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CA Ex S1M05 OSI Network Layer

CA Ex S1M05 OSI Network Layer

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CCNA – Semester1

Chapter 5 - OSI Network Layer
CCNA Exploration version 4.0

Objectives
• Identify the role of the Network Layer, as it describes
• • • •
communication from one end device to another end device Examine the most common Network Layer protocol, Internet Protocol (IP), and its features for providing connectionless and best-effort service Understand the principles used to guide the division or grouping of devices into networks Understand the hierarchical addressing of devices and how this allows communication between networks Understand the fundamentals of routes, next hop addresses and packet forwarding to a destination network

Introduction

• The protocols of the OSI model Network layer specify
addressing and processes that enable Transport layer data to be packaged and transported. The Network layer encapsulation allows its contents to be passed to the destination within a network or on another network with minimum overhead.

IPv4

Network Layer – Communication from Host to Host

Layer 3 uses four basic processes: – Addressing – Encapsulation – Routing: Intermediary devices that connect the networks are called routers. The role of the router is to select paths for and direct packets toward their destination. This process is known as routing. – Decapsulation

Network Layer – Communication from Host to Host

Network Layer – Communication from Host to Host

Network Layer Protocols
• Protocols implemented at the Network
layer that carry user data include: – Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) – Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) – Novell Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) – AppleTalk – Connectionless Network Service (CLNS/DECNet)

The IPv4 Protocol – Example Network Layer Protocol

The Internet Protocol was designed as a protocol with low overhead. It provides only the functions that are necessary to deliver a packet from a source to a destination over an interconnected system of networks. The protocol was not designed to track and manage the flow of packets. These functions are performed by other protocols in other layers. Basic characteristics:

The IPv4 Protocol – Connectionless

The IPv4 Protocol – Best Effort

Best Effort Service (unreliable) • Describe the implications for the use of the IP protocol as it is considered an unreliable protocol • Unreliable means simply that IP does not have the capability to manage, and recover from, undelivered or corrupt packets. • Since protocols at other layers can manage reliability, IP is allowed to function very efficiently at the Network layer.

The IPv4 Protocol – Media Independent

IPv4 and IPv6 operate independently of the media that carry the data at lower layers of the protocol stack One major characteristic of the media that the Network layer considers: the maximum size of PDU that each medium can transport: the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU). Part of the control communication between the Data Link layer and the Network layer is the establishment of a maximum size for the packet.

Packaging the Transport Layer PDU
• •
The process of encapsulating data by layer enables the services at the different layers to develop and scale without affecting other layers. Routers can implement these different Network layer protocols to operate concurrently over a network to and from the same or different hosts. The routing performed by these intermediary devices only considers the contents of the packet header that encapsulates the segment.

IPv4 Packet Header

Network Layer Fields

• • •

4 bits Indicates version of IP used IPv4: 0100; IPv6: 0110

Network Layer Fields

• •

4 bits Indicates datagram header length in 32 bit words

Network Layer Fields

• •

8 bits Specifies the level of importance that has been assigned by upper-layer protocol

Network Layer Fields

• •

16 bits Specifies the length of the entire packet in bytes, including data and header

Network Layer Fields

• •

16 bits Identifies the current datagram

Network Layer Fields

• •

3 bits The second bit specifies if the packet can be fragmented; the last bit specifying whether the packet is the last fragment in a series of fragmented packets.

Network Layer Fields

• •

13 bits Used to help piece together datagram fragments

Network Layer Fields

• •

8 bits Specifies the number of hops a packet may travel. This number is decreased by one as the packet travels through a router

Network Layer Fields

• •

8 bits Indicates which upper-layer protocol, such as TCP(6) or UDP(17), receives incoming packets after IP processing has been completed

Network Layer Fields

• • •

16 bits Helps ensure IP header integrity Not caculated for the encapsulation data

Network Layer Fields

• •

32 bits Specifies the sending node IP address

Network Layer Fields

• 32 bits • Specifies the receiving node IP address

Network Layer Fields

• •

Variable length Allows IP to support various options, such as security

Network Layer Fields

• •

Variable length Extra zeros are added to this field to ensure that the IP header is always a multiple of 32 bits.

Network Layer Fields

• •

Variable length up to 64 KB Contains upper-layer information

Networks – Dividing Hosts into Groups

Separating Hosts into Common Groups

Networks can be grouped based on factors that include: – Geographic location – Purpose Geographic – Ownership

Separating Hosts into Common Groups
Purpose: Users who have similar tasks typically use common software, common tools, and have common traffic patterns.

Separating Hosts into Common Groups
Purpose

Separating Hosts into Common Groups
Ownership: Using an organizational (company, department) basis for creating networks assists in controlling access to the devices and data as well as the administration of the networks.

