F(d).

Proof: We have

d[n

µ(d)F(n/d) =

d[n

d[n

s[

n

d

f (s)

=

ds[n

µ(d) f (s)

=

s[n

f (s)

d[

n

s

µ(d).

In view of theorem ??, the inner sum is different from 0 only when

n

s

= 1. Hence only the term s = n in the outer

sum survives, which means that the above sums simplify to f (n).u

We now show the converse to Theorem ??.

211 Theorem Let f , F be arithmetic functions with f (n) =

d[n

µ(d)F(n/d) for all natural numbers n. Then F(n) =

d[n

f (d).

Proof: We have

d[n

f (d) =

d[n

s[d

µ(s)F(d/s)

=

d[n

s[d

µ(d/s)F(s)

=

s[n

r[

n

s

µ(r)F(s).

Using Theorem ??, the inner sum will be 0 unless s = n, in which case the entire sum reduces to F(n).u

Practice

Problem 6.7.1 Prove that

φ(n) = n

d[n

µ(d)

d

.

Problem 6.7.2 If f is an arithmetical function and F(n) =

Practice 77

n

k=1

f ([n/k]), then

f (n) =

n

j=1

µ( j)F([n/ j]).

Problem 6.7.3 If F is an arithmetical function such that

f (n) =

n

k=1

µ(k)F([n/k]), prove that F(n) =

n

j=1

f ( j).

Problem 6.7.4 Prove that

d[n

[µ(d)[ = 2

ω(n)

.

Problem 6.7.5 Prove that

d[n

µ(d)d(d) = (−1)

ω(n)

.

Problem 6.7.6 Given any positive integer k, prove that there

exist inﬁnitely many integers n with

µ(n +1) = µ(n +2) = = µ(n +k).

Chapter 7

More on Congruences

7.1 Theorems of Fermat and Wilson

212 Theorem (Fermat’s Little Theorem) Let p be a prime and let p ,[a. Then

a

p−1

≡1 mod p.

Proof: Since (a, p) = 1, the set a 1, a 2, . . . , a (p −1) is also a reduced set of residues mod p in view of

Theorem ??. Hence

(a 1)(a 2) (a (p −1)) ≡1 2 (p −1) mod p,

or

a

p−1

(p −1)! ≡(p −1)! mod p.

As ((p −1)!, p) = 1 we may cancel out the (p −1)!’s in view of Corollary ??. This proves the theorem.u

As an obvious corollary, we obtain the following.

213 Corollary For every prime p and for every integer a,

a

p

≡a mod p.

Proof: Either p[a or p ,[a. If p[a, a ≡ 0 ≡ a

p

mod p and there is nothing to prove. If p ,[a, Fermat’s Little

Theorem yields p[a

p−1

−1. Hence p[a(a

p−1

−1) = a

p

−a, which again gives the result.u

The following corollary will also be useful.

214 Corollary Let p be a prime and a an integer. Assume that p ,[a. Then ord

p

a[p −1.

Proof: This follows immediately from Theorem ?? and Fermat’s Little Theorem.u

215 Example Find the order of 8 mod 11.

Solution: By Corollary ?? ord

11

8 is either 1, 2, 5 or 10. Now 8

2

≡ −2 mod 11, 8

4

≡ 4 mod 11 and 8

5

≡ −1 mod 11. The

order is thus ord

11

8 = 10.

216 Example Let a

1

= 4, a

n

= 4

a

n−1

, n > 1. Find the remainder when a

100

is divided by 7.

78

Theorems of Fermat and Wilson 79

Solution: By Fermat’s Little Theorem, 4

6

≡1 mod 7. Now, 4

n

≡4 mod 6 for all positive integers n, i.e., 4

n

= 4+6t for some

integer t. Thus

a

100

≡4

a

99

≡4

4+6t

≡4

4

(4

6

)

t

≡4 mod 7.

217 Example Prove that for m, n ∈ Z, mn(m

60

−n

60

) is always divisible by 56786730.

Solution: Let a = 56786730 = 2 3 5 7 11 13 31 61. Let Q(x, y) = xy(x

60

−y

60

). Observe that (x −y)[Q(x, y), (x

2

−

y

2

)[Q(x, y), (x

3

−y

3

)[Q(x, y), (x

4

−y

4

)[Q(x, y), (x

6

−y

6

)[Q(x, y), (x

10

−y

10

)[Q(x, y), (x

12

−y

12

)[Q(x, y), and (x

30

−y

30

)[Q(x, y).

If p is any one of the primes dividing a, the Corollary to Fermat’s Little Theorem yields m

p

−m ≡ 0 mod p and n

p

−

n ≡ 0 mod p. Thus n(m

p

−m) −m(n

p

−n) ≡ 0 mod p, i.e., mn(m

p−1

−n

p−1

) ≡ 0 mod p. Hence, we have 2[mn(m−

n)[Q(m, n), 3[mn(m

2

−n

2

)[Q(m, n), 5[mn(m

4

−n

4

)[Q(m, n), 7[mn(m

6

−n

6

)[Q(m, n), 11[mn(m

10

−n

10

)[Q(m, n), 13[mn(m

12

−n

12

)[Q(m, n), 31[mn

n

30

)[Q(m, n) and 61[mn(m

60

−n

60

)[Q(m, n). Since these are all distinct primes, we gather that a[mnQ(m, n), which is what we

wanted.

218 Example (Putnam 1972) Showthat given an odd prime p, there are always inﬁnitely many integers n for which p[n2

n

+1.

Answer: For any odd prime p, take n = (p −1)

2k+1

, k = 0, 1, 2, . . .. Then

n2

n

+1 ≡(p −1)

2k+1

(2

p−1

)

(p−1)

2k

+1 ≡(−1)

2k+1

1

2k

+1 ≡0 mod p.

219 Example Prove that there are no integers n > 1 with n[2

n

−1.

Solution: If n[2

n

−1 for some n > 1, then n must be odd and have a smallest odd prime p as a divisor. By Fermat’s Little

Theorem, 2

p−1

≡1 mod p. By Corollary ?? , ord

p

2 has a prime factor in common with p −1. Now, p[n[2

n

−1 and so 2

n

≡1

mod p. Again, by Corollary ??, ord

p

2 must have a common prime factor with n (clearly ord

p

2 > 1). This means that n has a

smaller prime factor than p, a contradiction.

220 Example Let p be a prime. Prove that

1.

Ç

p −1

n

å

≡(−1)

n

mod p, 1 ≤n ≤ p −1.

2.

Ç

p +1

n

å

≡0 mod p, 2 ≤n ≤ p −1.

3. If p ,= 5 is an odd prime, prove that either f

p−1

or f

p+1

is divisible by p.

Solution: (1) (p −1)(p −2) (p −n) ≡(−1)(−2) (−n) ≡(−1)

n

n! mod p. The assertion follows from this.

(2) (p +1)(p)(p −1) (p −n +2) ≡(1)(0)(−1) (−n +2) ≡0 mod p. The assertion follows from this.

(3) Using the Binomial Theorem and Binet’s Formula

f

n

=

1

2

n−1

ÇÇ

n

1

å

+5

Ç

n

3

å

+5

2

Ç

n

5

å

+

å

.

From this and (1),

2

p−2

f

p−1

≡ p −1 − (5 +5

2

+ +5

(p−3)/2

) ≡−

5

(p−1)/2

−1

4

mod p.

80 Chapter 7

Using (2),

2

p

f

p+1

≡ p +1 +5

(p−1)/2

≡5

(p−1)/2

+1 mod p.

Thus

2

p

f

p−1

f

p+1

≡5

p−1

−1 mod p.

But by Fermat’s Little Theorem, 5

p−1

≡1 mod p for p ,= 5. The assertion follows.

221 Lemma If a

2

≡1 mod p, then either a ≡1 mod p or a ≡−1 mod p.

Proof: We have p[a

2

−1 = (a −1)(a +1). Since p is a prime, it must divide at least one of the factors. This

proves the lemma.u

222 Theorem (Wilson’s Theorem) If p is a prime, then (p −1)! ≡−1 mod p.

Proof: If p =2 or p =3, the result follows by direct veriﬁcation. So assume that p >3. Consider a, 2 ≤a ≤ p−2.

To each such a we associate its unique inverse a mod p, i.e. aa ≡ 1 mod p. Observe that a ,= a since then we

would have a

2

≡1 mod p which violates the preceding lemma as a ,= 1, a ,= p−1. Thus in multiplying all a in the

range 2 ≤a ≤ p −2, we pair them of with their inverses, and the net contribution of this product is therefore 1. In

symbols,

2 3 (p −2) ≡1 mod p.

In other words,

(p −1)! ≡1

Ñ

2≤a≤p−2

j

é

(p −1) ≡1 1 (p −1) ≡−1 mod p.

This gives the result. u

223 Example If p ≡1 mod 4, prove that

Å

p −1

2

ã

! ≡−1 mod p.

Solution: In the product (p −1)! we pair off j, 1 ≤ j ≤(p −1)/2 with p − j. Observe that j(p − j) ≡−j

2

mod p. Hence

−1 ≡(p −1)! ≡

1≤j≤(p−1)/2

−j

2

≡(−1)

(p−1)/2

Å

p −1

2

ã

! mod p.

As (−1)

(p−1)/2

= 1, we obtain the result.

224 Example (IMO 1970) Find the set of all positive integers n with the property that the set

¦n, n +1, n +2, n +3, n +4, n +5¦

can be partitioned into two sets such that the product of the numbers in one set equals the product of the numbers in the other

set.

Solution: We will show that no such partition exists. Suppose that we can have such a partition, with one of the subsets having

product of its members equal to A and the other having product of its members equal to B. We might have two possibilities.

The ﬁrst possibility is that exactly one of the numbers in the set ¦n, n +1, n +2, n +3, n +4, n +5¦ is divisible by 7, in which

case exactly one of A or B is divisible by 7, and so A B is not divisible by 7

2

, and so A B is not a square. The second possibility

is that all of the members of the set are relatively prime to 7. In this last case we have

n(n +1) (n +6) ≡1 2 6 ≡A B ≡−1 mod 7.

But if A = B then we are saying that there is an integer A such that A

2

≡ −1 mod 7, which is an impossibility, as −1 is not a

square mod 7. This ﬁnishes the proof.

Practice 81

Practice

Problem 7.1.1 Find all the natural numbers n for which

3[(n2

n

+1).

Problem 7.1.2 Prove that there are inﬁnitely many integers n

with n[2

n

+2.

Problem 7.1.3 Find all primes p such that p[2

p

+1.

Answer: p = 3 only.

Problem 7.1.4 If p and q are distinct primes prove that

pq[(a

pq

−a

p

−a

q

−a)

for all integers a.

Problem 7.1.5 If p is a prime prove that p[a

p

+ (p −1)!a for

all integers a.

Problem 7.1.6 If (mn, 42) = 1 prove that 168[m

6

−n

6

.

Problem 7.1.7 Let p and q be distinct primes. Prove that

q

p−1

+ p

q−1

≡1 mod pq.

Problem 7.1.8 If p is an odd prime prove that n

p

≡n mod 2p

for all integers n.

Problem 7.1.9 If p is an odd prime and p[m

p

+n

p

prove that

p

2

[m

p

+n

p

.

Problem 7.1.10 Prove that n > 1 is a prime if and only if

(n −1)! ≡−1 mod n.

Problem 7.1.11 Prove that if p is an odd prime

1

2

3

2

(p−2)

2

≡2

2

4

2

(p−1)

2

≡(−1)

(p−1)/2

mod p

Problem 7.1.12 Prove that 19[(2

2

6k+2

+3) for all nonnegative

integers k.

7.2 Euler’s Theorem

In this section we obtain a generalisation of Fermat’s Little Theorem, due to Euler. The proof is analogous to that of Fermat’s

Little Theorem.

225 Theorem (Euler’s Theorem) Let (a, n) = 1. Then a

φ(n)

≡1 mod n.

Proof: Let a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

φ(n)

be the canonical reduced residues mod n. As (a, n) = 1, aa

1

, aa

2

, . . . , aa

φ(n)

also

forms a set of incongruent reduced residues. Thus

aa

1

aa

2

aa

φ(n)

≡a

1

a

2

a

φ(n)

mod n,

or

a

φ(n)

a

1

a

2

a

φ(n)

≡a

1

a

2

a

φ(n)

mod n.

As (a

1

a

2

a

φ(n)

, n) = 1, we may cancel the product a

1

a

2

a

φ(n)

from both sides of the congruence to obtain

Euler’s Theorem.u

Using Theorem ?? we obtain the following corollary.

226 Corollary Let (a, n) = 1. Then ord

n

a[φ(n).

227 Example Find the last two digits of 3

1000

.

Solution: As φ(100) = 40, by Euler’s Theorem, 3

40

≡1 mod 100. Thus

3

1000

= (3

40

)

25

≡1

25

= 1 mod 100,

and so the last two digits are 01.

82 Chapter 7

228 Example Find the last two digits of 7

7

1000

.

Solution: First observe that φ(100) = φ(2

2

)φ(5

2

) = (2

2

−2)(5

2

−5) = 40. Hence, by Euler’s Theorem, 7

40

≡ 1 mod 100.

Now, φ(40) =φ(2

3

)φ(5) =4 4 = 16, hence 7

16

≡1 mod 40. Finally, 1000 =16 62+8. This means that 7

1000

≡(7

16

)

62

7

8

≡

1

62

7

8

≡(7

4

)

2

≡1

2

≡1 mod 40. This means that 7

1000

= 1 +40t for some integer t. Upon assembling all this

7

7

1000

≡7

1+40t

≡7 (7

40

)

t

≡7 mod 100.

This means that the last two digits are 07.

229 Example (IMO 1978) m, n are natural numbers with 1 ≤ m < n. In their decimal representations, the last three digits of

1978

m

are equal, respectively, to the last three digits of 1978

n

. Find m, n such that m+n has its least value.

Solution: As m+n = n −m+2m, we minimise n −m. We are given that

1978

n

−1978

m

= 1978

m

(1978

n−m

−1)

is divisible by 1000 = 2

3

5

3

. Since the second factor is odd, 2

3

must divide the ﬁrst and so m ≥ 3. Now, ord

125

1978 is the

smallest positive integer s with

1978

s

≡1 mod 125.

By Euler’s Theorem

1978

100

≡1 mod 125

and so by Corollary 7.3 s[100. Since 125[(1978

s

−1) we have 5[(1978

s

−1), i.e., 1978

s

≡3

s

≡1 mod 5. Since s[100, this last

congruence implies that s = 4, 20, or 100. We now rule out the ﬁrst two possibilities.

Observe that

1978

4

≡(−22)

4

≡2

4

11

4

≡(4 121)

2

≡(−16)

2

≡6 mod 125.

This means that s ,= 4. Similarly

1978

20

≡1978

4

(1978

4

)

4

≡6 6

4

≡6 46 ≡26 mod 125.

This means that s ,=20 and so s =100. Since s is the smallest positive integer with 1978

s

≡1 mod 125, we take n−m=s =100

and m = 3, i.e., n = 103, m = 3, and ﬁnally, m+n = 106.

230 Example (IMO 1984) Find one pair of positive integers a, b such that:

(i) ab(a +b) is not divisible by 7.

(ii) (a +b)

7

−a

7

−b

7

is divisible by 7

7

. Justify your answer.

Solution: We ﬁrst factorise (a +b)

7

−a

7

−b

7

as ab(a +b)(a

2

+ab +b

2

)

2

. Using the Binomial Theorem we have

(a +b)

7

−a

7

−b

7

= 7(a

6

b +ab

6

+3(a

5

b

2

+a

2

b

5

) +5(a

4

b

3

+a

3

b

4

))

= 7ab(a

5

+b

5

+3ab(a

3

+b

3

) +5(a

2

b

2

)(a +b))

= 7ab(a +b)(a

4

+b

4

−a

3

b −ab

3

+a

2

b

2

+3ab(a

2

−ab +b

2

) +5ab)

= 7ab(a +b)(a

4

+b

4

+2(a

3

b +ab

3

) +3a

2

b

2

)

= 7ab(a +b)(a

2

+ab +b

2

)

2

.

The given hypotheses can be thus simpliﬁed to

(i)

′

ab(a +b) is not divisible by 7,

(ii)

′

a

2

+ab +b

2

is divisible by 7

3

.

Practice 83

As (a +b)

2

> a

2

+ab +b

2

≥ 7

3

, we obtain a +b ≥ 19. Using trial and error, we ﬁnd that a = 1, b = 18 give an answer, as

1

2

+1 18 +18

2

= 343 = 7

3

.

Let us look for more solutions by means of Euler’s Theorem. As a

3

−b

3

= (a −b)(a

2

+ab +b

2

), (ii)’ is implied by

(ii)

′′

ß

a

3

≡b

3

mod 7

3

a ,≡b mod 7.

Now φ(7

3

) = (7 −1)7

2

= 3 98, and so if x is not divisible by 7 we have (x

98

)

3

≡ 1 mod 7

3

, which gives the ﬁrst part of (ii)’.

We must verify now the conditions of non-divisibility. For example, letting x = 2 we see that 2

98

≡ 4 mod 7. Thus letting

a = 2

98

, b = 1. Letting x = 3 we ﬁnd that 3

98

≡ 324 mod 7

3

. We leave to the reader to verify that a = 324, b = 1 is another

solution.

Practice

Problem 7.2.1 Show that for all natural numbers s, there is

an integer n divisible by s, such that the sum of the digits of n

equals s.

Problem 7.2.2 Prove that 504[n

9

−n

3

.

Problem 7.2.3 Prove that for odd integer n > 0, n[(2

n!

−1).

Problem 7.2.4 Let p ,[10 be a prime. Prove that p divides

inﬁnitely many numbers of the form

11. . . 11.

Problem 7.2.5 Find all natural numbers n that divide

1

n

+2

n

+ + (n −1)

n

.

Problem 7.2.6 Let (m, n) = 1. Prove that

m

φ(n)

+n

φ(n)

≡1 mod mn.

Problem 7.2.7 Find the last two digits of a

1001

if a

1

= 7, a

n

=

7

a

n−1

.

Problem 7.2.8 Find the remainder of

10

10

+10

10

2

+ +10

10

10

upon division by 7.

Problem 7.2.9 Prove that for every natural number n there

exists some power of 2 whose ﬁnal n digits are all ones and

twos.

Problem 7.2.10 (USAMO 1982) Prove that there exists a

positive integer k such that k 2

n

+1 is composite for every

positive integer n.

Problem 7.2.11 (Putnam 1985) Describe the sequence a

1

=

3, a

n

= 3

a

n−1

mod 100 for large n.

Chapter 8

Scales of Notation

8.1 The Decimal Scale

As we all know, any natural number n can be written in the form

n = a

0

10

k

+a

1

10

k−1

+ +a

k−1

10 +a

k

,

where 1 ≤a

0

≤9, 0 ≤a

j

≤9, j ≥1. For example, 65789 = 6 10

4

+5 10

3

+7 10

2

+8 10 +9.

231 Example Find all whole numbers which begin with the digit 6 and decrease 25 times when this digit is deleted.

Solution: Let the number sought have n +1 digits. Then this number can be written as 6 10

n

+y, where y is a number with n

digits (it may begin with one or several zeroes). The condition of the problem stipulates that

6 10

n

+y = 25 y

whence

y =

6 10

n

24

.

From this we gather that n ≥2 (otherwise, 6 10

n

would not be divisible by 24). For n ≥2, y = 25 10

k−2

, that is, y has the form

250 0(n −2 zeroes). We conclude that all the numbers sought have the form 625 0. . . 0

. ¸¸ .

n−2 zeroes

.

232 Example (IMO 1968) Find all natural numbers x such that the product of their digits (in decimal notation) equals x

2

−

10x −22.

Solution: Let x have the form

x = a

0

+a

1

10 +a

2

10

2

+ +a

n−1

10

n−1

, a

k

≤9, a

n−1

,= 0.

Let P(x) be the product of the digits of x, P(x) =x

2

−10x−22. Now, P(x) = a

0

a

1

a

n−1

≤9

n−1

a

n−1

< 10

n−1

a

n−1

≤x (strict

inequality occurs when x has more than one digit). So x

2

−10x −22 < x, and we deduce that x < 13, whence x has either one

digit or x =10, 11, 13. If x had one digit, then a

0

=x

2

−10x−22, but this equation has no integral solutions. If x =10, P(x) =0,

but x

2

−10x −22 ,= 0. If x = 11, P(x) = 1, but x

2

−10x −22 ,= 1. If x = 12, P(x) = 2 and x

2

−10x −22 = 2. Therefore, x = 12

is the only solution.

233 Example A whole number decreases an integral number of times when its last digit is deleted. Find all such numbers.

84

The Decimal Scale 85

Solution: Let 0 ≤ y ≤ 9, and 10x +y = mx, m and x natural numbers. This requires 10 +y/x = m, an integer. We must have

x[y. If y = 0, any natural number x will do, and we obtain the multiples of 10. If y = 1, x = 1, and we obtain 11. If y = 2, x = 1

or x = 2 and we obtain 12 and 22. Continuing in this fashion, the sought numbers are: the multiples of 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,

16, 17, 18, 19,22, 24, 26, 28, 33, 36, 39, 44, 48, 55, 66, 77, 88, and 99.

234 Example Let A be a positive integer, and A

′

be a number written with the aid of the same digits with are arranged in some

other order. Prove that if A+A

′

= 10

10

, then A is divisible by 10.

Solution: Clearly A and A

′

must have ten digits. Let A = a

10

a

9

. . . a

1

be the consecutive digits of A and A

′

= a

′

10

a

′

9

. . . a

′

1

. Now,

A+A

′

=10

10

if and only if there is a j, 0 ≤ j ≤9 for which a

1

+a

′

1

=a

2

+a

′

2

= =a

j

+a

′

j

=0, a

j+1

+a

′

j+1

=10, a

j+2

+a

′

j+2

=

a

j+3

+a

′

j+3

= = a

10

+a

′

10

= 9. Notice that j = 0 implies that there are no sums of the form a

j+k

+a

′

j+k

, k ≥ 2, and j = 9

implies that there are no sums of the form a

l

+a

′

l

, 1 ≤l ≤ j. On adding all these sums, we gather

a

1

+a

′

1

+a

2

+a

′

2

+ +a

10

+a

′

10

= 10 +9(9 − j).

Since the a

′

s

are a permutation of the a

s

, we see that the sinistral side of the above equality is the even number 2(a

1

+a

2

+ +

a

10

). This implies that j must be odd. But this implies that a

1

+a

′

1

= 0, which gives the result.

235 Example (AIME 1994) Given a positive integer n, let p(n) be the product of the non-zero digits of n. (If n has only one

digit, then p(n) is equal to that digit.) Let

S = p(1) + p(2) + + p(999).

What is the largest prime factor of S?

Solution: Observe that non-zero digits are the ones that matter. So, for example, the numbers 180, 108, 118, 810, 800, and 811

have the same value p(n).

We obtain all the three digit numbers from 001 to 999 by expanding the product

(0 +1 +2 + +9)

3

−0,

where we subtracted a 0 in order to eliminate 000. Thus

(0 +1 +2 +9)

3

−0 = 001 +002 + +999.

In order to obtain p(n) for a particular number, we just have to substitute the (possible) zeroes in the decimal representation, by

1’s, and so

p(1) + p(2) + + p(n) = 111 +112 + +999 = (1 +1 +2 + +9)

3

−1,

which equals 46

3

−1. (In the last sum, 111 is repeated various times, once for 001, once for 011, once for 100, once for 101,

once for 110, etc.) As 46

3

−1 = 3

3

5 7 103, the number required is 103.

236 Example (AIME 1992) Let S be the set of all rational numbers r, 0 < r < 1, that have a repeating decimal expansion of the

form

0.abcabcabc. . . = 0.abc,

where the digits a, b, c are not necessarily distinct. To write the elements of S as fractions in lowest terms, how many different

numerators are required?

Solution: Observe that 0.abcabcabc. . . =

abc

999

, and 999 = 3

3

37. If abc is neither divisible by 3 nor 37, the fraction is already

in lowest terms. By the Inclusion-Exclusion Principle, there are

999 − (999/3 +999/37) +999/3 37 = 648

such numbers. Also, fractions of the form s/37, where 3[s, 37 ,[s are in S. There are 12 fractions of this kind. (Observe that we

do not consider fractions of the form l/3

t

, 37[s, 3 ,[l, because fractions of this form are greater than 1, and thus not in S.)

The total number of distinct numerators in the set of reduced fractions is thus 640 +12 = 660.

86 Chapter 8

237 Example (Putnam 1956) Prove that every positive integer has a multiple whose decimal representation involves all 10

digits.

Solution: Let n be an arbitrary positive integer with k digits. Let m = 123456789 10

k+1

. Then all of the n consecutive integers

m+1, m+2, . . . m+n begin with 1234567890 and one of them is divisible by n.

238 Example (Putnam 1987) The sequence of digits

12345678910111213141516171819202122. . .

is obtained by writing the positive integers in order. If the 10

n

digit of this sequence occurs in the part in which the m-digit

numbers are placed, deﬁne f (n) to be m. For example f (2) = 2, because the hundredth digit enters the sequence in the

placement of the two-digit integer 55. Find, with proof, f (1987).

Solution: There are 9 10

j−1

j-digit positive integers. The total number of digits in numbers with at most r digits is g(r) =

r

j=1

j 9 10

r−1

= r10

r

−

10

r

−1

9

. As 0 <

10

r

−1

9

< 10

r

, we get (r −1)10

r

< g(r) < r10

r

. Thus g(1983) < 1983 10

1983

<

10

4

10

1983

= 10

1987

and g(1984) > 1983 10

1984

> 10

3

10

1984

. Therefore f (1987) = 1984.

Practice

Problem 8.1.1 Prove that there is no whole number which de-

creases 35 times when its initial digit is deleted.

Problem 8.1.2 A whole number is equal to the arithmetic

mean of all the numbers obtained from the given number with

the aid of all possible permutations of its digits. Find all whole

numbers with that property.

Problem 8.1.3 (AIME 1989) Suppose that n is a positive in-

teger and d is a single digit in base-ten. Find n if

n

810

= 0.d25d25d25d25. . ..

Problem 8.1.4 (AIME 1992) For how many pairs of consec-

utive integers in

¦1000, 1001, . . ., 2000¦

is no carrying required when the two integers are added?

Problem 8.1.5 Let m be a seventeen-digit positive integer and

let N be number obtained from m by writing the same digits in

reversed order. Prove that at least one digit in the decimal

representation of the number M+N is even.

Problem 8.1.6 Given that

e = 2 +

1

2!

+

1

3!

+

1

4!

+ ,

prove that e is irrational.

Problem 8.1.7 Let t be a positive real number. Prove that

there is a positive integer n such that the decimal expansion

of nt contains a 7.

Problem 8.1.8 (AIME 1988) Find the smallest positive inte-

ger whose cube ends in 888.

Problem 8.1.9 (AIME 1987) An ordered pair (m, n) of non-

negative integers is called simple if the addition m+n requires

no carrying. Find the number of simple ordered pairs of non-

negative integers that sum 1492.

Problem 8.1.10 (AIME 1986) In the parlor game, the “ma-

gician” asks one of the participants to think of a three-digit

number abc, where a, b, c represent the digits of the number

in the order indicated. The magician asks his victim to form

the numbers acb, bac, cab and cba, to add the number and to

reveal their sum N. If told the value of N, the magician can

identity abc. Play the magician and determine abc if N = 319.

Problem 8.1.11 The integer n is the smallest multiple of 15

such that every digit of n is either 0 or 8. Compute n/15.

Problem 8.1.12 (AIME 1988) For any positive integer k, let

f

1

(k) denote the square of the sums of the digits of k. For

n ≥2, let f

n

(k) = f

1

( f

n−1

(k)). Find f

1988

(11).

Problem 8.1.13 (IMO 1969) Determine all three-digit num-

bers N that are divisible by 11 and such that N/11 equals the

Non-decimal Scales 87

sum of the squares of the digits of N.

Problem 8.1.14 (IMO 1962) Find the smallest natural num-

ber having last digit is 6 and if this 6 is erased and put in front

of the other digits, the resulting number is four times as large

as the original number.

Problem 8.1.15 1. Show that Champernowne’s number

χ = 0.123456789101112131415161718192021. . .

is irrational.

2. Let r ∈ Q and let ε > 0 be given. Prove that there exists

a positive integer n such that

[10

n

χ −r[ < ε.

Problem 8.1.16 A Liouville number is a real number x such

that for every positive k there exist integers a and b ≥ 2, such

that

[x −a/b[ < b

−k

.

Prove or disprove that π is the sum of two Liouville numbers.

Problem 8.1.17 Given that

1/49 =0.020408163265306122448979591836734693877551,

ﬁnd the last thousand digits of

1 +50 +50

2

+ +50

999

.

8.2 Non-decimal Scales

The fact that most people have ten ﬁngers has ﬁxed our scale of notation to the decimal. Given any positive integer r > 1, we

can, however, express any number in base r.

239 Example Express the decimal number 5213 in base-seven.

Solution: Observe that 5213 < 7

5

. We thus want to ﬁnd 0 ≤a

0

, . . . , a

4

≤6, a

4

,= 0, such that

5213 = a

4

7

4

+a

3

7

3

+a

2

7

2

+a

1

7 +a

0

.

Now, divide by 7

4

to obtain

2 +proper fraction = a

4

+proper fraction.

Since a

4

is an integer, it must be the case that a

4

= 2. Thus 5213 −2 7

4

= 411 = a

3

7

3

+a

2

7

2

+a

1

7 +a

0

. Dividing 411 by 7

3

we obtain

1 +proper fraction = a

3

+proper fraction.

Thus a

3

= 1. Continuing in this way we deduce that 5213 = 21125

7

.

240 Example Express the decimal number 13/16 in base-six.

Solution: Write

13

16

=

a

1

6

+

a

2

6

2

+

a

3

6

3

+. . . .

Multiply by 6 to obtain

4 +proper fraction = a

1

+proper fraction.

Thus a

1

= 4. Hence 13/16 −4/6 = 7/48 =

a

2

6

2

+

a

3

6

3

+. . .. Multiply by 6

2

to obtain

5 +proper fraction = a

2

+proper fraction.

We gather that a

2

= 5. Continuing in this fashion, we deduce that 13/16 = .4513

6

.

241 Example Prove that 4.41 is a perfect square in any scale of notation.

Solution: If 4.41 is in scale r, then

4.41 = 4 +

4

r

+

1

r

2

=

Å

2 +

1

r

ã

2

.

88 Chapter 8

242 Example Let x denote the greatest integer less than or equal to x. Does the equation

x+2x+4x+8x+16x+32x= 12345

have a solution?

Solution: We show that there is no such x. Recall that x satisﬁes the inequalities x −1 < x ≤x. Thus

x −1 +2x −1 +4x −1+ +32x −1 < x+2x+4x+8x

+16x+32x

≤ x +2x +4x + +32x.

From this we see that 63x −6 < 12345 ≤63x. Hence 195 < x < 196.

Write then x in base-two:

x = 195 +

a

1

2

+

a

2

2

2

+

a

3

2

3

+. . . ,

with a

k

= 0 or 1. Then

2x = 2 195 +a

1

,

4x = 4 195 +2a

1

+a

2

,

8x = 8 195 +4a

1

+2a

2

+a

3

,

16x = 16 195 +8a

1

+4a

2

+2a

3

+a

4

,

32x = 32 195 +16a

1

+8a

2

+4a

3

+2a

4

+a

5

.

Adding we ﬁnd that x+2x+4x+8x+16x+32x = 63 195+31a

1

+15a

2

+7a

3

+3a

4

+a

5

, i.e. 31a

1

+15a

2

+

7a

3

+3a

4

+a

5

= 60. This cannot be because 31a

1

+15a

2

+7a

3

+3a

4

+a

5

≤31 +15 +7 +3+1 = 57 < 60.

243 Example (AHSME 1993) Given 0 ≤x

0

< 1, let

x

n

=

ß

2x

n−1

if 2x

n−1

< 1

2x

n−1

−1 if 2x

n−1

≥1

for all integers n > 0. For how many x

0

is it true that x

0

= x

5

?

Solution: Write x

0

in base-two,

x

0

=

∞

k=1

a

n

2

n

a

n

= 0 or 1.

The algorithm given just moves the binary point one unit to the right. For x

0

to equal x

5

we need 0.a

1

a

2

a

3

a

4

a

5

a

6

a

7

. . . =

0.a

6

a

7

a

8

a

9

a

10

a

11

a

12

. . .. This will happen if and only if x

0

has a repeating expansion with a

1

a

2

a

3

a

4

a

5

as the repeating block .

There are 2

5

= 32 such blocks. But if a

1

= a

2

= = a

5

= 1, then x

0

= 1, which is outside [0, 1). The total number of values

for which x

0

= x

5

is thus 32 −1 = 31.

244 Example (AIME 1986) The increasing sequence

1, 3, 4, 9, 10, 12, 13, . . .

consists of all those positive integers which are powers of 3 or sums distinct powers of 3. Find the hundredth term of the

sequence.

Solution: If the terms of the sequence are written in base-3, they comprise the positive integers which do not contain the digit

2. Thus, the terms of the sequence in ascending order are thus

1, 10, 11, 100, 101, 110, 111, . . ..

In the binary scale, these numbers are, of course, 1, 2, 3, . . . . To obtain the 100-th term of the sequence we just write 100 in

binary 100 = 1100100

2

and translate this into ternary: 1100100

3

= 3

6

+3

5

+3

2

= 981.

Practice

A theorem of Kummer 89

Problem 8.2.1 (Putnam, 1987) For each positive integer n,

let α(n) be the number of zeroes in the base-three represen-

tation of n. For which positive real numbers x does the series

∞

n=1

x

α(n)

n

3

converge?

Problem 8.2.2 Prove that for x ∈ R, x ≥0, one has

∞

n=1

(−1)

2

n

x

2

n

= 1 −2(x −x).

Problem 8.2.3 (Putnam, 1981) Let E(n) denote the largest k

such that 5

k

is an integral divisor of 1

1

2

2

3

3

n

n

. Calculate

lim

n→∞

E(n)

n

2

.

Problem 8.2.4 (AHSME, 1982) The base-eight representa-

tion of a perfect square is ab3c with a ,= 0. Find the value

of c.

Problem 8.2.5 (Putnam, 1977) An ordered triple of

(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) of positive irrational numbers with x

1

+x

2

+x

3

= 1

is called balanced if x

n

< 1/2 for all 1 ≤ n ≤ 3. If a triple

is not balanced, say x

j

> 1/2, one performs the following

“balancing act”:

B(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) = (x

′

1

, x

′

2

, x

′

3

),

where x

′

i

= 2x

i

if x

i

,= x

j

and x

′

j

= 2x

j

−1. If the new triple

is not balanced, one performs the balancing act on it. Does

continuation of this process always lead to a balanced triple

after a ﬁnite number of performances of the balancing act?

Problem 8.2.6 Let C denote the class of positive integers

which, when written in base-three, do not require the digit 2.

Show that no three integers in C are in arithmetic progression.

Problem 8.2.7 Let B(n) be the number of 1’s in the base-two

expansion of n. For example, B(6) = B(110

2

) = 2, B(15) =

B(1111

2

) = 4.

1. (PUTNAM 1981) Is

exp

_

∞

n=1

B(n)

n

2

+n

_

a rational number?

2. (PUTNAM 1984) Express

2

m

−1

n=0

(−1)

B(n)

n

m

in the form (−1)

m

a

f (m)

(g(m))! where a is an integer

and f , g are polynomials.

Problem 8.2.8 What is the largest integer that I should be

permitted to choose so that you may determine my number in

twenty “yes” or “no” questions?

8.3 A theorem of Kummer

We ﬁrst establish the following theorem.

245 Theorem (Legendre) Let p be a prime and let n = a

0

p

k

+a

1

p

k−1

+ +a

k−1

p +a

k

be the base-p expansion of n. The

exact power m of a prime p dividing n! is given by

m =

n − (a

0

+a

1

+ +a

k

)

p −1

.

Proof: By De Polignac’s Formula

m =

∞

k=1

n

p

k

.

90 Chapter 8

Now, n/p = a

0

p

k−1

+a

1

p

k−2

+ a

k−2

p +a

k−1

, n/p

2

= a

0

p

k−2

+a

1

p

k−3

+ +a

k−2

, . . . , n/p

k

= a

0

.

