Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS

Version 11.6SP1

pdms1161/Structural Design Using PDMS issue 280605

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Revision History
Date October 2003 August 2004 June 2005 Version 11.5 11.6 11.6.SP1 Notes Updates for this release. Updates for this release. Minor updates and corrections for this release.

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1

Revision History-i

6SP1 .Revision History Revision History-ii Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.

.9....................................................... 3-3 3............... 1-2 1...................................................................................... 2-1 The strengths of PDMS...................................................................2 Assumptions.............3 Using scrollable lists.. 3-2 Using forms ........................................................Contents 1 Read This First 1..1 Using text boxes........................................................ 3-6 3........................................3 2-1 Introducing the structure of PDMS .........................9.................................................. 3-1 Using the mouse ................................... 3-9 3...................9.............. 4-3 5 Creating a Simple Structure 5..........................................................................................................3 3-1 Logging in......... 3-10 3.................3 4-1 Starting the Structural Application....................................................................................... 1-4 2 Introducing VANTAGE PDMS 2................... 3-10 3............3 5-1 Design-to-Catalogue Cross-Referencing .......................................................2 2.. 1-3 Further training in the use of PDMS..............................................................................................................6SP1 Contents-i .... 1-1 1...........................1...............11 Using on-line Help.............................................................................. 3-7 3................................................. 1-1 1.............................1 Intended audience................. 3-10 3.........................................................................................2 5............. 3-11 4 Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy 4..........................................1 4............................... 5-1 5......2............... 5-2 5...............................2 4.......................... 2-1 PDMS structural design features .. 4-1 Creating Some Administrative Elements.......................3......................2 1................................................................ 3-9 3.......... 4-1 How PDMS Stores Design Data ......................4 Further reading.......................... 2-2 3 Getting Started 3...........9..............................................................................2 Using check boxes ................................ 3-5 3..... 5-1 5.................................................................... 1-2 Text conventions ................ 1-1 1.............................................................................4 The PDMS startup display ......................................3..........10 Responding to alert forms ......................................1 Straight Sections ....... 3-9 3........3 1..........................................3....... 3-11 3............................1 1-1 1............................................1 Setting Default Storage Areas.....................................3 About the tutorial exercise.... 5-2 Some Initial Setting Up Operations ........................................ 3-3 3...................................................................4 Using action buttons..................................8 Using the status bar ............................ 3-6 3...................................5 Using menus ......6 Using the tool bar ................................................................................ 3-2 3.................1...................1 2................................. 5-1 How PDMS Represents Structural Members ..................................2 3.....9 More on using forms .....................5 The scope of this guide ................................................7 Using the Design Explorer ...........................................1 3.................1 Using option buttons .................................................................................................................................... 1-2 How the guide is organised........................................................................2........... 5-3 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.......2 Using drop-down lists............................. 1-2 Terminology .......................1..2 Nodes............4 1.......1.................1 5........................................................................................................

.......................... 9-1 Creating a Panel Fitting........... 11-5 11.........................................................................................................................................9 Copying Parts of the Design Model......................................1 7........................1 Defining What Appears in the View......................7 Creating Sections Using Graphical Picking.............................8 8...............................................3 Navigating in the Database by Picking Elements Graphically.............................. 5-3 5. 5-13 5.....2 Generating a data output report ............................................................................................ 7-10 Representing Joints ...................Contents 5.....5.......... 5-9 5....... 8-2 Setting Default Storage Areas.............................................................................1 How a penetration is defined.....6 Event-Driven Graphics Mode ........ 8-3 Creating Simple Panels.................................................. 10-2 11 Checking and Outputting Design Data 11-1 11....... 5-23 5............ 5-21 5...... 7-4 Adding Standard Bracing Configurations ......1........ 7-17 Moving Part of the Structure and Maintaining Correct Geometry .......... 8-10 Creating Negative Extrusions........... 7-17 8 Adding Panels and Plates 8.. 11-5 11............7 6-1 7-1 Restoring a Previously Saved Setup........ 7-1 Adding and Modifying Simple Bracing ......................1 Obstruction levels................................ 5-12 5..........................................................................................1 Generating a tabulated data report ..................3 8.................2 Extent of clashing...................................................................................................... 8-3 Measuring Distances/Directions in the Design Model ........................5................................ 5-8 5.............................................3 The clash detection process ........6 8.....1 9..................................................................... 7-12 Dominant versus Subordinate Joints .....5 7.....................................3 7......................................2 9-1 How Panel Fittings are Defined..........................................................................7 8............................4 8..........5 8........ 11-6 Contents-ii Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11................................................................ 5-14 5.................................................... 11-1 11.....................................................5 Viewing the Design ................ 11-3 11....3...................................2 7..........................6SP1 ..............4 7.................................2 Manipulating the Displayed View .......................................................3 Setting the Default Specification for Profiles .................................... 5-5 5.......................................... 11-2 11..1.................2............... 8-6 Tailoring Panel Edges by Editing Individual Vertices ..............................11 Saving Your Changes and Leaving Your Design Session ....................................8 Collecting Elements into Temporary Lists............................. 10-1 10....2 Creating a steelwork penetration ........................................................... 8-1 How PDMS Represents Panels ................................ 9-2 10 Penetrating One Item With Another 10-1 10..... 7-1 Trimming Connected Section Ends to Correct Geometry ..........................................................................................4 Creating Sections Explicitly............. 8-7 Moving Panel Edges to New Positions ..............................6 7..............................1 8............1....................2 8..........3.2 Automating Profile and Primary Node Allocations ..9 8-1 Starting the Panels & Plates Application...........3 Querying mass properties .... 5-20 5................5................ 5-25 6 7 A Quick Way to Build a Regular Structure Enhancing the Basic Structure 7.........................10 Completing the Initial Design .......................................................................... 5-4 5..... 11-1 11.........................1 Checking for clashes.......................................... 5-10 5................ 8-12 9 Using Panel Fittings 9........................................... 8-5 Splitting a Panel .


