DIFFUSION

In mammals diffusion occurs at 2 places in the respiratory system. The first place it occurs is in the lungs. The carbon dioxide from the blood diffuses into the lungs and the oxygen in the lungs diffuses into the blood. The second place where diffusion occurs is at the cell. Carbon dioxide diffuses out of the cell and into the blood whereas oxygen diffuses into the cell from the blood. Glucose is also diffused from the capillary to the respiratory cells, since they need energy to function properly. Remember that diffusion works in a certain way: Molecules in a highly concentrated area will naturally diffuse into an area with lower concentrations of that particular substance, until eventually all of the molecules of that substance are evenly spread out within that area. In physiology, perfusion is the process of nutritive delivery of arterial blood to a capillary bed in the biological tissue. The word is derived from the French verb "perfuser" meaning to "pour over or through." Tests of adequate perfusion are a part of the patient assessment process performed by medical or emergency personnel. The most common methods include evaluating skin color, temperature, condition and capillary refill.

Overperfusion and underperfusion The terms "overperfusion" and "underperfusion" are measured relative to the average level of perfusion across all tissues in an individual body, and the terms should not be confused with hypoperfusion and "hyperperfusion", which measure the perfusion level relative to the tissue's current need. Tissues like the skin are considered overperfused and receive more blood than would be expected to meet the metabolic needs of the tissue. In the case of the skin, extra blood flow is used for thermoregulation. In addition to delivering oxygen, the blood helps dissipate heat by redirecting warm blood close to the surface where it can cool the body through sweating and thermal radiation.