Thus

∞

k=1

n/p

k

= a

0

(1 + p + p

2

+ + p

k−1

) +a

1

(1 + p + p

2

+ + p

k−2

)+

+a

k−1

(1 + p) +a

k

= a

0

p

k

−1

p −1

+a

1

p

k−1

−1

p −1

+ +a

k−1

p

2

−1

p −1

+a

k

p −1

p −1

=

a

0

p

k

+a

1

p

k−1

+ +a

k

− (a

0

+a

1

+ +a

k

)

p −1

=

n − (a

0

+a

1

+ +a

k

)

p −1

,

as wanted.u

246 Theorem (Kummer’s Theorem) The exact power of a prime p dividing the binomial coefﬁcient

Ç

a +b

a

å

is equal to the

number of “carry-overs” when performing the addition of a, b written in base p.

Proof: Let a = a

0

+a

1

p + +a

k

p

k

, b = b

0

+b

1

p + +b

k

p

k

, 0 ≤ a

j

, b

j

≤ p −1, and a

k

+b

k

> 0. Let S

a

=

k

j=0

a

j

, S

b

=

k

j=0

b

j

. Let c

j

, 0 ≤c

j

≤ p −1, and ε

j

= 0 or 1, be deﬁned as follows:

a

0

+b

0

= ε

0

p +c

0

,

ε

0

+a

1

+b

1

= ε

1

p +c

1

,

ε

1

+a

2

+b

2

= ε

2

p +c

2

,

.

.

.

ε

k−1

+a

k

+b

k

= ε

k

p +c

k

.

Multiplying all these equalities successively by 1, p, p

2

, . . . and adding them:

a +b +ε

0

p +ε

1

p

2

+. . . +ε

k−1

p

k

= ε

0

p +ε

1

p

2

+. . . +ε

k−1

p

k

+ε

k

p

k+1

+c

0

+c

1

p + +c

k

p

k

.

We deduce that a +b = c

0

+c

1

p + +c

k

p

k

+ε

k

p

k+1

. By adding all the equalities above, we obtain similarly:

S

a

+S

b

+ (ε

0

+ε

1

+ +ε

k−1

) = (ε

0

+ε

1

+ +ε

k

)p +S

a+b

−ε

k

.

Upon using Legendre’s result from above,

(p −1)m = (a +b) −S

a+b

−a +S

a

−b +S

b

= (p −1)(ε

0

+ε

1

+ +ε

k

),

which gives the result.u

Chapter 9

Miscellaneous Problems

247 Example Prove that

p

p prime

1

p

diverges.

Solution: Let F

x

denote the family consisting of the integer 1 and the positive integers n all whose prime factors are less than

or equal to x. By the Unique Factorisation Theorem

p≤x

p prime

Å

1 +

1

p

+

1

p

2

+

ã

=

n∈F

x

1

n

. (9.1)

Now,

n∈F

x

1

n

>

n≤x

1

n

.

As the harmonic series diverges, the product on the sinistral side of 2.3.3 diverges as x →∞. But

p≤x

p prime

Å

1 +

1

p

+

1

p

2

+

ã

=

p≤x

p prime

1

p

+O(1).

This ﬁnishes the proof.

248 Example Prove that for each positive integer k there exist inﬁnitely many even positive integers which can be written in

more than k ways as the sum of two odd primes.

Solution: Let a

k

denote the number of ways in which 2k can be written as the sum of two odd primes. Assume that a

k

≤C ∀k

for some positive constant C. Then

Ü

p>2

p prime

x

p

ê

2

=

∞

k=2

a

k

x

2k

≤C

x

4

1 −x

2

.

This yields

p>2

p prime

x

p−1

≤

√

C

x

√

1 −x

2

.

91

92 Chapter 9

Integrating term by term,

p>2

p prime

1

p

≤

√

C

_

1

0

x

√

1 −x

2

dx =

√

C.

But the leftmost series is divergent, and we obtain a contradiction.

249 Example (IMO 1976) Determine, with proof, the largest number which is the product of positive integers whose sum is

1976.

Solution: Suppose that

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

= 1976;

we want to maximise

n

k=1

a

k

. We shall replace some of the a

k

so that the product is enlarged, but the sum remains the same. By

the arithmetic mean-geometric mean inequality

_

n

k=1

a

k

_

1/n

≤

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

n

,

with equality if and only if a

1

= a

2

= = a

n

. Thus we want to make the a

k

as equal as possible.

If we have an a

k

≥4, we replace it by two numbers 2, a

k

−2. Then the sum is not affected, but 2(a

k

−2) ≥a

k

, since we are

assuming a

k

≥ 4. Therefore, in order to maximise the product, we must take a

k

= 2 or a

k

= 3. We must take as many 2’s and

3’s as possible.

Now, 2+2+2 =3+3, but 2

3

<3

2

, thus we should take no more than two 2’s. Since 1976 =3 658+2, the largest possible

product is 2 3

658

.

250 Example (USAMO 1983) Consider an open interval of length 1/n on the real line, where n is a positive integer. Prove that

the number of irreducible fractions a/b, 1 ≤b ≤n, contained in the given interval is at most (n +1)/2.

Solution: Divide the rational numbers in (x, x +1/n) into two sets: ¦

s

k

t

k

¦, k = 1, 2, . . . , r, with denominators 1 ≤ t

k

≤ n/2 and

those u

k

/v

k

, k = 1, 2, . . . , s with denominators n/2 < v

k

≤ n, where all these fractions are in reduced form. Now, for every t

k

there are integers c

k

such that n/2 ≤c

k

t

k

≤n. Deﬁne u

s+k

= c

k

s

k

, v

s+k

= c

k

t

k

, y

k+r

= u

k+r

/v

k+r

. No two of the y

l

, 1 ≤l ≤r +s

are equal, for otherwise y

j

= y

k

would yield

[u

k

/v

k

−u

i

/v

i

[ ≥1/v

i

≥1/n,

which contradicts that the open interval is of length 1/n. Hence the number of distinct rationals is r +s ≤n−n/2≤(n+1)/2.

Aliter: Suppose to the contrary that we have at least (n +1)/2+1 = a fractions. Let s

k

, t

k

, 1 ≤ k ≤ a be the set of

numerators and denominators. The set of denominators is a subset of

¦1, 2, . . . , 2(a −1)¦.

By the Pigeonhole Principle, t

i

[t

k

for some i, k, say t

k

= mt

i

. But then

[s

k

/t

k

−s

i

/t

i

[ =[ms

i

−s

k

[/t

k

≥1/n,

contradicting the hypothesis that the open interval is of length 1/n.

251 Example Let

Q

r,s

=

(rs)!

r!s!

.

Show that Q

r,ps

≡Q

r,s

mod p, where p is a prime

Practice 93

Solution: As

Q

r,s

=

r

j=1

Ç

js −1

s −1

å

and

Q

r,ps

=

r

j=1

Ç

j ps −1

ps −1

å

,

it follows from

(1 +x)

j ps−1

≡(1 +x

p

)

js−1

(1 +x)

p−1

mod p

that

Ç

j ps −1

ps −1

å

≡

Ç

js −1

s −1

å

mod p,

whence the result.

Practice

Problem 9.0.1 Find a four-digit number which is a perfect

square such that its ﬁrst two digits are equal to each other

and its last two digits are equal to each other.

Problem 9.0.2 Find all integral solutions of the equation

x

k=1

k! = y

2

.

Problem 9.0.3 Find all integral solutions of the equation

x

k=1

k! = y

z

.

Problem 9.0.4 (USAMO 1985) Determine whether there are

any positive integral solutions to the simultaneous equations

x

2

1

+x

2

2

+ +x

2

1985

= y

3

,

x

3

1

+x

3

2

+ +x

3

1985

= z

2

with distinct integers x

1

, x

2

, . . . , x

1985

.

Problem 9.0.5 Show that the Diophantine equation

1

a

1

+

1

a

2

+. . . +

1

a

n−1

+

1

a

n

+

1

a

1

a

2

a

n

has at least one solution for every n ∈ N.

Problem 9.0.6 (AIME 1987) Find the largest possible value

of k for which 3

11

is expressible as the sum of k consecutive

positive integers.

Problem 9.0.7 (AIME 1987) Let M be the smallest positive

integer whose cube is of the form n +r, where n ∈ N, 0 < r <

1/1000. Find n.

Problem 9.0.8 Determine two-parameter solutions for the

“almost” Fermat Diophantine equations

x

n−1

+y

n−1

= z

n

,

x

n+1

+y

n+1

= z

n

,

x

n+1

+y

n−1

= z

n

.

Problem 9.0.9 (AIME 1984) What is the largest even integer

which cannot be written as the sum of two odd composite num-

bers?

Problem 9.0.10 Prove that are inﬁnitely many nonnegative

integers n which cannot be written as n = x

2

+y

3

+z

6

for non-

negative integers x, y, z.

Problem 9.0.11 Find the integral solutions of

x

2

+x = y

4

+y

3

+y

2

+y.

Problem 9.0.12 Show that there are inﬁnitely many integers

x, y such that

3x

2

−7y

2

= −1.

Problem 9.0.13 Prove that

1.

a

3

+b

3

+c

3

−3abc = (a+b+c)(a

2

+b

2

+c

2

−ab−bc−ca).

2. Find integers a, b, c such that 1987 = a

3

+ b

3

+ c

3

−

3abc.

94 Chapter 9

3. Find polynomials P, Q, R in x, y, z such that

P

3

+Q

3

+R

3

−3PQR = (x

3

+y

3

+z

3

−3xyz)

2

4. Can you ﬁnd integers a, b, c with 1987

2

= a

3

+b

3

+c

3

−

3abc?

Problem 9.0.14 Find all integers n such that n

4

+n +7 is a

perfect square.

Problem 9.0.15 Prove that 1991

1991

is not the sum of two per-

fect squares.

Problem 9.0.16 Find inﬁnitely many integers x >1, y >1, z >

1 such that

x!y! = z!.

Problem 9.0.17 Find all positive integers with

m

n

−n

m

= 1.

Problem 9.0.18 Find all integers with

x

4

−2y

2

= 1.

Problem 9.0.19 Prove that for every positive integer k there

exists a sequence of k consecutive positive integers none of

which can be represented as the sum of two squares.

Problem 9.0.20 (IMO 1977) In a ﬁnite sequence of real num-

bers, the sumof any seven successive terms is negative, and the

sum of any eleven successive terms is positive. Determine the

maximum number of terms in the sequence.

Problem 9.0.21 Determine an inﬁnite series of terms such

that each term of the series is a perfect square and the sum

of the series at any point is also a perfect square.

Problem 9.0.22 Prove that any positive rational integer can

be expressed as a ﬁnite sum of distinct terms of the harmonic

series, 1, 1/2, 1/3, . . ..

Problem 9.0.23 (Wostenholme’s Theorem) Let p > 3 be a

prime. If

a

b

= 1 +

1

2

+

1

3

+ +

1

p −1

,

then p

2

[a.

Problem 9.0.24 Prove that the number of odd binomial coef-

ﬁcients in any row of Pascal’s Triangle is a power of 2.

Problem 9.0.25 Prove that the coefﬁcients of a binomial ex-

pansion are odd if and only if n is of the form 2

k

−1.

Problem 9.0.26 Let the numbers c

i

be deﬁned by the power

series identity

(1 +x +x

2

+ +x

p−1

)/(1 −x)

p−1

:= 1 +c

1

x +c

2

x

2

+ .

Show that c

i

≡0 mod p for all i ≥1.

Problem 9.0.27 Let p be a prime. Show that

Ç

p −1

k

å

≡(−1)

k

mod p

for all 0 ≤k ≤ p −1.

Problem 9.0.28 (Putnam 1977) Let p be a prime and let a ≥

b > 0 be integers. Prove that

Ç

pa

pb

å

≡

Ç

a

b

å

mod p.

Problem 9.0.29 Demonstrate that for a prime p and k ∈ N,

Ç

p

k

a

å

≡0 mod p,

for 0 < a < p

k

.

Problem 9.0.30 Let p be a prime and let k, a ∈ N, 0 ≤ a ≤

p

k

−1. Demonstrate that

Ç

p

k

−1

a

å

≡(−1)

a

mod p.

Copyright c 2007 David Anthony SANTOS. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.

GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.2, November 2002 Copyright c 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

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vi Contents .

in the notes I presented a rather terse account of the solutions. these notes are rather sketchy. The reader not knowing Calculus can skip these problems. I would also like to thank the victims of the summer 1994: Karen Acquista.Preface These notes started in the summer of 1993 when I was teaching Number Theory at the Center for Talented Youth Summer Program at the Johns Hopkins University.edu vii . Nathan Lutchansky. I would like to thank the pioneers in that course: Samuel Chong. Andrew Trister. Thus the majority of the problems are taken from well-known competitions: AHSME AIME USAMO IMO ITT MMPC (UM)2 S TANFORD M ANDELBROT American High School Mathematics Examination American Invitational Mathematics Examination United States Mathematical Olympiad International Mathematical Olympiad International Tournament of Towns Michigan Mathematics Prize Competition University of Michigan Mathematics Competition Stanford Mathematics Competition Mandelbrot Competition Firstly. No theme requires the knowledge of Calculus here. I also wrote notes (which I have not transcribed) dealing with primitive roots. I would like to thank Eric Friedman for helping me with the typing. I shall ﬁnish writing them when laziness leaves my weary soul. and the geometry of numbers. The purpose of the course was to familiarise the pupils with contest-type problem solving. though) I assume very little mathematical knowledge beyond Algebra and Trigonometry. David A. quadratic reciprocity. SANTOS dsantos@ccp. and please forward me any corrections or remarks on the material herein. A note on the topic selection. I hope some day to be able to give more coherence to these notes. Most of the motivation was done in the classroom. Nathaniel Wise and Andrew Wong. Geoffrey Cook. Here and there some of the problems might use certain properties of the complex numbers. I tried to cover most Number Theory that is useful in contests. Howard Bernstein. and Victor Yang. Eduardo Rozo. I would be very glad to hear any comments. The pupils were between 13 and 16 years of age. Due to time constraints. David Ripley. Ryan Hoegg. Matthew Harris. and Carlos Murillo for proofreading the notes. Nikhil Garg. diophantine equations. Masha Sapper. Since the material is geared to High School students (talented ones. but some of the solutions given use it here and there. Hobart Lee.

Additive Identity: 0 + a = a + 0 = a 5. 2. 3. Are there inﬁnitely many primes that are 1 more than the square of an integer? 4.Chapter 1 Preliminaries 1. .2 Well-Ordering The set N = {0. Number Theory is one of the oldest and most beautiful branches of Mathematics. 1[.1 Introduction We can say that no history of mankind would ever be complete without a history of Mathematics. 2. 1 . who has been drawn to them either for their utility at solving practical problems (like those of measuring. One further property of the natural numbers is the following. 4. Multiplicative Identity: 1a = a1 = a. are very hard to solve. . Associative laws: (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) and a(bc) = (ab)c. (Twin Prime Problem) Are there inﬁnitely many primes p such that p + 2 is also a prime? 3. 1.} of natural numbers is endowed with two operations. counting sheep. addition and multiplication. As an example of the use of the Well-Ordering Axiom. Some number-theoretic problems that are yet unsolved are: 1. b. and c: 1. . 3. 1 Axiom (Well-Ordering Axiom) Every non-empty subset S of the natural numbers has a least element. (Goldbach’s Conjecture) Is every even integer greater than 2 the sum of distinct primes? 2. Is there always a prime between two consecutive squares of integers? In this chapter we cover some preliminary tools we need before embarking into the core of Number Theory. It abounds in problems that yet simple to state. etc. Closure: a + b and ab are also natural numbers. 1. let us prove that there is no integer between 0 and 1. 4. 2 Example Prove that there is no integer in the interval ]0. that satisfy the following properties for natural numbers a. For ages numbers have fascinated Man. Distributive law: a(b + c) = ab + ac.) or as a fountain of solace.

−1. b. and so m2 ∈ S . b be its roots. b. Solution: Clearly we can restrict ourselves to nonnegative numbers. Suppose that 2 were rational. so b1 + b = ka and b1 b = a2 − k. i.e. √ √ √ √ j( 2 − 1) = j 2 − k 2 = ( j − k) 2 √ √ √ √ is a positive integer.e. We denote the set of all integers by Z. Being a set of positive integers. b) as small as 1 + ab possible. Since 2 < 2 2 implies 2 − 2 < 2 and also j 2 = 2k. Show that a = b = c = 0. 0. But clearly max(a1 . then is a perfect square. Choose a triplet of nonnegative integers a. − 3. Now. where b = 0. √ √ a Solution: The proof is by contradiction. .}. This gives c = 2c1 . As a. b. 1. b. c) > 0 as small as possible. Also b1 = a2 − k b2 − k < < b. b. b b . 0 < m2 < m < 1. a2 + 1 which forces k = 1. b are positive integers such that a2 + b2 a2 + b2 is an integer. supposing b1 < 0 is incompatible with a2 + b2 = k(ab1 + 1). 1 + ab 1 + ab a2 + b2 = k is a counterexample of an integer which is not a perfect square. it must contain a least element. We denote the set of b rational numbers by Q. This contradicts the choice of j as the smallest integer in A and hence. Let b1 . a perfect square.. say m. As 2 − 1 > 0. .2 Chapter 1 Solution: Assume to the contrary that the set S of integers in ]0. we see that √ √ √ ( j − k) 2 = k(2 − 2) < k( 2) = j. c be integers such that a6 + 2b6 = 4c6 . a A rational number is a number which can be expressed as the ratio of two integers a. 1 supposing b1 = 0 is incompatible with a2 + 02 = k(0 · a + 1). i. 3 Example Prove that √ 2 is irrational. 2. and so a6 + 2b6 = 4c6 . If a6 + 2b6 = 4c6 then a must be even. √ Thus ( j − k) 2 is a positive integer in A which is smaller than j. As k is not a perfect square. c satisfying this equation and with max(a. . 4 Example Let a. An irrational number is a number which cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers. This is a contradiction and so S = ∅. −2. 3. b. b1 . . Hence b = 2b1 and so 1 16a6 + 32b6 = c6 . We may assume without loss of generality that a < b for if a = b then Solution: Suppose that 0<k= 2a2 < 2. This implies b that the set √ √ A = {n 2 : both n and n 2 positive integers} √ √ is nonempty since it contains a. with max(a. ﬁnishes the proof. Z = {.. k are positive integers. a = 2a1 . . Let us give an example of an irrational number. Now. a2 + b2 − k(ab + 1) = 0 is a quadratic in b with sum of the roots ka and product of the roots a2 − k. This leads to 32a6 + b6 = 2c6 . that 2 = for some integers a. 5 Example (IMO 1988) If a. By Well-Ordering A has a smallest element. c). c1 ) < max(a. 1[ is non-empty. say j = k 2. But this is saying that S has a positive integer m2 which is smaller than its least positive integer m. This means that all of 1 1 1 1 1 these must be zero.

. Then 33n+3 − 26n − 27 = 27 · 33n − 26n − 27 = 27(33n − 26n − 1) + 676n .) Then we try to settle whether information on P(n − 1) leads to favourable information on P(n).2. 7 Corollary If a set A of positive integers contains the integer m and also contains n + 1 whenever it contains n. then S = N. a contradiction. b).2. Proof: Assume this is not the case and so. Thus we have found another positive integer b1 for which Practice Problem 1. we try to verify that some assertion P(n) concerning natural numbers is true for some base case k0 (usually k0 = 1. We will now derive the Principle of Mathematical Induction from the Well-Ordering Axiom. and also contains the integer n + 1 whenever it contains the integer n. which is evident. by the Well-Ordering Principle there exists a least positive integer k not in S . It must be the case. But by assumption k − 1 + 1 is also in S . and then to the case following that. m + 2. Finally. since 0 ∈ S and there is no positive integer smaller than 0. z only when x = y = z = 0. We shall now give some examples of the use of induction. Thus S = N. 8 Corollary (Principle of Strong Mathematical Induction) If a set A of positive integers contains the integer m and also contains n + 1 whenever it contains m + 1. Thus if we are ever able to start the job (that is. say k0 = 33.2 Prove that the equality x2 + y2 + z2 = 2xyz can hold for whole numbers x. 1. n. y. assume that 33n − 26n − 1 = 169N for some integer N. where n > m. we see that k − 1 ∈ S . Problem 1. u The following versions of the Principle of Mathematical Induction should now be obvious. Hence k = k − 1 + 1 is also in the set.3 Mathematical Induction The Principle of Mathematical Induction is based on the following fairly intuitive observation. .1 Find all integer solutions of a3 + 2b3 = 4c3 . n > 1. Assume the assertion is true for n − 1. 6 Theorem (Principle of Mathematical Induction) If a setS of non-negative integers contains the integer 0. Observe that k > 0. then we should be able to ﬁnish it (because starting with the base case we go to the next case.e. that k is a perfect square. then. Thus in the Principle of Mathematical Induction. since the successor of each element in the set is also in the set. suppose that we know how to perform the n-th task provided we have accomplished the n − 1-th task. Suppose that these steps must be followed in strict numerical order. 9 Example Prove that the expression 33n+3 − 26n − 27 is a multiple of 169 for all natural numbers n. This 1 + ab1 is a contradiction. Suppose that we are to perform a task that involves a certain number of steps. i. then A contains all the positive integers greater than or equal to m. if we have a base case)..Practice 3 a2 + b2 1 = k and which is smaller than the smallest max(a. Solution: For n = 1 we are asserting that 36 − 53 = 676 = 169 · 4 is divisible by 169. etc.). then A contains all the positive integers greater than or equal to m. . . where n > m. As k − 1 < k. but one of the examples below shows that we may take.

which is divisible by 169. Assume that 2n+2 |k2 − 1. n . Consider now the quantity √ √ √ √ √ √ (1 + 2)2n + (1 − 2)2n = (1 + 2)2 (1 + 2)2n−2 + (1 − 2)2 (1 − 2)2n−2 . assume that √ √ (1 + 2)2(n−1) + (1 − 2)2(n−1) = 2N for some integer N and that √ √ √ (1 + 2)2(n−1) − (1 − 2)2(n−1) = a 2 for some positive integer a. and so P(n) is true. This simpliﬁes to √ √ √ √ (3 + 2 2)(1 + 2)2n−2 + (3 − 2 2)(1 − 2)2n−2 . As k2 − 1 = (k2 − 1)(k2 + 1). Assume that P(n − 1) is true for n > 1..e.4 which reduces to 27 · 169N + 169 · 4n. then we see that √ √ (1 + 2)2 + (1 − 2)2 = 6.” If n = 1. we see that 2n+2 divides (k2n − 1). Using P(n − 1). Solution: The statement is evident for n = 1. as k2 − 1 = (k − 1)(k + 1) is divisible by 8 for any odd natural number k because n both (k − 1) and (k + 1) are divisible by 2 and one of them is divisible by 4. an even integer. for all integers n ≥ 1. The assertion is thus established by induction. √ √ 12N + 2 2a 2 = 2(6N + 2a). 10 Example Prove that Chapter 1 √ √ (1 + 2)2n + (1 − 2)2n √ √ √ (1 + 2)2n − (1 − 2)2n = b 2 is an even integer and that for some positive integer b. Therefore P(1) is true. and let us prove that n n n+1 n+1 2n+3 |k2 − 1. i. 11 Example Prove that if k is odd. The assertion is thus established by induction. Let P(n) be the proposition: “(1 + 2)2n + (1 − 2)2n is even and (1 + 2)2n − (1 − √ √ 2n 2) = b 2 for some b ∈ N. so the problem reduces to proving that 2|(k2n + 1). and √ √ √ (1 + 2)2 − (1 − 2)2 = 4 2. the above simpliﬁes to an even integer and similarly √ √ √ √ √ (1 + 2)2n − (1 − 2)2n = 3a 2 + 2 2(2N) = (3a + 4N) 2. This is obviously true since k2n odd makes k2n + 1 even. then 2n+2 divides k2 − 1 for all natural numbers n. √ √ √ Solution: We proceed by induction on n.

x1 + x2 √ (1. 2n + 7” are good. a2 . But (??) implies the truth of P(n + 1) whenever P(n) is true. . . 2 which is the Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-Mean Inequality for n = 2. that is. 2n + 9 = 2a1 + 2a2 + · · · + 2ak + 3 + 6 and 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + ···+ + + = + + = 1. . The assertion is thus proved by induction. . n + 2. a1 a2 · · · an ≤ n Proof: Since the square of any real number is nonnegative. 2a1 2a2 2ak 3 6 2 3 6 Therefore. (1. if n is good both 2n + 8 and 2n + 9 are good. . a1 a2 ak √ a1 + a2 + · · · + an n . a2 . an be nonnegative real numbers. By the statement of the problem. It consists in proving a statement ﬁrst for powers of 2 and then interpolating between powers of 2. We now present a variant of the Principle of Mathematical Induction used by Cauchy to prove the Arithmetic-MeanGeometric Mean Inequality. . Assume that the Arithmetic-Mean-GeometricMean Inequality holds true for n = 2k−1 . where a1 . n + 1. assume that nonnegative real numbers w1 . 13 Theorem (Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-Mean Inequality) Let a1 . Let P(n) be the proposition “all the integers n. . . . Solution: We ﬁrst prove that if n is good. w2k−1 satisfy k−1 w1 + w2 + · · · + w2k−1 (1. a1 a2 ak Given the information that the integers 33 through 73 are good. k > 2..2) ≥ x1 x2 . .3) ≥ (w1 w2 · · · w2k−1 )1/2 . and 1= Then 2n + 8 = 2a1 + 2a2 + · · · + 2ak + 4 + 4 and 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + ···+ + + = + + = 1. prove that every integer ≥ 33 is good.Mathematical Induction 12 Example (USAMO 1978) An integer n will be called good if we can write 5 n = a1 + a2 + · · · + ak . Then 1 1 1 + + ··· + .1) We now establish the truth of the assertion of the problem by induction on n. . ak are positive integers (not necessarily distinct) satisfying 1 1 1 + + · · · + = 1. . . w2 . . . then 2n + 8 and 2n + 9 are good. we have √ √ ( x1 − x2 )2 ≥ 0. we see that P(33) is true. x2 = 2 +1 k−1 2 Upon expanding. . 2a1 2a2 2ak 4 4 2 4 4 Also. For assume that n = a1 + a2 + · · · + ak . k−1 2 Using (??) with y1 + y2 + · · · + y2k−1 x1 = 2k−1 and y k−1 + · · · + y2k .

all powers of 2 belong to M . In this way we obtain that all numbers of the form 4n = 22n . n 14 Example Let s be a positive integer. and yn+1 = yn+2 = · · · = y2k = Let A= Using (??) we obtain a1 + a2 + · · · + an + (2k − n) 2k a1 + · · · + an n a1 + a2 + · · · + an . Prove that every interval [s. 2k This translates into A ≥ G or which is what we wanted. Now. Since 1 belongs to M so does 4. n a1 + · · · + an and G = (a1 · · · an )1/n . which gives the required result. there is an integer r for which 2r < s < 2r+1 .e.u (a1 a2 · · · an )1/n ≤ a1 + a2 + · · · + an . assume that 2k−1 < n < 2k . If s is not a power of 2 then it must lie between two consecutive powers of 2. we obtain k y1 + y2 + · · · + y2 k ≥ (y1 y2 · · · y2k )1/2 .. . since 4 belongs to M so does 4 · 4 = 42 . √ a also belongs to M . etc. . Prove √ that M is the set of all natural numbers. This yields 2r+1 < 2s. . First we will prove that 1 belongs to the set. In conclusion. 15 Example Let M be a nonempty set of positive integers such that 4x and [ x] both belong to M whenever x does. 2. . n = 1. Let y1 = a 1 . k 2 (1.4) This means that the 2k−1 -th step implies the 2k -th step. say a. . but √ Since M is a nonempty set of positive integers. then there is nothing to prove. yn = a n . Solution: If s is a power of 2. belong to M . y2 = a 2 . This means that 1 belongs to M . Thus all the powers of 2 raised to an even power belong to M . n ≥ a1 a2 · · · an ( a1 + · · · + an (2k −n) ) n 1/2k . i.6 we obtain that y1 + y2 + · · · + y2k−1 y2k−1 +1 + · · · + y2k + 2k−1 2k−1 ≥ 2 ã Å y1 + y2 + · · · + y2k−1 y2k−1 +1 + · · · + y2k 1/2 . 2s] contains a power of 2. . Since the square roots belong as well to M we get that all the powers of 2 raised to an odd power also belong to M .. secondly we will prove that every power of 2 is in the set and ﬁnally we will prove that non-powers of 2 are also in the set. . By assumption a < a unless a = 1. )( ) ( 2k−1 2k−1 Chapter 1 Applying (??) to both factors on the right hand side of the above . Solution: We will prove this by induction. it has a least element. and so we have proved the Arithmetic-Mean-GeometricMean Inequality for powers of 2. which is to say that k k nA + (2k − n)A ≥ (Gn A2 −n )1/2 . . Hence s < 2r+1 < 2s.

3 Let n ∈ N.3. Thus the interval [n2 .10 Prove that the sum of the cubes of three consecutive positive integers is divisible by 9. Prove the inequality 1 1 1 + + ···+ > 1. (n + 1)2 ) belongs to M .3. for all natural numbers n. Similarly no member z ∈ A2 = [n4 .3. We will now show that eventually these intervals are so large that they contain a power of 2.3. We have thus obtained the desired contradiction. Prove that 1 · 3 · 5 · · ·(2n − 1) 1 . By induction we can r r show that no member in the interval Ar = [n2 .5 Let a1 = 3. n+1 n+2 3n + 1 Problem 1.8 Prove that if n is a natural number. then 1 · 2 + 2 · 5 + · · ·+ n · (3n − 1) = n2 (n + 1).4 Prove that » √ π 2 + 2 + · · · + 2 = 2 cos n+1 2 n radical signs for n ∈ N. Observe that n cannot be a power of 2. This implies that (n + 1)2 > 2n2 . Prove that a1000 > b999 . for a sufﬁciently large positive integer k we have 2−k < log2 (n + 1) − log2 n.3. 2n2 ] is totally contained in [n2 . and an = 3an−1 . Problem 1. k k k k k k Practice Problem 1. n(4n2 − 1) . n > 1. Problem 1.Practice 7 Assume now that n ∈ N fails to belong to M . a contradiction.2 Prove that 1− x x(x − 1) x(x − 1)(x − 2) + − 1! 2! 3! x(x − 1)(x − 2) · · ·(x − n + 1) n! Problem 1. (n + 1)2 ). .3. (n + 1)2 ) belongs to M . Problem 1. 2s] where s is a positive integer contains a power of 2.3. because every member of y ∈ A1 satisﬁes [ y] = n. bn = 4bn−1 when n > 1.3.3. (n + 1)4 ) belongs to M since this would entail that z would belong to A1 . The function f: ∗ R+ x → R → log2 x → R∗ + → 2−x is increasing and hence log2 (n + 1) − log2 n > 0. Since n ∈ M we deduce that √ no integer in A1 = [n2 .3. 3 + · · · + (−1)n equals (−1) n (x − 1)(x − 2) · · ·(x − n) n! for all non-negative integers n. <√ 2 · 4 · 6 · · ·(2n) 3n + 1 Problem 1.6 Let n ∈ N. Problem 1.1 Prove that 11n+2 + 122n+1 is divisible by 133 Problem 1. Since the function f: R x is decreasing.7 Prove that if n is a natural number. b1 = 4. then 12 + 32 + 52 + · · · + (2n − 1)2 = Problem 1. But every interval of the form [s. thereby obtaining a contradiction to the hypothesis that no element of the Ar belonged to M .9 Prove that (2n)! 4n < n + 1 (n!)2 for all natural numbers n > 1.

8 Problem 1.3.11 If |x| = 1, n ∈ N prove that 1 4 8 2n 2 + + + ···+ + n 2 2 8 1+x 1+x 1+x 1+x 1 + x2 equals 1 2n+1 . + x − 1 1 − x2n+1 Problem 1.3.12 Is it true that for every natural number n the quantity n2 + n + 41 is a prime? Prove or disprove! Problem 1.3.13 Give an example of an assertion which is not true for any positive integer, yet for which the induction step holds. Problem 1.3.14 Give an example of an assertion which is true for the ﬁrst two million positive integers but fails for every integer greater than 2000000. Problem 1.3.15 Prove by induction on n that a set having n elements has exactly 2n subsets. Problem 1.3.16 Prove that if n is a natural number, n5 /5 + n4/2 + n3/3 − n/30 is always an integer. (n − 1) 3. Prove that if n > 1, then 1 · 3 · 5 · · ·(2n − 1) < nn .

Chapter 1

5. Prove that if n > 1 then

4. Prove that if n > 1 then Ä ä 1 1 n (n + 1)1/n − 1 < 1 + + · · · + . 2 n

7. Let y1 , y2 , . . . , yn be positive real numbers. Prove the Harmonic-Mean- Geometric-Mean Inequality: n √ ≤ n y1 y2 · · · yn . 1 1 1 + + ···+ y1 y2 yn

6. Given that u, v, w are positive, 0 < a ≤ 1, and that u + v + w = 1, prove that Å ãÅ ãÅ ã 1 1 1 −a −a − a ≥ 27 − 27a + 9a2 − a3 . u v w

Å ã 1 1 1 1 . 1 + + ···+ < n 1 − + 2 n (n + 1)1/n n + 1

8. Let a1 , . . . , an be positive real numbers, all different. Set s = a1 + a2 + · · · + an . (a) Prove that 1 < s − ar 1 . ar

1≤r≤n 1≤r≤n Problem 1.3.17 (Halmos) ) Every man in a village knows instantly when another’s wife is unfaithful, but never when his (b) Deduce that own is. Each man is completely intelligent and knows that ev4n n 1 1 ery other man is. The law of the village demands that when . <s < s ar (s − ar ) n − 1 ar a man can PROVE that his wife has been unfaithful, he must 1≤r≤n 1≤r≤n shoot her before sundown the same day. Every man is completely law-abiding. One day the mayor announces that there Problem 1.3.19 Suppose that x1 , x2 , . . . , xn are nonnegative is at least one unfaithful wife in the village. The mayor always real numbers with tells the truth, and every man believes him. If in fact there are exactly forty unfaithful wives in the village (but that fact x1 + x2 + · · · + xn ≤ 1/2. is not known to the men,) what will happen after the mayor’s Prove that announcement?

Problem 1.3.18 bers with

1. Let a1 , a2 , . . . an be positive real numa1 · a2 · · · an = 1.

(1 − x1)(1 − x2 ) · · · (1 − xn) ≥ 1/2. Problem 1.3.20 Given a positive integer n prove that there is a polynomial Tn such that cos nx = Tn (cos x) for all real numbers x. Tn is called the n-th Tchebychev Polynomial. Problem 1.3.21 Prove that 1 1 13 1 + + ···+ > n+1 n+2 2n 24 for all natural numbers n > 1.

Use induction to prove that a1 + a2 + · · · + an ≥ n, with equality if and only if a1 = a2 = · · · = an = 1. 2. Use the preceding part to give another proof of the Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-Mean Inequality.

Fibonacci Numbers

9

Problem 1.3.22 In how many regions will a sphere be divided Problem 1.3.24 Let F0 (x) = x, F(x) = 4x(1 − x), Fn+1 (x) = by n planes passing through its centre if no three planes pass F(Fn (x)), n = 0, 1, . . . . Prove that through one and the same diameter?

1

Problem 1.3.23 (IMO 1977) Let f , f : N → N be a function satisfying f (n + 1) > f ( f (n)) for each positive integer n. Prove that f (n) = n for each n.

Fn (x) dx =

0

22n−1 . 22n − 1

(Hint: Let x = sin2 θ .)

1.4

Fibonacci Numbers

f0 = 0, f1 = 1, fn+1 = fn−1 + fn , n ≥ 1. (1.5)

The Fibonacci numbers fn are given by the recurrence

Thus the ﬁrst few Fibonacci numbers are 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . . . A number of interesting algebraic identities can be proved using the above recursion.

16 Example Prove that

**f1 + f2 + · · · + fn = fn+2 − 1. Solution: We have f1 f2 f3 . . . fn Summing both columns, f1 + f2 + · · · + fn = fn+2 − f2 = fn+2 − 1, as desired.
**

17 Example Prove that

= f3 − f2 = f4 − f3 = f5 − f4 . . . = fn+2 − fn+1

**f1 + f3 + f5 + · · · + f2n−1 = f2n . Solution: Observe that f1 f3 f5 . . . f2n−1 Adding columnwise we obtain the desired identity.
**

18 Example Prove that

2 2 2 f1 + f2 + · · · + fn = fn fn+1 .

= = = . . . =

f2 − f0 f4 − f2 f6 − f4 . . . f2n − f2n−2

Solution: We have

2 fn−1 fn+1 = ( fn+1 − fn )( fn + fn−1 ) = fn+1 fn − fn + fn+1 fn−1 − fn fn−1 .

Thus

2 fn+1 fn − fn fn−1 = fn ,

10 which yields

2 2 2 f1 + f2 + · · · + fn = fn fn+1 .