11.4 Plotting the design model................................................................................ 11-8


Adding Some Curved Steelwork


12.1 How PDMS represents curved sections.......................................................... 12-1 12.2 Creating a semicircular platform ..................................................................... 12-1 12.3 Creating a runway beam with multiple curves................................................. 12-4 12.3.1 Defining a working grid..................................................................... 12-5 12.3.2 Creating a curved section ................................................................ 12-6 12.3.3 Modifying a curved section............................................................... 12-7 12.4 Conclusion ...................................................................................................... 12-9


The Structural Design Database Structural Catalogue Guide
B.1 B.2 B.3 B.4

A-1 B-1

B.5 B.6 B.7 B.8

The Basic Features of the Catalogue................................................................B-1 P-line Identification............................................................................................B-2 Some Standard Profiles ....................................................................................B-3 Some Standard Joints.....................................................................................B-13 B.4.1 Column Connections........................................................................B-13 B.4.2 Cleated Connections........................................................................B-14 B.4.3 End Preparations .............................................................................B-15 B.4.4 Baseplate Connections ....................................................................B-16 B.4.5 Double Notched End Plates .............................................................B-17 B.4.6 Single Notched End Plates ..............................................................B-17 Some Standard Fittings...................................................................................B-17 Stiffeners .........................................................................................................B-18 Fire Insulation..................................................................................................B-19 Lifting Lugs......................................................................................................B-20


Other Relevant Documentation
C.1 C.2 C.3


PDMS introductory guides ................................................................................C-1 PDMS reference manuals .................................................................................C-2 General guides..................................................................................................C-2


Sample Plots


Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1




Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1


Read This First
The scope of this guide
This guide introduces some of the facilities provided by VANTAGE PDMS for the design and documentation of logically interconnected structures. It explains the main concepts underlying PDMS and its supporting applications, and shows how you can apply these to your own design projects. The chapters of this guide take the form of a hands-on tutorial exercise combined with frequent explanation of the underlying concepts. As you work progressively through the exercise, you will gain practical experience of the ways in which you can use PDMS while learning about the powerful facilities it provides.

1.1.1 Intended audience
This guide has been written for engineers familiar with structural design practices, who may or may not have prior knowledge of computer-aided design systems.

1.1.2 Assumptions
For you to use this guide, the sample PDMS project, Project SAM, must be correctly installed on your system, and you must have read/write access to the project databases. It is assumed that you know: • • where to find PDMS on your computer system you know how to use the Windows operating system installed at your site

Contact your systems administrator if you need help in either of these areas.

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1


Sans-serif bold for menu names and options. The start and end of each part of the exercise is marked by lines across the page to separate them from the general information sections. The following terms are used throughout this guide to describe what action to carry out: Enter Type text into the specified dialogue box.3 About the tutorial exercise All the steps of the exercise are numbered sequentially throughout the guide. but you need to recognise what is happening when you select from the different functions available to you from the various menus. to denote internal cross references and citations. so that the distinctions between them become almost imperceptible. like this: 1.1.Read This First 1. and for the names of forms. Typewriter for text within a form. to denote keys on your keyboard. then press the Enter (or Return) key to confirm the entry.3 Terminology You can switch rapidly between the different parts of the program.4 Further reading You can find a list of relevant AVEVA documentation in the appendices of this guide.2 Text conventions This guide uses the following text conventions: Serif Bold Serif italic Sans-serif for the majority of the text.1. 1-2 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. and to introduce special terminology. 1. to highlight important information. including text that you enter yourself using the keyboard. 1.6SP1 .

