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Published by: Rafeek Emad AbdElkader on Sep 23, 2011
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Underground storage of

carbon dioxide
Emission mitigation which counts

Either way. in turn. This. The group is currently involved in four commercial projects on CO2 capture and storage at different levels of maturity. Most of this increase is attributed to the burning of carbon-rich fossil fuels – coal. the Snøhvit LNG development in northern Norway.What is carbon dioxide? Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a natural. . using hydroelectricity from the Norwegian grid to power installations where applicable. These are the Sleipner area in the North Sea. and has been present throughout most of geological time. may lead to global warming – the greenhouse effect – and stimulate climate change. something has to be done about it. from 280 to 380 parts per million. and a CO2 capture facility at the Mongstad refinery on the west Norwegian coast. fluctuating component of the Earth’s atmosphere. however. How far this may happen remains unknown. Some say it will lead to disastrous consequences. while others foresee relatively slight but noticeable variations. natural gas and oil – and is widely thought to be a contributory factor in trapping heat radiating from the Earth’s surface. its concentration in the air has risen by about a third. The reductions will be achieved by injecting CO2 underground for long-term storage or enhanced oil recovery (EOR). and enhancing energy efficiency. Statoil works purposefully to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emissions from the group’s installations. and may well reach at least twice the pre-industrial level by 2100. In Salah in Algeria. Since the industrial revolution.


.Snøhvit off northern Norway The Snøhvit field in the Barents Sea will provide gas for the world’s first gas liquefaction plant with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Statoil is operator for the Snøhvit project. with initial start-up at the end of 2007.

. it was decided to capture and store the CO2. A conventional amine process will be used for capture. It will be injected there into a layer of porous sandstone filled with salt water called the Tubåen formation. Some 700 000 tonnes of CO2 are due to be stored in this way every year. This lies 2 500 metres beneath the seabed. CO2 has the undesirable property that it solidifies at the temperature of LNG. safely below the gas reservoir. Just as on Sleipner. and can thereby cause all kinds of operational problems – such as blocking pipes. after which a second 145-kilometre pipeline will return the CO2 to Snøhvit. Ships will export the resulting liquefied natural gas (LNG) at around -163 ºC to Europe and the USA.Snøhvit Askeladd Hammerfest Albatross Oslo Stavanger cos_091291. A dedicated monitoring programme partly financed by the EU has been set up to monitor the behaviour of the CO2 below ground. This gas must accordingly be removed prior to liquefaction.mxd This development combines subsea production installations with a 145-kilometre multiphase-flow pipeline running to a gas liquefaction plant under construction on the island of Melkøya near the town of Hammerfest.

Two different technologies – amines and chilled ammonia – will be tested in order to reduce risk and cost of full scale CO2-capture. roughly at the same time as the CHP station comes on line. The facility will be owned and operated by Denmark’s Dong Energy. UK Norway Norway Gjøa Troll Mongstad Bergen . Creation of a full-scale CO2-capture plant at Mongstad covering test centre at Mongstad the CHP plant and relevant sections of the refinery is also outlined as a phase II in the agreement with the Norwegian government. Statoil and a group of domestic and foreign partners. based in part on results from the demonstration plant. Gas for the CHP station will be supplied partly through a new pipeline from Kollsnes. The CHP facility is due to generate about 350 MW of heat in the form of steam for the refinery. and will operate for at least five years. The demonstration plant will have an annual capacity of 100 000 tonnes of CO2.European CO2 – the world’s first low-CO2 refinery A combined heat and power (CHP) station fuelled by natural gas is under construction at Statoil’s Mongstad refinery north of Bergen. This represents Norway’s largest project for enhancing energy efficiency. It will be owned by the Norwegian government. Under the agreement. An investment decision is expected to be taken in 2012. and will be a beacon for CCS-related technology. and partly in the form of surplus refinery gas. The two largest CO2 sources at Mongstad total more than two million tonnes per year. making it possible to shut down large parts of today’s inefficient energy supply at the plant. About 280 MW of electricity will also be generated to supply the Troll A and Gjøa platforms in the Norwegian North Sea and the Troll gas processing plant at Kollsnes further south along the coast. Both technologies are applicable to natural gas and coal fired power plants and other industrial point sources such as the refinery cracker flue gas. the Norwegian government will be responsible for the facilities for CO2 capture. In 2008 Statoil prepared a main plan for a full-scale plant. but the amount captured will depend on the sources chosen. Close collaboration with suppliers and contractors is planned. a large-scale demonstration plant will be built for testing and qualifying CCS technologies. An agreement was concluded in October 2006 between the Norwegian government and Statoil concerning CCS from the CHP station and the refinery. including a recommendation on sources. It is due to be ready in 2011. intermediate storage and final storage in a geological formation beneath the North Sea. Under this deal.

Troll Gjøa field Subsea CO2 injection Power cable Natural gas pipeline CO2 pipeline Power cable Kollsnes Mongstad .