Chapter 1

**19 Theorem (Cassini’s Identity)
**

2 fn−1 fn+1 − fn = (−1)n , n ≥ 1.

Proof: Observe that

2 fn−1 fn+1 − fn

= = =

2 ( fn − fn−2 )( fn + fn−1 ) − fn − fn−2 fn − fn−1 ( fn−2 − fn ) 2 −( fn−2 fn − fn−1 )

2 Thus if vn = fn−1 fn+1 − fn , we have vn = −vn−1 . This yields vn = (−1)n−1 v1 which is to say 2 2 fn−1 fn+1 − fn = (−1)n−1 ( f0 f2 − f1 ) = (−1)n .

u

20 Example (IMO 1981) Determine the maximum value of

m2 + n 2 , where m, n are positive integers satisfying m, n ∈ {1, 2, 3, . . . , 1981} and (n2 − mn − m2)2 = 1. Solution: Call a pair (n, m) admissible if m, n ∈ {1, 2, . . . , 1981} and (n2 − mn − m2)2 = 1. If m = 1, then (1, 1) and (2, 1) are the only admissible pairs. Suppose now that the pair (n1 , n2 ) is admissible, with n2 > 1. 2 As n1 (n1 − n2) = n2 ± 1 > 0, we must have n1 > n2 . Let now n3 = n1 − n2 . Then 1 = (n2 − n1 n2 − n2 )2 = (n2 − n2 n3 − n2 )2 , making (n2 , n3 ) also admissible. If n3 > 1, in the 1 2 2 3 same way we conclude that n2 > n3 and we can let n4 = n2 − n3 making (n3 , n4 ) an admissible pair. We have a sequence of positive integers n1 > n2 > . . ., which must necessarily terminate. This terminates when nk = 1 for some k. Since (nk−1 , 1) is admissible, we must have nk−1 = 2. The sequence goes thus 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, . . ., 987, 1597, i.e., a truncated Fibonacci sequence. The largest admissible pair is thus (1597, 987) and so the maximum sought is 15972 + 9872. √ √ 1+ 5 5−1 −1 be the Golden Ratio. Observe that τ = . The number τ is a root of the quadratic equation Let τ = 2 2 2 x = x + 1. We now obtain a closed formula for fn . We need the following lemma.

21 Lemma If x2 = x + 1, n ≥ 2 then we have xn = fn x + fn−1 .

Proof: We prove this by induction on n. For n = 2 the assertion is a triviality. Assume that n > 2 and that xn−1 = fn−1 x + fn−2 . Then xn = xn−1 · x = ( fn−1 x + fn−2 )x = fn−1 (x + 1) + fn−2x = ( fn−1 + fn−2 )x + fn−1 = fn x + fn−1 u

22 Theorem (Binet’s Formula) The n-th Fibonacci number is given by

1 fn = √ 5 n = 0, 2, . . . .

ÇÇ

√ ån Ç √ ån å 1+ 5 1− 5 − 2 2

k 5 k=0 as wanted. For s = 1 we are asking whether ft+1 = f0 ft + f1 ft+1 . The following theorem will be used later. Similarly 1 + 2(1 − τ ) = (1 − τ )3 .u 23 Example (Cesàro) Prove that n k=0 (1 − τ )n = (1 − τ ) fn + fn−1 . = ft fs−1 + ft+1 fs by the Fibonacci recursion. This ﬁnishes the proof. n k=0 Ç å n k 2 fk = f3n . Assume that s > 1 and that fs−k+t = fs−k−1 ft + fs−k ft+1 for all k satisfying 1 ≤ k ≤ s − 1. We have fs+t = fs+t−1 + fs+t−2 by the Fibonacci recursion. = fs−2 ft + fs−1 ft+1 + fs−3 ft + fs−2 ft+1 by the inductive assumption = ft ( fs−2 + fs−3 ) + ft+1 ( fs−1 + fs−2 ) rearranging. Thus n Ç å ä n k 1 Ä 2 fk = √ (τ )3n + (1 − τ )3n = f3n . 5 n As τ 2 = τ + 1.u Practice . 24 Theorem If s ≥ 1. 1 + 2τ = τ 3 . which is trivially true. Proof: The roots of the equation x = x + 1 are τ = 2 2 2 11 τ n = τ fn + fn−1 and Subtracting from where Binet’s Formula follows. = fs−1+t + fs−2+t trivially.t ≥ 0 are integers then fs+t = fs−1 ft + fs ft+1 .Practice √ √ 1+ 5 1− 5 and 1 − τ = . Proof: We keep t ﬁxed and prove this by using strong induction on s. τ n − (1 − τ )n = √ 5 fn . k Ç å n k 2 fk k = = = Ç å n k τ k − (1 − τ )k √ 2 k 5 k=0 n Ç å n Ç å n k n k 1 √ τ − 2 (1 − τ )k k 5 k=0 k k=0 1 n √ ((1 + 2τ ) − (1 + 2(1 − τ ))n) . Solution: Using Binet’s Formula. In virtue of the above lemma.

Chapter 1 Problem 1. Problem 1.15 (Cesàro) Prove that (n − k) f2k+1 .3 Prove that 2 f1 f2 + f2 f3 + · · · + f2n−1 f2n = f2n .5 Prove that 2 2 fn + fn−1 n→∞ Problem 1.1 Prove that fn+1 fn − fn−1 fn−2 = f2n−1 . k 1/ f2n = 4 − τ . fn Problem 1.4.8 Prove that ∞ n=2 1 = 1. n=0 Problem 1.7 Prove that n n Problem 1.4.4.18 Prove the converse of Cassini’s Identity: If k and m are integers such that |m2 − km − k2 | = 1. n > 2.12 Problem 1. n k=0 f2k = k=1 k=0 Problem 1.4.4. n= 1+ 5 log 2 Problem 1.10 Prove that ∞ Ç å 1995 fk . fn−1 fn+1 Ç å n fk = f2n . n n→∞ τ 5 lim Problem 1.4.17 Find the exact value of 1994 Problem 1. 2 fn − fn+l fn−l = (−1)n+l fl2 . then there is an integer n such that k = ± fn . f2n −2 1 = 2+ .6 Prove that if n > 1.11 Prove that ∞ arctan n=1 1 = π /4. Prove that the largest n such that fn ≤ N is given by Å ã 1 √ log N + 5 2 Ç √ å .4.4.16 Prove that fn 10n Hint: What is 1 fn−1 fn − 1 ? fn fn+1 is a rational number. k ∞ n=1 Problem 1.4. f 2k 2 Problem 1.4.4.4. Problem 1.13 Prove that lim fn+r = τr. Problem 1.9 Prove that ∞ n=1 fn = 1.2 Prove that 2 2 fn+1 = 4 fn fn−1 + fn−2 .12 Prove that fn 1 =√ . Deduce that ∞ k=0 Problem 1. m = ± fn+1 .4 Let N be a natural number.4.4.4.14 Prove that n k=0 = f2n+1 . f 2k f 2n √ 1 7− 5 = . n > 1. . fn+1 fn+2 (−1) k=1 k Problem 1.4.4. f2n+1 Problem 1.4.

This apparently trivial principle is very powerful. 40}. 5. . Solution: There are 210 − 1 = 1023 non-empty subsets that one can form with a given 10-element set.. Since we are choosing twenty integers and we have nineteen sets. {21. 100} . {a + n. which add to 104. . Therefore. two of the seven numbers must lie in one of the six sets. a + 3. . 61. . . .20}. a + 2.5 Pigeonhole Principle The Pigeonhole Principle states that if n + 1 pigeons ﬂy to n holes. 22. 2}. . a + 2n} into the n pairs and if n + 1 integers are chosen from this. {a + 1. there must be two that belong to the same group. 62. . .. 3. {7. by the above observation (let n = 10). {15. . there must be a pigeonhole containing at least two pigeons. Let us see some examples.Pigeonhole Principle 13 1.. 94}. 4. by the Pigeonhole Principle there must be two integers that belong to one of the pairs. . If we select ﬁfty ﬁve integers. . . 29. Prove that there must be two distinct integers in A whose sum is 104. 13.. {a + 2. we must perforce choose eleven from some group. So now group the one hundred integers as follows: {1. . {41. . 82. 55}. . . prove that one must select some two that differ by 10. 25 Example (Putnam 1978) Let A be any set of twenty integers chosen from the arithmetic progression 1. . 100. there must be at least two different subsets that have the same sum.. . . {52}. 2.. . . which satisfy b < a ≤ 2b. 126} into the six sets {1.. . there must be two that differ by 10. {49. 27 Example Given any set of ten natural numbers between 1 and 99 inclusive. 62} and {63. a + 2n}. say a and b. . 60}. 6}. 126}. 97}. . 80} and {81. a + n + 1}. {4. 2. By the Pigeonhole Principle.. 14}. {10. . 42. 32. {31. This is because we can pair the 2n consecutive integers {a + 1. Solution: We partition the thirty four elements of this progression into nineteen groups {1}. . . prove that there are two disjoint nonempty subsets of the set with equal sums of their elements. . 64. 4. .. 8. 16. . To each of these subsets we associate the sum of its elements. 100}. Solution: Split the numbers {1. . there will always be some two that differ by n. . . Solution: First observe that if we choose n + 1 integers from any string of 2n consecutive integers. 100}. . any such two will satisfy the stated inequality.. . {7. 2. {61. . From that group. 30}. . The maximum value that any such sum can achieve is 90 + 91 + · · · + 99 = 945 < 1023. . . . . a + n + 2}. 28 Example No matter which ﬁfty ﬁve integers may be selected from {1. one can ﬁnd two of them... . . . . 26 Example Show that amongst any seven distinct positive integers not exceeding 126. . and obviously. {3.

ak + ak+1 + ak+2 }. Choose a particular person from this group of six. Solution: Since a1 ≤ a1 + a2 ≤ a1 + a2 + a3 and a7 ≤ a6 + a7 ≤ a5 + a6 + a7 we see that M also equals 1≤k≤5 max {a1 . two discs “2”. If amongst these three there is a pair that corresponds with each other on topic II. which shows that M = 1/3. . a2 . Divide the interval (− . say ai < a j . three discs “3”. . and we are done. a2 . 30 Example (IMO 1964) Seventeen people correspond by mail with one another—each one with all the rest. a7 be nonnegative real numbers with a1 + a2 + . 1 + ab 3 Solution: Put xk = tan ak for ak satisfying − π π π π < ak < . “50”. then Eric and this pair correspond on topic II. these six correspond amongst themselves only on topics II or III. What is the minimum number of discs that must me drawn in order to guarantee drawing at least ten discs with the same label? Solution: If we draw all the 1 + 2 + · · · + 9 = 45 labelled “1”. say a. Each pair of correspondents deals with only one of these topics. 1/3. If a1 = a1 + a2 = a1 + a2 + a3 = a2 + a3 + a4 = a3 + a4 + a5 = a4 + a5 + a6 = a5 + a6 + a7 = a7 = 1/3. 0. . . 1 + tana j tan ai 6 3 as desired. a6 + a7 . . x7 . say Charlie. a6 . a5 . b with 0< 1 a−b <√ . . prove that we can always ﬁnd two. . .14 Chapter 1 29 Example (AHSME 1994) Label one disc “1”. . He corresponds with sixteen others. Put these 1 + 2 + 3 + · · ·+ 50 = 1275 labeled discs in a box. 6 Since the tangent increases in (−π /2. Then 0 < a j − ai < . . . Charlie must write to at least six of the people of one topic. 31 Example Given any seven distinct real numbers x1 . a4 . two of seven points will lie on the same interval. . these three people only correspond with one another on topic III. a7 ) = (1/3. By the Pigeonhole Principle. 1/3). . By the Pigeonhole Principle. we obtain 0 < tan(a j − ai ) = tan a j − tan ai 1 π < tan = √ . then Charlie and this pair do the trick. . . . “9” and any nine from each of the discs “10”. . say topic I. ﬁfty discs ‘‘50”. a7 . We are thus taking the maximum over nine quantities that sum 3(a1 + a2 + · · · + a7 ) = 3. say Eric. .e. 32 Example (Canadian Math Olympiad 1981) Let a1 . 0. 1≤k≤5 determine the minimum possible value that M can take as the ak vary. ) into six non-overlapping subintervals of 2 2 2 2 π equal length. 0. M ≥ 1/3. say topic II. . one of these is ≥ 1/3. and we are done. . and we are done again. Otherwise. By the Pigeonhole Principle. 0. Discs are then drawn from the box at random without replacement. a1 + a2 . If M = max ak + ak+1 + ak+2. If any pair of these six people corresponds on topic I. a3 . . we have drawn 45 + 9 · 41 = 414 discs. i. These nine quantities then average 3/9 = 1/3. π /2). Solution: Choose a particular person of the group. there must be three of the ﬁve remaining that correspond with Eric in one of the topics. Prove that there at least three people who write to each other about the same topic. Otherwise. By the Pigeonhole Principle. Practice . + a7 = 1. we obtain the 7-tuple (a1 . In their letters only three different topics are discussed. The 415-th disc drawn will assure at least ten discs from a label.

prove that you must select some two that differ by 9. . . 2n Problem 1.5.13 Let r1 . 2. n + 2.5.5 We call a set “sum free” if no two elements of is. some two that differ by 10. such that tive consonants. a colouring of the points of the plane with two the set add up to a third element of the set.Problem 1.11 Show that if the points of the plane are it is at most the average of the numbers. 2 k=1 εk rk ≤ n . but that you need not have any two that differ by 11. 1979) Nine mathematicians meet at an international conference and discover that amongst any three of them.9 Let mn + 1 different real numbers be given. 1. there is a non-empty proper subset whose sum is not more than 2/n in size. r2 . Suppose that all the letters are arranged in a circle. 1 not all zero. Problem 1. If each of the mathematicians can speak at most three languages. rn be real numbers in the interval [0. 15 Problem 1. there will always exist an equilateral triangle with all its vertices of the same colour. Problem 1.14 (USAMO. .5.5. 1]. prove that there are at least three of the mathematicians who can speak the same language. 2.5. Problem 1. and some two that differ by 13. 1947) Prove that amongst six people members..6 (MMPC 1992) Suppose that the letters of the lute value at least . What is the smallest possible value of N? Answer: 20. however. 2n − 1}. Show that there are numbers εk . Show that is not sum free. some two that differ by 12.7 (Stanford 1953) Bob has ten pockets and forty four silver dollars.8 No matter which ﬁfty ﬁve integers may be selected from {1. coloured with two colours. Problem 1. . Can he do so? 2.2 Show that if any ﬁve points are all in. n > 1 be real numbers of abements is sum free. . Give a list to show that there need not be ﬁve consecu−1.5.5. . 1 ≤ k ≤ n. Show that any subset with n + 2 elements solute value not exceeding 1 and whose sum is 0.5. There are N people seated at this table in such a way that the next person to be seated must sit next to someone. Prove that there is either an increasing sequence with at least n + 1 members.5. 0.12 Let r1 . vertices of the same colour. distance 2/2. Hint: Observe that the set {n + 1. 2n − 1} of n + 1 el. .5.5. He wants to put his dollars into his pockets so distributed that each pocket contains a different number of dollars. .5. a square √ side 1.Practice Problem 1. . 1982) In a party with 1982 persons. . r2 . show that there will always exist two points of Problem 1. then some pair of them will be at most at of Problem 1. εk = 2. . .3 (Eötvös. Problem 1.5. . . English alphabet are listed in an arbitrary order. The problem is most interesting when n= Why? (p − 1)(p − 2) . numbers there is always one number which is at least the average of the numbers and that there is always one member that Problem 1. .4 Show that in any sum of non-negative real the same colour which are one unit apart.colours for which no equilateral triangle of side 1 has all its mum size of a sum free subset of {1. or at least three who do not know one another. What is the maxi. or on. Give an example in which any subsum has abso1 Problem 1. .5. rn .15 (USAMO. There Problem 1.10 If the points of the plane are coloured with three colours. amongst any group of four there is at least one person who knows each of the other three. n 3. in a room there are at least three who know one another. . Prove that there must be four consecutive consonants. . 100}. What is the minimum number of people in the party who know everyone else? .5. or a decreasing sequence with at least m + 1 Problem 1. at least two speak a common language. n−1 1. Generalise the problem. . considering p pockets and n dollars. Prove that there must be ﬁve consecutive consonants.1 (AHSME 1991) A circular table has exactly sixty chairs around it.

For each ∞ pair of these mathematicians. there are at least n/2 − 1 of them. some three were sleeping simultaneously. of the remaining n − 2 people.17 (USAMO. Show that at least one monochromatic triangle is formed. Assume that “knowing” is a symmetrical relationship.5. each of ﬁve mathematicians fell asleep exactly twice.) both were sleeping simultaneously. Any two distinct points of Pn are joined by a straight line segment which is then coloured in one of n given colours. Chapter 1 Problem 1. Prove that there are two people such that. ment. Prove that. Problem 1.16 (USAMO.5.16 Problem 1.18 Let Pn be a set of en! + 1 points on the plane. 1985) There are n people at a party. 1986) During a certain lecture. each of whom knows both or else knows neither of the two. at some mon=0 .5. there was some moment when (Hint: e = 1/n!.

We write this as a|b.tc = b. n are integers with c|a. then c|(am + nb). The choice n + 1 = 1 is out since n ≥ 1. 17 . y|z then x|z. yv = z. b. giving x|z. c|b. 34 Theorem 1. so that the only such n is n = 1. there are integers u. among every three consecutive integers there is one divisible by 3. Proof: There are integers s. Hence xuv = z.Chapter 2 Divisibility 2. z are integers with x|y. Solution: n2 + 1 = n2 − 1 + 2 = (n − 1)(n + 1) + 2. Also. Thus am + nb = c(sm + tn). We have 7s = 3x + 2 for some integer s and so 15x2 − 11x − 14 = 7s(5x − 7). etc. we say that a divides b if there is an integer c such that ac = b. If x. If a does not divide b we write a |b. c. 37 Theorem The product of n consecutive integers is divisible by n!. m. b are integers.The following theorem goes further. 2. Among every two consecutive integers there is an even one. The following properties should be immediate to the reader.t with sc = a. giving c|(am + bn). y. v with xu = y. 36 Example If 7|3x + 2 prove that 7|(15x2 − 11x − 14.1 Divisibility 33 Deﬁnition If a = 0.u 35 Example Find all positive integers n for which n + 1|n2 + 1. Solution: Observe that 15x2 − 11x − 14 = (3x + 2)(5x − 7). If a.). giving the result. It should be clear that if a|b and b = 0 then 1 ≤ |a| ≤ |b|. This forces n + 1|2 and so n + 1 = 1 or n + 1 = 2.

) n2 − 4. and so there is nothing to prove. (n!)! is divisible by n!(n−1)! Problem 2.4 Demonstrate that for all integer values n. the divisibility by n! follows from the fact that binomial coefﬁcients are integers: Ç å m+n (m + n)! (m + n)(m + n − 1) · · ·(m + 1) = = . m+ n are positive. 40 Theorem If k|n then fk | fn . Problem 2. the integers ak corresponding to these nk ’s cannot divide each other. and so we apply the ﬁrst result.u Practice Problem 2. Problem 2.8 (AIME 1986) What is the largest positive integer n for which (n + 10)|(n3 + 100)? (Hint: x3 + y3 = (x + y)(x2 − xy + y2).9 (Olimpíada matemática española. ak+1 . which of the following (Hint: Consider.1 Given that 5|(n + 2). . .1. Solution: Let. the cases when n is and is not a are divisible by 5 perfect square.u 38 Example Prove that 6|n3 − n. or n + 1 of them. n9 − 6n7 + 9n5 − 4n3 is divisible by 8640.1. because ak |al implies that nk ≥ nl + 1. However. n n!m! n! If one of the consecutive integers is 0. .. 1985) If Problem 2. prove that (n + 1)(n + 2) · · · (2n) is divisible by 2n . Problem 2.1. starting with ak and each dividing the following one. and see that the corresponding product is positive. the assertion follows. for all integers n.5 Prove that if n > 4 is composite. we multiply by (−1)n . Prove that you can ﬁnd either m + 1 of them no one of which divides any other. n2 + 8n + 7.2 Prove that n5 − 5n3 + 4n is always divisible by 120. .1. p + 2. that can be selected from ak . m+ 2. Problem 2. Problem 2. Solution: n3 − n = (n − 1)n(n + 1) is the product of 3 consecutive integers and hence is divisible by 3! = 6. except for 3. then the are at least m + 1 nk ’s that are the same.1.7 Prove that for n ∈ N. p + 4. Proof: Letting s = kn. then the product of them is 0. for each 1 ≤ k ≤ mn + 1. Since fn | fn·1 .) . .1.1. (n − 1)!. 5. If all the n consecutive integers are negative.1. If no nk is greater than n. It is clear that if fn | fkn then fn | f(k+1)n .3 Prove that (2m)!(3n)! (m!)2 (n!)3 is always an integer. . then n divides n is a positive integer. n2 − 2n? Problem 2. 7. n4 − 1. nk denote the length of the longest chain.1. . .18 Chapter 2 Proof: Assume ﬁrst that all the consecutive integers m+ 1. 39 Example (Putnam 1966) Let 0 < a1 < a2 < . separately. . If this is so. amn+1 .t = n in the identity fs+t = fs−1 ft + fs ft+1 we obtain f(k+1)n = fkn+n = fn−1 fkn + fn fkn+1 . each dividing the following.6 Prove that there is no prime triplet of the form p. < amn+1 be mn + 1 integers.

. 3. then 24|(p2 − 1). 44 Deﬁnition A prime number p is a positive integer greater than 1 whose only positive divisors are 1 and p. 8. 6. 1253 = 2312 − 1059 = d(q3 − q1 ) and 895 = 2312 − 1417 = d(q3 − q2 ). For assume that r ≥ b. If the integer n > 1 is not prime. The number 1 is neither a prime nor a composite. 13. 2.} is the family of integers of the form 3k + 1. k ∈ Z. assume that bq1 + r1 = a = bq2 + r2 . 1417 = q2 d + r. integers come in one of six ﬂavours: 6k. 12. 42 Example (AHSME 1976) Let r be the remainder when 1059. 16. every integer lies in one of the families 3k. S has a least element. 2. . It is important to realise that given an integer n > 0. 9. k ∈ Z. q2 . 10. k ∈ Z. . From this it also follows that q1 = q2 . If we take n = 24k ± 1. . . 6k ± 2 or 6k + 3. . 3. Since either k or 3k − 1 is even. . . If p > 3 is a prime. 4. A = {. Hence d|358 = 2 · 179. 6k ± 1. 20 are composite. 19 are prime. 1. 45 Example Show that if p > 3 is a prime. for some integers q1 . we conclude that d = 179. Let us prove that r < b. where a/b denotes the integral part of a/b. − 8.2 Division Algorithm Proof: We use the Well-Ordering Principle. 1417 and 2312 are divided by d > 1. 7. Find the value of d − r. there must be some q ∈ Z such that r = a − bq since r ∈ S . Thus (for example) 1059 = 5 · 179 + 164. r ≥ 0. −4. −5. whence r2 = r1 . that is b|(r2 − r1 ). Then r > r − b = a − bq − b = a − (q + 1)b ≥ 0. . d|1253 = 7 · 179 and 7|895 = 5 · 179. 7. To show that r and q are unique. . . 358 = 1417 − 1059 = d(q2 − q1 ). −2. Solution: n2 + 23 = n2 −1 + 24 = (n −1)(n + 1)+ 24. 15. 17. 0. q3 . . −6. then p is of the form p = 6k ± 1 (the other choices are either divisible by 2 or 3). . 4. u 41 Theorem (Division Algorithm) If a. . We conclude that d − r = 179 − 164 = 15. . −9. 14. 3k + 1 or 3k + 2 where k ∈ Z. all these values make the expression divisible by 24. Thus we must have 0 ≤ r < b.} B = {. is the same as the family 3k − 1. For example. which means that r = 164. Then S is a collection of nonnegative integers and S = ∅ as a − b · 0 ∈ S . since r − b ≥ 0. 1059 = q1 d + r. 12k(3k − 1) is divisible by 24. Now. then there are unique integers q. For example. 11. But |r2 − r1 | < b. −3. k ∈ Z. then we say that it is composite. k = 0. − 7. . 8. . 0 ≤ r2 < b. 0 ≤ r1 < b. . It is quite plain that q = a/b . Since d > 1. the Division Algorithm makes a partition of all the integers according to their remainder upon division by n.Division Algorithm 19 2. Observe that the family 3k + 2. 6. 5. 9. −1. By construction. 43 Example Show that n2 + 23 is divisible by 24 for inﬁnitely many n. k ∈ Z and C = {. 5. 0 ≤ r < b. 18. . From this. r such that a = bq+r.} is the family of integers of the form 3k − 1. By the Well-Ordering Principle. Solution: By the Division Algorithm. But then a − (q + 1)b ∈ S and a − (q + 1)b < r which contradicts the fact that r is the smallest member of S . 2. say r. But (6k ± 1)2 − 1 = 36k2 ± 12k = 12k(3k − 1). 1. This completes the proof. b are positive integers. . 2312 = q3 d + r. Then r2 − r1 = b(q1 − q2 ). Thus Z = A ∪ B ∪C where is the family of integers of the form 3k. . Consider the set S = {a − bk : k ∈ Z and a ≥ bk}. Solution: By the Division Algorithm.

Hint: Think of n − 6 if n is even and n − 9 if n is odd. Problem 2.4 Prove that the square of any odd integer leaves Problem 2. then we are done.2 Show that if a and b are positive integers. 2n + 1 is prime. Hint: Try x = 36k + 14. Problem 2. Squaring.10 Show the existence of inﬁnitely many natural remainder 1 upon division by 8. (2a)2 = 4a2 . then there are unique integers q and r such that a = qb + r. Practice Problem 2.e. . The assertion follows. we are choosing three integers that lie in the residue classes 5k ± 1 or 5k ± 2.20 46 Example Prove that the square of any integer is of the form 4k or 4k + 1.2.7 Prove that there are inﬁnitely many integers n such that 4n2 + 1 is divisible by both 13 and 5. numbers x. one can always choose two so that a3 b − ab3 is divisible by 10. and so there must be two whose sum or whose difference is divisible by 5.2. no matter which integers are substituted.8 Prove that any integer n > 11 is the sum of two b b positive composite numbers. If one of the three integers is of the form 5k. 49 Example Prove that if 3|(a2 + b2 ). Solution: The square of any integer is of the form 4k or 4k + 1. 0 ≤ r < |b|. y = (12k + 5)(18k + 7).3 Show that the product of two numbers of the form 4k + 3 is of the form 4k + 1. But then a2 + b2 = 3t + 1 or a2 + b2 = 3s + 2. . y such that x(x + 1)|y(y + 1) but Problem 2. and ε = ±1 such that Problem 2. Prove that if one of the numbers 2n − 1. then the other is x |y and (x + 1) |y.1 Prove the following extension of the Division composite. Two of them must lie in one of these two groups. Solution: It is clear that a3 b − ab3 = ab(a − b)(a + b) is always even. Problem 2. Algorithm: if a and b = 0 are integers.2.2. If not. 3 |(a2 + b2).2.9 Prove that 3 never divides n2 + 1.2. is the square of an integer. Then a2 = 3x + 1. All the numbers in this sequence are of the form 4k − 1.2.2. Problem 2. Chapter 2 Solution: By the Division Algorithm.. 1111. . Problem 2. .2. a = qb + ε r. then there are unique integers q and r. 48 Example Show that from any three integers. i. then 3|a and 3|b Solution: Assume a = 3k ± 1 or b = 3m ± 1.6 Let n > 1 be a positive integer.2. 11111. − < r ≤ . x |(y + 1) and (x + 1) |(y + 1). (2a + 1)2 = 4(a2 + a) + 1 and so the assertion follows. b2 = 3y + 1. and so they cannot be the square of any integer. 47 Example Prove that no integer in the sequence 11. any integer comes in one of two ﬂavours: 2a or 2a + 1. 2 2 Problem 2.5 Demonstrate that there are no three consecutive odd integers such that each is the sum of two squares and also greater than zero. 111.

Assume n > 1. It is easy to see that if n ≥ 3. For n ≥ 3 odd all the numbers below are integers: n4 + 22n = = = n4 + 2n22n + 22n − 2n22n Ä ä2 (n2 + 2n )2 − n2(n+1)/2 (n2 + 2n + n2(n+1)/2)(n2 + 2n − n2(n+1)/2). If the expression were prime. Solution: Arrange the sum as 1+ 1 1 1 1 1 + + + ··· + + . p−1 2 p−2 (p − 1)/2 (p + 1)/2 After summing consecutive pairs. k k=1 and every term is divisible by n2 . n = 2. Solution: n3 − 1 = (n − 1)(n2 + n + 1). 53 Example Prove that for all n ∈ N . the p on the numerator will not be thus cancelled out. . i. Solution: Observe that n4 + 4 = = = = n4 + 4n2 + 4 − 4n2 (n2 + 2)2 − (2n)2 (n2 + 2 − 2n)(n2 + 2 + 2n) ((n − 1)2 + 1)((n + 1)2 + 1).3 Some Algebraic Identities In this section we present some examples whose solutions depend on the use of some elementary algebraic identities. Since p is a prime. each factor is greater than 1. 51 Example Prove that n4 + 4 is a prime only when n = 1 for n ∈ N. 52 Example Find all integers n ≥ 1 for which n4 + 4n is a prime. Each factor is greater than 1 for n > 1. so this number cannot be a prime. since n2 + n + 1 is always greater than 1. 54 Example Prove that if p is an odd prime and if a = 1 + 1/2 + · · ·+ 1/(p − 1). n2 divides the quantity (n + 1)n − 1. By the Binomial Theorem. Each term in the denominator is < p. Thus the only such prime is 7. 50 Example Find all the primes of the form n3 − 1. Solution: The expression is only prime for n = 1.Some Algebraic Identities 21 2. the numerator of the resulting fractions is p.e. we must have n − 1 = 1. for integer n > 1. b then p divides a. and so n4 + 4 cannot be a prime. Solution: If n = 1 this is quite evident. Clearly one must take n odd. n Ç å n k n (n + 1) − 1 = n.

n are natural numbers n ≥ z.22 55 Example Prove that Chapter 2 xn − yn = (x − y)(xn−1 + xn−2y + xn−3 y2 + · · · + xyn−2 + yn−1 ) Thus x − y always divides xn − yn . 2903n − 464n is divisible by 2903 − 464 = 9 · 271 and 261n − 803n is divisible by −542 = (−2)271. This establishes the assertion. Thus the expression is also divisible by 271. Solution: It is clear that if the relation xn + yn = zn holds for natural numbers x. 2903n − 803n − 464n + 261n is divisible by 1897 for all natural numbers n. z. then the relation xn + yn = zn does not hold. we may suppose that x < y. By symmetry. and 261n − 464n is divisible by 261 − 464 = −203 = 7 · (−29). b = 2 then 1002004008016032 = a5 + a4b + a3b2 + a2 b3 + ab4 + b5 = This last expression factorises as a6 − b6 a−b = = = (a + b)(a2 + ab + b2)(a2 − ab + b2) 1002 · 1002004 · 998004 4 · 4 · 1002 · 250501 · k. contrary to the assertion that xn + yn = zn . 57 Example ((UM)2C4 1987) Given that 1002004008016032 has a prime factor p > 250000. Therefore p = 250501. Solution: If a = 103 . 58 Example (Grünert. n Without calculation we see that 8767 ˝ ˝ 56 Example (Eotvos 1899) Show that 2345 − 81012345 is divisible by 666. y. Solution: We may assume that x = y. a6 − b6 . 1856) If x. Solution: By the preceding problem. a−1 k=0 upon letting a = x/y and multiplying through by y . Then zn − yn = (z − y)(zn−1 + yzn−2 + · · · + yn−1 ) ≥ 1 · nxn−1 > xn . y. 2903n − 803n is divisible by 2903 − 803 = 2100 = 7 · 300 =. So assume that xn + yn = zn and n ≥ z. z then x < z and y < z. the result being otherwise trivial. Since 7 and 271 have no prime factors in common. In that case. ﬁnd it. we can conclude that the expression is divisible by 7 · 271 = 1897. Thus the expression 2903n − 803n − 464n + 261n is divisible by 7. the result follows at once from the identity n−1 an − 1 ak = a = 1. Also. . a−b where k < 250000. xy = 0.

Problem 2. Solution: Take m = 2k − 1. 2. . . n n+1 bn+1 − an+1 > (n + 1)a. . . prove that (a + 1/2)n + (b + 1/2)n is an integer only for ﬁnitely many positive integers n. . Practice Problem 2.5 Let 0 ≤ a < b. Solution: It sufﬁces to take x = 2n − 1.11 and observing that (−y)n = −yn for n odd.3. 1.3. Solution: This is evident by substituting −y for y in example 1..3. x + y divides xn + yn . Prove that for n = 1.. . Thus if n is odd.3.. 2. then a4 + 4b4 is composite. . . 62 Example Determine inﬁnitely many pairs of integers (m. xx + 1. Show that Å 1 1+ n ãn+1 Å > 1+ 1 n+1 ãn+2 n = 1.3.1 Show that the integer 1.3. . Å Å ã ãn+1 1 n 1 1+ < 1+ n = 1. . . Problem 2. Show that Problem 2. . . Solution: Follows at once from the previous problem. n obviously share their prime factors and m − 1 = 2(2k−1 − 1) shares its prime factors with n − 1 = 2k+1 (2k−1 − 1). . n) such that M and n share their prime factors and (m − 1. is composite. Prove that bn ((n + 1)a − nb) < an+1 . there is another natural number x such that each term of the sequence x + 1.2 Prove that 199 + 299 + 399 + 499 is divisible by 5. . 5001993 + 5011993 is divisible by 1001. xx + 1. k = 2. Problem 2. since each of 11993 + 10001993. . Then m. . . 21993 + 9991993. n − 1) x share their prime factors. n = (2k − 1)2 . Problem 2. . is the square of an integer. . 61 Example (S250) Show that for any natural number n.3. 60 Example Show that 1001 divides 11993 + 21993 + 31993 + · · · + 10001993.3 Show that if |ab| = 1. 23 xn + yn = (x + y)(xn−1 − xn−2 y + xn−3y2 − + − · · · + −xyn−2 + yn−1). is divisible by n.Practice 59 Example Prove that for n odd.4 Demonstrate that for any natural number n.1 91 ones 2. b−a 4.6 If a. . 2. 3. .. Problem 2. the number 1······1−2··· 2 2n 1′ s n 2′ s 3. b are positive integers.7 Prove that 100|1110 − 1.