Click on the required item to select it. Pick Drag Double-click Place the mouse pointer over a specified point. as follows: Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 introduces this guide and summarises its scope.4 How the guide is organised This guide is divided into three parts.6SP1 .Read This First Click Place the mouse pointer over a specified point. use the left-hand mouse button. then quickly press and release the designated mouse button. A running example is used from this chapter on. shows how to clad the structure by adding panels and plates. demonstrates a useful facility which provides an alternative method for creating a regularly configured structure rapidly. then click the left-hand mouse button twice in quick succession. If no button is specified. explains how PDMS stores its design data and shows you how to organise your data. gives a general overview of the main design facilities provided within the structural application. Place the mouse pointer over a specified point. including an explanation of how to access detailed on-line help. guides you through the steps needed to create a simple structure comprising only vertical columns and horizontal beams. Release the button over the second point. and how to modify the design by moving interconnected parts of the structure. shows how to add diagonal bracing members. gives you a general guide to using the PDMS graphical user interface. 1. including some appendices. 1-3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. to illustrate essential concepts. how to model joints between connected members. then press and hold down the required mouse button while moving the pointer to a second specified point.

1-4 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. 1. allowing you to refer back to any specific topics about whose details you need to be reminded.5 Further training in the use of PDMS This guide teaches you to about the key features of using PDMS for structural designs only. the brief details given in this guide. comprises a sample catalogue of structural steelwork sections. AVEVA provides a wide range of training courses.Read This First Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C introduces the concept of panel fittings. covering all levels of expertise and all design disciplines. summarises the database hierarchy which PDMS uses to store your structural design data.6SP1 . If you wish to learn more about the wide-ranging facilities of PDMS. identifies other sources of information which supplement. and how to generate reports and plots directly from the design data. For details of courses. shows how to configure those locations where one item penetrates another. shows how to check your design for clashes. and expand upon. explains how curved sections are represented and illustrates their use. contact your nearest AVEVA support office (see the copyright page at the front of this guide for our web address). and to arrange course attendance. The guide concludes with an index.

The applications you will use for structural design work in this guide are: • • Beams & Columns Panels & Plates You can switch quickly and easily between different parts of PDMS. You can incorporate modifications into your design at any stage without fear of invalidating any of your prior work.2 Introducing VANTAGE PDMS This chapter provides: • • • an introduction to the structure of PDMS the strengths of PDMS structural design features. A module is a subdivision of PDMS that you use to carry out specific types of operation. This guide covers the DESIGN module. 2.1 Introducing the structure of PDMS PDMS comprises the following functional parts: • • modules applications.2 The strengths of PDMS In PDMS. This allows you to implement a sequence of related decisions with a minimum of effort. which you use for creating the 3D design model An application is supplementary program that has been tailored to provide easy control of operations that are specific to a particular discipline. the emphasis being on maximising both design consistency and design productivity: • The design modelling functions incorporate a degree of apparent intelligence that enables them to make sensible decisions about the consequential effects of many of your design choices. for the design of Process Plant. because data 2-1 • Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. 2. you have a powerful suite of facilities.6SP1 .

3 PDMS structural design features The PDMS structural applications offer the following key benefits: • The applications are designed to use specification data when selecting structural components from the Catalogue database. You can set up pointers to define the storage areas in which specific types of design element are to be held in the database hierarchy. many common actions are also represented by pictorial icons. This can avoid a great deal of repetitive work when you carry out commonly-repeated design modifications. such as 3D positioning grids. minimises the amount of data which you have to enter explicitly as you build up your design model. especially when combined with the rule-based naming facility. You can set up temporary lists of elements. • The applications let you check all aspects of your design as work progresses. that the structural Catalogue databases are properly maintained. and by entering data into on-screen forms. drawing and reporting operations are initiated by selecting choices from menus. material take-off reports.6SP1 . On-screen help is available to assist you whenever you need help. therefore. This. to make it easy for you to position structural elements accurately within the design model. to prevent errors from being introduced by transcribing information between different disciplines. It is important. and so on. • • • • 2-2 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. so that you can carry out a design operation on all elements within the list simultaneously.Introducing VANTAGE PDMS consistency-checking is an integral part of the product. so the chances of errors and inconsistencies reaching the final documented design are reduced to an exceptionally low level. The applications incorporate a number of geometric design aids. so that design consistency and conformity to standards are ensured. This includes on-line interdisciplinary clash detection. This means that all design. so that their positions in the database hierarchy are always obvious without you having to enter specific texts during the design process. For ease of use. The applications are controlled from a graphical user interface. by reading all design data directly from a common set of databases. • • 2. PDMS automatically manages drawing production. You can name structural elements in accordance with a predefined set of rules.