Sleipner area in the North Sea The Statoil-operated Sleipner West gas and condensate field was in its planning phase in 1990. So the CO2 needed to be removed. and has cut CO2 emissions by almost a million tonnes per year. The cost of the extra equipment for CO2 compression and drilling the CO2 injection well was roughly USD 100 million. More than twelve million tonnes of CO2 have so far been stored. presented a challenge. The way this gas is spreading through the Utsira formation has been mapped by various research projects partly financed by the European Union (EU). in this Utsira formation. Sleipner West came on stream in October 1996. This tax is currently around USD 60 per tonne. CO2 capture on Sleipner East uses a conventional amine process. 250 kilometres from land. That corresponds to roughly 3% of Norway’s CO2 emissions in 1990. which exceeds customer requirements. An overlying gas-tight cap rock 800 metres thick prevents the CO2 from seeping up into the atmosphere. Gas processing platforms One million tonnes of CO2 reinjected every year Utsira formation USD 100 000 in carbon tax saved daily Carbon injection well Production wells Natural gas reservoir . An offshore CO2 tax was introduced by the Norwegian government in 1991 with the aim of reducing CO2 emissions. probably thousands of years. This solution was backed by the Sleipner licence partners. Encouraged by this levy. Statoil proposed removing the Sleipner CO2 offshore and injecting it into a deep geological layer beneath the A platform on the nearby Sleipner East field. but making this sufficiently compact for installation on a platform in the middle of the North Sea. The CO2 will be stored for a long time. which comprises porous sandstone filled with salt water. which also brought the world’s first offshore CO2 capture plant into operation along with its first CO2 storage project in a geological formation 1 000 metres beneath the seabed. Natural gas from this North Sea reservoir contains around 9% CO2.

electricity and hydrogen. has been a key research and development topic at Statoil for more than a decade. . the group has developed a vision of where the oil and gas industry may be heading in a climate-driven future. Natural gas pipeline Electricity CO2 Hydrogen pipelines Fuel cells Gas turbines Hydrogen Hydrogen Geological storage The illustration shows how natural gas (or oil.Vision for sub-surface CO2 storage CO2 capture from various power generation processes. coal) is used to manufacture the two CO2-free energy carriers. Fossil fuels can be transformed into two carbon-free energy carriers – electricity and hydrogen – with the greenhouse gas captured and stored safely underground. The new element is the incorporation of processes that capture and store the CO2. including the hydrogen-based route. Over the years.

For both commercial and technical reasons.In Salah in Algeria Statoil’s third CO2 injection project is located on Algeria’s In Salah gas field in the central Sahara. about 2 million tonnes of CO2 have been captured and stored at In Salah. which is operated jointly by Sonatrach. These volumes are held in the same geological layer as the natural gas. BP and Statoil. Since 2004. The same cap rock which holds the natural gas in place will keep the CO2 safely stored. but at a safe distance. Italy Spain Algiers Morocco Hassi Mounia Algeria In Amenas In Salah Libya . the CO2 is removed from the natural gas as on the Sleipner fields and again with an amine process.

Australia. both alone and with others. They are all based on post-combustion technology. Knowledge of the fundamental properties of CO2 and the impact of its impurities is crucial for all research on CO2 capture and transport. whereby CO2 is removed after combustion in a power station. A major outcome of cooperative research efforts is that sub-surface CO2 storage can be done safely. Canada. the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) and the CCS Association in the UK. the UK. A new laboratory-scale test rig for CO2 pipeline transport is being used to establish operational windows and specifications for offshore operations and for training operators in CO2 pipeline management. transport and storage projects. the European CO2Net. The Netherlands. Four-dimensional seismic surveying has been a very important tool in reaching reliable conclusions. such as the greenhouse gas programme of the International Energy Agency (IEA). France. CO2Store. Germany. including Encap and Dynamis. . Spain. The group’s activities in this area have demonstrated possibilities for creating CO2 value chains and promoting several capture. The group has combined large-scale commercial projects with internationally recognised research programmes. are also the subject of major R&D projects. Castor and CO2Remove programmes. New projects are being launched in Denmark. Statoil plays an active role in this area. the USA. the group has also become involved in the EU’s zero emission programme (ZEP). Several pilot units have been constructed to study CO2 capture technologies. Italy. In recent years. These are yielding valuable results and inputs for the research programme in order to qualify new technology or optimise traditional solutions. such as pre-combustion and oxyfuel. This work has mainly been done in various projects financed in part by the EU. industries and research communities during recent years. Statoil’s work has served as an inspiration for these new programmes worldwide. Statoil is active in several important international initiatives. But other capture technologies. Indonesia and elsewhere.Research and development Statoil has been the initiator of and an active partner in various R&D projects on CCS. since the late 1980s. Best practice manuals for CO2 storage have been continuously updated in these projects. whilst also sharing data and showing an open and transparent attitude. and has won great attention and recognition. Poland. Outlook CCS has attracted greatly increased attention and activity at a global level among policy makers. The latest experimental and theoretical results are used for continuous comparison to identify which technology is the most suitable for various conditions. Its work has yielded good results which can help to build public trust in and acceptance of this important contribution to meeting the climate challenge. The world appears to be moving rapidly in the direction of promoting and accepting CCS as a major medium-term method for potentially reducing CO2 emissions on a global scale. These include the Sacs.

Illustrations: Statoil.com COS_0891328. Helge Hansen. Leif Berge. Øyvind Hagen. . Kjetil Alsvik.Statoil ASA NO-4035 Stavanger Norway Telephone +47 51 99 00 00 www. November 2009.statoil.

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