. Problem 2.3.14 Prove that if an − 1. Suppose that A and B have more than half of their digits on the sinistral side in common..24 Let k ≥ 2 be an integer.18 Find a closed formula for the product P = (1 + 2)(1 + 22)(1 + 22 ) · · · (1 + 22 ). Simplify the expression » » √ √ a + 2 a − 1 + a − 2 a − 1. 3 1 1 1 + + ··· + .3. Prove that a = b = c = d.13 Prove that if an + 1. 2. 444889.12 Prove that the number 22225555 + 55552222 is divisible by 7.22 (ITT. c. Problem 2. Problem 2. . 1 < a ∈ N.9 Demonstrate that every number in the sequence 49. Problem 2. Primes of the form 22 + 1 are Problem 2. Show that 3(ab + bc + ca) ≤ (a + b + c)2 ≤ 4(ab + bc + ca). is prime.25 (Catalan) Prove that Mersenne primes. Prove that a pair of the a. b 2 3 4 1318 1319 prove that 1979|a. b.3. Use this to prove that for all positive integers n. d be complex numbers satisfying a + b + c + d = a3 + b3 + c3 + d 3 = 0.15 (Putnam.11 Find. Problem 2. 3. (Hint: Consider 22225555 + 45555 + 55552222 − 42222 + 42222 − 45555.23 Prove that the product of four consecutive natural numbers is never a perfect square. Primes of the form 2n − 1 are called Problem 2. the unique square which is the product of four consecutive odd numbers.3. 1 1 1 1 1 − 1 − + − + ···+ 2 3 4 2n − 1 2n Problem 2.21 Let a.17 Find all the primes of the form n + 1. k = 1. 4. then nk can be represented as the sum of n successive odd numbers.3.3. b. Problem 2. b.3. then the number 13n + 6 is divisible by 7.16 Find the least value achieved by 36k − 5k .8 Let A and B be two natural numbers with the same number of digits. Problem 2. 1989) How many primes amongst the positive integers.3. c. then a = 2 and n is a prime. .3. is prime. written as usual in base-ten are such that equals their digits are alternating 1’s and 0’s. 22 + 1 divides 22 2n +1 n 2 n − 2.3. is the square of an integer.20 Let a. b are natural numbers such that 1 1 1 1 1 a = 1 − + − + ···− + . c. 1 < a ∈ N. n 4′ s n−1 8′ s Chapter 2 Problem 2. . 1994) Let a. 4 · · · · · · 4 8 · · · 8 9. positive integer. d must add up to 0. A > B. b. with proof. c be the lengths of the sides of a triangle.3.3. Prove that 1 A1/n − B1/n < n for all n = 2. Problem 2. d be real numbers such that a2 + b2 + c2 + d 2 = ab + bc + cd + da.3. .. beginning and ending in 1? Problem 2. Problem 2.3. 4489. .3.3. 1979) If a. Problem 2. . .3.26 (IMO. . 44448889.19 Let a > 1 be a real number. then k a is even and n is a power of 2. . Show that if n is a called Fermat primes.24 Problem 2. .3. Problem 2.3.) Hint: What is (n2 + n − 1)2? Problem 2.10 (Polish Mathematical Olympiad) Prove that if n is an even natural number. n+1 n+2 2n Problem 2.

square triangular numbers. a2 + a b2 + b n= + . 5.3.31 Show that if k is odd. + n. 25 Problem 2.30 (Polish Mathematical Olympiad) Prove that amongst ten successive natural numbers.28 Demonstrate that there are inﬁnitely many Problem 2. 3. 4n + 1 = x2 + y2 where x and y are expressed in terms of a and b.3.3. Conversely. 7. 4. 7. n ∈ N.3. Prove that none of the digits 2. there are always at least one and at most four numbers that are not divisible by any of the numbers 2. Problem 2.32 Are there ﬁve consecutive positive integers such that the sum of the ﬁrst four. 1975) Supposing that an integer n is the sum of two triangular numbers. 1 + 2 + ···+ n divides 1k + 2k + · · · + nk . 9 can be the last digit of a triangular number.3. then n is the sum of two triangular numbers. Problem 2.27 (Polish Mathematical Olympiad) A triangular number is one of the form 1 + 2 + . equals the ﬁfth raised to the fourth power? .3. Problem 2. show that if 4n + 1 = x2 + y2 . 2 2 write 4n + 1 as the sum of two squares.29 (Putnam. .Practice Problem 2. each raised to the fourth power. .

Chapter 3 Congruences. u Congruences mod 9 can sometimes be used to check multiplications. Thus a ± c = b ± d + m(k1 ± k2 ) and ac = bd + m(k2 b + k1 d). c. For example. d. 65 Example Prove that 7 divides 32n+1 + 2n+2 for all natural numbers n. Zn 3. These equalities give (1). 26 mod 7. It also indicates that a and b leave the same remainder upon division by n. (2) and (3). 63 Lemma Let a. −8 ≡ −1 ≡ 6 ≡ 13 mod 7. ak ≡ bk mod m 5. which is patently false. ac ≡ bd mod m 4. For if this were true then (8 + 7 + 5 + 9 + 6 + 1)(2 + 7 + 5 + 3) ≡ 2 + 4 + 1 + 0 + 5 + 2 + 0 + 6 + 3 + 3 But this says that 0 · 8 ≡ 8 mod 9. mod 9. m ∈ Z. Then 1. a − c ≡ b − d mod m 3. and it means that n|(a − b). a + c ≡ b + d mod m 2. 64 Example Find the remainder when 61987 is divided by 37. . b. k ∈ with a ≡ b mod m and c ≡ d mod m. If f is a polynomial with integral coefﬁcients then f (a) ≡ f (b) mod m. k2 ∈ Z with a = b + k1 m and c = d + k2 m. and (5) follows from (4). Solution: 62 ≡ −1 mod 37. We start by mentioning some simple properties of congruences. Hence 32n+1 + 2n+2 ≡ 7 · 2n ≡ 0 for all natural numbers n. Solution: Observe that 32n+1 ≡ 3 · 9n ≡ 3 · 2n mod 7 and 2n+2 ≡ 4 · 2n mod 7.1 Congruences The notation a ≡ b mod n is due to Gauß. we can ﬁnd k1 . Thus 61987 ≡ 6 · 61986 ≡ 6(62 )993 ≡ 6(−1)993 ≡ −6 ≡ 31 mod 37. we deduce that a ≡ b mod n if and only if there is an integer k such that a = b + nk. Proof: As a ≡ b mod m and c ≡ d mod m. Property (4) follows by successive application of (3). Since n|(a − b) implies that ∃k ∈ Z such that nk = a − b. For example 875961 · 2753 = 2410520633.

32 ≡ 9. 72 ≡ −1 mod 10. each remainder class modulo 7 is represented in the third column. depending on whether the year is a leap year or not. 12 ≡ 1. and 10. 7 7 mod 10. etc. 68 Example Prove that there are no integers with x2 − 5y2 = 2. 77 ≡ 74t+3 ≡ (74 )t · 73 ≡ 1t · 3 ≡ 3 Thus the last digit is 3. 69 Example Prove that 7|(22225555 + 55552222). has at least one Friday 13-th. whether leap or not. which means that 641|(232 + 1). 70 Example Find the units digit of 77 . has at least one Sunday the 1st. . 71 Example Prove that every year. which means that there is an integer t such that 77 = 3 + 4t. Therefore the perfect squares mod 13 are 0. 7 Solution: We must ﬁnd 77 mod 10. 1. 5555 ≡ 4 mod 7 and 35 ≡ 5 mod 7. Squaring the nonnegative integers up to 6. 3. and so 73 ≡ 72 · 7 ≡ −7 ≡ 3 mod 10 and 74 ≡ (72 )2 ≡ 1 mod 10. 42 ≡ 3. Solution: If x2 = 2 − 5y2. we obtain 02 ≡ 0. But 2 is not a perfect square mod 5. 12. Solution: It is enough to prove that each year has a Sunday the 1st. 27 · 5 ≡ −1 mod 641 yields 54 · 228 = (5 · 27 )4 ≡ (−1)4 ≡ 1 mod 641. 27 Solution: Observe that 641 = 27 · 5 + 1 = 24 + 54 . then x2 ≡ 2 mod 5. 22 ≡ 4. 4. 62 ≡ 10 mod 13. Solution: First observe that we only have to square all the numbers up to 6. Now 22225555 + 55552222 ≡ 35555 + 42222 ≡ (35 )1111 + (42 )1111 ≡ 51111 − 51111 ≡ 0 mod 7. thus each year. that March 1st is the 50th or 51st day of the year. Now. Now. Hence 27 · 5 ≡ −1 mod 641 and 54 ≡ −24 mod 641. Now.) Now. Upon assembling all this. 52 ≡ 12. This last congruence and 54 ≡ −24 mod 641 yield −24 · 228 ≡ 1 mod 641. the ﬁrst day of a month in each year falls in one of the following days: Month Day of the year mod 7 January 1 1 February 32 4 March 60 or 61 4 or 5 April 91 or 92 0 or 1 May 121 or122 2 or 3 June 152 or 153 5 or 6 July 182 or183 0 or 1 August 213 or 214 3 or 4 September 244 or 245 6 or 0 October 274 or 275 1 or 2 November 305 or 306 4 or 5 December 335 or 336 6 or 0 (The above table means that. including any leap year. Also. 72 ≡ 1 mod 4 and so 77 ≡ (72 )3 · 7 ≡ 3 mod 4. because r2 ≡ (13 − r)2 mod 13. Solution: 2222 ≡ 3 mod 7.Congruences 66 Example Prove the following result of Euler: 641|(232 + 1). 67 Example Find the perfect squares mod 13. 9.

. 24.. . . . Now. We must ﬁnd the 997th term of the sequence 3k + 1. 15. 48. . 1979) Determine all nonnegative integral solutions (n1 . . 76 Example (USAMO. 22 ≡ 4. .. Finally. . 74 Example Prove that 2k − 5. 2. 3. and 6. of the Diophantine equation n4 + n4 + · · · + n4 = 1599. 1986) What is the units digit of 1020000 ? 10100 + 3 Solution: Set a−3 = 10100. k = 1. The remainder sought is 63. . k 199 1 a 200 Ç å 200 200−k a (−3)k ] = k 199 k=0 Ç å 200 199−k a (−3)k . 2. Then [(1020000)/10100 +3] = [(a−3)200/a] = [ 200 Since k=0 (−1)k Ç å 200 = 0. All perfect fourth powers mod 16 are ≡ 0 or 1 mod 16. or 4 mod 7. . . . 1. 1. k (−1) k k=0 Ç å 200 ≡ −3199 ≡ 3 mod 10. . k = 1. . 48. 1 2 14 Solution: There are no such solutions. y such that x3 = 2y + 15? Solution: No. k . As a ≡ 3 mod 10. or 6 upon division by 7. 4. . . never leaves remainder 1 when divided by 7. 23 ≡ 1 mod 7. . n14 ) if any. 77 Example (Putnam. consists of those positive multiples of 3 that are one less than a perfect square. What is the remainder when the 1994-th term of the sequence is divided by 1000? Solution: We want 3|n2 − 1 = (n − 1)(n + 1). k = 0. . k = 1. 1994) The increasing sequence 3. 24.. 15. . 15. 22 ≡ 4. this requires n = 3k + 1 or n = 3k − 1. Solution: 21 ≡ 2. 24. Since 3 is prime. . the term sought is (3(997) + 1)2 − 1 ≡ (3(−3) + 1)2 − 1 ≡ 82 − 1 ≡ 63 mod 1000. . 3. k = 1. The perfect cubes mod 7 are 0. . 2. 2.28 72 Example Find inﬁnitely many integers n such that 2n + 27 is divisible by 7. every power of 2 is congruent to 1. 75 Example (AIME. produces the terms n2 − 1 = (3k + 1)2 − 1 which are the terms at even places of the sequence of 3. Hence 23k + 27 ≡ 1 + 27 ≡ 0 mod 7 for all positive integers k. . produces the terms n2 − 1 = (3k − 1)2 − 1 which are the terms at odd places of the sequence 3. 2. Thus 2y + 15 ≡ 2. Chapter 3 Solution: Observe that 21 ≡ 2. . .. The sequence 3k − 1. But 1599 ≡ 15 mod 16. 73 Example Are there positive integers x. . n2 . This means that n4 + · · · + n4 1 14 can be at most 14 mod 16. This is an impossibility. This produces the inﬁnitely many values sought. 2. The sequence 3k + 1. 26 ≡ 1 mod 7 and so 23k ≡ 1 mod 3 for all positive integers k. 25 ≡ 4. 48.. . and this cycle of three repeats. or 5 mod 7. (3)199 k 199 k=0 199 (−1)k k=0 Ç å 200 199−k a (−3)k ≡ 3199 k Ç k=0 å 200 = −3199 . . 24 ≡ 2. Thus 2k − 5 can leave only remainders 3. apart from permutations. 23 ≡ 1.

. 81 Example Let Prove that for all n ∈ N. 82 Example Prove that 6n+2 Ç k=0 n(n − 1)(n − 2)!(1 − 1/2! + · · · + (−1)n−1 /(n − 1)! + (−1)n/n!) Ä ä (n − 1) m + (−1)n−1n/(n − 1) + (−1)n/(n − 1) (n − 1) (m + (−1)n) . −k ≡ c. c ∈ Z. b. Thus they are all congruent mod 4. Solution: As the sum of the 2n integers remaining is always even. 1973) Let a1 . n > 3. mod r=0 (n + r) Solution: (kn)! = M(n − 1)!n(n + 1) · · ·(2n − 1) for some integer M ≥ 1. a2n+1 be a set of integers such that if any one of them is removed. Solution: Using the Binomial Theorem. 4k + 3 or 4k + 1 respectively. if n is odd. Solution: We have n!! = n! (1/2! − 1/3! + · · ·+ (−1)n /n!). b = 2 − 3. This solves the problem. 80 Example Prove that n−1 (kn)! ≡ 0 if n. The assertion follows. å √ √ 6n + 2 k 3 = (1 + 3)6n+2 + (1 − 3)6n+2 . c belong to at most three different residue classes mod n. since (n − 2)! is divisible by k!. where M is an integer. 2k 3n + 1 2 Ç3n + 1å r=0 1 3n+1 (a + b3n+1) 2 = 2r 23n+1−2r 3r . no matter which of the ak be taken. −k ≡ b. when n is of the form 2k. . 29 Solution: The integers a. . mod n. all the ak must have the same parity. 23n+1. or all odd. k ≤ n − 2. a2 . −23n+1 2k mod 23n+2 √ √ Also. . n ≥ k ≥ 2. n ∈ N. n > 3. Continuing in this manner we arrive at the conclusion that the ak are all congruent mod 2k for every k. 2S := 2 3n+1 Ç k=0 å 6n + 2 k 3 ≡ 0. b. n!! ≡ n! n! − n!! = = = mod (n − 1). depending on whether they are all even. there is an integer k such that n |(k + a).Congruences 78 Example Prove that for any a. . and this may only happen if they are all equal. n |(k + b). we have more than three distinct residue classes. say k for which −k ≡ a. Since n > 3. . . Prove that a1 = a2 = . Thus there must be a residue class. k ∈ N. The property stated in the problem is now shared by ak /2 or (ak − 1)/2. the remaining ones can be divided into two sets of n integers with equal sums. ≡ 3(3n+1)/2 mod 4 ≡ (−1)(n−1)/2 mod 4. with a = 2 + 3. n |(k + c). 79 Example (Putnam. = a2n+1.

an is deﬁned to be ã Å 2 2 2 1/2 a1 + a2 + ··· + an n .1. 1 ≤ n ≤ 25 such that Problem 3. we have. of S has a sum divisible by 7? Problem 3.9 Prove that there are no integer solutions to the equation x2 − 7y = 3. for all n ≥ p.16 How many perfect squares are there mod 2n ? Problem 3. a4 − b4 . for k=0 integers a. Practice Problem 3. Problem 3. Problem 3. c. The root mean square of n numbers a1 .13 Prove that Problem 3.1. .4 Prove that if 9|(a3 + b3 + c3 ).1. Ç å 3n + 1 2r+1 3n−2r 2 3 2r + 1 ≡ ≡ So for even n.1. Problem 3.10 Prove that if 7|a2 + b2 then 7|a and 7|b.1 Find the number of all n. a3 − b3. . . S ≡ 23n+2 2n + 1 mod 23n+4 .17 Prove that every non-multiple of 3 is a perfect power of 2 mod 3n .1. 1 3n+1 (a + b3n+1) 2 = 2r≤3n Chapter 3 mod 23n+3. Problem 3.1.1.18 Find the last two digits of 3100 . .1.12 Prove that the sum of the decimal digits of a n2 + 15n + 122 is divisible by 6. Ç å n n − [ ] is dip p n n Problem 3. a2 − b2. are all integers..11 Prove that there are no integers with 800000007 = x2 + y2 + z2 . then 3|abc. for odd n. Problem 3.. S ≡ (−1)(n−1)/2 23n+1 If n is even.1.1.1. 2.14 Prove that 5 never divides Ç å n 2n + 1 23k .) Problem 3. then a and b must also be integers.8 (AHSME 1992) What is the size of the largest subset S of {1.19 (USAMO.1.1.7 Find the last digit of 3100 . 2(6n + 1)33n mod 8 4n + 2 mod 8.1.1. Determine the remainder when a83 is divided by 49. Problem 3.1.1. .15 Prove that if p is a prime. perfect square cannot be equal to 1991. 2k + 1 Problem 3. (Hint: n2 + 15n + 122 ≡ n2 + 3n + 2 = (n + 1)(n + 2) mod 6. .. visible by p. .a2 . 50} such that no pair of distinct elements Problem 3. for which the root-mean-square of the ﬁrst n positive integers is an integer? Note.2 (AIME 1983) Let an = 6n + 8n . Problem 3. Problem 3. Problem 3.5 Describe all integers n such that 10|n10 + 1.1. 1986) What is the smallest integer n > 1.30 As 2S = 23n+1 (a3n+1 + b3n+1).1. Problem 3.3 (P OLISH M ATHEMATICAL O LYMPIAD ) What digits should be put instead of x and y in 30x0y03 in order to give a number divisible by 13? 7|42 + 22 + 1 for all natural numbers n. .6 Prove that if a − b. . b.

3. prove that z cannot be a prime-power. By the casting-out 9’s rule. the number is divisible by 3 but not by 9.1. q. Find the sum of the digits of B.Divisibility Tests Problem 3. n 2 (−1)i ai is divisible i=0 by x2 ± x + 1. 7 ≡ 44444444 ≡ A ≡ B ≡ C mod 9.1. Thus the sum of the digits of B is at most 12. As 10 ≡ 1 mod 9. Now. a2 . that is. prove that n − n + n − 1 is divisible by (n − 1)2.21 Show that the number 16 is a perfect 8-th is divisible by x2 ± x + 1 if and only if power mod p for any prime p. and so 8924310064539 is divisible by 11. it follows that C = 7. Problem 3.20 Find all integers a. 4444 log10 4444 < 4444 log10 104 = 17776. . As 10 ≡ −1 mod 11. this number is divisible by 9 if and only if 19 + 20 + 21 + · · ·+ 92 = 372 · 3 is.23 For each integer n > 1. i = 0. Of all the natural numbers ≤ 45. so the sum of the digits of 44444444 is at most 9 · 17776 = 159984. . But since C ≡ 7 mod 9. Problem 3.1. Let C be the sum of the digits of B. whereas 8924310064539 ≡ 8 − 9 + 2 − 4 + 3 − 1 + 0 − 0 + 6 − 4 + 4 − 3 + 9 ≡ 0 mod 11. a > 1 and all prime numbers p. (A and B are written in decimal notation. Therefore. 85 Example (IMO. The most famous one is perhaps the following. whence the theorem. 1975) When 44444444 is written in decimal notation. whence A ≤ 159984.) Solution: We have 4444 ≡ 7 mod 9. What is the largest power of 3 that divides this number? Solution: By the casting-out-nines rule. c. y.22 (IMO.1. k be arbitrary integers. namely 12. Problem 3. p. z are positive integers with xn + yn = zn for an odd integer n ≥ 3. . Therefore n ≡ (−1)k ak + (−1)k−1 ak−1 + · · · − a1 + a0 mod 11. u 84 Example (AHSME.25 ((UM)2C9 1992) If x. so it follows that B ≤ 45. 1975) Let a1 .2 Divisibility Tests Working base-ten. . b. 912282219 ≡ 9−1+2−2+8−2+2−1+9 ≡ 7 mod 11 and so 912282219 is not divisible by 11. Let B be the sum of the digits of A. Prove that for every s ≥ 1 there are inﬁnitely many am that can be written in the form am = xas + yat with positive integers x and y and t > s.1. and hence 44443 ≡ 73 ≡ 1 mod 9. we have 10 j ≡ 1 mod 9. we have 10 j ≡ (−1) j mod 11. 1992) The two-digit integers from 19 to 92 are written consecutively in order to form the integer 192021222324 · · ·89909192. n is divisible by 11 if and only if the alternating sum of its digits is divisible by 11. For let n = ak 10k + ak−1 10k−1 + · · · + a1 10 + a0. b. r which satisfy the equation pa = qb + r c (a.24 Let x and ai . c.1. Proof: Let n = ak 10k + ak−1 10k−1 + · · · + a1 10 + a0 be the base-10 expansion of n. . . A criterion for divisibility by 11 can be established similarly. 1. q. It follows that n = ak 10k + · · · + a1 10 + a0 ≡ ak + · · · + a1 + a0 . 83 Theorem (Casting-out 9’s) A natural number n is divisible by 9 if and only if the sum of it digits is divisible by 9. r need not necessarily be different). . Thus 44444444 = 44443(1481) · 4444 ≡ 1 · 7 ≡ 7 mod 9. we have an ample number of rules of divisibility. . 39 has the largest digital sum. For example. Amongst all natural numbers ≤ 159984 the one with maximal digit sum is 99999. 31 Problem 3. Prove that k ai (x2 + 1)3i i=0 k Problem 3. a3 . be an increasing sequence of positive integers. the sum of its digits is A. This means that 44444444 has at most 17776 digits.

10 Prove that In the morning the ﬁve sailors throw a coconut to the monkey 2 2 f2n+1 ≡ fn+1 mod fn .7 ((UM)2C8 1991) Suppose that a0 . Problem 3. where a and b are relatively prime integers. b|an .4 An old receipt has faded. . prove that f (x) = 0 has no rational roots. . 1 ≤ k ≤ n. k ∈ N if and only if the number formed by its last k digits is divisible by 2k . Test whether 90908766123456789999872 is divisible by 8.8 1953 digits are written in a circular order. . . 2. one of them wakes up and decides to take his share.3 Prove that a number is divisible by 2k . For example. sailors do likewise. each throwing a coconut to the monkey and taking one ﬁfth of the remaining pile. Problem 3. an are integers with an = 0. 2 divides 32. Problem 3.32 86 Example (Putnam. Practice Problem 3. .2. a1 . 1952) Let Chapter 3 n f (x) = k=0 ak xn−k be a polynomial of degree n with integral coefﬁcients. Prove that if the 1953-digit numbers obtained when we read Problem 3. Problem 3. Hence a0 bn + aabn−1 a + · · · + an−1ban−1 + anan ≡ a0 + a1 + · · · + an = f (1) ≡ 1 but this contradicts that a/b is a root of f . n} and its ﬁrst k digits form an integer that is divisible by k for all k. During the night. he Thus the last digit of a Fibonacci number recurs in cycles of takes one ﬁfth of the pile and goes back to sleep. Problem 3. Then 0 = bn f (a/b) = a0 bn + a1 bn−1 a + · · · + an−1 ban−1 + an an . its is divisible by 27. and 3 divides 321. is the smallest amount of coconuts that could have been in the original pile? Answer: 15621 Problem 3.2.9 (Lagrange) Prove that Problem 3.2. where x and y are unreadable digits. Answer: 73 cents. and let p(x) = a0 + a1 x + · · · + anxn . mod 2. Solution: Suppose that f (a/b) = 0.2. After throwing a coconut to a monkey to make the division come out even. . then ak x0 + ak+1 x2 + · · · + anxn−k+1 0 is an integer.2y. 111 111 111 is divisible by 9. By the relative primality of a and b it follows that a|a0 .2.1 (AHSME 1991) An n-digit integer is cute if its n digits are an arrangement of the set {1.2. whence a and b are both odd. one after the other. and divide the remaining coconuts into ﬁve equal piles.6 Prove that a number which consists of 3n identical digits is divisible by 3n .2. the new 1953-digit number is also divisible by 27.5 Five sailors plan to divide a pile of coconuts fn+60 ≡ fn mod 10. Suppose that x0 is a rational number such that p(x0 ) = 0. Problem 3. How many cute sixdigit integers are there? Answer: 2. What . The other four length 60. If a0 . It reads 88 chickens these digits in dextrogyral sense beginning with one of the digat the total of $x4.2. an and f (1) are all odd.2.2. Show that if 1 ≤ k ≤ n. then if we read these digits in the same How much did each chicken cost? direction beginning with any other digit. 321 is a cute three-digit number because 1 divides 3.2 How many ways are there to roll two distinguishable dice to yield a sum that is divisible by three? Answer: 12. For example. amongst themselves in the morning. .

We will explore later the multiplicative structure of Zn . 2. 3} does not. We now let 0 represent all those integers that are divisible by 3. b) = (0. b ∈ Z3 we consider a + b mod 3. c ∈ Z3 we have a +3 (b +3 c) = (a +3 b) +3 c. We deﬁne addition in Z3 as follows. It is clear that given any ﬁnite set of integers. 1 represent all those integers that leave remainder 1 upon division by 3. 0 satisﬁes 0 +3 a = a +3 0 = a for all a ∈ Z3 2. 3. We then say that < Z3 .2 How many distinct ordered pairs (a.e. We observe that Z3 together with the operation +3 as given in Table ?? satisﬁes the following properties: 1. Practice Problem 3. As an example. 7. −2 = 1. 2. 4. 87 Deﬁnition If a ≡ b mod n then b is called a residue of a modulo n. for all a. and consider the set Z3 = {0. 1.2). there is c ∈ {0. a2 . let us take n = 3. 15. We then deﬁne a +3 b to be equal to c. this set will form a complete set of residues modulo n if and only if the set has n members and every member of the set is incongruent modulo n. an element such that a +3 b = b +3 a = 0. −2. 1. The operation addition in Z3 is associative.1: Addition Table for Z3 Table 3. as −3 ≡ 3 mod 6.3. As a further example we present the addition table for < Z6 . an is called a complete residue system modulo n if for every integer b there is exactly one index j such that b ≡ a j mod n. 2}. In Z3 we note that −0 = 0. Now. . We denote the additive inverse of a by −a. 1. Notice that the set B = {−40. i.Complete Residues 33 3. Table ?? contains all the possible additions. . Every element a ∈ Z3 has an additive inverse b. . i. but the set C = {−3.1 Construct the addition tables for Z8 and Z9 .2: Addition Table for Z6 Tied up with the concept of complete residues is that of Zn . the set A = {0. and 2 all those integers that leave remainder 2 upon division by 3. +3 0 1 2 0 0 1 2 1 1 2 0 2 2 0 1 +6 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 2 3 4 5 0 2 2 3 4 5 0 1 3 3 4 5 0 1 2 4 4 5 0 1 2 3 5 5 0 1 2 3 4 Table 3. as the group of residues under addition mod n.3 Complete Residues The following concept will play a central role in our study of integers. 22.e. 0) are in Z12 such that a +12 b = 0? . +n >. 3. Similarly we deﬁne < Zn . 6. that is. Given a. The element 0 ∈ Z3 is an identity element for Z3 . +3 > forms a group and we call it the group of residues under addition mod 3. −1. b. For example. Problem 3. since any integer x is congruent to one and only one member of A . +6 > on Table (1.. A set a1 . 5} forms a complete set of residues mod 6. 1.3. −1 = 2. 35} forms a complete residue set mod 6. 2} such that a + b ≡ c mod 3.

b) = 1.t|b. b). y ∈ Z}. To do this we prove that d|a. Then a = tm. b can be written as a linear combination of a and b. b is called the greatest common divisor of a and b. Thus if a. A has a smallest element. that is. If r > 0. b) = 1.t|b. Assume that t|a. b]|c.Chapter 4 Unique Factorisation 4. b is divisible by (a. we say that a and b are relatively prime or coprime. By the Well Ordering Principle. then a|c. Then r = a − dq = a(1 − qx0) − by0. b are relatively prime. b = tn for integers m. 89 Lemma (Euclid’s Lemma) If a|bc and if (a. Hence d = ax0 + bx0 = t(mx0 + ny0 ). b).1 GCD and LCM If a. ±b is in A . −6) = 2. This is denoted by (a. b are integers. If (a. then r ∈ A is smaller than the smaller element of A . r. then they have no factor greater than 1 in common. the largest positive integer that divides both a. Thus r = 0. as wanted. b). This entails dq = a. If a. y with ax + by = 1.. The most important theorem related to gcd’s is probably the following. By the Division Algorithm. then t|d. i. there are integers x.e. not both zero. then [a. b is called the least common multiple of a and b. there are x0 . b) = 1. The theorem is thus proved. b]. as both a. This is denoted by [a. x. We can similarly prove that d|b. because any common divisor of a and b must divide the largest common divisor of a and b. t|d. We ﬁrst prove that d|a. namely d. (68. it must be divisible by the smallest common multiple of a and b. 0 ≤ r < d such that a = dq + r. b). Then c = c · 1 = cax + cby = cax + asy. not both zero. y0 such that d = ax0 + by0 . Since a|bc. gcd(1998. Thus if d|a and d|b then d|(a. u It is clear that any linear combination of a. b ∈ Z. Clearly one of ±a.e. Proof: As (a. there are integers x. there is an integer s with as = bc. b are not zero. since c is a common multiple of both a and b. Therefore. From this it follows that a|c. say d. For example.u 34 . d|b and that if t|a. b) = ax + by. We see then that if a|c and if b|c. 1999) = 1. 88 Theorem (Bachet-Bezout Theorem) The greatest common divisor of any two integers a. y with (a. n. i. we can ﬁnd integers q. d|a. Proof: Let A = {ax + by|ax + by > 0. b) or sometimes by gcd(a. We prove that d = (a. a contradiction. the smallest positive integer that is a multiple of a. by the Bachet-Bezout Theorem.

GCD and LCM 90 Theorem If (a. b)2 . i.. (m2 . we deduce Ç b2 a2 . b) = d. Then (ca. upon multiplying by (a. b/d and so (a/d. b)2 å = 1. b) = 1. (m.u 91 Theorem Let c be a positive integer.e. b) and so it divides (a. Proof: Let d1 = (ca. But then (a/d)x + (b/d)y = 1. n)m)n). b)2 . On the other hand. bc). b2 ) = (a. b) ã = 1. b. Thus gcd(a. which is what we wanted. (m. (a.u 94 Example Let (a. ) = 1. (a. In conclusion. b/d) divides this linear combination. and a/d. and hence By Theorem ??. then 35 a b ( . (a. d d Proof: By the Bachet-Bezout Theorem. n) = (n. .e. (a. As d2 |a and d2 |b. bc) divides a and bc. hence it divides ac and bc. b and so it is divisible by d2 . cb) and d2 = (a. By Theorem ??. (m2 . b/d) = 1. divides 1. (n. this last quantity equals (m2 . Prove that (a + b. b). n2 ) = (m2 . This ﬁnishes the proof. cd2 |cb. i. n) = 1 implies (m2 . We prove that d1 |cd2 and cd2 |d1 . cb) = |c|(a. Therefore (a. (m2 . There is an integer s then such that sd2 = ax + by.. (a. y such that ax + by = d. By the Bachet-Bezout Theorem we can ﬁnd integers x. cd2 |d1 . b2 ) = (a. b)2 (a. b). We conclude that (a/d. Proof: Since (a. b)c) divides a and bc and hence gcd(a. n2 ) = 1. But this is a linear combination of a/d. bc) = (a. Thus cd2 is a common divisor of ca and cb and hence d1 |cd2 . n) = 1. As (m. n). Proof: Assume that (m. It follows that d1 = csd2 . b) for any non-zero integer c. Thus (m. (a. there are integers x. 92 Lemma For nonzero integers a. a2 − ab + b2) = 1 or 3. But ax + by is a linear combination of a. b)c) divides (a. n)m) = 1. cb) = c(a. n) = 1. c. n)n) = (m2 . Using the preceding problem again. b)c). (a. bc) divides a and c(a. (a.u 93 Theorem (a2 . b) (a. b)c). b)c it divides bc. then cd2 |ca. b). b/d are integers. bc) divides (ac. (a2 . (a. u It follows similarly that (ca. b)c)| gcd(a. b)2 . Å b a . (a. Using the preceding lemma twice. bc) = c(a. y with d1 = acx + bcy = c(ax + by).

Thus (ad − 1)|(am − 1. 2. 1959) Prove that the fraction 21n + 4 is irreducible for every natural number n. we must have d|2. This means that any two terms of this progression are coprime. 2 Aliter: By Cassini’s Identity fn−1 fn+1 − fn = (−1)n .. then a200 = 100 + 2002 = 100(401) and a201 = 100 + 2012 = 40501 = 101(401). Notice that x and y must have opposite signs (they cannot obviously be both negative. For each n let dn = (an . . 99 Example Prove that there are arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions in which the terms are pairwise relatively prime. .td = n. n≥1 Solution: We have the following: dn = (100 + n2. This means that dn |401 for all n. when in fact we have d ≤ m. n≥1 98 Example Prove that if m and n are natural numbers and m is odd. y ≤ 0. Similarly. for some natural n−1 Ç å n n− j n− j−1 mn n numbers k. . whence d = 1. But then d|(3a2 . d|m!. It follows that d must be an odd number. . Thus 1 ≤ d < m and so. an − 1 is divisible by ad − 1. . a = 1. 116. 100 + (n + 1)2) = (100 + n2. Thus dn |(2(100+n2)−n(2n+1)) = 200−n. 2 = (kd + 1) = td + 1. 100 Example Prove that any two consecutive Fibonacci numbers are relatively prime. . Solution: Let d = (2m − 1. 2n + 1). 1985) The numbers in the sequence 101. Now. sd = m. Thus d|(−1)n . l. 2n + 1). an − 1). where t = k d . 2mn = (ld − 1)m = j j=0 ud − 1. 2n + 1 = ld. n be positive integers. So. 96 Example (IMO. As fn+1 − fn = fn−1 and d divides the sinistral side of this equality. Then am − 1 = (ad )s − 1 is divisible by ad − 1 and similarly. Hence d divides 3b(a + b) − 3ab = 3b2 . fn+1 ). d|3a2 . 104. where we have used the fact that m is odd.e. 14n + 3 Solution: 2(21n + 4) − 3(14n + 3) = −1. b)2 = 3. a2 − ab + b2). d = 1. then (2m − 1. k = 1. Thus max dn = 401.. an − 1) = a(m. Hence. As td + 1 = ud − 1. 3b2 ) = 3(a2 . Set t = (am − 1. . t|((amx − 1) − ad (a−ny − 1)) = ad − 1. The assertion is established. Solution: The numbers km! + 1. Prove that Chapter 4 (am − 1. and 2m − 1 = kd. an+1 ). Suppose that d|(lm! + 1). Solution: Let d = ( fn . 100 + n2 + 2n + 1) = (100 + n2. Therefore dn |(2(200−n)+(2n+1)) = 401. Therefore. Solution: Set d = (m. are of the form an = 100 + n2. . m. 97 Example (AIME. n = 1. assume without loss of generality that x > 0. m form an arithmetic progression of length m and common difference m!. In the same manner. Then d|(s(lm! + 1) − l(sm! + 1)) = (s − l) < m. Then t|(amx − 1) and t|(a−ny − 1). 2. d ≤ n). y with mx + ny = d. since then d would be negative. n). Thus the numerator and the denominator have no common factor greater than 1. Thus d|( fn − fn−1 ) = fn−2 . b2 ) = 3(a. 95 Example Let a.n) − 1. Find max dn . d| fn−1 . i. . d|(sm! + 1). an − 1). by the Bachet-Bezout Theorem there are integers x. 1 ≤ l < s ≤ m. . They cannot both be positive because then d ≥ m + n.36 Solution: Let d = (a + b. Iterating on this process we deduce that d| f1 = 1 and so d = 1. Could it be that large? The answer is yes. 2n + 1) = 1. Now d divides (a + b)2 − a2 + ab − b2 = 3ab. . But then d|(sm! + 1 − sm!) = 1. 109. for let n = 200.

fm )| fyn and ( fn . and we assume without loss of generality that x ≤ 0. c = f(m. a contradiction.. Hence ( fn .n) . fm )| fa f−xm+1 .. y cannot be both negative. fa | fm and fa | fn by Theorem ??. n). They cannot be both positive since then a = xm + yn ≥ m + n. As n|yn. fm )| fa . If it were the case that ( fn . As a|n. Then (17. a|m we have a ≤ n. fm ) would be dividing two consecutive Fibonacci numbers. fn ). which obviously must be odd.. Solution: By the binomial absorption identity. fm )| f−xm . Solution: Set d = ( fn . Therefore ( fn . fm ). This means that d = (17. 102 Example Prove that no odd Fibonacci number is ever divisible by 17. it must be the case that n + 1 divides Ç å Ç å 2n + 1 2n + 1 2n = . a ≤ m. fn ) = (34. Observe that x. fm )| f−xm+1 .. Find the greatest common divisor of Ç å 2n . fn ) = ( f9 . fm ) > 1. fn ) = f(n. n+1 n n+1 104 Example Let n be a natural number. . . i. we have that fn | fyn .m) . 2 or 34. and since the dextral side is an integer. Thus they are of opposite signs.n) = f1 . n Ç åÇ å Ç å 2n 2n 2n . by the Bachet-Bezout Theorem. This forces d = 1. then ( fn . fn ) = 1. Now. there are integers x. fm ). y > 0. 1 3 2n − 1 .. We will prove that c|d and d|c. Ç å 2n 1 Cn = . Observe that fyn = fa−xm = fa−1 f−xm + fa f−xm+1 upon using the identity fs+t = fs−1 ft + fs ft+1 of Theorem ??. Thus fa |( fm . fn ) = f(9. The case = 1 is a triviality. which is what we wanted to prove. 103 Example The Catalan number of order n is deﬁned as Prove that Cn is an integer for all natural numbers n. Since a|m and a|n. c|d. y such that xm + yn = a.GCD and LCM 101 Example Prove that 37 ( fm . m|(−xm). n+1 n Since 2n + 1 and n + 1 are relatively prime. This implies that ( fn . fm | f−xm . otherwise a would be negative. We saw earlier that ( fn . fm )| f−xm .e. a = (m. f3 or f9 . Solution: Let d = (17. a contradiction to the preceding problem in the case when ( fn .