using any standard datum line to define the precise alignment of a joint with its attached sections. and the edges of adjacent panels may be shaped such they interlock automatically. • • • • • • • Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. complete areas to be covered) first and then to subdivide this into a manageable ‘microstructure’ for fabrication purposes at a later stage (typically. such as complex panels and floor plates. Much repetitive work can be avoided in symmetrical designs by making copies of interconnected parts of the structure and reflecting them about specified axes. kick plates.. Negative primitives and shapes may be used in the structural catalogue to define complex joint geometry and end preparations for structural sections. Penetrations may be created as catalogue elements. making as many copies as are necessary to support the length of the roof.) may be divided at intersections. The edges of panels may be notched to fit around section profiles. etc. so that weld preparations and fitting allowances can be modelled easily. with the dimensions and position of the penetration derived automatically from the dimensions of the pipe/duct/cable tray passing though it. the Design applications create and maintain connectivity of the structural network automatically. in one operation. which can incorporate appropriate sleeving. Such a penetration. so that the detailed design of such items becomes simply a matter of entering the required dimensional and positional data. floor plates. For example. Sections and panels (wall plates. Multiple copies of design components may be created simply by specifying the number of copies required and their relative positions and orientations. Templates may be used to define the basic structure of built-up girders and similar components. Joint positions may be finely adjusted to ensure accurate assembly. without affecting any of their logical interconnections.6SP1 2-3 .Introducing VANTAGE PDMS • • Where possible. etc. may be inserted into a structural section or panel as a complete entity. to make the most efficient use of stock panel sizes). Non-standard structural components. a complete roof structure can be created by designing a single roof truss and then. This enables you to design the ‘macrostructure’ (for example. so that the design pattern is repeated as required. with each truss displaced by a given distance relative to the preceding one. may be created by defining the required shape as a 2D profile and then extruding this to the desired thickness. after the overall size and shape have been defined.

This is particularly important where different features of the design model are under the control of different designers. which can include data from any design discipline. You can derive panel vertices simply by picking appropriate datum lines on existing sections. • • 2-4 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. connections between panels and sections are then created automatically to give a fully connected structural model. or you can design a report format to suit your own particular needs. you can create reports listing specified data from the current database. You can specify a standard report template.6SP1 . so you can derive lists of commonly-required information very quickly. thus avoiding spatial conflicts within the overall model which could be expensive to rectify at the construction stage. At any stage of your work. can be either displayed on your screen or sent to a file (for storage and/or for printing).Introducing VANTAGE PDMS • The applications make it easy for you to create panels and to connect them to existing panels or sections via linear joints. The resultant output. sorted in any way you require. This facility uses intelligent pointer picking to enhance the interaction between the displayed graphics and the design creation process. You can carry out multi-disciplinary clash checks at any stage of the design. Such panels can be used either to represent floors/walls or to build up complex plated connections.

If you do not know where the PDMS program is stored on your system. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. Ignore any entries currently shown in this form. The VANTAGE PDMS Login form that appears requires you to specify a number of details at the outset of your session. 3. you will have to contact your system administrator at this point. Start PDMS by double-clicking on the PDMS icon. The next section describes how to complete the boxes. and the exercise continues afterwards.1 Logging in This is the first step of the tutorial exercise. Exercise begins: 1. menus and forms that comprise the PDMS graphical user interface on-line help.6SP1 3-1 .3 Getting Started This chapter explains: • • • how to log in to PDMS how to use the windows.

dragging with the left-hand button activates the command represented by the highlighted menu option when the button is released. Text boxes and drop-down lists are explained below. 3. On a form. Note: the right-hand mouse button menu will henceforth be referred to as the shortcut menu. In a sequence of menus. the remainder are explained later in this chapter.3 Using forms Forms can include any of the following: • • • • • • text boxes drop-down lists option buttons check boxes scrollable lists action buttons.6SP1 . The left-hand mouse button has three functions: • On a graphical view. the design item on which you want to carry out the next operation). 3-2 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. and the position within the window. where the pointer is positioned. clicking the left-hand button with the pointer over a design element results in that element becoming the current element (that is. The buttons perform different tasks depending on the type of window. the right-hand button is used to access the menu options specific to the graphical view window.Getting Started 3. • • The middle mouse button is used primarily to manipulate the graphical view contents.2 Using the mouse You use the mouse to steer the graphics pointer around the screen and to select or pick items by using the mouse buttons. the effect varies according to what you select. The appearance of the pointer changes according to the type of display item that is underneath it.

6. When you first open a form which contains text boxes.3.2 Using drop-down lists Drop-down lists let you choose one option from a multiple selection. Some text boxes accept only text or only numeric data. 3. 7.Getting Started 3. A text box will usually have a label to tell you what to enter. 4. Type in the required data. They typically have the following appearance: To change the setting. the first text-box on the form is current and a text editing pointer (a vertical bar) is displayed in the box. click on the down arrow or button face to reveal the full list of available options. (You may need to delete the existing entry first. confirm the entry by pressing the Enter (or Return) key. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. 3. Give the name of the Project in which you want to work: enter SAM. Give the name of the module you wish to use: select Design. A text-box often contains a default entry (such as unset) when first displayed. Exercise continues: 2. then pick the required option. Give your allocated Username: enter STRUC.6SP1 3-3 . Give your allocated Password: enter STRUC. Any text box with an unconfirmed setting is highlighted by a yellow background. 5. and entries with the wrong type of data are not accepted. The list will usually have a label to tell you what you are setting and will show the current selection. To enter data into a text box: • • • Click in the box to insert the text editing pointer. editing any existing entry as necessary. Click on the VANTAGE PDMS Login form to make it active. Give the part of the project Multiple Database (MDB) you want to work in: enter STRUC.) When you have finished.3.1 Using text boxes Text boxes are the areas where you type in alphanumeric data such as names or dimensions.