Separating Hosts into Common Groups
Ownership

Why separate hosts into networks
Common issues with large networks are: Performance degradation, Security issues, Address Management

Improving Performance:

Why separate hosts into networks

Increase network security

Why separate hosts into networks

Address management: To expect each host to know the address of every other host would impose a processing burden on these network devices that would severely degrade their performance.

Why separate hosts into networks

Hierarchical addressing: solves the problem of devices communicating across networks of networks

Dividing the networks - Networks from networks

• If a large network has to be divided, additional layers of
addressing can be created. Using hierarchical addressing means that the higher levels of the address are retained; with a subnetwork level and then the host level.

Routing – How Our Data Packets are Handled

Routing Protocols
• Routing is an OSI Layer 3
function. It is a hierarchical scheme and allows individual addresses to be group together. Routing is the process of finding the most efficient path from one device to another.

Routing Protocols

• • •

Provides processes for sharing route information Allows routers to communicate with other routers to update and maintain the routing tables Examples: Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), and Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP)

Supporting communication outside our network

• To communicate with a device on another network, a host •
uses the address of this gateway, or default gateway, to forward a packet outside the local network. The router also needs a route that defines where to forward the packet next. This is called the next-hop address. If a route is available to the router, the router will forward the packet to the next-hop router that offers a path to the destination network.

Fundamentals of Routes, Next Hop Addresses and Packet Forwarding

• •

If the destination host is in the same network as the source host, the packet is delivered between the two hosts on the local media without the need for a router. If the destination host and source host are not in the same network, the packet may be carrying a Transport layer PDU across many networks and through many routers.

IP Packet – Carrying Data End-to-End

IP Packet – Carrying Data End-to-End

IP Packet – Carrying Data End-to-End

IP Packet – Carrying Data End-to-End

IP Packet – Carrying Data End-to-End

A gateway – the way out of our network

A gateway – the way out of our network

A gateway – the way out of our network

A router makes a forwarding decision for each packet that arrives at the gateway interface. This forwarding process is referred to as routing. To forward a packet to a destination network, the router requires a route to that network. If a route to a destination network does not exist, the packet cannot be forwarded.

Routing table
• The routing table stores information about connected and
remote networks. Routes in a routing table have three main features: – Destination network – Next-hop – Metric

A Route – The Path to a Network

Host Routing Table
• A host creates the
routes used to forward the packets it originates. These routes are derived from the connected network and the configuration of the default gateway. Hosts automatically add all connected networks to the routes. These routes for the local networks allow packets to be delivered to hosts that are connected to these networks.

Route print

Routing table entries

Routing table entries

Default route

A router can be configured to have a default route. A default route is a route that will match all destination networks. In IPv4 networks, the address 0.0.0.0 is used for this purpose. The default route is used to forward packets for which there is no entry in the routing table for the destination network. Packets with a destination network address that does not match a more specific route in the routing table are forwarded to the next-hop router associated with the default route.

Packet forwarding
• Routing is done packet-by-packet and hop-by-hop. Each •
packet is treated independently in each router along the path. The router will do one of three things with the packet: Forward it to the next-hop router; Forward it to the destination host; Drop it.

Packet forwarding

If the routing table does not contain a more specific route entry for an arriving packet, the packet is forwarded to the interface indicated by a default route, if one exists. The default route is also known as the Gateway of Last Resort.

Packet forwarding

Routing Processes – How Routes are Learned

Routing protocol – Sharing the route

Routing protocols: static and dynamic routes

Static Routing

Static route: routes to remote networks with the associated next hops can be manually configured on the router. A default route can also be statically configured.

Dynamic Routing

Routing protocols are the set of rules by which routers dynamically share their routing information.

Routing protocol

• • •

Provides processes for sharing route information Allows routers to communicate with other routers to update and maintain the routing tables Examples: Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), and Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP)

IGP and EGP

• • •

Autonomous system is a network or set of networks under common administrative control. An autonomous system consists of routers that present a consistent view of routing to the external world. Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP): route data within an autonomous system. Eg: RIP and RIPv2; IGRP; EIGRP; OSPF; IS-IS; Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGP): route data between autonomous systems. Eg: BGP

Link state and Distance Vector

The distance-vector routing approach determines the distance and direction, vector, to any link in the internetwork. Routers using distance-vector algorithms send all or part of their routing table entries to adjacent routers on a periodic basis. This happens even if there are no changes in the network. Eg: RIP, IGRP, EIGRP Link state routing protocols send periodic update at longer time interval (30’), Flood update only when there is a change in topology. Link state use their database to create routing table. Eg: OSPF, IS-IS

Dynamic Routing: Example 5.4.3.2

Summary

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