By the Inclusion-Exclusion Principle. We may write n = 2l m. where M is odd. b)[a. b. This establishes the claim. there must be two that will lie in the same set. then take a = 2k + 1. . 2. the problem amounts to ﬁnding those numbers less than 1260 which are not divisible by 2. Those two are relatively prime. 29!37!). 2k − 1 k=1 Ç å 2n a the gcd must be of the form 2 . Since we are choosing ﬁfty one integers. B the set of multiples of 3. b] = ab for all natural numbers a. Ç å Ç å 2l+1 m 2l+1 m 2l+1 m − 1 = . 5. Show that there are two that are relatively prime. 107 Example How many positive integers ≤ 1260 are relatively prime to 1260? Solution: As 1260 = 22 · 32 · 5 · 7. Problem 4. b = 2k − 1. Since the gcd must divide = 2n. 106 Example Prove that any natural number n > 6 can be written as the sum of two integers greater than 1. If n = 4k + 2. we see that it has divide 2l+1 . Solution: If n is odd. 2k − 1 2k − 1 2k − 2 But 2k − 1 |2l+1 for k > 1. {99. we may choose a = 2. Let A denote the set of integers ≤ 1260 which are multiples of 2. 3. or 7. We claim that 2l+1 divides all of them. etc.1. k > 1 take a = 2k + 3. where l is the largest 1 power of 2 that divides n. Practice Problem 4. 100}. |A ∪ B ∪C ∪ D| = |A| + |B| + |C| + |D| −|A ∩ B| − |A ∩C| − |A ∩ D| −|B ∩C| − |B ∩ D| − |C ∩ D| +|A ∩ B ∩C| + |A ∩ B ∩ D| + |A ∩C∩ D| +|B ∩C ∩ D| − |A ∩ B ∩C ∩ D| 630 + 420 + 252 + 180 − 210 − 126 − 90 − 84 −60 − 36 + 42 + 30 + 18 + 12 − 6 = 972. then is either of the form 4k or 4k + 2. 105 Example Let any ﬁfty one integers be taken from amongst the numbers 1. n Ç Solution: Arrange the 100 integers into the 50 sets {1. If n is even. 100.38 Solution: Since Chapter 4 å 2n = 22n−1. . These two are clearly relatively prime (why?).2 Find lcm (23!41!. as consecutive integers are relatively prime. . . Now. 6} . {3. . 4}.1.. b = 2k − 1. . . = The number of integers sought is then 1260 − 972 = 288. {5. 2}. b = n − 2. If n = 4k. each of the summands being relatively prime.1 Show that (a.

1. Write two of the summands in the form 6k + s and the third summand as a constant. b. and lcm (a.5 Prove that (a. b) = 1764.1.10 Let n.16 Prove that the binomial coefﬁcients have the tive integers there are three whose product is divisible following hexagonal property: by abc. n Problem 4.1. (an − bn)|(an + bn ). k.1.6 Let a ∈ N. Problem 4. b ∈ N with (a. . 108 Theorem If n > 1. all b ∈ N such that (2b − 1)|(2a + 1).1. Clearly 2 is the only even prime and so 2 and 3 are the only consecutive integers which are prime.7 Show that (n3 + 3n + 1. Problem 4. ∈ N. Problem 4. n ∈ N. k k+1 k−1 is 1. .1. If a. . [a.) Problem 4. Find (Fn . If a. 1974) Call a set of integers conspiratorial if no three of them are pairwise relatively prime.Primes Problem 4. bn ) for all natural Problem 4.. b] = 432.. What is the largest number of elements in any conspiratorial subset of the integers 1 through 16? 4. Fm ). k−1 k+1 k Problem 4. .Problem 4. (Hint: Consider n mod 12.1.1.) j k Problem 4. bn ) = 1 ∀ n.1. b) = 12. k k k n−1 n+1 n gcd . n ≥ k > 0 be integers. Prove that the greatest common divisor of the numbers Ç åÇ å Ç å equals n n+1 n+k ÇÇ åÇ åÇ åå .13 Demonstrate that (n! + 1.11 Let Fn = 22 + 1 be the n-th Fermat number.1. Problem 4. Problem 4. c. 39 Problem 4. n = 1. b ∈ N.2 Primes Recall that a prime number is a positive integer greater than 1 whose only positive divisors are itself and 1.8 Let the integers an . 7n3 + 18n2 − n − 2) = 1.Problem 4. 16n + 10n − 1. a.. ÇÇ åÇ åÇ åå n−1 n n+1 gcd . bn be deﬁned by the relation √ √ an + bn 2 = (1 + 2)n . then in any set of c consecu. An integer different from 1 which is not prime is called composite.1. c are pairwise relatively prime natural numbers each exceeding 1.1. (n + 1)! + 1) = 1. 2. then in any set of b consecutive integers there are two whose product is divisible by ab. It is clear that if n > 1 is composite then we can write n as n = ab.12 Find the greatest common divisor of the sequence numbers n. b.1. 2. b)n = (an . with proof. . b ∈ N.9 Prove or disprove the following two proposi. . . .1. Problem 4.15 Prove that there are no positive integers a.4 Find a. a < b. then n is divisible by at least one prime. 1 < a ≤ b < n.17 (Putnam. (Hint: Prove k j=0 Ç åÇ å k n+ j (−1) j = (−1)k . . Prove that gcd(an . Find. n > 1 with tions: 1. b such that a2 + b2 = 85113.1.14 Prove that any natural number n > 17 can be written as n = a + b + c where a. a < b < c..3 Find two positive integers a. b.

Construct the integer n = p1 p2 · · · pk + 1. p2 . . . Since each pk is ≥ 3. or is of the form 4k ± 1. 1√ a ≤ b < n. √ √ √ Proof: Suppose that n = ab. . n must have a least positive divisor greater than 1. In the latter case. Let {p1 . which contradicts the minimality of q. We claim that q is prime.40 Chapter 4 Proof: Since n > 1. Observe that p must be different from any of p1 . < √ Thus n has a factor = 1 and ≤ n. Observe that N is not divisible by any of the primes in our collection. p2 . in view of the preceding problem. |A3 | = 33. For if not then we can write q as q = ab. all of the prime factors of N cannot be of the form 4k + 1. it has at least one divisor > 1. If both a and b are > n. .e. all the composite numbers in the range 10 ≤ n ≤ 100 have a prime factor amongst 2. . in which case it is a prime of the form 4k − 1 not on the list. . Thus we have shown that no ﬁnite list of primes exhausts the set of primes.. and hence a prime factor. Solution: Let k ∈ N. 3. Let Am denote the multiples of M which are ≤ 100. Then |A2 | = 50. for the product of any two primes of this form is again of this form. Proof: Any prime either equals 2. . say q. Then each of the numbers k! + 2. pk since n leaves remainder 1 upon division by any of the pi . pn } be any ﬁnite collection of primes of the form 4k − 1. |A5 | = . Proof: (4a + 1)(4b + 1) = 4(4ab + a + b) + 1. . u 112 Example Prove that there are arbitrarily long strings that do not contain a prime number. By the preceding theorem. We will show that the collection of primes of the form 4k − 1 is inexhaustible. Now either N is a prime. or it is a product of primes. k! + k is composite. 113 Theorem If the positive integer n is composite. p2 . which is ≤ n. 5. pk be a list of primes. it must have a prime divisor p.. i. . By the Well Ordering Principle.u 110 Lemma The product of two numbers of the form 4k + 1 is again of that form. then it must have a prime factor p with p ≤ √ n. √ Solution: Observe that 100 = 10. a contradiction. . that the set of primes is inﬁnite. Thus N must be divisible by some prime of the form 4k − 1 not on the list. The assertion follows. This integer is greater than 1 and so by the preceding problem. Construct the number N = 4p1 p2 · · · pn − 1.u 111 Theorem There are inﬁnitely many primes of the form 4n + 3. 1 < a ≤ b < q. . u 114 Example Find the number of prime numbers ≤ 100. then n = ab > n n = n. We have thus shown that given any ﬁnite list of primes of the form 4k − 1 we can always construct an integer which is divisible by some prime of the form 4k − 1 not on that list. .u 109 Theorem (Euclid) There are inﬁnitely many primes. . But then a is a divisor of n greater than 1 and smaller than q. k ≥ 2. or 7. N ≥ 11. Proof: Let p1 .

5. k Solution: By the Binomial Theorem: Ç å Ç å Ç å p p p 2 − 2 = (1 + 1) − 2 = + + ··· + . is divisible by p for all 0 < k < p. where we have subtracted the 1. |A7 | = 14. or 7 ≤ 100 − 1 4 + 100 − (50 + 33 + 20 + 14) + (16 + 10 + 7 + 6 + 4 + 2) −(3 + 2 + 1 + 0) − 0 − 1 25. Ç å p 115 Lemma If p is a prime. |A105 | = 0. Problem 4. Problem 4. divides p. that p|(n p − n). 3. n ∈ Z. Let p be a prime and let n ∈ N. 5. then p|(n p−1 − 1). n ∈ Z. |A70 | = 1. |A210 | = 0. 3.6 Prove that 3. . by induction on n. By the preceding lemma. 4. b) = 1. p divides each of the terms on the dextral side of the above. 1 2 p−1 p p Ç å Ç å p p as = = 1. as k < p. it must be the case that p| . |A42 | = 2. then p divides 2 p − 2.2. By Euclid’s Lemma. |A35 | = 2. Extend this result to all n ∈ Z. p + 2. Prove.3 If p and q are consecutive odd primes. p |k!. 5. |A14 | = 7.2 Use the preceding problem to show that there are inﬁnitely many primes p such that p − 2 is not a prime. Ç å Ç å p p whence p|k! . 7 is the only prime triplet of the form p.2. Prove that 42|n7 − n.2. because 1 is neither prime nor composite. |A21 | = 4. p + 4. Practice Problem 4. 2.2.2. ap + bp a + b.2. |A15 | = 6. Prove that Å ã necessarily distinct) primes.5 Let p be an odd prime and let (a. |A10 | = 10. k Proof: Ç å p p(p − 1) · · ·(p − k + 1) = k! k yields 116 Example Prove that if p is a prime. a+b Problem 4. |A30 | = 3.Practice 41 20. |A6| = 16. prove that the prime factorisation of p + q has at least three (not Problem 4.1 Prove that there are inﬁnitely many primes of the form 6n + 5.4 1. Thus the number of primes ≤ 100 is = = = = 100 − ( number of composites ≤ 1) − 1 4 + 100 − multiples of 2. Prove that 30|n5 − n. Prove Fermat’s Little Theorem: if p |n.u k k Ç å p k! = p(p − 1) · · ·(p − k + 1). Now. This establishes 0 p the assertion. Problem 4.

117 Theorem Every integer greater than 1 is a product of prime numbers. from p1 < p2 < · · · < ps and q1 < q2 < · · · < qt we conclude that p j = q j . We will show now that such decomposition is always possible for a positive integer greater than 1. Now.b2 ) max(an .bn ) p2 · · · pn . If n1 is a prime.42 Chapter 4 Problem 4. Proof: Let n > 1. 1 2 where the p j are primes. a2 > 0.2) Since x + y = max(x. s s 1 2 b b b which is impossible. Prove that if one of the numbers 2n − 1 and 2n + 1 is prime. . we arrive at a chain n > n1 > n2 · · · > 1.2. the canonical factorisation of n. For example 23 32 52 73 is the canonical factorisation of 617400. (4. b) = p1 and also [a. then we have nothing to prove. This implies that s = t. b] = p1 min(a1 . 37 are prime. If n is a prime. Proof: We prove that a positive integer greater than 1 can only have one canonical factorisation. and so 1332 = 2 · 2 · 3 · 111. u a It is easily seen. assume that n1 is composite. one way. then we arrived at the result. We cannot further decompose 1332 as a product of positive integers greater than 1. If a j > b j for some j then. 3. 1 < n2 < n1 < n. we obtain p a1 p a2 · · · p j j 1 2 a −b j j−1 j+1 · · · pas = pb1 pb2 · · · p j−1 p j+1 · · · pbs . n = pa1 pa2 · · · pk k . This ﬁnishes the proof. . upon dividing by p j j .7 Let n > 2. Eventually we then have n = q1 q2 · · · qs . as n is a positive integer. u We may arrange the prime factorisation obtained in the preceding Theorem as follows. q1 is a prime. 1 < n1 < n. by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic.b1 ) min(a2 . the alternative a j < b j for some j is ruled out and so a j = b j for all j.b1 ) max(a2 .5. (it may be the case that some of the ak and some of the bk are zero) then n (a. that if a has the prime factorisation a = p11 pa2 · · · pan and b n 2 b1 b2 has the prime factorisation b = p1 p2 · · · pbn . Set n = q1 n1 . b)[a. Assume that n is composite and let q1 be its least proper divisor. 1 ≤ j ≤ s. . Otherwise.2) we conclude that every p must be a q and every q must be a p. Continuing the argument. (4. ak > 0. and let q2 be its least prime divisor. . a1 > 0. We can write then n = q1 q2 n2 . then the other is composite. It is clearly divisible by 2 and so we obtain 1332 = 2 · 666. y) + min(x. y).b2 ) min(a . and this process must stop before n steps. Finally. 111 is also divisible by 3 and so we obtain 1332 = 2 · 2 · 3 · 3 · 37. Assume that n = pa1 pa2 · · · pas = qb1 qb2 · · · qtbt s 1 2 1 2 are two canonical factorisations of n. as guaranteed by Theorem 4. 4. Also. b]. We call the preceding factorisation of n. By Euclid’s Lemma (example 1. as all 2. By Theorem 4.b ) p2 · · · pn n n . it clearly follows that ab = (a. . apart from the order of the factors.5. as the sinistral side is divisible by p j and the dextral side is not.1) max(a1 .3 Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic Consider the integer 1332. 118 Theorem (Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic) Every integer > 1 can be represented as a product of primes in only a p1 < p2 < · · · < pk . Similarly. 666 is clearly divisible by 6.

we have decomposed the integer 7 into at least four different factors. . √ Solution: Assume that 2 = a/b with relatively prime natural numbers a. Assume that there is an integer M with p(m) = 14. the product of the factors is m5 . by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. Then p(x) − 7 = (x − a1)(x − a2 )(x − a3 )(x − a4 )q(x) for a polynomial q with integer coefﬁcients. except for 2k−1 P k . If n = 0.. Since n2 −1 and n are relatively prime. are integers. This contradicts the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. If n = 0. The 1 number 2k−1 PS is a sum. as 33 is the product of 4 different factors and the expression above is the product of 5 different factors for n = 0. n2 − 1 is a perfect kth power (k ≥ 2) and n is also a perfect kth power. the factors in the above product are all different. 120 Example Prove that if the polynomial p(x) = a0 xn + a1 xn−1 + · · · + an−1x + an with integral coefﬁcients assumes the value 7 for four integral values of x. 122 Example Prove that m5 + 3m4 n − 5m3n2 − 15m2n3 + 4mn4 + 12n5 is never equal to 33. Solution: Let k be the largest integer such that 2k ≤ n. etc. 2 124 Example Prove that there is exactly one natural number n for with 28 + 211 + 2n is a perfect square. by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. all whose terms. Since the factors m − ak are all distinct. n2 − 1 and n2 would be consecutive perfect kth powers. b. But then. whereas the dextral side has an even number of prime factors. Then 2b2 = a2 .).. Then 7 = p(m) − 7 = (m − a1 )(m − a2)(m − a3 )(m − a4 )q(m). a perfect square or a perfect cube. Solution: Observe that m5 + 3m4 n − 5m3n2 − 15m2n3 + 4mn4 + 12n5 = (m − 2n)(m − n)(m + n)(m + 2n)(m + 3n). The sinistral side of this last equality has an odd number of prime factors (including repetitions). Solution: Let the integer be (n −1)n(n + 1) = (n2 −1)n. This is impossible. 123 Example Prove that the sum S = 1/2 + 1/3 + 1/4 + · · ·+ 1/n is never an integer. then it cannot take the value 14 for any integral value of x. Assume that p(ak ) − 7 = 0 for distinct ak . by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. They cannot be multiply to 33.Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic 119 Example Prove that 43 √ 2 is irrational. 33 can be decomposed as the product of at most four different integers 33 = (−11)(3)(1)(−1). and P the product of all the odd natural numbers not exceeding n. 1 ≤ k ≤ 4. Solution: First observe that the integer 7 can be decomposed into at most three different integer factors 7 = −7(1)(−1). 121 Example Prove that the product of three consecutive integers is never a perfect power (i. Now. sheer nonsense.e. and 33 is clearly not a ﬁfth power.

c)2 [a. we may assume. odd. b3 such that a3 b3 = c2 . Thus we may perform this operation n + 1 times. 128 Example (USAMO 1972) Prove that (a. Delete this pair. 2. b)(b. we may ﬁnd two distinct cm say ci and c j . a) Solution: Put a= α β γ pk k . and the product of these two will be a square. By symmetry. prove that M contains a subset of four distinct elements whose product is the fourth power of an integer. c = pkk .44 Chapter 4 Solution: If k2 = 28 + 211 + 2n = 2304 + 2n = 482 + 2n . Thus we have found four distinct numbers in our set whose product is a fourth power. c. We can continue this operation as long as 3 we have at least 513 integers. b. b. a fourth power. none with a prime factor greater than 26. the 737 numbers k ck have all their prime factors smaller than 26. where m is odd. . The assertion is equivalent to showing 2 max(αk . From the 1983 integers remaining. odd. that αk ≥ βk ≥ γk . bk such that ak bk = c2 . c)(c. . 13. we can ﬁnd a pair of distinct a1 . we will have two different ones whose product is a square. then k2 − 482 = (k − 48)(k + 48) = 2n . with primes pk . Show that there must be one that divides some other. βk . n = 736. were n is the largest positive integer such that 1985 − 2n ≥ 513. Since we have 1985 > 513 numbers. two (at least) will have the same parity in their exponents. 1985) Given a set M of 1985 distinct positive integers. we associate a vector (a. k + 48 = 2t . c][c. a] (a. and since 737 > 513. 11. we can ﬁnd a pair of distinct a2 . there must be two whose product is a square.e. we can ﬁnd a pair a3 . b. βk . Start weeding out squares. .. Thus if we gather 513 of these numbers. γk ) = 2 min(αk . according to the parity of the components. Since we have 33 integers. without loss of generality. 7. γk ) − max(αk . γk ). 2 From the 1981 integers remaining. [a. But then ci c j = a2 implies that ai bi a j b j = a4 . 125 Example Prove that in any set of 33 distinct integers with prime factors amongst {5. giving s + t = n = 12. γk ) − min(βk . 23}. k − 48 = 2s . b2 such that a2 b2 = c2 . 127 Example Let any ﬁfty one integers be taken from amongst the numbers 1. i = j. Now. d. 100. i. a perfect square. f ). such that ci c j = a2 . 1 Delete this pair. But then 2t − 2s = 96 = 3 · 25 or 2s (2t−s − 1) = 3 · 25 . . Thus to each number in the set. Therefore. we are able to gather 737 pairs ak . s = 5. By unique factorisation. The equation to be established reduces thus to the identity 2αk − αk − αk − βk = 2γk − βk − γk − γk . 126 Example (IMO. b][b. b = pk k . γk ) − min(αk . βk ) − min(αk . These vectors come in 32 different ﬂavours. Solution: Any number in our set is going to be of the form 2a 3b 5c 7d 11 f 13g 17h 19 j 23k . s + t = n. odd) is one such class. Since there are only ﬁfty odd integers between 1 and 100. and thus the smaller will divide the larger. . Thus two (at least) of the integers chosen must share the same odd part. γk ) − max(βk . b1 such that a1 b1 = c2 . c]2 = . βk ) − max(αk . Solution: Any of the ﬁfty one integers can be written in the form 2a m. there are only ﬁfty possibilities for m. Solution: Any number in our set is going to have the form 5a 7b 11c 13d 23 f . By unique factorisation. For example (even.t − s = 2. even.

2. . they coincide in some order with the set of all positive odd numbers less than 2n. its even factor is less than 2n. Prove that 2 131 Example Let 0 < a1 < a2 < · · · < ak ≤ n. consider a1 = 2t1 A1 . 0 ≤ m ≤ r. 1 + m − s. and a j = 2t j 3A1 . These. or [a1 . writing ak = 2tk Ak . c] = [b. Thus either [a1 . . n/2 + 2. Solution: The k − 1 positive integers ai − a1. Since there are n of them. b. Solution: Set n = s2k with s odd. nl/2 < n2 . The sequence n/2 + 1. 12. are clearly distinct. . each not greater than n. together with the k given distinct a’s. . √ √ Solution: Suppose n is divisible by all the integers ≤ n. 133 Example (Putnam. M must equal Ç å 4 2 r for at least two of the four numbers. If s = 1. 2 ≤ i ≤ k. p2 = 3. and let k j be the √ √ √ k k +1 k +1 unique integers such that p j j ≤ n < p j j . S = l + (l + 1) + . . . These contradictions establish the assertion. with 0 < l < m < n. 3 Solution: It is clear that no one of the numbers can divide another (otherwise we would have an lcm ≤ 2n). n must be divisible by K 1 2 1 2 and so K ≤ n. Prove that a1 > 2n . s < 2k+1 . 1 ≤ a ≤ 45 √ n. 1 2 k k +1 Clearly then K = pk1 pk2 · · · pl l . . a j ] = 2t j 3A1 = a j ≤ 2n. b. . c. at least one of the integers is common to both sets. c. Now. Prove that this is possible if and only if n is a power of 2. There are r = 6r2 ways 2 . But if s > 1. since. so that at least once ar − a1 = a j . be integers. then S is divisible by n. Hence. If a1 ≤ 2n/3 . 2S = (l + m)(m − l + 1). 132 Example Let 0 < a1 < a2 < · · · < an ≤ 2n be integers such that the least common multiple of any two exceeds 2n. b].. Solution: By unique factorisation. . 0 ≤ n ≤ s. . . which has one factor even and one factor odd.Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic 129 Example Prove that n = 24 is the largest natural number divisible by all integral a. Ak odd. By inspection. d. Clearly nl/2 < pk1 +1 pk2 +1 · · · pl l . a. . d) such that 3r 7s = [a. b. s > 2k+1 . d must be of the form 3m 7n . if we take m = (s + 2k+1 − 1)/2 and l= ® 1 + m − 2k+1. Consequently. n − 1. and 3A1 < 2n. pl be all the primes ≤ n. 4. 3. cannot be divisible by 2n = 2k+1 . + m is never divisible by n. 3A1 = A j for some j. Hence. 6. a] = [d. give 2k − 1 > n positive integers. then 3a1 = 2t1 3A1 ≤ 2n. we see that all the Ak are different. shows that for k = (n + 1)/2 the result is false. This implies that l < 4 and so n < 49. . a j ] = 2t1 3A1 = 3a1 ≤ 2n. c. Since 3A1 would then be an odd number < 2n. n ) = K. n+1 . 1980) Derive a formula for the number of quadruples (a. n. Moreover. 24. 8. Hence pk1 +1 pk2 +1 · · · pl l ≤ K 2 and thus nl/2 < K 2 . 130 Example (Irving Kaplansky) A positive integer n has the property that for 0 < l < m < n. where k > a1 + a j = ar is soluble. Let lcm(1. d] = [c. we see that the only valid values for n are n = 2. and n must equal s for at least two of the four numbers. Let p1 = 2. By hypothesis. each of a.

(Hint: Look at the largest power of 3 ≤ n). 1.7 (AIME 1987) Find the number of ordered triples (a.12 Let 2 = p1 .3. Find the number of ways of following property: if 1 ≤ t ≤ n and (t. Factorisations differing in order are considered the same. . 1 ≤ k≤ j 2. Problem 4.1 Prove that log10 7 is irrational.5 Prove that the sum 1/3 + 1/5 + 1/7 + · · ·+ 1/(2n + 1) is never an integer. 3. Problem 4.3. perfect cubes. n+1 Problem 4. r = 4r ways of choosing exactly three to have exponent 3 Ç å 4 r and = 1 of choosing the four to have exponent r. There is a t. b] = 1000. The required formula is thus (1 + 4r + 6r2)(1 + 4s + 6s2). 1 2 1 2 the p’s being different primes.3. are not perfect squares. Practice Problem 4. .3. . There is a j. Answer: 2t−1 − 1.3. Set N1 = p1 p2 · · · p j−1 − 1. The s above is > 4 and so ps−1 − 2 ≥ s and p1 p2 · · · ps < ps+1 · · · pn . p2 < p1 · · · pn . . . at be natural numbers.11 (USAMO 1973) Show that the cube roots of three distinct prime numbers cannot be three terms (not necessarily consecutive) of an arithmetic progression. and hence pn+1 < p1 p2 · · · ps . then t is prime.3. pn fail to divide t p1 p2 · · · ps−1 − 1. .3 Find the smallest positive integer such that n/2 is a square and n/3 is a cube.2 Prove that log 3 log 2 is irrational. . Answer: t (1 + min(ak .3. .3. 1 ≤ t ≤ ps . Factorisations differing in order are considered the same. (Bonse’s Inequality) For n ≥ 4. such that all of p1 . . Problem 4. .6 Find min 36k − 5k . .3. pt be different primes and Problem 4.9 Let p1 .3. Find the number of the common factors of m and n. Problem 4. . and Prove N p j = p j p1 p2 · · · p j−1 − 1 (Hint: Why is 36k − 1 − 5k = 0?) Problem 4. Answer: 3.8 Find the number of ways of factoring 1332 as the product of two positive relatively prime factors each greater than 1. Each pi . Let s be the smallest j for which p j > n − j + 1.46 Chapter 4 Ç å 4 of choosing exactly two of the four numbers to have exponent r. n) = 1. divides at most one of the N pk . . Problem 4. k=1 Problem 4.4 How many integers from 1 to 1020 inclusive. or perfect ﬁfth powers? Problem 4. N2 = 2p1 p2 · · · p j−1 − 1. . c] = 2000. . Similarly. p2 .3.3. . j ≤ i ≤ n. be the primes in their natural order and suppose that n ≥ 10 and that 1 < j < n. b. c) of positive integers for which [a. 4. bk )). c] = [a. Problem 4. .13 Prove that 30 is the only integer n with the a1 . [b. k≥1 factoring pa1 pa2 · · · ptat as the product of two positive relatively 1 2 prime factors each greater than 1. 5.10 Let n = pa1 pa2 · · · ptat and m = pb1 pb2 · · · ptbt .3. 1 < j < n. for which p j > n − j + 1. a2 . Problem 4. Thus there is a total of 1 + 4r + 6r2 of choosing at least two of the 4 four numbers to have exponent r. 3 = p2 . there are 1 + 4s + 6s2 ways of choosing at least two of the four numbers to have exponent s.

Prove that if n is odd. Is there an inﬁnite set S of distinct positive integers such that the geometric mean of any ﬁnite subset of S is an Problem 4.Practice Problem 4. 0. xn each of which √ √ is equal to ±1.3. b.19 Prove that from any one hundred integers it √ √ is always possible to choose several numbers (or perhaps.17 Prove that from any sequence formed by arranging in a certain way the numbers from 1 to 101.16 (E˝ tv˝ s 1906) Let a1 . b. . . is 2. . . . (Putnam 1980) Let a. it is alinteger. Problem 4. whose difference.14 (USAMO 1984) 1. Sn is an integer? 47 2. (Putnam 1980) Prove that there exist integers a. n. . . Prove that Problem 4. . whose sum. ways possible to choose 11 numbers (which must not necessarily be consecutive members of the sequence) which form an Problem 4. not all zero and each of absolute value less than a million.3. . c) = (0. 3. ways to choose two. then n is a multiple of 4.3. triplet of integers (a. 0) for which √ √ Problem 4.3. . b. b. number) whose sum is divisible by 100. . (Putnam 1955) Prove that there is no increasing or a decreasing sequence.3. or else. such that Problem 4.3.3. a2 . not all zero and each of absolute value less than a million. c. For which positive product integers n is there a ﬁnite set Sn of n distinct positive (a1 − 1)(a2 − 2) · · · (an − n) integers such that the geometric mean of any subset of is an even number. .20 Given n numbers x1 . x2 . c). divisible by 100. the x1 x2 + x2 x3 + · · · + xn x1 = 0. 2. one |a + b 2 + c 3| < 10−11 . an be any pero o mutation of the numbers 1.18 Prove that from any ﬁfty two integers it is ala + b 2 + c 3 = 0. c be integers. . except for (a.15 1. prove that if |a + b 2 + c 3| > 10−21 .

Proof: Set d = (a. 0 < r3 < r2 . This completes the proof. 158). r3 ) = · · · = (rn−1 . . to be proved below. c|(a + nb). (88. 0 < r2 < b. Thus d is a common divisor of both (a + nb) and b. 0 < rn < rn−1 . 70) = (16. It is called the Euclidean Algorithm and it is described as follows. and cannot contain more than b positive terms. since b. 88) = (18. As d|a. then (a. 48 . b be positive integers. 158 + 88) = (88. rn−2 rn−1 = = = . then rn = (a. . = = bq1 + r2 . . This implies that d|c. (158. by the preceding example. 246) = (158. r3 . b).1) The sequence of remainders will eventually reach a rn+1 which will be zero. Let a. . Now. 158) = (70. 134 Theorem Prove that if a. Solution: (3456. . 246) = (13 · 246 + 158. 0 < r4 < r3 . that (a. . (5. The Euclidean Algorithm rests on the fact. . is a monotonically decreasing sequence of integers. . b). rn−1 qn−1 + rn rn qn . 246) = 2. 246) = (158. . b). Finally. n are positive integers. r2 . 246). we ﬁnd the sequence of equalities a b r2 . Hence (3456. Thus c is a common divisor of a and b. it follows that d|(a + nb). b). rn ) = rn . c|b imply that c|((a + nb) − nb) = a. 136 Theorem If rn is the last non-zero remainder found in the process of the Euclidean Algorithm. 18) = (2. 246).Chapter 5 Linear Diophantine Equations 5. implying that c|d. b) = (b. . r2 q2 + r3 r3 q3 + r4 . c = (a + nb. r2 ) = (r2 . . b. 16) = 2. On the other hand. u 135 Example Use Theorem ?? to ﬁnd (3456. .1 Euclidean Algorithm We now examine a procedure that avoids factorising two integers in order to obtain their greatest common divisor. d|b. After using the Division Algorithm repeatedly. b) = (a + nb.

23(−35) + 29(28) = 7. An equation which requires integer solutions is called a diophantine equation. Multiplying both sides of this equality by 7. . Upon iterating the process. From the ﬁrst equation. . rn |b. . From the second equation. This gives the desired result.Euclidean Algorithm Proof: From equations ?? r2 r3 r4 . 6 = 29 · 1 − 23. we see that the linear diophantine equation ax + by = c has a solution in integers if and only if (a. Solution: We have 29 = 1 · 23 + 6. r|r2 . 138 Example Find integers x. = a − bq1 b − r2q2 r2 − r3 q3 . thus (23. 29) by means of the Euclidean Algorithm. rn |r2 . b). Solution: We work upwards. b). rn−2 − rn−1 qn−1 49 Let r = (a. which solves the problem. Thus rn is a common divisor of a and b and so rn |(a. Solution: From the preceding example. By the Bachet-Bezout Theorem. . rn |rn−2 . rn = = = . . . . The last non-zero remainder is 1. u 137 Example Find (23. b)|c. 23 = 3 · 6 + 5. 29) = 1. r|r3 . 23x + 29y = 7. y = 4. 6−1·5 6 − 1 · (23 − 3 · 6) 4 · 6 − 1 · 23 4(29 · 1 − 23) − 1 · 23 4 · 29 − 5 · 23. The Euclidean Algorithm is an efﬁcient means to ﬁnd a solution to this equation. . we see that r|rn . 1 = = = = = This solves the equation. . 5 = 5 · 1. Hence. 23(−5) + 29(4) = 1. we see that rn |rn−1 . y that satisfy the linear diophantine equation 23x + 29y = 1. 6 = 1 · 5 + 1. . 139 Example Find integer solutions to 5 = 23 − 3 · 6. But starting at the last equation ?? and working up. with x = −5. rn |a. starting from the penultimate equality in the preceding problem: 1 = 6 − 1 · 5.

As ax0 + by0 = c also. (3456. d d that is. 8173826342) . t ∈ Z.2 Solve the following linear diophantine equations.1. (8098643070. b. 246) = 2 and 2 |73. b) and t ∈ Z. 141 Example Can you ﬁnd integers x. d d Since (a/d. From this b a a ′ (x − x0 ) = t .1. Let (x′ . Thus there is an integer t such that t = y0 − y′ . Let us prove that any solution will have this form. y such that 3456x + 246y = 73? Solution: No. This ﬁnishes the proof. y′ ) satisfy ax′ + by′ = c. 987) 2.1 Find the following: 1. a ′ b (x − x0 ) = (y0 − y′ ). y = 4 − 23t. (34567. y0 ) of the linear diophantine equation ax + by = c any other solution of this equation will have the form b a x = x0 + t . b)|c. Practice Problem 5.t ∈ Z. provided solutions exist: 4. By Theorem ??. y = y0 − ta/d is also a solution. Proof: It is clear that if (x0 . all the solutions are given by x = −1 + 123t. d d d which is to say x′ = x0 + tb/d. u 143 Example Find all solutions in integers to 3456x + 246y = 234. y = 15 − 1728t. 600) 3. (560. a a |(y0 − y′ ). Solution: By inspection. y = y0 − t . Then given any solution (x0 . Dividing by d = (a. b/d) = 1. Solution: By Example ??. b). the pair x0 = −5. y0 ) is a solution of ax + by = c. d d where d = (a. (4554. in virtue of Euclid’s Lemma. then x = x0 + tb/d. We can ﬁnd a family of solutions by letting x = −5 + 29t. 36) Problem 5. c are integers such that (a. 142 Theorem Assume that a. we have a(x′ − x0 ) = b(y0 − y′ ). 3456(−1) + 246(15) = 234. y = y0 − ta/d. y0 = 4 is a solution.50 140 Example Find inﬁnitely many integer solutions to Chapter 5 23x + 29y = 1.

n) mutually incongruent solutions. If each banana costs $0. Then x = = ≡ x0 + n(qd + r)/d x0 + nq + nr/d x0 + nr/d mod n. It is clear then that the congruence ax ≡ b mod n has a solution if and only if (a. .78 for some bananas and eggs. If x = x0 + nt ′ /d is any other solution. 0). 1. = 5−2·2 = 7 − 5 · 1.u 145 Example Find all solutions to the congruence 5x ≡ 3 mod 7 Solution: Notice that according to Theorem ??.3 Prove that the area of the triangle whose vertices are (0. 146 Example Solve the congruence 5·1+2 2·2+1 2 · 1.Linear Congruences 1. Whence 3 = 5(9) − 7(6). n) − 1). 2 51 Problem 5. 7) = 1. where x0 . If the congruence ax ≡ b mod n has a solution.35. Thus if there is a solution to the congruence. 1 2 which gives 1 = 5 − 2 · 2 = 5 − 2(7 − 5 · 1) = 5 · 3 − 7 · 2. .1. as (5. 0 ≤ t ≤ d − 1. By the Euclidean Algorithm 7 = 5 = 2 = Hence. n). Letting t take on the values t = 0. . . Thus x ≡ 2 mod 7. we write t ′ as t ′ = qd + r. Hence.69 and each egg costs $0. b. Proof: From Theorem ?? we know that the solutions of the linear diophantine equation ax + ny = b have the form x = x0 + nt/d.1. the congruencial equation in x. ((a. (b. This gives 5 · 9 ≡ 3 mod 7 which is the same as 5 · 2 ≡ 3 mod 7. 3456x + 246y = 44 3. y) is |by − ax| . there should only be one solution mod 7. n)|b. 144 Theorem Let a. y = y0 − at/d. 3x ≡ 6 mod 12.4 A woman pays $2. (x. since the absolute difference between any two of them is less than n. then there are d incongruent solutions mod n. Thus every solution of the congruence ax ≡ b mod n is congruent mod n to one and only one of the d values x0 + nt/d. 24x + 25y = 18 2. y0 satisfy ax0 + ny = b.t ∈ Z. We ﬁrst solve the linear diophantine equation 5x + 7y = 1. d = (a. then it has (a.2 Linear Congruences We recall that the expression ax ≡ b mod n means that there is t ∈ Z such that ax = b + nt. a). n be integers. 1998x + 2000y = 33 Problem 5. n) incongruent solutions mod n. we obtain (a. how many eggs and how many bananas did the woman buy? 5. 0 ≤ r < d. ax ≡ b mod n is soluble if and only if the linear diophantine equation ax + ny = b is soluble.