Select Macro Files. 3-4 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1 . You can choose either the application default settings (Load from Macro Files) or a customised setup saved during an earlier session (Load from Binary Files). You must specify which files to load at startup. 8.Getting Started Make sure that you leave the Read Only box unchecked. so that you can modify the database as you work. When you have entered all the necessary details. the form looks like this: Click on the button.

Design Explorer This shows your current position in the PDMS database hierarchy. the display comprises the following: Title Bar This shows the current PDMS module. Section 3.4 The PDMS startup display When PDMS has loaded. and its sub-application if applicable. you click on the appropriate item in the list. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. Main Menu Bar This is the area you use to make menu selections. Main Tool Bar This has a number of icon buttons and drop-down lists that offer shortcuts to a selection common PDMS operations and standard settings. your screen looks like this: As labelled above. To move to a different point in the database.7 below explains more about how to use the Design Explorer.Getting Started 3.6SP1 3-5 .

see the PDMS Design online help. For example: Select Position>Move>Distance means: a) Select Position from the bar men.Getting Started Note: for full details of the Design Explorer. Options followed by three dots display a form. display a subsidiary menu that offers a further range of options.6 Using the tool bar The tool bar is displayed immediately below the main menu bar in the application window. Status Bar This displays information about the current status of your operations. b) Select Move from the resulting pull-down menu c) Move the pointer to the right and select Distance from the submenu that appears.5 Using menus Menu options in pull-down or pop-up menus can be in any of three formats: Standalone options initiate an action immediately. related selections from menus are denoted using the > symbol as a separator. 3. 3D View This is the window in which you display the design model graphically as you build it.6SP1 . Throughout this guide. This window also has its own tool bar. A shortcut menu (which you access with the right-hand mouse button) enables you to control how the model is represented. Options followed by a pointer. It contains a number of icon buttons which let you carry out common tasks without searching for the options in the menus. 3. 3-6 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. You can reposition or minimise these windows at any time using standard window management facilities.

select Settings>System from the main menu bar and then set the required options on the resulting System Settings form. The figure below shows a typical example of the information the Design Explorer displays: To expand or collapse any branch of the tree. or displayed with larger icons.Getting Started The actions of the buttons are explained in the on-line help. Note: The tool bar can be switched off. If you pause the pointer over a button. 3. click on the or icon. If you want to narrow the view down even Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.7 Using the Design Explorer The Design Explorer presents a hierarchical view of the PDMS databases and makes navigating around the Design Database quick and easy. To do so. To activate a button. a tool-tip pop-up box will remind you of the function of the button.6SP1 3-7 . you click on it. You can reduce the amount of information the tree displays by ticking the filter checkbox and selecting one of the predefined core filters from the drop-down combo-box list.

which you will find by default on the main menu bar. which you can access by selecting Settings>Explorer from the main menu. What actions are available depend on which DB and module you are using. the tree will automatically expand to show the Current Element if it is not currently in view. The Current Element is also the displayed in the History List. you can change the settings in the Explorer Settings. You can drag-and-drop elements within the Design Explorer to copy them. type. selecting a previously typed in element from the combo-box’s pulldown list. If you set the Expand to CE check box in the Explorer Settings. selecting elements from anywhere in the History List using the drop down lists on the backwards and forwards buttons. you will get a ToolTip that gives the element’s name. and description. navigating through the history one element at a time using the backwards and forwards buttons. You can make another element the Current Element using the History List by: • • typing the element’s name into the combo box.Getting Started more. clicking-the right mouse-button while the cursor is over an element will bring up a context menu from which you can choose to perform various actions. it will not display the combo-box. However. or you can drag-and-drop from the Explorer to add elements to the 3D view and My Data. If you place the mouse-pointer over an element. you can undock the History List and have it as a free-floating window.6SP1 . The Current Element is highlighted in the tree view and the Current Element will change to follow selections made elsewhere. even if the Explorer is not the active window. Note that if you dock the window vertically. The figure below shows the History List as a free-floating window. • • 3-8 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.

