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Power System Analysis

# Power System Analysis

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07/27/2013

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## Sections

The generated Newton-Raphson method is an interactive algorithm for solving a set of
simultaneous nonlinear equations in an equal number of unknowns. Consider the set of nonlinear
equations.

fl (Xl' X

2' ...... , Xn) = YI' i = I, 2, .... , n

. .... (5.44)

with initial estimates for \

. (0) (0)

(0)

XI • x2 ..... ., xn

which are not far from the actual solution. Then using Taylor's series and neglecting
the higher order terms, the corrected set of equations are

( (0) + AX

(0) + A

XIO) + A. )_

..... (5.45)

XI

0

I,X2

oX2, .. •• .. , n

oXn -YI

where L\ \ are the corrections to XI = (i = I, 2, ..... , n)

A set of linear equations, which define a tangent hyperplane to the function fl (x) at the

given iteration point (x:O)) are obtained as

L\Y= JL\X

..... (5.46)

where L\ Y is a column vector determined by

f ( (0)

(0»)

YI -I XI , ..... ,xn

L\X is the column vector of correction terms L\ x" and J is the Jacobian matrix for the

function f given by the first order partial derivatives evaluated at X (0) The corrected solution is

I

obtained as

X;IJ = x;O) + L\xl

The square Jacobian matrix J is defined by

Ofl

J =--

II.

Cx

k

..... (5.47)

..... (5.48)

The above method of obtaining a converging solution for a set of nonlinear equations
can be used for solving the load flow problem. It may be mentioned that since the final voltage
solutions are not much different from the nominal values, Newton -Raphson method is
particularly suited to the load flow problem. The matrix J is highly sparse and is particularly
suited to the load flow application and sparsity -programmed ordered triangulation and back
substitution methods result in quick and efficient convergence to the load flow solution. This
method possesses quadratic convergence and thus converges very rapidly when the solution
point is close.

There are two methods of solution for the load flow using Newton -Raphson method.
The first method uses rectangular coordinates for the variables, while the second method uses
the polar coordinate formulation.

110

Power System Analysis

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