149 Theorem (Frobenius) Let a. s equals (a − 1)(b − 1)/2. n) mod n . then x ≡ y mod n. By inspection we see that x = 2 is a solution. 6. there is always an integer solution to ax + by = n regardless of the integer n. 147 Theorem Let x. If (a. the three incongruent solutions modulo 12 are t = 2. all the solutions are thus of the form x = 2 + 4t. n) mod Proof: If ax ≡ ay mod n then a(x − y) = sn for some integer s. n) ax ≡ ay mod an .52 Chapter 5 Solution: As (3. 1.1 Solve the congruence 50x ≡ 12 mod 14. n) (a. 38 ≤ x ≤ 289 satisfy 3x ≡ 8 mod 11? 5. n) divides a. .u Theorem ?? gives immediately the following corollary. We now add a few theorems and deﬁnitions that will be of use in the future. n). 148 Corollary If ax ≡ ay mod n and (a. b) = 1. n/(a. n) upon multiplying by a. the congruence has three mutually incongruent solutions. By letting t = 0. (a. n) = 1.t ∈ Z. (a. b) = d > 1 then the linear form ax + by skips all non-multiples of d.2. 10. This implies that x≡y Conversely if x ≡ y mod n implies (a.2. If (a.2 How many x. This gives the required result. n be non-zero integers. we must have n |(x − y). the above congruence implies a fortiori that ax − ay = tn for some integer t. b be positive integers. (a. 12) = 3 and 3|6. (a. y be integers and let a. Then ax ≡ ay if and only if x≡y mod n n . 2. n)) = 1 by Theorem ??. Problem 5. (a. This yields (x − y) a n =s . We will prove the following theorem of Frobenius that tells un when we will ﬁnd nonnegative solutions to ax + by = n. n) by Euclid’s Lemma (Lemma ??). Practice Problem 5. As (a. b) = 1 then the number of positive integers m that cannot be written in the form ar + bs = m for nonnegative integers r.3 A theorem of Frobenius If (a. n) Since (a/(a. By Theorem ??.

We claim that no two distinct multiples of b.. so is n + ka. there are inﬁnitely many such integers. 152 Example (AIME. two numbers on the same column are congruent mod a. 1971) A game of solitaire is played as follows. Clearly. . according to the outcome. Solution: The attainable scores are the nonnegative integers of the form ax + by. 3a − 1 . The columns of this array are arithmetic progressions with common difference a. k .. Consider the inﬁnite array 0 1 2 .. By Theorem ??. By Corollary ?? we obtain v ≡ y mod a. If this were so then we would have vb ≡ wb mod a. (a − 1)(b − 1) = 70 = 2(35) = 5(14) = 7(10). If n > ab −a −b.. It has been noticed that there are thirty ﬁve non-attainable scores and that one of these is 58. b) = 1 yield the two possibilities a = 71. 0 ≤ v ≤ a − 1. b = 2 and a = 11. . vb and wb with 0 ≤ v. a 2 as we wanted to show. Clearly all multiples of b are attainable. (a. s with ar + bs = n. . y for n = ab −a −b... The unique solution is a = 11. . Hence. 1994) Ninety-four bricks. the ﬁrst alternative is dismissed. and his score accumulates from play to play. a + k . . .. Hence (a. Each brick can be oriented so it contributes 4′′ or 10′′ or 19′′ to the total height of the tower. Find a and b. which gives the following theorem. Since (a. Since 0 ≤ v. As 58 = 0 · 71 + 2 · 29. b be relatively prime positive integers. then the equation is soluble in nonnegative integers.. if n is attainable. b ∈ N. w ≤ a − 1. . b = 8. b) > 1.. −1) and (−2. The numbers directly below a number n have the form n + ka where k is a natural number.. w ≤ a − 1 can belong to the same column. Therefore. (a. Now we show that any number directly above one of the multiples vb.. Then the equation ax + by = n is unsoluble in nonnegative integers x. hence the greatest value that is not attainable is (a − 1)b − a.A theorem of Frobenius Proof: Let us say that an integer n is attainable if there are nonnegative integers r. then ax+ by = vb −ka for some nonnegative integers x. On the other hand. After each play. a − 1 a a + 1 a + 2 . . Therefore we deduce vb ≡ bv − ka ≡ ax + by mod a which yields bv ≡ by mod a... This contradicts the fact that 0 ≤ y < v < a. . b) = 1 we invoke Corollary 5. Thus the number of unattainable numbers is precisely the numbers that occur just above a number of the form vb. 150 Theorem Let a.. If (a..... If vb −ka were attainable. 151 Example (Putnam. the number of non-attainable scores is (a − 1)(b − 1)/2. 10) and thus it does not pass through a lattice point in the ﬁrst quadrant. there are (vb − j)/a values above vb. Now. This implies that y ≡ v mod b.u The greatest unattainable integer occurs just above (a − 1)b. 0 ≤ v ≤ a − 1 is non-attainable. each measuring 4′′ × 10′′ × 19′′ . . How many different tower heights can be achieved using all 94 of the bricks? . 2a − 1 2a 2a + 1 2a + 2 . we must have v = w. y. the player receives either a or b points. implying thus that if an integer n is attainable so is every integer directly below it.. b) = 1. The line 11x + 8y = 58 passes through (6. .1 to deduce v − w ≡ 0 mod a. . are to be stacked one on top of another to form a tower 94 bricks tall. For a number directly above vb is of the form vb −ka for some natural number k. a > b).. Hence a(v − w) ≡ 0 mod a. This yields by ≤ ax + by = vb − ka < vb. Hence the number of unattainable numbers is given by a−1 a−1 v=0 j=0 53 vb − j (a − 1)(b − 1) = . b = 8. 0 ≤ y < v < a. The conditions a > b. 2a + k . on the j-th column.

3. y + z ≤ 94. 3. n. x ≥ 0. which leads to r1 |11as1 and so r1 |s1 .54 Chapter 5 Solution: Let there be x. n ≤ 180. y. 1991) = 1 satisﬁes (∗) with b = 1 and M such that mn is of the form mn ≡ 181 mod 11. 468. c be pairwise relatively of nonnegative solutions to the equation ax + by = n is equal prime integers. b) = 1. y) satisfying number of nonnegative solutions to x ≥ 0. 1991) = 1.3. Letting x = 94 − y − z. and the number of different sums is 471 − 6 = 465.3. a ≥ 1. s1 |r1 . Then every integer n. b) = 1. namely n = 1 and n = 3. each ≤ 8. r) = (b. we count the number of different nonnegative integral solutions to the inequality 376 + 3(2y + 5z) ≤ 1786. b ≥ 1. z ≥ 0. 463. n a b n a b = + does the trick. n→∞ lim S(n) . n Problem 5.3.3 Let a > 0. y ≥ 0. Now. We are asking for the number of different sums 4x + 10y + 19z with the constraints x ≥ 0. b ≥ 1. Thus of the 471 nonnegative integers n ≤ 470. but 170m < 181. s < 1991. By Theorem ?? there are (3 − 1)(5 − 1)/2 = 4 exceptions. for we would have 170 ≡ 181b mod 11. say. 468. z ≥ 0. The answer is thus 170/1991. Let (n. and 19′′ respectively. ax + by ≤ c.) . (a. Using x = 96 −x−y. 466. that is 2y + 5z ≤ 470. but then n would not be of the form n ≡ 181 mod 11. y ≥ 0. b > 0.5 (IMO.1 Let a. b. 466. Solution: (a) If (∗) holds then But n = 170 does not satisfy (∗). 10′′ . 2. Practice Problem 5. Problem 5. Let S(n) denote the there are at least c2 /2ab pairs of integers (x. 0 ≤ n ≤ 470 except for 1. namely n = 1. mn = 11a + 181b. Find the largest positive rational with denominator 1991 that cannot be written as the sum of two positive rationals each with denominators less than 1991. For mn > 181 except if m = 1. we may suppose r = 181r1 .2 (AIME. 4. Then the number Problem 5. This means that 463. Prove that 1991 only if there exist integers m. b with (∗) 1 ≤ m ≤ 10.4 Let a. 1991 181m 11m 1991 r s and r. y + z ≤ 94. x + y + z = 94. a. 1983) Let a. b ∈ N. (a. and (∗) follows. 153 Example n is the sum of two positive integers with denominator < 1991 if an 1. c be positive real numbers. s) = 1. which yields b ≥ m. and 469 are not representable in the form 4x + 10y + 19z. Demonstrate that 2abc − ab − bc − ca is the to largest integer not of the form n n [ ] or [ ] + 1. 1995) What is largest positive integer Evaluate that is not the sum of a positive integral multiple of 42 and a positive composite integer? ax + by = n.3. Prove that Problem 5. and 469 can be thus represented. z bricks of height 4′′ . every integer ≥ (2 − 1)(5 − 1) = 4 can be written in the form 2y + 5z. b. s = 11s1 and then nr1 s1 = 11as1 + 181br1. y ≥ 0. Conversely. Similarly. (Hint: [s] − [t] = [s − t] or [s − t] + 1. we see that 469 can be written in the form n = 2y+ 5z. so b ≡ m mod 11. (a. 4x + 10y + 19z ≤ 19 · 94 = 1786. 4 ≤ n ≤ 470 will be “good” only if we have 470 − n = 3x + 5z. if = + for a. (b) Any n > 170. ab ab bcx + acy + abz. (n. 7. and the number of exceptions is (2 − 1)(5 − 1)/2 = 2. whence r1 = s1 = m. By Theorem ??. 2.

This means that x ≡ −37 ≡ 18 mod 55. Thus all n ≡ 106 mod 140 will 156 Theorem (Chinese Remainder Theorem) Let m1 . 154 Example Find x such that x≡3 mod 5 and x ≡ 7 mod 11. One veriﬁes that all the numbers x = 18 + 55t. mod 140. . . . each exceeding 1.t ∈ Z. we have 5x = 35 + 55b. i. mod 5. 1 ≤ j ≤ k. x has a unique solution modulo m1 m2 · · · mk . and leaves remainder 4 when divided by 11. Then the system of congruences x x . .t ∈ Z verify the given congruences. and let a1 . 155 Example Find a number n such that when divided by 4 leaves remainder 2. As x = 7 + 11b. The method is credited to the ancient Chinese. we have n ≡ 3(35n − 28n) − 20n ≡ 3(70 − 28) − 20 ≡ 106 mod 140. mod 7.. One may check that x = 147 satisﬁes the requirements. we have 11x = 33 + 55a. Let Q j be the inverse of Pj mod m j . m2 . . x ≡ 4 mod 11. This implies that do. ≡ ≡ . . . We will develop a method to solve congruences like this one. x ≡ 0 mod 7. . This number clearly satisﬁes the conditions of the theorem. when divided by 5 leaves remainder 1.e. is divisible by 7. mod 140. ak mod m1 mod m2 mod mk Proof: Set Pj = m1 m2 · · · mk /m j .Chinese Remainder Theorem 55 5. . Form the number x = a1 P1 Q1 + a2 P2 Q2 + · · · + ak Pk Qk . . The uniqueness of the solution modulo m1 m2 · · · mk can be easily established. Pj Q j ≡ 1 mod m j . In the language of congruences we are seeking x such that x ≡ 2 mod 5. mk be pairwise relatively prime positive integers. Solution: Since x = 3 + 5a. Solution: We want n such that n≡ 2 n≡ 1 n≡ 1 35n ≡ 28n ≡ 20n ≡ 70 28 20 mod 4. which we know exists since all the mi are pairwise relatively prime. mod 140. and that in fact. ≡ a1 a2 . Thus x = 11x − 10x = 33 − 70 + 55a − 110b. . a2 . .4 Chinese Remainder Theorem In this section we consider the case when we have multiple congruences. ak be arbitrary integers. As n = 21n − 20n. so does the parametric family x = 147 + 385t. u . and it is thus called the Chinese Remainder Theorem. and when divided by 7 leaves remainder 1. Consider the following problem: ﬁnd an integer x which leaves remainder 2 when divided by 5.

p2 . . 2 2 mod p1000000. Do there exist fourteen consecutive positive integers each of which is divisible by one or more primes p. . . x ≡ −1 mod 4. 2 ≤ p ≤ 13? . . . each of which is divisible by the square of a prime. The numbers x + 1. By the Chinese Remainder Theorem. x + 2. x ≡ 2 mod 5 2.2 (USAMO 1986) 1. . . Do there exist twenty-one consecutive integers each of which is divisible by one or more primes p.56 157 Example Can one ﬁnd one million consecutive integers that are not square-free? Chapter 5 Solution: Yes. . 2 ≤ p ≤ 11? 2. x ≡ 0 mod 11 Problem 5. x ≡ ≡ .4. p1000000 be a million different primes.1 Solve the following systems: 1. . x x . Let p1 . 3x ≡ 2 mod 9. ≡ −1 −2 . −1000000 mod p2 . . 4x ≡ 3 mod 7. 1 mod p2 . .4. . . . . . 5x ≡ 2 mod 8. there exists a solution to the following system of congruences. Practice Problem 5. x ≡ 10 mod 11 3. x + 1000000 are a million consecutive integers. .

0 ≤ {x} < 1. Thus x satisﬁes the inequalities x − 1 < x ≤ x. α + β . 0 ≤ Θ < 1. we deduce by (1) that α = n α /n + nθ = n α /n + nθ . This means that m − a = α . From the inequalities α − 1 < α ≤ α . Since n α /n is an integer. Then 1. we obtain α α = + Θ. 2. Now. it must be less than or equal to the integral part of α + β . 0 ≤ nθ ≤ nθ < n. a ∈ Z. can also be written as x ≤ x < x + 1.Chapter 6 n∈Z Number-Theoretic Functions 6. and ||x|| = min |x − n| to denote the distance of a real number to its nearest integer. A useful fact is that we can write any real number x in the form x = x + {x}. Write α /n as α /n = α /n + θ . which. of course. α + β is less than the integer α + β + 2. Also. Since α + β is an integer less than or equal to α + β . 2. to denote the fractional part of x. but α + β < α + β + 2 yields α + β ≤ α + β + 1. Then m ≤ α + a < m + 1. and so 0 ≤ nθ /n < 1. The fact that x is the unique integer satisfying these inequalities. i. β − 1 < β ≤ β we get α + β − 2 < α + β ≤ α + β . We obtain thus α + β ≤ α + β .1 Greatest Integer Function The largest integer not exceeding x is denoted by x or x . 0 ≤ θ < 1. We also call this function the ﬂoor function. Hence m − a ≤ α < m − a + 1. is often of use. u 57 . n n This yields the required result. This proves the inequalities. so its integer part α + β must be less than α + β + 2. β ∈ R. We also utilise the notation {x} = x − x . 3.e. The greatest integer function enjoys the following properties: 158 Theorem Let α . which is what we wanted. 3. n ∈ N. α +a = α +a α = n α n α + β ≤ α +β ≤ α + β +1 Proof: 1. If we let Θ = nθ /n. Let m = α + a .

So all the integers with the required property are the . We divide [0. In order to prove the claim.58 159 Example Find a non-zero polynomial P(x. 1). then [2t] = 1. we observe that x has unit period. 1/3) ∪ [1/3. If m ≥ 2n +1. Solution: We claim that 3[2t] − 2[3t] = 0. y) = (3x − 2y)(3x − 2y − 1)(3x − 2y + 1)(3x − 2y + 2). 160 Example Describe all integers n such that 1 + √ 2n 2n. If t ∈ [2/3. then 2t = 1. and so 3 2t − 2 3t = 1. 2/3) ∪ [2/3. [3t] = 1. If m ≤ √2n − 1 then 2n ≤ ( 2n − 1)( 2n + 1) = 2n 2 − 1 ≤ 2n − 1 < 2n. If t ∈ [1/3. so it is enough to prove the claim for t ∈ [0. another contradiction. (1 (1 √ n √ n √ n whence (1 + √2) + (1 − 2) = (1 + 2)n . 1) as [0. 1/2) then [3t] = 1 and [2t] = 0. 2k k √ √ (1 + 2)n + (1 − 2)n = 2 0≤k≤n/2 √ √ √ √ an even integer. 2/3). 1). It must be the case that m = 2n . let n = triangular numbers. then both 2t and 3t are = 0. √ √ (6 + 35)1980 + (6 − 35)1980 = 2k. √ √ √ √ √ 2n ). and 3 2t − 2 3t = −1. Since −1 < 1 − 2 < 0. If t ∈ [0. and for n even 2N := (1 + 2)n + (1 − 2) = (1 + 2)n + 1. Solution: Reasoning as in the preceding problem. a Solution: Let 2n = m(1 + √ √ 2 2 contradiction. . y) such that Chapter 6 P( 2t . 1) = [0. 162 Example Prove that the ﬁrst thousand digits after the decimal point in √ (6 + 35)1980 are all 9’s. Thus for odd n. Conversely. If t ∈ [1/2. 3t = 2. Since l < 2n < l + 1. We can then take P(x. l = 2 161 Example Prove that the integers with n a nonnegative integer. (1 + 2)n − 1 <√ + 2)n + (1 − 2)n < √ + 2)n . 1/3). Solution: By the Binomial Theorem Ä √ än 1+ 2 Ç å n (2) := 2N. 3t ) = 0 for all real t. always even. are alternately even or odd. and so (1 + 2)n = 2N − 1. 1). then 2n ≥ ( 2n +1) ≥ 2n+1. always odd for even n. 1/2) ∪ [1/2. and so 3 2t − 2 3t = 0. and so 3 2t − 2 3t = −2.√ respectively. ±1 or −2. √ √ l(l + 1) 2n . it must be the case that (1 − 2)n is the fractional part of (1 + 2)n or (1 + 2)n + 1 √ √ √ √ depending on whether n is odd or even.

with 0 ≤ j − k − 1 ≤ k − 1 < k + 1. Solution: Observe that a = b if and only if ∃k ∈ Z with a. . But 0 < 6 − 35 < 1/10. 2 2 2 . that is to say. 164 Example Find a formula for the n-th non-square.Greatest Integer Function 59 √ √ 1 < 6 − 35. the set A of all the m with excess j. upon squaring 3500 < 3481. As m = k. we have nothing to prove. f ( f ( f (m))). f (m) = k2 + j + k = (k + 1)2 + j − k − 1. Hence. k + 1) which happens if and only if |a − b| < 1. Split the m’s into two sets. f ( f (m)). so √ √ 4n + 2 = 4n + 3 . Thus the n-th non-square is Tn = n + n + 1/2 . it is easy to see that √ √ n+ n+1 = 4n + 2 . (1 − 5)] ∪ [ (1 + 17). 0 ≤ j ≤ 2k. . these inequalities imply m2 − m + < n < m2 + m + . Assume that m ∈ B. We have then m2 < n + m < (m + 1)2 or m2 − m < n < m2 + m + 1. √ It is thus enough to consider the alternative m ∈ A. √ Observe that k2 ≤ m < (k + 1)2 = k2 + 2k + 1. At each iteration the excess will reduce and eventually it will hit 0. k < j < 2k + 1. m2 − m. . Solving these inequalities it is easy to see that the solution is thus √ √ √ 1 1 1 x ∈ (−1. There is a natural number m such that m2 < Tn < (m + 1)2 . This means that f ( f (m)) is either a square or f ( f (m)) ∈ A with an excess j − 1 smaller than the excess j of m. contains at least one square of an integer. in which case m + k = k and f ( f (m)) = f (m + k) = m + 2k = (k + 1)2 + j − 1. the given equation has a solution if and only if |x2 − 2x − 2| < 1. 163 Example (Putnam 1948) If n is a positive integer. (m − 1/2)2 < 4 4 √ √ 1 2 n < (m + 1/2) . f (m). whence we reach a square. b ∈ [k. (for if 10 √ hence 0 < (6 − 35)1980 < 10−1980 which yields √ 1 2k − 1 + 0. 9 = 2k − 1980 < (6 + 35)1980 < 2k. . If j = 0. Neither 4n + 2 nor 4n + 3 are squares since squares are either congruent to 0 or 1 mod 4. Solution: Let m = k2 + j. and an even integer. 10 1979 nines This proves the assertion of the problem. which is clearly nonsense).9 . Prove that for every positive integer m. As there are m squares less than Tn and n non-squares up to Tn . 166 Example Solve the equation x2 − x − 2 = x . This means that either f (m) is a square or f (m) ∈ A. 2 165 Example (Putnam 1983) Let f (n) = n + √ n . . Solution: Let Tn be the n-th non-square. But then m = n + . √ √ √ √ 4n + 1 < n + n + 1 < 4n + 3. 0 ≤ j ≤ k and the set B with all those m’s with excess j. demonstrate that √ Solution: By squaring. and the result follows. the sequence m. we see that Tn = n + m. (1 + 21)). 1 1 Since n. m2 + m + 1 are all integers. for x ∈ R.

1 ≤ k ≤ a − 1 are each on this line. u 168 Example Find the integral part of b−1 1 √ .1. 0 < n < b. (a. n . Now. x k dx √ < x 106 −1 k=1 1 √ . Since there b k=1 are (a − 1)(b − 1) lattice points in total.e. b). i. k k=1 Solution: The function x → x−1/2 is decreasing.1 Prove that for all real numbers x. m a kb kb The points Lk = (k. This rectangle contains (a − 1)(b − 1) xb lattice points. and their number is shared equally by the halves. b 2 Consider the rectangle with vertices at (0. (a. ). 3 106 106 1 6 k+1 k 106 1 dx √ <√ . a contradiction. b).2 If x. i. (0.1. This rectangle is split into two halves by the line y = . points with integer coordinates. b are relatively prime natural numbers then a−1 k=1 Chapter 6 kb = a b−1 k=1 ka (a − 1)(b − 1) = . 0) to (k. For if there were a lattice point n b (m. Hence 1998 + 1/10 < The integral part sought is thus 1998. x + x + y + y ≤ 2x + 2y holds. Thus n/m is a reduction for the irreducible fraction b/a. except for the endpoints. prove that α . k 1 √ < 1999.. ). Problem 6. equals the number of lattice points on the a a a−1 kb kb is the number of lattice points on the lower half of the vertical line that goes from (k. Similarly. a a Proof: k=1 ka rectangle. n). y. the assertion follows.3 If n > 1 is a natural number and α ≥ 1 is a real number. when is it true that x y ≤ xy ? [α ] > Problem 6. 0). equals the number of lattice points on the upper half of the rectangle. 1 √ < k+1 Summing from k = 1 to k = 10 − 1 we deduce 1 √ < k k=2 The integral is easily seen to be 1998. k k=1 106 Practice Problem 6. then = . a We claim that there are no lattice points on this line.1. 0 < m < a. y real numbers. 0).e. Thus for positive integer k.60 167 Theorem If a.

k Problem 6.17 (Circle Problem) Let r > 0 and let T denote √ the number of lattice points of the domain x2 + y2 ≤ r2 .11 If n is a natural number. where the summation runs through all positive integers x not divisible by the mth power of an integer exceeding 1.Practice Problem 6. 4. 2x + 4x + 6x + 8x ? .1. 2.1.10 If a. Prove that n N= k=1 n =2 k √ 1≤k≤ n √ 2 n − n . b.1. b). Prove that an (a − 1)(b − 1) d − 1 = + . .15 (Putnam 1973) Prove that if n ∈ N. Prove that [α ] + [−α ] = −1 or 0 and that α − 2 α /2 = 0 or 1.1. 2k+1 k=0 Problem 6. b.13 Let [α .6 Prove that √ (2 + 3)n is an odd integer.1. Prove that there is a positive integer n such that [nα . b) = 1 and a.1.1.16 (Dirichlet’s principle of the hyperbola) Let N be the number of integer solutions to xy ≤ n. √ 4n + 1 .9 Prove that for all integers m.1. 3.23 (AIME 1985) How many of the ﬁrst thouProblem 6.1. 61 Problem 6. β ] be an interval which contains no sand positive integers can be expressed in the form integers. 5.1. Problem 6.1. Problem 6. x x a + b = c + d.21 For which natural numbers n will 112 divide √ 4n − (2 + 2)n ? Problem 6. n n Problem 6. 4. 4. 2. Prove that … y m for all natural numbers n. min(k + n/k ) = k∈N Problem 6. 25 Problem 6. then an (a − 1)(b − 1) bn + = . Problem 6.5 Let α be a real number. b 2 2 Problem 6. T = 1+4 r +8 Problem 6.1. 4. that r r 2 − x2 + 4 √ 2 . x > 0. 5. y > 0.1. prove that = y . Prove where there are n occurrences of the integer n is 2n + 1/2 . n ∈ N.1. Problem 6.12 Solve the equation x x = .19 (Eisenstein) If (a. 5. Find a formula for the nth non-triangular number. .22 A triangular number is a number of the form 1+2+· · ·+n. evaluate the sum ∞ n + 2k . b are odd.1. n. .1.1.14 (IMO 1968) For every natural number n.1. 3. nβ ] still contains no integers but has length at least 1/6. 1994 1995 Problem 6.1. prove that ab b ≥a . c. 5.20 Let m ∈ N with m > 1 and let y be a positive na + nb = nc + nd real number. 3. prove that n + 2 − n/25 3 = 8n + 24 . 5. b a 4 1≤n≤(b−1)/2 1≤n≤(a−1)/2 Problem 6. n are positive integers.7 Show that the n-th element of the sequence 1.1.18 Let d = (a. n n n Problem 6. d are positive real numbers such that Problem 6.8 Prove Hermite’s Identity: if x is a real number √ 2 0<x≤r 2 and n is a natural number then nx = x + x + 1 2 n−1 + x+ + ···+ x + .4 If a. 1≤n≤b−1 Problem 6. the equality m+n n−m+1 + =n 2 2 holds.

2x... Problem 6. .1. . Find a real number x = 0 such that Problem 6.1.1.1. when n is a natural number. k = 1. ? 1980 1980 1980 Problem 6. 1 3 3 5 5 7 7 9 2 Problem 6. then √ (2 + 5) p − 2 p+1 is divisible by p.33 Prove that √ √ √ √ n+ n+1 = n+ n+2 . 1 n n lim dx = log3 (4/π ).35 (Putnam 1983) Prove that x. f (n) n=1 Problem 6. Can you improve the “gap” between 34 and 79? 2 2 4 4 6 6 8 8 π · · · · · · · ··· = . Problem 6. n→∞ n 1 x 2.. is Tn = n + ln(n + 1 + ln(n + 1) ) . .. 2x.27 (Leningrad Olympiad) How many different integers are there in the sequence 12 22 19802 .1. 79x has a 7 in its decimal expansion.25 Prove that if p is an odd prime. Chapter 6 Problem 6. .32 Prove that Ç 1 (−1) 1994x + 1995x 0 1993 1994x åÇ 1994 1995x å dx = 0. Problem 6.34 (Putnam 1976) Prove that ã Å n 2n −2 = ln 4 − 1. Problem 6. the number of factors contributing a second factor of p is n/p2 . etc.62 Problem 6.1. You may appeal to Wallis Product Formula: 3..1. Prove that for any real number x = 0 at least one of x. 100 k=19 Find the value of 100r .1.30 (AIME 1991) Suppose that r is a real number for which 91 k r+ = 546. pk Proof: The number of integers contributing a factor of p is n/p . .1.1. .2 De Polignac’s Formula We will consider now the following result due to De Polignac. . 2. .26 Prove that the n-th number not of the form ek . lim n→∞ k k 1≤k≤n 6.29 1.1.31 (AIME 1995) Let f (n) denote the integer closest to n1/4.1. 34x have no 7’s in their decimal expansions.28 Let k ≥ 2 be a natural number and x a positive real number.24 (AIME 1987) What is the largest positive integer n for which there is a unique integer k such that 8 n 7 < < ? 15 n + k 13 Problem 6. Prove that » √ k x = k x . 169 Theorem (De Polignac’s Formula) The highest power of a prime p dividing n! is given by ∞ k=1 n . . .u 170 Example How many zeroes are at the end of 300!? . Problem 6. . Find the exact numerical value of 1995 1 .

and so 7 does not divide . Ç 1000 1000! . which establishes the assertion. Since there are more factors of 2 in 300! than factors of 5. Solution: We claim that the least common multiple of the numbers in question is p p n/p . 500 500 Ç å 1000 ? 500 172 Example Let n = n1 + n2 + · · · + nk where the ni are nonnegative integers. For any prime p. we see that the power of any prime dividing the numerator of n! n1 !n2 ! · · · nk ! is at least the power of the same prime dividing the denominator. The power of p dividing n1 !n2 ! · · · nk ! is j≥1 n1 /p j + n2 /p j + · · · nk /p j . Since n1 /p j + n2/p j + · · · + nk /p j ≤ (n1 + n2 + · · · + nk )/p j . Solution: From (3) in Theorem ?? we deduce by induction that a1 + a2 + · · · + al ≤ a1 + a2 + · · · + al . the number of zeroes is thus determined by the highest power of 5 in 300!. k=1 171 Example Does 7 2 Solution: The highest power of 7 dividing into 1000! is 1000/7 + 1000/7å + 1000/73 = 142 + 20 + 2 = 164. the power of p dividing n! is n/p j = j≥1 j≥1 (n1 + n2 + · · · + nk )/p j . Since = (500!)2 500 Ç å Ç å 1000 1000 is 164 − 2 · 82 = 0. p prime . prove that the least common multiple of the products x1 x2 · · · xk (k ≥ 1). 173 Example Given a positive integer n > 3. Prove that the quantity n! n1 !n2 ! · · · nk ! is an integer.De Polignac’s Formula 63 Solution: The number of zeroes is determined by how many times 10 divides into 300. the highest power of 7 that divides the highest power of 7 dividing into 500! is 71 + 10 + 1 = 82. Similarly. By De Polignac’s Formula this is ∞ 300/5k = 60 + 12 + 2 = 74. is less than n!. whose factors xi are the positive integers with x1 + x2 + · · · xk ≤ n.

Prove that 2n prove that the exponent of p in the factorisation of n 5x + 5y ≥ 3x + y + 3y + x . . Practice Problem 6. . Clearly pα1 + · · · + pαk ≤ n and since pα ≥ α p. Two sequences Spec(α ) and Spec(β ) are said to be complementary if they partition the natural numbers. = 1 n+1 2 n 6.6 (USAMO 1975) 1.2. and an arbitrary prime p.64 Chapter 6 Consider an arbitrary product x1 x2 · · · xk .}.. 2α . n + 1) lcm . Spec(α ) ∩ Spec(β ) = ∅ and Spec(α ) ∪ Spec(β ) = N.1 (AHSME 1977) Find the largest possible n such that 10n divides 1005!. Problem 6.11 Prove that ÇÇ å Ç å Ç åå n n n lcm(1. Using the result of part 1 or otherwise. pα j +1 |x j .3 Complementary Sequences Problem 6. k = n/p .2.2. is an integer.e. How many positive integers less than 1992 are not factorial Problem 6.2.3 Find the exponent of the highest power of 24 tails? that divides 300!.. we see that there is at least one product for which equality is achieved.4 Find the largest power of 7 in 300!.2. . 2. 3α . . This proves the claim. i. 6) = 1. prove that (5m)!(5n)! m!n!(3m + n)!(3n + m)! is an integer for all positive integers m.9 Prove that if m and n are relatively prime positive integers then (m + n − 1)! Problem 6.2. we have n . . Ç å 200 ? Ç å 100 √ 2n Problem 6. Problem 6.2. n m n We deﬁne the spectrum of a real number α to be the inﬁnite multiset of integers Spec(α ) = { α .10 If p is a prime divisor of with p ≥ 2n n Ç å Problem 6. (n. then (2n − 4)! n!(n − 2)! Problem 6. Problem 6. The assertion of the problem now follows upon applying De Polignac’s Formula and the claim.5 (AIME 1983) What is the largest two-digit m!n! prime factor of the integer is an integer.2. . .2.. equals 1.2.2. Problem 6.2 Find the highest power of 17 that divides a “factorial tail” if there is some positive integer m such that (17n − 2)! for a positive integer n. 2.12 ProveåÇ å the following result of Catalan: Ç å Ç m+n 2m 2n divides . the base-ten representation of m! ends with exactly n zeroes. . . . p(α1 + · · · αk ) ≤ n or α1 + · · · + αk ≤ p Hence it follows that the exponent of an arbitrary prime p is at most n/p . Suppose that pα j |x j .2.8 (AIME 1992) Deﬁne a positive integer n to be Problem 6.7 Prove that if n > 1. n. But on choosing x1 = · · · = xk = p..

}. . As 1/α + 1/β = 1. it appears that the two sequences √ Spec( 2) = {1. 30. whence α > 1 (and so β > 1 also). 27. 1926) If α > 1 is irrational and 1 1 + = 1. Thereby we leave the integers 1. lim n→∞ n 1 but since ( n/α + n/β ) → 1/α + 1/β as n → ∞. α β then the sequences are complementary. β > 1. the last inequality being strict because both α . 23. 18. then n/α + n/β = 1. . But then τ = (1 + 5)/2. which we call a2 . Thus α and β must be irrational. If Spec(α ) ∩ Spec(β ) is ﬁnite. α β Proof: If both α . 14. Find a formula for an . and √ Spec(2 + 2) = {3. 34.} 65 are complementary. Proof: Since α > 1. it is clear that Spec(α ). . 16. 40. and we delete a3 + 3 = 7. and so are not disjoint. The following theorem establishes a criterion for spectra to be complementary. etc. Thus the next available integer is 4 = a3 . . 44. n + 1) contains exactly one such term. If 0 < α ≤ 1. hence n = [mα ]. 4. 6. as this is true for any N ≥ 1 each interval (n. β are irrational. and the total number of terms not exceeding N taken together in both sequences is N/α + N/β . By Beatty’s Theorem. 19. 21. 7. given n there is an M for which mα − 1 < n ≤ mα . 11. 10. 11. β are rational numbers. But N/α − 1 + N/β − 1 < N/α + [N/β ] < N/α + N/β . u The converse of Beatty’s Theorem is also true. 5.Practice For example. 12. 175 Theorem (Bang’s Theorem. Spec(α ) and Spec(β ) are each sequences of distinct terms. then α . 20. 13. . 9. The next term is 3. and then we delete a2 + 2 = 5. Practice . . Spec(α ) ∩ Spec(β ) = ∅. . 37. u n 176 Example Suppose we sieve the positive integers as follows: we choose a1 = 1 and then delete a1 + 1 = 2. 1957) If the sequences Spec(α ) and Spec(β ) Spec(α ) and Spec(β ) are complementary. 47. Since the sandwiched quantity is an integer. . it follows that 1/α + 1/β = 1. we gather that N −2 < N/α + N/β < N. 174 Theorem (Beatty’s Theorem. 22. It follows that Spec(α ) ∪ Spec(β ) = N. which implies that Spec(α ) = N. . n nτ and nτ + n = n(τ + 1) are complementary if 1/τ + 1/(τ + 1) = 1.. Thus the total number of terms not exceeding N in Spec(α ) and Spec(β ) is N − 1. 12. 51. 8. The n-th term is thus an = nτ . 15. 14. 4. 9. we deduce [N/α ]+ [N/β ] = N −1. 17. 6. 17. Solution: What we are asking for is a sequence {Sn } which is complementary to the sequence {S√+ n}. Spec(β ) eventually contain the same integers. the Golden ratio. 3. 24. 8. β are positive irrational numbers with 1 1 + = 1. 25. 16. 2.

and φ (n) = 1≤k≤n 1. then there is a positive integer a such that f (a) = 0. b) = 1. Let f be multiplicative and let n have the prime factorisation n = pa1 pa2 · · · par . 13. The following functions are of considerable importance in Number Theory: d(n) σ (n) φ (n) the number of positive divisors of the number n. n we say then that f is totally multiplicative. Thus there is a one-to-one correspondence between positive divisors d of ab and pairs d1 . if n = ab.) For example. Proof: Suppose that a. counting multiplicity. 3. the number of primes dividing n. ω (20) = 2. the sum of the positive divisors of n. σ (n) = d|n d. ω (n) = p|n 1. Hence f (a) = f (1 · a) = f (1) f (a) which entails that f (1) = 1.4 Arithmetic Functions An arithmetic function f is a function whose domain is the set of positive integers and whose range is a subset of the complex numbers. b) = 1 then F(n) = d|n f (d) = d1 |a d2 |b f (d1 d2 ). Ω(20) = 3. Then r 1 2 f (n) = f (pa1 ) f (pa2 ) · · · f (par ). σ (20) = 42. (a. we say that f is then a multiplicative function. By the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. 17. For this we need ﬁrst the following result. 7. 11. d2 ) = 1. Hence. the number of distinct prime divisors of n. Ω(n) = pα ||n α. Then F is also multiplicative.3. d2 |b. If f is multiplicative. (d1 . { τ 2 n } are complementary. If f is an arithmetic function which is not identically 0 such that f (mn) = f (m) f (n) for every pair of relatively prime natural numbers m. b are natural numbers with (a. r 1 2 A multiplicative function is thus determined by its values at prime powers.n)=1 (The symbol || in p ||n is read exactly divides and it signiﬁes that pα |n but pα +1 |n. we see that φ (20) = 8. Since f is multiplicative the dextral side of the above equals f (d1 ) f (d2 ) = d1 |a d2 |b d1 |a f (d1 ) d2 |b f (d2 ) = F(a)F(b). If f (mn) = f (m) f (n) for every pair of natural numbers m. 2. 10 and 20 are the divisors of 20. n. We will now show that the functions d and σ are multiplicative. the number of positive integers not exceeding n and relative prime to n. (k. 19 are the positive integers not exceeding 20 and relatively prime to 20. d2 of positive divisors of a and b. α 177 Theorem Let f be a multiplicative function and let F(n) = d|n f (d). { τ τ 2 n }. ω (n) Ω(n) In symbols the above functions are: d(n) = d|n 1. every divisor d of ab has the form d = d1 d2 where d1 |a.1 (Skolem) Let τ = { τ τn 2 Chapter 6 Prove that the three sequences (n ≥ 1) }. be the Golden Problem 6. 5. 4. This completes the proof. 6. we have d(20) = 6.66 √ 1+ 5 Ratio. 9. u . since 1. Since the numbers 1.