and scrollable lists.9 More on using forms Forms are used both to display information and to let you enter new data.3. from a group of options.9.Getting Started 3. If the prompt lets you repeat a task an unspecified number of times. The selection is mutually exclusive. or cancel the form without applying any changes. Forms typically comprise an arrangement of buttons of various types.1 Using option buttons Option buttons are used to select one. They typically have the following appearance: Option selected Option not selected Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. so that selecting one option deselects others in that group automatically. text-boxes. While you have access to a form.8 Using the status bar The status bar displays messages telling you what actions the application is carrying out. You were introduced to text boxes and drop-down lists in Section 3. and only one. especially if the system appears to be waiting for you to do something. return to the initial values. this section describes the remaining boxes. You should look at it frequently. according to the nature of the form. Input to a form is usually via a combination of mouse and keyboard. since it will always prompt you for any input or action which is required to carry out the next step of your current activity. you can change a setting. buttons and lists: • • • • option buttons check boxes scrollable lists action buttons.6SP1 3-9 . 3. accept and act on the current data. such as picking a selection of items using the pointer. you must press the Escape key when you have finished to indicate that you are ready to move to the next operation. 3.

3. Tells PDMS to accept the current form settings. They typically have the following appearance: Set Unset 3.6SP1 . Cancels any changes you have made to the form.4 Using action buttons Most forms include one or more action buttons. Closes the form. keeping the current settings. they do not interact.Getting Started To change the selected option button in a group.2 Using check boxes Check boxes are used to switch an option between two states. with vertical and horizontal scroll bars along its sides. click on the line you want. click the required button.9. so that selecting any option deselects all others automatically. The selected line is highlighted. with all selected options highlighted simultaneously. Unlike option buttons. You can deselect a highlighted option in a multiplechoice list by clicking on it again (repeated clicks toggle a selection). Cancels any changes you have made to the form. You use these to tell PDMS what to do with the details you have entered in the form.3 Using scrollable lists A scrollable list is displayed as a vertical list of options within the form. and leaves the form displayed for further use.9. typically set and unset.9. The common action buttons are: Tells PDMS to accept the current form settings. and closes the form. and closes the form. so that you can set any combination of check boxes at the same time. and leaves the form displayed for further use. To select an option. Some scrollable lists let you make only a single selection. Other lists let you make multiple selections. 3. 3-10 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.

Getting Started Some forms contain more specific types of control button which carry out particular command options. The action is indicated by the name of the button (such as Add or Remove). or by clicking on the control buttons on the form (usually an OK or Cancel button). The picture below shows a typical example of what you will see: The pane on the right shows by default a clickable image of the main PDMS Design window. the image will be replaced by text that describes the part of the image you clicked on. Choosing one of the Help options will bring up the Help window. on-line help gives detailed instructions on how to use the forms and menus from which you control each application. If you click on an area of the image.10 Responding to alert forms Alert forms are used to display information such as error messages. 3. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.11 Using on-line Help Most bar menus end with a Help option. 3.6SP1 3-11 . Where available. You should respond by carrying out the task prompted for. prompts and requests for confirmation of changes.

Getting Started The left pane contains a set of tabs that allow you to use Help in different ways. When you are ready to continue. The Help option gives you the following choices from its submenu: Help>Contents This displays the Help window so that you can find the required topic from the hierarchical contents list. If a form has its own menu bar. You can locate topics quickly by typing in the first few letters of their title. click this button. Experiment with each of the Help options until you understand the search and navigation facilities for finding specific items of information. Help>Search This displays the Help window with the Search tab at the front so that you can find all topics containing the keywords you specify. Do not close the Design Explorer or the 3D View windows.6SP1 . 10. 3-12 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. Choosing one of the options described below activates the relevant tab for you so it is at the front when the Help window comes up. Use the Help>On Context option to read the help texts for any forms which you can currently see on your screen. because you will use these in the next parts of the exercise. close any forms which you have been experimenting with as follows: • • • If a form has a Dismiss button. Help>Index This displays the Help window with the Index tab selected. select Control>Close from that menu. Exercise continues: 9. so that you can browse for the topic you want to read about from the alphabeticallyarranged list. Help>About This displays information about the current operating system on your computer and about the versions of PDMS and its applications to which you have access. Pressing the F1 key at any time will display the help topic for the currently active window. Close any Help windows which are displayed by double-clicking in the control box in the top left-hand corner of each window.

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.Getting Started You are advised to make full use of the on-line help facilities whenever you want clarification of any operations during the later steps of the exercise.6SP1 3-13 .

Getting Started 3-14 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1 .

select Design>Structures>Beams & Columns from the main menu bar. you will learn: • • about the PDMS database hierarchy how PDMS stores design data In this chapter we will enter the structural steelwork design application and create some administrative data elements which will enable us to organise our detailed design in a logical way. the main menu bar and tool bar will show some extra options. it is important that you know how such data is stored and accessed in the PDMS databases. To access this application. This is explained in the following section.2 How PDMS Stores Design Data All PDMS data is stored in a hierarchic or ‘tree’ format (similar to the way in which you use a hierarchy of directories and subdirectories to access your computer files). When loading is complete. In the case of a PDMS Design database.4 Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy In this chapter. The first structural application which we will use is that for designing interconnected beams and columns.1 Starting the Structural Application Exercise continues: 11. 4. thus: Before we start to create structural design data.6SP1 4-1 . 4. the Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. so that you will understand the terminology which you will encounter during the design process.

Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy topmost data level is called the World (usually represented by the symbolic name /*). Each element has a number of associated pieces of information which. Framework (FRMW) and (optionally) Subframework (SBFR). by a userspecified name. The names used to identify database levels below Zone depend on the specific engineering discipline for which the data is used. 4-2 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. others will be defined automatically by PDMS. In the case of structural design data. Additional items of information about an element which could be stored as attribute settings include: • • • • Its type Its physical dimensions and technical specifications Its physical location and orientation in the design model Its connectivity Some attribute settings must be defined by you when you create a new element. These are known as its attributes. together. The data which defines the physical design of the individual structural components is held below Subframework level. below which are the administrative sublevels Site and Zone. the lower administrative levels (and their PDMS abbreviations) are Structure (STRU). completely define its properties.6SP1 . giving the following overall format: WORLD (/*) SITE ZONE STRUCTURE (STRU) FRAMEWORK (FRMW) SUBFRAMEWORK (SBFR) (optional) Design data defining individual structural components which make up the design model All data is represented in the database thus: • • Each identifiable item of data is known as a PDMS element. Every element is identified within the database structure by an automatically allocated reference number and. optionally.

Press Return to confirm the name. 4. Click Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. by following the owner-member links up and down the hierarchy. The lower level elements are members of their owning element. On the displayed Create Site form. The Design Explorer (see Section 3. You can navigate from any element to any other.6SP1 4-3 . thereby changing the current element. you can consider yourself to be positioned at a specific point within the hierarchy. note how the system adds a / prefix automatically to conform to PDMS naming conventions. The element on the upper level is the owner of those elements directly linked below it.3 Creating Some Administrative Elements We will now create some administrative elements at the top of the Design DB hierarchy. The element at this location is called the current element (often abbreviated to CE). Check that you are at World level ( icon) in the Design Explorer. as explained in the preceding section. then select Create>Site. When you are modifying a database (for example.Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy The vertical link between two elements on adjacent levels of the database hierarchy is defined as an owner-member relationship. Exercise continues: 12. Each element can have many members. so you must understand this concept and always be aware of your current position in the database hierarchy. but it can have only one owner. when you are creating new elements or changing the settings of their attributes). In many cases. commands which you give for modifying the attributes of an element will assume that the changes are to be applied to the current element unless you specify otherwise.7) will always show you this information. enter the name TESTSITE in the Name text box.

Click on the menu option Display>Draw List and you will see that the Structure element has been automatically added to it.6SP1 . 4-4 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. In the next chapter. to create a Zone named TESTZONE. a Framework TESTFRMW and a Subframework (Sub-Frame) TESTSBFR. Notice that the new element appears in the Design Explorer as the current element. in that order. using the appropriate options from the Create menu. you will start to build up a design model by creating some structural members.Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy OK to create the Site element. We cover the Draw List in more detail later. Your Design Explorer should now look like this (only newly created elements shown): 14. 13. Repeat this process. a Structure TESTSTRU.

Before we do so. as explained in the following sections.). since the positions of these points effectively determine the length and orientation of the item.) is represented in PDMS by a Section (SCTN) element. it is important to understand how some of the items which make up the design are represented and accessed in the PDMS databases.2 How PDMS Represents Structural Members 5. This holds definitions of all available profiles and materials for structural columns/beams/bracing etc. all standard types of joint. beam. all auxiliary fittings. When you add an item to your design model.6SP1 5-1 . Channel. etc. The geometry of a Section is defined by two types of attribute setting: • • Its cross-section is defined by reference to a Catalogue Profile (SPRF) element (I-beam.1 Design-to-Catalogue Cross-Referencing To ensure design consistency and conformity with company standards.. but you specify the physical properties of the item by setting up a cross-reference (called a Specification Reference or SpecRef) which points to an appropriate entry in the Catalogue database. 5. We will look in more detail at these and some other attributes of Sections later. Two of the most important attributes are the Start Position (POSS) and the End Position (POSE). the basic definitions of all items which you may use in the structural design are held in a Catalogue database. orientation etc. however.1 Straight Sections Each individual straight structural member (column. for the item in the Design database. and so on. All other aspects of its geometry are defined by setting specific design attributes (in most cases these are set automatically by PDMS as you manipulate the model graphically). 5.2. etc. you store the position.5 Creating a Simple Structure In this chapter we will start to build up a structural design model by creating a simple configuration of interconnected columns and beams. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. T-section.