. √ n n Solution: Each positive divisor a of n can paired with its complementary divisor . the theorem above shows that d(n) = 1 is a multiplicative function. d(2904) = d(23 · 3 · 112) = d(23 )d(3)d(112 ) = (1 + 3)(1 + 1)(1 + 2) = 24. the condition of being locked or unlocked is changed for all those lockers and only those lockers whose numbers are multiples of k. . q are distinct primes. If p is a prime. As n = a · . j mod j which is what we wanted to prove. It follows that n must divide 180. . 178 Example (AHSME 1993) For how many values of n will an n-sided polygon have interior angles with integral degree measures? (n − 2)180 Solution: The measure of an interior angle of a regular n-sided polygon is . Interchanging the order of summation 1= j≤n k≡0 j≤k≤n j≤n n . The assertion is proved. p and q. 1 ≤ m ≤ n. This gives at most 2 n divisors. p. Solution: Since 6 can be factored as 2 · 3 and 6 · 1. 1 + β = 3 or 1 + α = 6. will be unlocked after n operations if and only if m has an odd number of divisors. Solution: Observe that locker m. . This entails that if n has the prime factorisation n = pa1 pa2 · · · par . the divisors of pa are 1. then r 1 2 d(n) = (1 + a1)(1 + a2) · · · (1 + ar ). Tn whereby with the operation Tk . . 182 Example (Putnam 1967) A certain locker room contains n lockers numbered 1. one of these divisors must be a a √ √ ≤ n. the answer is 16. Prove this mathematically. 1 + β = 1. . We give now some examples pertaining to the divisor function. 2. the desired n must have only two distinct prime factors. . 181 Example Prove that n n d(k) = k=1 j=1 n j Solution: We have n n d(k) = k=1 k=1 j|k 1. 180 Example Find all positive integers n such that d(n) = 6. p2 . . where p. . say. d(m) is odd if and only if m is a perfect square. T2 . totally multiplicative). because n ≥ 3 and so we must exclude the divisors 1 and 2. Now. 1 ≤ k ≤ n. p3 . Thus n = pα qβ and either 1 + α = 2. Since n there are 18 divisors of 180. Hence. . 179 Example Prove that d(n) ≤ 2 n. An attendant performs a sequence of operations T1 . After all the n operations have been performed it is observed that all lockers whose numbers are perfect squares (and only those lockers) are now open or unlocked. pa and so d|n d(pa ) = a + 1. n and are originally locked. n must be of one of the forms pq2 or p5 . . . For example.Arithmetic Functions 67 Since the function f (n) = 1 for all natural numbers n is clearly multiplicative (indeed. .

y = 4s. and 2 p−1 (2 p − 1) is perfect. and so σ (m) = 2s+1 b for some natural number b. 184 Theorem An even number is perfect if and only if it is of the form 2 p−1 (2 p − 1) where both p and 2 p − 1 are primes. For example.u 185 Example Prove that for every natural number n there exist natural numbers x and y such that x − y ≥ n and σ (x2 ) = σ (y2 ). Proof: Suppose that p. Hence (2s+1 − 1)σ (m) = 2s+1 m. We propose to show that b = 1. In all cases d + n/d ≡ 0 mod 3 and mod 8. d ≡ 3. d ≡ 1. b and m. 6 is perfect because 6 = d|6. 10) = 1. n/d ≡ 2 mod 3 or vice versa. One deduces that 2s+1 |σ (m). n Solution: Since 24|n + 1. m odd. Conversely. This means that 2s+1 − 1 is a Mersenne prime and hence s + 1 must be a prime. If p is a prime. Thus b = 1. d|n We say that a natural number is perfect if it is the sum of its proper divisors. the above theorem entails that σ is multiplicative.68 Chapter 6 Since the function f (n) = n is multiplicative (indeed. and so b|m. Prove that the sum of all divisors of n is also divisible by 24. As d ≡ n/d. b = m. a contradiction. Then σ (x2 ) = σ (y2 ) = 31σ (s2 ). Since (2 p−1 . which yields σ (m) ≥ 1 + b + m. 5 or 7 mod 8. whence 24 divides d + n/d. the only possibilities d are d ≡ 1. 183 Example (Putnam 1969) Let n be a positive integer such that 24|n + 1. then clearly σ (pa ) = 1 + p + p2 + · · ·+ pa . As d( ) ≡ −1 mod 3 or mod 8.d=6 d= 1 + 2 + 3. and so m = (2s+1 − 1)b = 2s+1 − 1 is a prime. σ (2 p−1(2 p − 1)) = σ (2 p−1 )σ (2 p − 1) = (1 + 2 + 22 + · · · + 2 p−1)(1 + 2 p − 1) = (2 p − 1)2(2 p−1). n/d ≡ 7 mod 8 or vice versa. 2 p − 1 are primes. namely 1. Write n = 2s m. Also. The following theorem is classical. But then (2s+1 − 1)b = m. no divisor is used twice in the pairing. This implies that 24| d. n/d ≡ 5 mod 8 or vice versa. It is easy to see that a natural number is perfect if and only if 2n = d|n d. Solution: Let s ≥ n. Observe that b + m = (2s+1 − 1)b + b = 2s+1 b = σ (m). since n perfect is. 3. σ (n) = 2n = 2s+1 m. Then σ (2 p − 1) = 1 + 2 p − 1. This entails that if n has the prime factorisation n = pa1 pa2 · · · par . n ≡ 1 or 2 mod 3 and d ≡ 1. (s. Practice . let n be an even perfect number. r 1 2 then 2 σ (n) = (1 + p1 + p1 + · · · + pa1 )(1 + p2 + p2 + · · · + pa2 ) · · · (1 + pr + p2 + · · · + par ). Then σ (n) = σ (2s )σ (m) = (2s+1 − 1)σ (m). then there are at least three divisors of m. 2 p − 1) = 1. We take x = 5s. totally multiplicative). p1 − 1 p2 − 1 pr − 1 We present now some examples related to the function σ . If b = 1. 2 w r r 1 This last product also equals a a p11 +1 − 1 p22 +1 − 1 par +1 − 1 · ··· r .

1995) Let n = 2 3 .19 Show that an odd perfect number must contain one prime factor p such that.20 Prove that every odd perfect number having three distinct prime factors must have two of its prime factors 3 and 5. Problem 6.6 Let d1 (n) = d(n).4.18 Prove that in an odd perfect number. d|n Problem 6. First we need the following deﬁnitions.23 Find the number of sets of positive integers vide n? {a.8 Let n be a perfect number. This requires more work than that done for d and σ .4.4.4.3 Prove that d(2n − 1) ≥ d(n). b. k = 2.4. σ (1024).12 Prove that if n is composite. σ (k) = k=1 j=1 j n . Problem 6. d Problem 6.4. How many positive integer divisors of n2 are less than n but do not di.4.Problem 6.4.2 Describe all natural numbers n such that Problem 6.4. Problem 6.17 Prove that an odd perfect number must have n=1 n=1 at least two distinct prime factors. both p and a are congruent to 1 modulo 4. Problem 6.4.14 Characterise all n for which σ (n) is odd. . Problem 6.4 Prove that d(n) ≤ 3n with equality if and only if n = 12. Reduced Residues 69 Problem 6. Prove that the set A = {n ∈ N : m|d(n)} contains an inﬁnite arithmetic progression. 6.5 Prove that the following Lambert expansion ≥ 1 + + ··· + .4. Problem 6. Problem 6. Problem 6.4.22 Prove that Problem 6.15 Prove that p is a prime if and only if σ (p) = √ 1 + p.21 Prove that there do not exist odd perfect numbers having exactly three distinct prime factors. number has only ﬁnitely many solutions. holds: n! 2 n ∞ ∞ tn d(n)t n = . ω (1024). if the highest power of p occurring in n is pa .9 Prove that d=n d|n d(n)/2 . 6.4.4. 3. .Euler’s Function. only one of its prime factors occurs to an odd power. then σ (n) > Problem √ Ω(1024) and φ (1024).4.11 (AIME. Problem 6. Show that 1 = 2. We will prove now that φ is multiplicative. Reduced Residues Recall that Euler’s φ (n) function counts the number of positive integers a ≤ n that are relatively prime to n.4.4.5 Euler’s Function. n + n. .4. Problem 6.4. k > 1 a ﬁxed natural d(n) = 10. all other prime factors must occur to an even power.16 Prove that 1 1 σ (n!) Problem 6. .4.4. 31 19 n n Problem 6. c} such that a × b × c = 462. dk (n) = d(dk−1 (n)).1 Find the numerical values of d(1024).7 Let m ∈ N be given. Problem 6. Describe dk (n) for sufﬁciently large k.10 Prove that the power of a prime cannot be a perfect number.13 Prove that σ (n) = n + k. all the others occur to an even power. 1 − tn Problem 6. j Problem 6. Problem 6.4.4..

Since (a. . φ (48) = φ (24 · 3) = φ (24 )φ (3) = (24 − 23 )(3 − 1) = 16. a 2a 3a . As k ≡ ma + k mod a.. . 3p. 5.. 1 ≤ k ≤ a. 19.. an integer r is relatively prime to m if and only if it is relatively prime to a and b. The φ (n) integers 1 = a1 < a2 < · · · < aφ (n) = n − 1 less than n and relatively prime to n are called the canonical reduced residues modulo n. . . This means that there are exactly φ (a) columns of integers that are relatively prime to a. There are φ (a) integers relatively prime to a in the ﬁrst row. 23} forms a reduced residue system modulo 12. b − 1. . .70 Chapter 6 186 Deﬁnition Let n > 1.. .... 2. 1. k . if a n = pa1 · · · pk k is the factorisation of n into distinct primes... (a. . b − 1] which implies that |i − j| < b.. the integers p. n > 1 is a set of φ (n) incongruent integers modulo n that are relatively prime to n. the canonical reduced residues mod 12 are 1. ba Now.. 189 Example Let n be a natural number. in some order. We shall determine ﬁrst the number of integers in the above array that are relatively prime to a and ﬁnd out how may of them are also relatively prime to b.. congruent to the integers 0.. We arrange the ab integers 1.. k will have a common factor with a if and only if ma + k does. (b − 1)a + 1 (b − 1)a + 2 (b − 1)a + 3 . and φ (550) = φ (2 · 52 · 11) = φ (2) · φ (52 ) · φ (11) = (2 − 1)(52 − 5)(11 − 1) = 1 · 20 · 10 = 200. . Now i. (n − 1)/n. Proof: Let n be a natural number with n = ab. . We must determine how many of these integers are relatively prime to b... 1 2 3 a+1 a+2 a+3 2a + 1 2a + 2 2a + 3 . . Now consider the k-th column. . For if ia + k ≡ ja + k mod b then a(i − j) ≡ 0 mod b. 2p..... 2a + k . .. . This means that the b integers in any of these φ (n) columns are. 187 Deﬁnition A reduced residue system modulo n. a+k . . . 5. . (b − 1)a + k on the k-th column are congruent modulo b.. Since φ is multiplicative. b) = 1. . .. . 7. . For example. . For example. We are now ready to prove the main result of this section.u If p is a prime and m a natural number. . This means that exactly φ (a)φ (b) integers on the array are relatively prime to ab. we deduce that i − j ≡ 0 mod b thanks to Corollary ??. Thus φ (pm ) = pm − pm−1 . . 0 ≤ m ≤ b − 1. . j ∈ [0. . ab as follows.. This forces i = j. . b) = 1. (b − 1)a + k .. . How many of the fractions 1/n. But exactly φ (b) of these are relatively prime to b.. . 188 Theorem The function φ is multiplicative. We claim that no two integers k. which is what we wanted to show. Each integer on this column is of the form ma + k... n/n are irreducible? n Solution: This number is clearly k=1 φ (k).. 2/n. a + k. pm−1 p are the only positive integers ≤ pm sharing any prime factors with pm . 11 and the set {−11. then 1 a φ (n) = (pa1 − p11 −1 ) · · · (pk k − pk k 1 a a −1 )..

n) = d. 71 a= 1≤a≤n nφ (n) . 2d. . ) = 1. 6) = 1. (a. We then have φ (p) ≤ 2a 3b−1 φ (m) ≤ 2a 3b−1 m = p/3. (a. n) = 1. whence n = φ (d). Then d|n φ (d) = n. . 1 ≤ n − a ≤ n and (n − a. . This implies that (a. (m.n)=1 (a. Note that the elements of Td (n) are found amongst the integers n k n n d. and p > 4. (a. the Td partition the set {1. 2 (a. 193 Example Let n ∈ N. 191 Theorem Let n be a positive integer. d|n We claim that Td (n) has φ (n/d) elements. ab ≥ 1.Euler’s Function. ) = 1.n)=1 whence 2S = 1≤a≤n n = nφ (n).n)=1 The assertion follows. Reduced Residues 190 Example Prove that for n > 1. d. 1 ≤ a ≤ n/d and (k. let Td (n) be the set of positive integers ≤ n whose gcd with n is d. n} and so Td (n) = n. so p = 2a 3b m. .u d|n 192 Example If p − 1 and p + 1 are twin primes. .n)=1 Solution: Clearly if 1 ≤ a ≤ n and (a. . As d varies over the divisors of n. ) = 1. d d d d n Therefore counting the elements of Td (n) is the same as counting the integers a with 1 ≤ a ≤ n/d. Prove that the equation φ (x) = n! is soluble. Solution: Observe that p > 4 must be a multiple of 6. 2. prove that 3φ (p) ≤ p. n) = 1. But d there are exactly φ (n/d) such a. We gather that n= d|n φ (n/d). . . n/d runs through the divisors of n in reverse order. Thus S= 1≤a≤n a= 1≤a≤n n − a. But then ( . φ (n/d) = d|n But as d runs through the divisors of n. then k = ad. If k ∈ Td (n). Proof: For each divisor d of n.

4 Prove that φ (n) ≥ n2−ω (n). p ã Problem 6. Let n = pα ||n pα . It is p|n clear then that a necessary and sufﬁcient condition for φ (x) = n to be soluble under the restriction that x has precisely the same prime factors as n is (p − 1)|n. k = 1.8 (Mandelbrot 1994) Four hundred people are standing in a circle. φ (n) = n p|n 1− Problem 6. Then φ (11k ) = 11k − 11k−1 = 10 · 11k−1.5 Prove that φ (n) > √ n for n > 6. 2. . continuing until you tag someone for the second time. Problem 6. . Practice Problem 6.72 Chapter 6 Solution: We want to solve the equation φ (x) = n with the constraint that x has precisely the same prime factors as n. Then x = pα ||n pα .10 Prove that if φ (n)|n − 1 and n is composite.2 Prove that if n is composite then φ (n) ≤ n − √ n. 4 φ (n) = 195 Example Find inﬁnitely many integers n such that 10|φ (n). 2. then n has at least three distinct prime factors. Problem 6.. When is equality achieved? Problem 6. p 1 p 2 · · · p ar ≥ ··· r p1 p2 pr 2 pa1 /2 pa2 /2 · · · par /2 r 1 2 … » √ √ 1 1 1 1 This last quantity equals n/2. Solution: Take n = 11k .5. .1 Prove that Å 1 .5. It follows that x = n2 /φ (n). . You tag one person. k = 1. If n = k!. and so on. In general we can show that φk (n) > 2 2 4 4 1 2−k−1 k+2 n . For how many positive values of k less than 400 will every person in the circle get tagged at least once? Problem 6. . An explicit solution to the problem is thus p|n x = (k!)2 /φ (k!). then tag another. then n must be squarefree.5.6 If φ (n)|n. This restriction implies that φ (x)/x = φ (n)/n.5. then n has at least four prime factors. φk (n) > 1 for all sufﬁciently large n. then skip k people. Problem 6. this last condition is clearly satisﬁed. skip k.7 Prove that if φ (n)|n − 1. .9 Prove that if φ (n)|n − 1 and n is composite.5. b.3 (AIME 1992) Find the sum of all positive rational numbers that are less than 10 and have denominator 30 when written in lowest terms. Clearly r 1 2 p 11 p 22 · · · p r r Hence a /2 a /2 a /2 > 2r−1 ≥ pr 1 p1 ··· . Solution: Let pa1 pa2 · · · par be the prime factorisation of n. Problem 6.5.5. . 194 Example Let φk (n) = φ (φk−1 (n)). where φ0 (n) = φ (n). The integer x will have the same prime factors as n provided that p−1 (p − 1)|n. . Therefore φ1 (n) > φ (n) > n = n1/4 . 2 p1 − 1 pr − 1 a a 1 p 11 p 22 · · · p ar p r − 1 a1 a2 p1 − 1 p2 − 1 r . then n must be of the form 2a 3b for nonnegative integers a. We conclude that n ≥ 22 implies that φk (n) > 1.5. Show that ∀ k ∈ N.5. Answer: 400 Problem 6.5.

For if x. Then ab ≡ 1 mod n. By inspection we see that this is x ≡ 3 mod 7. We are now going to investigate the multiplicative structure of Zn . An integer b is said to be the inverse of an integer a modulo n if ab ≡ 1 mod n. Conversely if (a. we see that 0. . Why is it interesting? We have multiplied to non-zero entities and obtained a zero entity! Does Z6 form a group under ·6 ? What is the multiplicative identity? In analogy with the rational numbers.e. y are inverses to a mod n then ax ≡ 1 mod n and ay ≡ 1 mod n. n) = 1. We need to be able to identify the invertible elements of Zn . which entails the existence of an integer s such that ab − 1 = sn. Problem 6.. This immediately yields ax ≡ 1 mod n. It is easy to see that inverses are unique mod n. we would like 1 to be the multiplicative identity. The answer is thus 4 ·6 2 = 2.11 For n > 1 let 1 = a1 < a2 < · · · < aφ (n) = n − 1 be the positive integers less than n that are relatively prime to n.5. But then.12 Prove that a necessary and sufﬁcient condition for n to be a prime is that max ak+1 − ak to be the maximum gap between the ak . Solution: We are looking for a solution to the congruence 5x ≡ 1 mod 7. σ (n) + φ (n) = nd(n).1: Multiplication Table for Z6 196 Deﬁnition Let n > 1 be a natural number.u 198 Example Find the inverse of 5 mod 7. For that we need the following.5. This is a linear combination of a and n and hence divisible by (a. As an example. Multiplying by y the ﬁrst of these congruences. i. Hence x ≡ y mod n. (ya)x ≡ y mod n. and 4 do not have a multiplicative inverse. n). Proof: Assume that b is the inverse of a mod n. To obtain 4 ·6 2 we ﬁrst multiplied 4 · 2 = 8 and then reduced mod 6 obtaining 8 ≡ 2 mod 6. by the Bachet-Bezout Theorem there are integers x. a be integers. we encounter some problems. Another look at the table shows the interesting product 3 ·6 2 = 0. ·6 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 2 0 2 4 0 2 4 3 0 3 0 3 0 3 4 0 4 2 0 4 2 5 0 5 4 3 2 1 Table 6. We would then deﬁne the multiplicative inverse of a to be that b that has the property that a ·6 b = b ·6 a = 1. Deﬁne the Jacobsthal function g(n) := 1≤k≤φ (n)−1 73 (Hint: Use the Chinese Remainder Theorem). This implies that (a. 6. For example. i. How to deﬁne multiplication in Zn ? If we want to multiply a ·n b we simply multiply a · b and reduce the result mod n.e. Prove that ω (n) ≤ g(n). 2. let us consider Table ??.6 Multiplication in Zn In section 3. Then a possesses an inverse modulo n if and only if a is relatively prime to n. 3. ab − sn = 1.Multiplication in Zn Problem 6. a has an inverse mod n.5 we saw that Zn endowed with the operation of addition +n becomes a group. n) = 1. y such that ax + ny = 1. 197 Theorem Let n > 1.

an+1 mod n. 24 ≡ 2 mod 7. n) = 1. there must be a smallest positive integer with this property. 1 ≤ t − s ≤ n. Then ay ≡ at−xordn a ≡ at · (aordn a )−x ≡ 1 · 1−x ≡ 1 mod n. 22 ≡ 4. Hence y = 0 and thus t = x · ordn a. Clearly a = 0. which is to say at ≡ at−s at mod n. 0 ≤ y < ordn a. . n) = 1 for all j ≥ 1. We let Z× = {a1 . there is an integer s with am + sn = 1 or a · am−1 + sn = 1. which proves the result. Then a ∈ Z has an order mod n if and only if (a. etc. Proof: Assume that ordn a|t. We thus see that only the reduced residues mod n have an inverse. n) = 1. This is clear if n|a. i. This gives at ≡ asordn a ≡ (aordn a )s ≡ 1s ≡ 1 mod n. As there are n + 1 numbers and only n residues mod n. We conclude that Z× is a group under the operation ·n . because then am ≡ 0 mod n for all positive integers m. a3 . For example. and so the order of 3 mod 7 is 6. 199 Example (IMO 1964) Prove that there is no positive integer n for which 2n + 1 is divisible by 7. It is easy to see that the operation ·n is associative. The question as to which integers are going to have an order mod n is answered in the following theorem. 1. there exists a positive integer k ≤ n such that ak ≡ 1 mod n. . We write this fact as ord7 3 = 6. 4. n) = 1. Hence assume that a has an order mod n. the Pigeonhole Principle two of these powers must have the same remainder mod n. . Proof: If (a. the preceding theorem tells us that there is a positive integer k with ak ≡ 1 mod n. then a has an order in view of Theorem ?? and the Well-Ordering Principle. This is a linear combination of a and n and hence divisible by (a. Using Corollary ?? we gather that at−s ≡ 1 mod n. Now. Consider the sequence a. . 23 ≡ 1 mod 7. repeats thus cyclically. n) = 1 we must have (a j . . n). That is. ordn a|t. This contradicts the deﬁnition of ordn a as the smallest positive integer with that property. Given n. . n) = 1. Then at ≡ 1 mod n if and only if ordn a|t. The existence of an order entails the existence of a positive integer m such that am ≡ 1 mod n. Hence. 31 ≡ 3. 200 Theorem If a is relatively prime to the positive integer n. If y > 0 we would have a positive integer smaller than ordn a with the property ay ≡ 1 mod n.74 Chapter 6 According to the preceding theorem. aφ (n) }. By the Well-Ordering Principle. n) = 1. a2 . 32 ≡ 2. n We now give some assorted examples. .u If (a. Then there is an integer s such that sordn a = t. 26 ≡ 1 mod 7. Conversely. a will have a multiplicative inverse if and only if (a. 202 Theorem Let n > 1 be a positive integer. 35 ≡ 5. 203 Theorem Let (a. n) = 1 and let t be an integer. This says that there is no power of 2 which is ≡ −1 ≡ 6 mod 7.u . assume that at ≡ 1 mod n and t = x · ordn a + y. n since it inherits associativity from the integers.. 25 ≡ 4 mod 7.e. Solution: Observe that 21 ≡ 2. not all integers a are going to have an order mod n. The pattern 2. This prompts the following deﬁnition. a2 . 201 Deﬁnition If m is the least positive integer with the property that am ≡ 1 mod n. Proof: Since (a. This entails that (a. we say that a has order m mod n. 36 ≡ 1 mod 7. u The following theorem is of utmost importance.t with 1 ≤ s < t ≤ n + 1 such that as ≡ at mod n. 34 ≡ 4. 33 ≡ 6. . we can ﬁnd s. Hence as ≡ at mod n gives at−s as ≡ at−s at mod n.

if ω (n) = Ω(n). b ∈ Z. . Proof: We just need to show that the φ (n) numbers ar1 . 55 in some order and 1 · 5 · 7 · 11 ≡ 5 · 25 · 35 · 55 mod 12. 207 Deﬁnition The Möbius function is deﬁned for positive integer n as follows: Thus µ is 1 for n = 1 and square free integers with an even number of prime factors. 208 Theorem The Möbius Function µ is multiplicative. If one of m. ar2 . 11 is a reduced residue system modulo 12 and (12. If r1 .Practice 204 Example (IMO 1964) Find all positive integers n for which 2n − 1 is divisible by 7. n) = 1. arφ (n) is also a reduced set of residues modulo n. . 5) = 1. n) = 1. . . r2 . 11 are the 5. 5. 35. . . ar2 . Again. 7. 0 if n > 1. −1 for square free integers with an odd number of prime factors. The following result will be used repeatedly. . a ∈ Z. Since (a. then ar1 . 9. if ω (n) < Ω(n). It must then be the case that 3|n. 6. Proof: Assume (m. 5. n is not square-free then µ (m)µ (n) = 0 = µ (mn). . 205 Theorem Let n > 1. so the theorem follows. The following corollary to Theorem ?? should be immediate. . 7. Thus n = 3. This proves the theorem. arφ (n) are mutually incongruent mod n. If r1 . we deduce from Corollary ?? that ri ≡ r j mod n. 25. Thus for example µ (6) = 1. .1 Find the order of 5 modulo 12. . µ (30) = −1 and µ (18) = 0. r2 . the 1. 55 is also a reduced residue system modulo 12. Practice Problem 6. ar2 + b. 12. n) = 1. .. . . This contradicts the fact that the r’s are incongruent. arφ (n) + b is also a reduced set of residues modulo n. .6. .7 Möbius Function 1 µ (n) = (−1)ω (n) 0 if n = 1. . u 209 Theorem µ (d) = d|n ß 1 if n = 1. a. Suppose that ari ≡ ar j mod n for some i = j. rφ (n) is a reduced set of residues modulo n. . (a. 75 Solution: Observe that the order of 2 mod 7 is 3. 6. . If both M and n are square-free then µ (m)µ (n) = (−1)ω (m) (−1)ω (n) = (−1)ω (m)+ω (n) = µ (mn). and 0 for non-square free integers. rφ (n) is a reduced set of residues modulo n. as 1. . . (a. 25. then ar1 + b. 206 Corollary Let n > 1. 35. . We want 2n ≡ 1 mod 7. n) = 1. the set 5. .u For example. .

u Practice Problem 6. which means that the above sums simplify to f (n). Proof: There are k The sum in question is thus å ω (n) Ç ω (n) µ (d) = (−1)k .76 Ç Chapter 6 å ω (n) square-free divisors d of n with exactly k prime factors. Proof: We have f (d) d|n = d|n s|d µ (s)F(d/s) µ (d/s)F(s) d|n s|d = = s|n µ (r)F(s). Proof: We have d|n µ (d)F(n/d) = d|n d|n = ds|n f (s) n s| d µ (d) f (s) f (s) µ (d). Then F(n) = d|n f (d). n d| s n In view of theorem ??.7.u = s|n We now show the converse to Theorem ??.2 If f is an arithmetical function and F(n) = φ (n) = n d|n µ (d) .u 210 Theorem (Möbius Inversion Formula) Let f be an arithmetical function and F(n) = d|n f (d). the inner sum is different from 0 only when = 1. Hence only the term s = n in the outer s sum survives. the inner sum will be 0 unless s = n. F be arithmetic functions with f (n) = d|n µ (d)F(n/d) for all natural numbers n. n r| s Using Theorem ??.7. k d|n k=0 By the Binomial Theorem this last sum is (1 − 1)ω (n) = 0. µ (d) = (−1)k .1 Prove that Problem 6. d . Then f (n) = d|n µ (d)F(n/d) = d|n µ (n/d)F(d). in which case the entire sum reduces to F(n). For all such d. 211 Theorem Let f .

7.Practice n 77 Problem 6.3 If F is an arithmetical function such that Problem 6. Problem 6.7. Problem 6. f (n) = j=1 µ (n + 1) = µ (n + 2) = · · · = µ (n + k). prove that F(n) = f ( j).4 Prove that d|n n f ([n/k]).5 Prove that d|n µ (d)d(d) = (−1)ω (n) .7. prove that there n n exist inﬁnitely many integers n with µ (k)F([n/k]). f (n) = j=1 µ ( j)F([n/ j]).6 Given any positive integer k. then k=1 |µ (d)| = 2ω (n) . k=1 .7.

Chapter

7

a p−1 ≡ 1 mod p. mod p in view of

More on Congruences

7.1 Theorems of Fermat and Wilson

212 Theorem (Fermat’s Little Theorem) Let p be a prime and let p |a. Then

Proof: Since (a, p) = 1, the set a · 1, a · 2, . . . , a · (p − 1) is also a reduced set of residues Theorem ??. Hence (a · 1)(a · 2) · · ·(a · (p − 1)) ≡ 1 · 2 · · ·(p − 1) mod p, or a p−1(p − 1)! ≡ (p − 1)! mod p.

As ((p − 1)!, p) = 1 we may cancel out the (p − 1)!’s in view of Corollary ??. This proves the theorem.u As an obvious corollary, we obtain the following.

213 Corollary For every prime p and for every integer a,

ap ≡ a

mod p.

Proof: Either p|a or p |a. If p|a, a ≡ 0 ≡ a p mod p and there is nothing to prove. If p |a, Fermat’s Little Theorem yields p|a p−1 − 1. Hence p|a(a p−1 − 1) = a p − a, which again gives the result.u The following corollary will also be useful.

214 Corollary Let p be a prime and a an integer. Assume that p |a. Then ord p a|p − 1.

**Proof: This follows immediately from Theorem ?? and Fermat’s Little Theorem.u
**

215 Example Find the order of 8 mod 11.

**Solution: By Corollary ?? ord11 8 is either 1, 2, 5 or 10. Now 82 ≡ −2 mod 11, 84 ≡ 4 mod 11 and 85 ≡ −1 mod 11. The order is thus ord11 8 = 10.
**

216 Example Let a1 = 4, an = 4an−1 , n > 1. Find the remainder when a100 is divided by 7.

78

Theorems of Fermat and Wilson

79

Solution: By Fermat’s Little Theorem, 46 ≡ 1 mod 7. Now, 4n ≡ 4 mod 6 for all positive integers n, i.e., 4n = 4 + 6t for some integer t. Thus a100 ≡ 4a99 ≡ 44+6t ≡ 44 · (46 )t ≡ 4 mod 7.

217 Example Prove that for m, n ∈ Z, mn(m60 − n60) is always divisible by 56786730.

Solution: Let a = 56786730 = 2 · 3 · 5 · 7 · 11 · 13 · 31 · 61. Let Q(x, y) = xy(x60 − y60 ). Observe that (x − y)|Q(x, y), (x2 − y2 )|Q(x, y), (x3 − y3 )|Q(x, y), (x4 − y4 )|Q(x, y), (x6 − y6 )|Q(x, y), (x10 − y10 )|Q(x, y), (x12 − y12 )|Q(x, y), and (x30 − y30 )|Q(x, y). If p is any one of the primes dividing a, the Corollary to Fermat’s Little Theorem yields m p − m ≡ 0 mod p and n p − n ≡ 0 mod p. Thus n(m p − m) − m(n p − n) ≡ 0 mod p, i.e., mn(m p−1 − n p−1) ≡ 0 mod p. Hence, we have 2|mn(m − n)|Q(m, n), 3|mn(m2 −n2 )|Q(m, n), 5|mn(m4 −n4 )|Q(m, n), 7|mn(m6 −n6 )|Q(m, n), 11|mn(m10 −n10 )|Q(m, n), 13|mn(m12 −n12 )|Q(m, n), 31|m n30 )|Q(m, n) and 61|mn(m60 − n60 )|Q(m, n). Since these are all distinct primes, we gather that a|mnQ(m, n), which is what we wanted.

218 Example (Putnam 1972) Show that given an odd prime p, there are always inﬁnitely many integers n for which p|n2n + 1.

**Answer: For any odd prime p, take n = (p − 1)2k+1, k = 0, 1, 2, . . .. Then n2n + 1 ≡ (p − 1)2k+1 (2 p−1 )(p−1) + 1 ≡ (−1)2k+1 12k + 1 ≡ 0
**

2k

mod p.

219 Example Prove that there are no integers n > 1 with n|2n − 1.

Solution: If n|2n − 1 for some n > 1, then n must be odd and have a smallest odd prime p as a divisor. By Fermat’s Little Theorem, 2 p−1 ≡ 1 mod p. By Corollary ?? , ord p2 has a prime factor in common with p − 1. Now, p|n|2n − 1 and so 2n ≡ 1 mod p. Again, by Corollary ??, ord p 2 must have a common prime factor with n (clearly ord p2 > 1). This means that n has a smaller prime factor than p, a contradiction.

220 Example Let p be a prime. Prove that

1.

2.

Ç

å p−1 ≡ (−1)n n Ç å p+1 ≡0 n

mod p, 1 ≤ n ≤ p − 1.

mod p, 2 ≤ n ≤ p − 1.

3. If p = 5 is an odd prime, prove that either f p−1 or f p+1 is divisible by p. Solution: (1) (p − 1)(p − 2) · · ·(p − n) ≡ (−1)(−2) · · · (−n) ≡ (−1)n n! mod p. The assertion follows from this. (2) (p + 1)(p)(p − 1) · · ·(p − n + 2) ≡ (1)(0)(−1) · · · (−n + 2) ≡ 0 mod p. The assertion follows from this. (3) Using the Binomial Theorem and Binet’s Formula ÇÇ å Ç å Ç å å n n 1 n +5 fn = n−1 + 52 + ··· . 1 2 3 5 From this and (1), 2 p−2 f p−1 ≡ p − 1 − (5 + 52 + · · · + 5(p−3)/2) ≡ − 5(p−1)/2 − 1 4 mod p.

80 Using (2), Thus But by Fermat’s Little Theorem, 5 2 p f p+1 ≡ p + 1 + 5(p−1)/2 ≡ 5(p−1)/2 + 1 2 p f p−1 f p+1 ≡ 5 p−1 − 1 mod p. mod p.

Chapter 7

p−1

≡ 1 mod p for p = 5. The assertion follows.

221 Lemma If a2 ≡ 1 mod p, then either a ≡ 1 mod p or a ≡ −1 mod p.

Proof: We have p|a2 − 1 = (a − 1)(a + 1). Since p is a prime, it must divide at least one of the factors. This proves the lemma.u

222 Theorem (Wilson’s Theorem) If p is a prime, then (p − 1)! ≡ −1 mod p.

In other words,

Proof: If p = 2 or p = 3, the result follows by direct veriﬁcation. So assume that p > 3. Consider a, 2 ≤ a ≤ p − 2. To each such a we associate its unique inverse a mod p, i.e. aa ≡ 1 mod p. Observe that a = a since then we would have a2 ≡ 1 mod p which violates the preceding lemma as a = 1, a = p − 1. Thus in multiplying all a in the range 2 ≤ a ≤ p − 2, we pair them of with their inverses, and the net contribution of this product is therefore 1. In symbols, 2 · 3 · · ·(p − 2) ≡ 1 mod p. (p − 1)! ≡ 1 · Ñ j é · (p − 1) ≡ 1 · 1 · (p − 1) ≡ −1 mod p.

2≤a≤p−2

This gives the result. u

223 Example If p ≡ 1 mod 4, prove that

As (−1)(p−1)/2 = 1, we obtain the result.

**Solution: In the product (p − 1)! we pair off j, 1 ≤ j ≤ (p − 1)/2 with p − j. Observe that j(p − j) ≡ − j2 mod p. Hence Å ã p−1 −1 ≡ (p − 1)! ≡ − j2 ≡ (−1)(p−1)/2 ! mod p. 2
**

1≤ j≤(p−1)/2

Å

ã p−1 ! ≡ −1 2

mod p.

224 Example (IMO 1970) Find the set of all positive integers n with the property that the set

{n, n + 1, n + 2, n + 3, n + 4, n + 5} can be partitioned into two sets such that the product of the numbers in one set equals the product of the numbers in the other set. Solution: We will show that no such partition exists. Suppose that we can have such a partition, with one of the subsets having product of its members equal to A and the other having product of its members equal to B. We might have two possibilities. The ﬁrst possibility is that exactly one of the numbers in the set {n, n + 1, n + 2, n + 3, n + 4, n + 5} is divisible by 7, in which case exactly one of A or B is divisible by 7, and so A · B is not divisible by 72 , and so A · B is not a square. The second possibility is that all of the members of the set are relatively prime to 7. In this last case we have n(n + 1) · · ·(n + 6) ≡ 1 · 2 · · ·6 ≡ A · B ≡ −1 mod 7.

But if A = B then we are saying that there is an integer A such that A2 ≡ −1 mod 7, which is an impossibility, as −1 is not a square mod 7. This ﬁnishes the proof.

u Using Theorem ?? we obtain the following corollary. due to Euler.2 Euler’s Theorem In this section we obtain a generalisation of Fermat’s Little Theorem. Prove that q p−1 + pq−1 ≡ 1 mod pq.1.1. 225 Theorem (Euler’s Theorem) Let (a. Problem 7. n) = 1.10 Prove that n > 1 is a prime if and only if (n − 1)! ≡ −1 mod n. .11 Prove that if p is an odd prime mod p Problem 7.1. n) = 1.1 Find all the natural numbers n for which 3|(n2n + 1).5 If p is a prime prove that p|a p + (p − 1)!a for 1 ·3 · · · (p −2) ≡ 2 ·4 · · · (p −1) ≡ (−1) all integers a.1.1. aa1 . Problem 7. n) = 1. 2 2 2 2 2 2 (p−1)/2 Problem 7.1. . Problem 7. 340 ≡ 1 mod 100.8 If p is an odd prime prove that n p ≡ n mod 2p for all integers n. 6k+2 + 3) for all nonnegative 7. As (a. Problem 7. mod n.1. Problem 7. n) = 1. aφ (n) be the canonical reduced residues mod n. .2 Prove that there are inﬁnitely many integers n with n|2n + 2.4 If p and q are distinct primes prove that pq|(a pq − a p − aq − a) for all integers a. aa2 . .9 If p is an odd prime and p|m p + n p prove that p2 |m p + n p. a2 . As (a1 a2 · · · aφ (n) .1. The proof is analogous to that of Fermat’s Little Theorem.1. Thus aa1 · aa2 · · · aaφ (n) ≡ a1 a2 · · · aφ (n) or aφ (n) a1 a2 · · · aφ (n) ≡ a1 a2 · · · aφ (n) mod n. . 6 6 Problem 7. Proof: Let a1 . Solution: As φ (100) = 40. Thus 31000 = (340 )25 ≡ 125 = 1 and so the last two digits are 01. 226 Corollary Let (a. aaφ (n) also forms a set of incongruent reduced residues. .Practice 81 Practice Problem 7. . 42) = 1 prove that 168|m − n . we may cancel the product a1 a2 · · · aφ (n) from both sides of the congruence to obtain Euler’s Theorem. . by Euler’s Theorem. Problem 7.3 Find all primes p such that p|2 p + 1.6 If (mn. mod 100.1.1. Then aφ (n) ≡ 1 mod n. Problem 7. Then ordn a|φ (n). Problem 7.12 Prove that 19|(22 integers k. .1. 227 Example Find the last two digits of 31000 .7 Let p and q be distinct primes. Answer: p = 3 only.

respectively. (ii)′ a2 + ab + b2 is divisible by 73 . Observe that 19784 ≡ (−22)4 ≡ 24 · 114 ≡ (4 · 121)2 ≡ (−16)2 ≡ 6 This means that s = 4. m + n = 106. In their decimal representations. Since 125|(1978 − 1) we have 5|(1978s − 1). we minimise n − m. Finally. Hence. i.e. . hence 716 ≡ 1 mod 40. 20. to the last three digits of 1978n. ord1251978 is the smallest positive integer s with 1978s ≡ 1 mod 125. i. This means that 71000 ≡ (716 )62 78 ≡ 162 78 ≡ (74 )2 ≡ 12 ≡ 1 mod 40. and ﬁnally. Since s|100. 1978s ≡ 3s ≡ 1 mod 5. 229 Example (IMO 1978) m. By Euler’s Theorem and so by Corollary 7. 740 ≡ 1 mod 100. b such that: (i) ab(a + b) is not divisible by 7. φ (40) = φ (23 )φ (5) = 4 · 4 = 16. Similarly 197820 ≡ 19784 · (19784)4 ≡ 6 · 64 ≡ 6 · 46 ≡ 26 mod 125. this last congruence implies that s = 4. Solution: First observe that φ (100) = φ (22 )φ (52 ) = (22 − 2)(52 − 5) = 40. Since s is the smallest positive integer with 1978s ≡ 1 mod 125. 1978m are equal. by Euler’s Theorem. 1000 = 16 · 62 + 8. we take n −m = s = 100 and m = 3. Solution: As m + n = n − m + 2m. Find m. 23 must divide the ﬁrst and so m ≥ 3. This means that 71000 = 1 + 40t for some integer t. the last three digits of 1000 ≡ 71+40t ≡ 7 · (740)t ≡ 7 mod 100. n are natural numbers with 1 ≤ m < n.. (ii) (a + b)7 − a7 − b7 is divisible by 77 . m = 3. mod 125. Using the Binomial Theorem we have (a + b)7 − a7 − b7 = = = = = The given hypotheses can be thus simpliﬁed to (i)′ ab(a + b) is not divisible by 7.82 228 Example Find the last two digits of 77 1000 Chapter 7 . 230 Example (IMO 1984) Find one pair of positive integers a. We are given that 1978n − 1978m = 1978m(1978n−m − 1) is divisible by 1000 = 23 53 . Justify your answer. Since the second factor is odd. Upon assembling all this 77 This means that the last two digits are 07. n such that m + n has its least value. or 100. Now..3 s|100. Solution: We ﬁrst factorise (a + b)7 − a7 − b7 as ab(a + b)(a2 + ab + b2)2 . Now. n = 103.e. We now rule out the ﬁrst two possibilities. 7(a6 b + ab6 + 3(a5b2 + a2 b5 ) + 5(a4b3 + a3 b4 )) 7ab(a5 + b5 + 3ab(a3 + b3) + 5(a2 b2 )(a + b)) 7ab(a + b)(a4 + b4 − a3 b − ab3 + a2 b2 +3ab(a2 − ab + b2) + 5ab) 7ab(a + b)(a4 + b4 + 2(a3b + ab3) + 3a2b2 ) 7ab(a + b)(a2 + ab + b2)2 . s 1978100 ≡ 1 mod 125 This means that s = 20 and so s = 100.

n) = 1. As a3 − b3 = (a − b)(a2 + ab + b2). Using trial and error. n|(2 − 1). b = 18 give an answer.2. Problem 7.2.2 Prove that 504|n9 − n3 . (ii)’ is implied by ß 3 a ≡ b3 mod 73 ′′ (ii) a ≡ b mod 7. Practice Problem 7. such that the sum of the digits of n equals s. Problem 7. n! Problem 7.2. Problem 7.7 Find the last two digits of a1001 if a1 = 7. which gives the ﬁrst part of (ii)’.4 Let p |10 be a prime. Problem 7. .2. Prove that mφ (n) + nφ (n) ≡ 1 mod mn. n n n Problem 7. We must verify now the conditions of non-divisibility.2.2. letting x = 2 we see that 298 ≡ 4 mod 7. and so if x is not divisible by 7 we have (x98 )3 ≡ 1 mod 73 . For example.2. 11. 2 10 Problem 7. an = 7an−1 . Now φ (73 ) = (7 − 1)72 = 3 · 98. We leave to the reader to verify that a = 324.2. as 12 + 1 · 18 + 182 = 343 = 73 . Let us look for more solutions by means of Euler’s Theorem. .10 (USAMO 1982) Prove that there exists a positive integer k such that k · 2n + 1 is composite for every positive integer n. an = 3an−1 mod 100 for large n. .2. Prove that p divides inﬁnitely many numbers of the form Problem 7.Practice 83 As (a + b)2 > a2 + ab + b2 ≥ 73 .5 Find all natural numbers n that divide 1 + 2 + · · · + (n − 1) . Problem 7. Letting x = 3 we ﬁnd that 398 ≡ 324 mod 73 . we ﬁnd that a = 1.2. there is an integer n divisible by s.1 Show that for all natural numbers s.6 Let (m. b = 1.3 Prove that for odd integer n > 0. we obtain a + b ≥ 19.11 (Putnam 1985) Describe the sequence a1 = 3. Problem 7. twos.2. b = 1 is another solution.9 Prove that for every natural number n there exists some power of 2 whose ﬁnal n digits are all ones and 11 .8 Find the remainder of 1010 + 1010 + · · · + 1010 upon division by 7. Thus letting a = 298 .

Chapter 8 n = a0 10k + a1 10k−1 + · · · + ak−1 10 + ak. If x had one digit. P(x) = 2 and x2 − 10x − 22 = 2. P(x) = a0 a1 · · · an−1 ≤ 9n−1 an−1 < 10n−1an−1 ≤ x (strict inequality occurs when x has more than one digit). Scales of Notation 8. 84 . 0 . 0 ≤ a j ≤ 9. . Solution: Let the number sought have n + 1 digits. an−1 = 0. x = 12 is the only solution. So x2 − 10x − 22 < x. 231 Example Find all whole numbers which begin with the digit 6 and decrease 25 times when this digit is deleted. Therefore. n−2 zeroes 232 Example (IMO 1968) Find all natural numbers x such that the product of their digits (in decimal notation) equals x2 − 10x − 22. but this equation has no integral solutions. 6 · 10n would not be divisible by 24). whence x has either one digit or x = 10. . where y is a number with n digits (it may begin with one or several zeroes). P(x) = 0. y = 25 · 10k−2. If x = 10. If x = 12. For n ≥ 2. We conclude that all the numbers sought have the form 625 0 .1 The Decimal Scale As we all know. Find all such numbers. 13. but x2 − 10x − 22 = 1. P(x) = 1. but x2 − 10x − 22 = 0. If x = 11. y has the form 250 · · ·0(n − 2 zeroes). that is. 24 From this we gather that n ≥ 2 (otherwise. 11. Let P(x) be the product of the digits of x. any natural number n can be written in the form where 1 ≤ a0 ≤ 9. Solution: Let x have the form x = a0 + a1 10 + a2102 + · · · + an−110n−1. For example. ak ≤ 9. Then this number can be written as 6 · 10n + y. j ≥ 1. then a0 = x2 − 10x − 22. The condition of the problem stipulates that 6 · 10n + y = 25 · y whence y= 6 · 10n . 65789 = 6 · 104 + 5 · 103 + 7 · 102 + 8 · 10 + 9. Now. 233 Example A whole number decreases an integral number of times when its last digit is deleted. P(x) = x2 − 10x − 22. and we deduce that x < 13.

= 0. . Now. 810. and 999 = 33 · 37. 11. . 1 ≤ l ≤ j. 13. 48. . once for 101. 88.22. 24. k ≥ 2. then p(n) is equal to that digit. and we obtain the multiples of 10. 33. 118. any natural number x will do. (Observe that we do not consider fractions of the form l/3t . an integer. x = 1. . where the digits a. 12. and 811 have the same value p(n). Thus (0 + 1 + 2 · · · + 9)3 − 0 = 001 + 002 + · · ·+ 999. = 999 in lowest terms. let p(n) be the product of the non-zero digits of n. 10 9 1 A+A′ = 1010 if and only if there is a j. To write the elements of S as fractions in lowest terms. for example. which gives the result. 66. If y = 2. (If n has only one digit. and 10x + y = mx. how many different numerators are required? abc . 108. In order to obtain p(n) for a particular number. If abc is neither divisible by 3 nor 37. What is the largest prime factor of S? Solution: Observe that non-zero digits are the ones that matter. m and x natural numbers. Prove that if A + A′ = 1010 . We obtain all the three digit numbers from 001 to 999 by expanding the product (0 + 1 + 2 + · · ·+ 9)3 − 0. There are 12 fractions of this kind. Let A = a10 a9 . once for 100. and A′ be a number written with the aid of the same digits with are arranged in some other order. . 3 |l. the number required is 103. c are not necessarily distinct. Continuing in this fashion. there are 999 − (999/3 + 999/37) + 999/3 · 37 = 648 such numbers. . where 3|s. the sought numbers are: the multiples of 10. 18. Notice that j = 0 implies that there are no sums of the form a j+k + a′j+k . 0 ≤ j ≤ 9 for which a1 +a′ = a2 +a′ = · · · = a j +a′j = 0. Solution: Clearly A and A′ must have ten digits. by 1’s.abcabcabc .The Decimal Scale 85 Solution: Let 0 ≤ y ≤ 9. and j = 9 10 implies that there are no sums of the form al + a′ . (In the last sum.abcabcabc . 19. 1 235 Example (AIME 1994) Given a positive integer n. We must have x|y. 14. b. 236 Example (AIME 1992) Let S be the set of all rational numbers r.) The total number of distinct numerators in the set of reduced fractions is thus 640 + 12 = 660. 28. and thus not in S. 1 2 10 Since the a′ are a permutation of the as . So. . 234 Example Let A be a positive integer.) As 463 − 1 = 33 · 5 · 7 · 103. 37 |s are in S. But this implies that a1 + a′ = 0. 44. . etc. Also. once for 001. 15. 77. 55.abc. On adding all these sums. the numbers 180. where we subtracted a 0 in order to eliminate 000. 37|s. we just have to substitute the (possible) zeroes in the decimal representation. If y = 1. If y = 0. and we obtain 11. 0 < r < 1. 26. because fractions of this form are greater than 1. fractions of the form s/37. a1 be the consecutive digits of A and A′ = a′ a′ . we see that the sinistral side of the above equality is the even number 2(a1 + a2 + · · · + s a10 ). and so p(1) + p(2) + · · · + p(n) = 111 + 112 + · · ·+ 999 = (1 + 1 + 2 + · · ·+ 9)3 − 1. x = 1 or x = 2 and we obtain 12 and 22. the fraction is already Solution: Observe that 0. which equals 463 − 1. 800. 111 is repeated various times. By the Inclusion-Exclusion Principle. a j+1 +a′j+1 = 10. once for 110. 36. once for 011. This requires 10 + y/x = m. . and 99. This implies that j must be odd. 39.) Let S = p(1) + p(2) + · · · + p(999). a′ . we gather l a1 + a′ + a2 + a′ + · · · + a10 + a′ = 10 + 9(9 − j). 16. then A is divisible by 10. 17. that have a repeating decimal expansion of the form 0. a j+2 +a′j+2 = 1 2 a j+3 + a′j+3 = · · · = a10 + a′ = 9.

Thus g(1983) < 1983 · 101983 < 9 9 j=1 104 · 101983 = 101987 and g(1984) > 1983 · 101984 > 103 · 101984.1. to add the number and to reveal their sum N. 1001.9 (AIME 1987) An ordered pair (m. . Find f1988 (11). 2000} the numbers acb. the “maProblem 8. Let m = 123456789 · 10k+1.1. .13 (IMO 1969) Determine all three-digit numprove that e is irrational. f (1987). For Problem 8. Solution: There are 9 · 10 j−1 j-digit positive integers. Problem 8.12 (AIME 1988) For any positive integer k. bers N that are divisible by 11 and such that N/11 equals the . Then all of the n consecutive integers m + 1..1.1. . 810 Problem 8. Problem 8. because the hundredth digit enters the sequence in the placement of the two-digit integer 55. n) of nonnegative integers is called simple if the addition m + n requires no carrying. we get (r − 1)10r < g(r) < r10r .86 Chapter 8 237 Example (Putnam 1956) Prove that every positive integer has a multiple whose decimal representation involves all 10 digits. Problem 8. c represent the digits of the number utive integers in in the order indicated. Compute n/15.7 Let t be a positive real number. Problem 8. . Find.4 (AIME 1992) For how many pairs of consec. let fn (k) = f1 ( fn−1 (k)).11 The integer n is the smallest multiple of 15 let N be number obtained from m by writing the same digits in such that every digit of n is either 0 or 8. .2 A whole number is equal to the arithmetic mean of all the numbers obtained from the given number with the aid of all possible permutations of its digits.1. Play the magician and determine abc if N = 319. Prove that at least one digit in the decimal representation of the number M + N is even. 238 Example (Putnam 1987) The sequence of digits 12345678910111213141516171819202122 .d25d25d25d25 .6 Given that n ≥ 2. is obtained by writing the positive integers in order. Find all whole numbers with that property. Find n if n = 0.gician” asks one of the participants to think of a three-digit number abc. 2! 3! 4! Problem 8. Problem 8.1. Problem 8. cab and cba. 1 1 1 e = 2 + + + + ··· . where a. If told the value of N. The magician asks his victim to form {1000. b. Find the number of simple ordered pairs of nonnegative integers that sum 1492. with proof. Solution: Let n be an arbitrary positive integer with k digits.5 Let m be a seventeen-digit positive integer and Problem 8.1. let f1 (k) denote the square of the sums of the digits of k.1.1.1. . Practice Problem 8.. Therefore f (1987) = 1984. deﬁne f (n) to be m. m + 2.1. The total number of digits in numbers with at most r digits is g(r) = r 10r − 1 10r − 1 j · 9 · 10r−1 = r10r − . . Problem 8.1.10 (AIME 1986) In the parlor game.1 Prove that there is no whole number which decreases 35 times when its initial digit is deleted. . bac. For example f (2) = 2. If the 10n digit of this sequence occurs in the part in which the m-digit numbers are placed. the magician can is no carrying required when the two integers are added? identity abc. Prove that there is a positive integer n such that the decimal expansion of nt contains a 7. . As 0 < < 10r . reversed order.m + n begin with 1234567890 and one of them is divisible by n.1.3 (AIME 1989) Suppose that n is a positive integer and d is a single digit in base-ten.8 (AIME 1988) Find the smallest positive integer whose cube ends in 888. .

however. Solution: Write Multiply by 6 to obtain 13 a1 a2 a3 = + + + . Multiply by 62 to obtain 6 6 5 + proper fraction = a2 + proper fraction. Continuing in this fashion. the resulting number is four times as large as the original number. Dividing 411 by 73 we obtain 1 + proper fraction = a3 + proper fraction. Thus a3 = 1. express any number in base r.17 Given that 1/49 = 0. Hence 13/16 − 4/6 = 7/48 = 2 + 3 + . . of the other digits. we deduce that 13/16 = . Prove or disprove that π is the sum of two Liouville numbers.1. 239 Example Express the decimal number 5213 in base-seven. We thus want to ﬁnd 0 ≤ a0 . 240 Example Express the decimal number 13/16 in base-six. we can. 1. ﬁnd the last thousand digits of 1 + 50 + 502 + · · · + 50999. . Prove that there exists a positive integer n such that |10n χ − r| < ε .41 = 4 + ã Å 1 2 4 1 . Solution: If 4.123456789101112131415161718192021 . . 241 Example Prove that 4. a4 = 0.41 is in scale r...45136. it must be the case that a4 = 2. Thus 5213 − 2 · 74 = 411 = a3 73 + a2 72 + a1 7 + a0 . divide by 74 to obtain 2 + proper fraction = a4 + proper fraction.. Given any positive integer r > 1. Show that Champernowne’s number Problem 8. We gather that a2 = 5. then 4. + 2 = 2+ r r r .Non-decimal Scales sum of the squares of the digits of N. 87 Problem 8. . 2. Continuing in this way we deduce that 5213 = 211257. Let r ∈ Q and let ε > 0 be given.41 is a perfect square in any scale of notation. Now.1. a4 ≤ 6. Solution: Observe that 5213 < 75 .14 (IMO 1962) Find the smallest natural num. such Problem 8.2 Non-decimal Scales The fact that most people have ten ﬁngers has ﬁxed our scale of notation to the decimal.1.that ber having last digit is 6 and if this 6 is erased and put in front |x − a/b| < b−k .1. 16 6 62 63 4 + proper fraction = a1 + proper fraction. a2 a3 Thus a1 = 4. Problem 8.020408163265306122448979591836734693877551. 8. χ = 0. . . Since a4 is an integer.. .15 is irrational. .16 A Liouville number is a real number x such that for every positive k there exist integers a and b ≥ 2. such that 5213 = a4 74 + a373 + a2 72 + a1 7 + a0.

The total number of values for which x0 = x5 is thus 32 − 1 = 31. = 0. . 110. In the binary scale.e. For how many x0 is it true that x0 = x5 ? Solution: Write x0 in base-two. . they comprise the positive integers which do not contain the digit 2. . . . . let xn = for all integers n > 0. 10. 2. . of course. . For x0 to equal x5 we need 0. the terms of the sequence in ascending order are thus 1. these numbers are.. 4x = 4 · 195 + 2a1 + a2 . 111. Does the equation Chapter 8 x + 2x + 4x + 8x + 16x + 32x = 12345 have a solution? Solution: We show that there is no such x. 1). . Practice . .a6 a7 a8 a9 a10 a11 a12 . Recall that x satisﬁes the inequalities x − 1 < x ≤ x. 12. 11.. 8x = 8 · 195 + 4a1 + 2a2 + a3 . From this we see that 63x − 6 < 12345 ≤ 63x. Write then x in base-two: a1 a2 a3 x = 195 + + 2 + 3 + . . . 16x = 16 · 195 + 8a1 + 4a2 + 2a3 + a4 . 3. . 9. which is outside [0. 1. x0 = k=1 ∞ ß 2xn−1 if 2xn−1 < 1 2xn−1 − 1 if 2xn−1 ≥ 1 an an = 0 or 1. Thus. Adding we ﬁnd that x + 2x + 4x + 8x + 16x + 32x = 63 · 195 + 31a1 + 15a2 + 7a3 + 3a4 + a5 . 2 2 2 with ak = 0 or 1. . consists of all those positive integers which are powers of 3 or sums distinct powers of 3. Thus x − 1 + 2x − 1 + 4x − 1 + · · ·+ 32x − 1 < ≤ x + 2x + 4x + 8x + 16x + 32x x + 2x + 4x + · · ·+ 32x. 243 Example (AHSME 1993) Given 0 ≤ x0 < 1. 10. 2n The algorithm given just moves the binary point one unit to the right. 3. This cannot be because 31a1 + 15a2 + 7a3 + 3a4 + a5 ≤ 31 + 15 + 7 + 3 + 1 = 57 < 60. Then 2x = 2 · 195 + a1. . This will happen if and only if x0 has a repeating expansion with a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 as the repeating block . 31a1 + 15a2 + 7a3 + 3a4 + a5 = 60. i. To obtain the 100-th term of the sequence we just write 100 in binary 100 = 11001002 and translate this into ternary: 11001003 = 36 + 35 + 32 = 981. 13. Hence 195 < x < 196. 32x = 32 · 195 + 16a1 + 8a2 + 4a3 + 2a4 + a5. . 100. then x0 = 1. . There are 25 = 32 such blocks. Find the hundredth term of the sequence. 4. But if a1 = a2 = · · · = a5 = 1.88 242 Example Let x denote the greatest integer less than or equal to x. 101. Solution: If the terms of the sequence are written in base-3.a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 . 244 Example (AIME 1986) The increasing sequence 1.

2. 1987) For each positive integer n. one performs the following Problem 8.1 (Putnam. x3 ) = (x′ . exp n=1 B(n) n2 + n a rational number? 2. n→∞ n Problem 8. B(6) = B(1102) = 2. Problem 8. (P UTNAM 1981) Is ∞ xα (n) n3 converge? Problem 8. one has ∞ n=1 (−1) 2n 2n x = 1 − 2(x − x ).7 Let B(n) be the number of 1’s in the base-two expansion of n. is called balanced if xn < 1/2 for all 1 ≤ n ≤ 3. do not require the digit 2.6 Let C denote the class of positive integers which.2. The exact power m of a prime p dividing n! is given by m= Proof: By De Polignac’s Formula n − (a0 + a1 + · · · + ak ) .4 (AHSME. x ≥ 0. B(15) = B(11112) = 4.2. x3 ) of positive irrational numbers with x1 + x2 + x3 = 1 and f . when written in base-three.2.2. Find the value of c.2. x′ ). say x j > 1/2. g are polynomials. 1981) Let E(n) denote the largest k such that 5k is an integral divisor of 11 22 33 · · · nn .5 (Putnam. 1977) An ordered triple of in the form (−1)m a f (m) (g(m))! where a is an integer (x1 . Does continuation of this process always lead to a balanced triple after a ﬁnite number of performances of the balancing act? Problem 8. pk . If the new triple i is not balanced. Calculate E(n) lim 2 . one performs the balancing act on it. x2 .2 Prove that for x ∈ R.2. x2 .A theorem of Kummer Problem 8. let α (n) be the number of zeroes in the base-three representation of n. 1 2 3 8. 1. Problem 8. (P UTNAM 1984) Express 2m −1 (−1)B(n) nm n=0 Problem 8. For example.3 A theorem of Kummer We ﬁrst establish the following theorem.8 What is the largest integer that I should be “balancing act”: permitted to choose so that you may determine my number in twenty “yes” or “no” questions? B(x1 .3 (Putnam. x′ . p−1 ∞ m= k=1 n . 245 Theorem (Legendre) Let p be a prime and let n = a0 pk + a1 pk−1 + · · · + ak−1 p + ak be the base-p expansion of n. If a triple is not balanced. For which positive real numbers x does the series ∞ n=1 89 where x′ = 2xi if xi = x j and x′j = 2x j − 1. Show that no three integers in C are in arithmetic progression.2. 1982) The base-eight representation of a perfect square is ab3c with a = 0.

be deﬁned as follows: a0 + b0 = ε0 p + c0. Sb = b j . = p−1 as wanted. . . ε1 + a2 + b2 = ε2 p + c2. . 0 ≤ c j ≤ p − 1. + εk−1 pk + εk pk+1 . Proof: k j=0 Ç å a+b is equal to the a Let a = a0 + a1 p + · · · + ak pk . we obtain similarly: Sa + Sb + (ε0 + ε1 + · · · + εk−1 ) = (ε0 + ε1 + · · · + εk )p + Sa+b − εk . +c0 + c1 p + · · · + ck pk We deduce that a + b = c0 + c1 p + · · · + ck pk + εk pk+1 . + εk−1 pk = ε0 p + ε1 p2 + . Let Sa = k j=0 a j . . n/pk = a0 . p2 . and ε j = 0 or 1. b j ≤ p − 1. b written in base p. . . (p − 1)m = (a + b) − Sa+b − a + Sa − b + Sb = (p − 1)(ε0 + ε1 + · · · + εk ). . Upon using Legendre’s result from above. n/p2 = a0 pk−2 + a1 pk−3 + · · · + ak−2 . . Thus ∞ n/pk k=1 = a0 (1 + p + p2 + · · · + pk−1 ) + a1(1 + p + p2 + · · · + pk−2 )+ · · · + ak−1 (1 + p) + ak pk − 1 pk−1 − 1 p2 − 1 p−1 = a0 + a1 + · · · + ak−1 + ak p−1 p−1 p−1 p−1 a0 pk + a1 pk−1 + · · · + ak − (a0 + a1 + · · · + ak ) = p−1 n − (a0 + a1 + · · · + ak ) . which gives the result. . By adding all the equalities above. . and adding them: a + b + ε0 p + ε1 p2 + . .90 Chapter 8 Now. n/p = a0 pk−1 + a1 pk−2 + · · · ak−2 p + ak−1 . . . .u 246 Theorem (Kummer’s Theorem) The exact power of a prime p dividing the binomial coefﬁcient number of “carry-overs” when performing the addition of a.u . Let c j . Multiplying all these equalities successively by 1. εk−1 + ak + bk = εk p + ck . ε0 + a1 + b1 = ε1 p + c1. b = b0 + b1 p + · · · + bk pk . 0 ≤ a j . and ak + bk > 0. p.

(9.1) p p n p≤x p prime n∈Fx Now.3. n∈Fx 1 1 > . n n≤x n This ﬁnishes the proof. 1 + + 2 + ··· = p p p p≤x p≤x p prime p prime 248 Example Prove that for each positive integer k there exist inﬁnitely many even positive integers which can be written in more than k ways as the sum of two odd primes. By the Unique Factorisation Theorem Å ã 1 1 1 1 + + 2 + ··· = .Chapter 9 p Miscellaneous Problems 247 Example Prove that 1 p p prime diverges. Assume that ak ≤ C ∀ k for some positive constant C.3 diverges as x → ∞. the product on the sinistral side of 2. 1 − x2 91 . Then Ü ê2 ∞ xp = p>2 p prime k=2 ak x2k ≤ C x4 . Solution: Let ak denote the number of ways in which 2k can be written as the sum of two odd primes. As the harmonic series diverges. 1 − x2 This yields p>2 p prime x p−1 ≤ √ x C√ . Solution: Let Fx denote the family consisting of the integer 1 and the positive integers n all whose prime factors are less than or equal to x. But ã Å 1 1 1 + O(1).

92 Integrating term by term. ak . If we have an ak ≥ 4. Therefore.ps ≡ Qr. which contradicts that the open interval is of length 1/n. 2. But then |sk /tk − si /ti | = |msi − sk |/tk ≥ 1/n. 1 ≤ k ≤ a be the set of numerators and denominators. . we replace it by two numbers 2. . ak − 2.s mod p. By the Pigeonhole Principle. 2. p>2 p prime Chapter 9 1 √ ≤ C p 1 0 √ x 1 − x2 dx = √ C. we must take ak = 2 or ak = 3. with denominators 1 ≤ tk ≤ n/2 and tk those uk /vk . and we obtain a contradiction. the largest number which is the product of positive integers whose sum is 1976. 2. Prove that the number of irreducible fractions a/b. We shall replace some of the ak so that the product is enlarged. thus we should take no more than two 2’s. . k = 1. .s = Show that Qr. Deﬁne us+k = ck sk . x + 1/n) into two sets: { |uk /vk − ui /vi | ≥ 1/vi ≥ 1/n. in order to maximise the product. where p is a prime (rs)! . but 2(ak − 2) ≥ ak . 251 Example Let Qr. r. Let sk . . No two of the yl . . Now. say tk = mti . where n is a positive integer. for otherwise y j = yk would yield Solution: Divide the rational numbers in (x. k. ti |tk for some i. Then the sum is not affected. 1 ≤ b ≤ n. . sk }. n with equality if and only if a1 = a2 = · · · = an . The set of denominators is a subset of {1. since we are assuming ak ≥ 4. but the sum remains the same. Solution: Suppose that n a1 + a2 + · · · + an = 1976. We must take as many 2’s and 3’s as possible. contained in the given interval is at most (n + 1)/2. 250 Example (USAMO 1983) Consider an open interval of length 1/n on the real line. 1 ≤ l ≤ r + s are equal. Since 1976 = 3 · 658 + 2. . vs+k = ck tk . but 23 < 32 . By we want to maximise k=1 the arithmetic mean-geometric mean inequality n 1/n ak k=1 ≤ a1 + a2 + · · · + an . s with denominators n/2 < vk ≤ n. Hence the number of distinct rationals is r + s ≤ n − n/2 ≤ (n + 1)/2. yk+r = uk+r /vk+r . contradicting the hypothesis that the open interval is of length 1/n. . But the leftmost series is divergent. 2 + 2 + 2 = 3 + 3. for every tk there are integers ck such that n/2 ≤ ck tk ≤ n. . 2(a − 1)}. the largest possible product is 2 · 3658. Now. 249 Example (IMO 1976) Determine. with proof. where all these fractions are in reduced form. .tk . Aliter: Suppose to the contrary that we have at least (n + 1)/2 + 1 = a fractions. k = 1. . Thus we want to make the ak as equal as possible. r!s! .

k=1 Problem 9.0. whence the result. Problem 9. b. .9 (AIME 1984) What is the largest even integer which cannot be written as the sum of two odd composite numbers? Problem 9.1 Find a four-digit number which is a perfect Problem 9. x2 . Find n. Problem 9. xn+1 + yn−1 = zn .5 Show that the Diophantine equation 1 1 1 1 1 + + .2 Find all integral solutions of the equation x Problem 9. y.0.0. where n ∈ N.Practice Solution: As Qr.0. Problem 9.7 (AIME 1987) Let M be the smallest positive square such that its ﬁrst two digits are equal to each other integer whose cube is of the form n + r. . c such that 1987 = a3 + b3 + c3 − 3abc. 2.13 Prove that 1. Problem 9. .12 Show that there are inﬁnitely many integers x.0. y such that 3x2 − 7y2 = −1. Problem 9.ps = r j=1 it follows from that (1 + x) j ps−1 ≡ (1 + x p) js−1 (1 + x) p−1 Ç å Ç å jps − 1 js − 1 ≡ ps − 1 s−1 Ç Ç å jps − 1 .0. ps − 1 å js − 1 s−1 mod p mod p.. Practice Problem 9.s = j=1 93 r and Qr.8 Determine two-parameter solutions for the “almost” Fermat Diophantine equations xn−1 + yn−1 = zn . 1/1000.10 Prove that are inﬁnitely many nonnegative integers n which cannot be written as n = x2 + y3 + z6 for nonnegative integers x. xn+1 + yn+1 = zn . . a3 +b3 +c3 −3abc = (a+b+c)(a2 +b2 +c2 −ab−bc−ca).3 Find all integral solutions of the equation x k! = yz . 0 < r < and its last two digits are equal to each other.0.0. x1985 .+ + + a1 a2 an−1 an a1 a2 · · · an has at least one solution for every n ∈ N. Problem 9.4 (USAMO 1985) Determine whether there are any positive integral solutions to the simultaneous equations 2 x1 + x2 + · · · + x2 = y3 . k=1 Problem 9. z. Problem 9.0.0.0. k! = y2 .0. Find integers a. . 2 1985 x3 + x3 + · · · + x3 = z2 1 2 1985 with distinct integers x1 ..11 Find the integral solutions of x2 + x = y4 + y3 + y2 + y.6 (AIME 1987) Find the largest possible value of k for which 311 is expressible as the sum of k consecutive positive integers.0.

Determine the Problem 9. a Problem 9. Find polynomials P.25 Prove that the coefﬁcients of a binomial expansion are odd if and only if n is of the form 2k − 1.20 (IMO 1977) In a ﬁnite sequence of real numbers.19 Prove that for every positive integer k there Problem 9.29 Demonstrate that for a prime p and k ∈ N. Ç å maximum number of terms in the sequence. Problem 9.28 (Putnam 1977) Let p be a prime and let a ≥ exists a sequence of k consecutive positive integers none of b > 0 be integers.15 Prove that 19911991 is not the sum of two perfect squares. Show that ci ≡ 0 mod p for all i ≥ 1.26 Let the numbers ci be deﬁned by the power series identity (1 + x + x2 + · · · + x p−1 )/(1 − x) p−1 := 1 + c1x + c2 x2 + · · · .0. 0 ≤ a ≤ pk − 1.. of the series at any point is also a perfect square.0. Problem 9.18 Find all integers with x4 − 2y2 = 1. Problem 9.0. pk ≡ 0 mod p.17 Find all positive integers with mn − nm = 1. pb b Problem 9. Problem 9. Demonstrate that Ç å pk − 1 ≡ (−1)a mod p. y.0. z > 1 such that x!y! = z!. Problem 9. Can you ﬁnd integers a.14 Find all integers n such that n4 + n + 7 is a perfect square. Problem 9.0.0. .0. Q.0. 1/3. b.0.0. and the sum of any eleven successive terms is positive.30 Let p be a prime and let k. . y > 1.0. z such that P3 + Q3 + R3 − 3PQR = (x3 + y3 + z3 − 3xyz)2 4.21 Determine an inﬁnite series of terms such that each term of the series is a perfect square and the sum for 0 < a < pk . c with 19872 = a3 + b3 + c3 − 3abc? Problem 9.27 Let p be a prime. b 2 3 p−1 then p2 |a. Prove that Ç å Ç å which can be represented as the sum of two squares. .22 Prove that any positive rational integer can be expressed as a ﬁnite sum of distinct terms of the harmonic series. a ∈ N. 1. Problem 9.0. Problem 9. Problem 9. the sum of any seven successive terms is negative. pa a ≡ mod p. Show that Ç å p−1 ≡ (−1)k mod p k for all 0 ≤ k ≤ p − 1.16 Find inﬁnitely many integers x > 1.0.0.0. If a 1 1 1 = 1 + + + ··· + .24 Prove that the number of odd binomial coefﬁcients in any row of Pascal’s Triangle is a power of 2. a . Problem 9.94 3.0. Chapter 9 Problem 9.0. R in x. Problem 9. 1/2.23 (Wostenholme’s Theorem) Let p > 3 be a prime.

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