2 Nodes PDMS uses the concept of Nodes to represent basic analytical points within a structure. 5. As an example. some of the most commonly used p-lines for an I-shaped Profile might be positioned and named as follows (see Appendix B for fuller details of how this and other profiles are specified): LTOS TOS RTOS P-line (TOS) Section Profile LTBS NAL NA LBTS NAR RTBS End Position (POSE) RBTS P-line Naming Key: NA = Neutral Axis TOS = Top of Steel BOS = Bottom of Steel LTBS = Left Top Bottom of Steel Start Position (POSS) LBOS BOS RBOS and so on 5.6SP1 . each is identified by a named line running along the length of the Section. at a specified distance from the Section’s Start Position. Nodes have two main functions: • • To identify the points at which logical connections are made between adjoining Sections. To define how applied stresses can affect individual points in the structure (for passing design data to separate stress analysis programs).2. its Secondary Nodes move with it. Secondary Nodes are positioned along an owning Section.3 Some Initial Setting Up Operations In the next part of the exercise we will set up some defaults to customise the application to suit our planned method of working. Primary Nodes have their positions specified independently of other elements.Creating a Simple Structure To provide a method for referring to individual edges and faces of a Section. If you move a Section. 5-2 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. These reference lines (which are derived from the Section’s Profile definition in the catalogue) are called P-lines.

At this stage. each time you create a new Section. By default. The displayed form lets you specify storage areas for Primary Nodes and Sections independently.2 Automating Profile and Primary Node Allocations 16. Also by default. Select Settings>Storage Areas….3. Check that the sub-frame /TESTSBFR is the current element (click on it in the Design Explorer if it isn’t).6SP1 5-3 . leave both of these default settings in force.Creating a Simple Structure Exercise continues: 5. The new storage area settings will be shown as follows: Close the form by clicking the button. We shall store both types of element directly under the Sub-Frame which we created in the last step. thus: Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. then click on each line in the Storage Areas list in turn.3. like this: Section storage area Node storage area 5. it will automatically be associated with a Profile from the Catalogue. Note how the current storage area settings are shown below the main tool bar. For our present purposes. First.1 Setting Default Storage Areas 15. Primary Nodes will not be created automatically at unconnected section ends. we will specify where the principal structural elements are to be stored in the design database hierarchy. as shown (and controlled) by the following buttons below the main tool bar. both areas are shown as unset.

the data area will look like this: The first structural sections which we will create will be columns. The resulting Section Specification (Default) Click on the form lets you select any specification from the available catalogues. For the purpose of this exercise. so we will set the default profile to something suitable. From the displayed list of profiles applicable to BS Universal Columns. If these have not yet been set (which will be the case here). justification line. select 203x203x46kg/m.3. member line and joint line (these terms will be explained later) are shown below the main tool bar. button.3 Setting the Default Specification for Profiles 17.Creating a Simple Structure 5. The current default profile.6SP1 . set the Specification to British Standard and set the Generic Type to Universal Columns. thus: 5-4 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.

Creating a Simple Structure

Leave the Justification list (justification determines the ‘Setting out’ position of the Section, that is the axis about which the geometry is offset), the Member line list (which determines how sections are shown in wireline views and drawings), and the Joint Line list (which determines the position of a joint relative to an attached section) all set to NA (Neutral Axis). We will see the effects of these later. Click Apply to use this setting as the new default, noting that the current specification is now shown like this:

Dismiss the Section Specification (Default) form when you have finished with it.


Creating Sections Explicitly
We will first create four vertical columns, to the following design, using explicit positioning; that is, we will position the columns at given positions within the coordinate system of the site rather than by positioning them relative to existing structural sections (since we have not yet created any).
Column 2 Column 3

Column 1



Column 4


5000 N







Keep these column designations in mind; we shall refer to them throughout the rest of the exercise. 18. Select Create>Sections>Straight…. You will see both a Section form and a Positioning Control toolbar, which together control how the start and end points of sections are

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1


Creating a Simple Structure

specified. The Positioning Control toolbar is not relevant for our current purposes (we will see what it is used for later). On the Section form, check that the String Method is set to Single (which means that you will define independent start and end positions for each section) and that the Secondary Nodes check box is selected. Select the Confirm check box (so that you can check where each new section will be positioned before it is added to the database). The form’s settings should now look like this:

Click the button, which tells the system that you want to define a position by entering explicit coordinates (this is the only practical option at this stage). You will see a Define section start form. We want to position the start of the first column at the site origin, so leave the East/North/Up coordinates at the default position (E0, N0, U0), like this:


Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1

Creating a Simple Structure

Note: The default entry wrt World, meaning ‘with respect to the World’, defines the coordinate system within which the position is specified. Click OK. The Start position will be shown in the centre of the 3D View. Rather than specifying all three coordinates for the Section’s end position explicitly, we will define its position relative to the Section’s start. Click the button. You will now see a Define section end form in a format which lets you enter the required data. We want to create a vertical column 5000mm high, so enter the Direction as U and the Distance as 5000, thus:

Click OK, then click the Accept button on the Section form to confirm the creation of the Section. Check the Design Explorer: the Section will appear as SCTN 1. The Section will also be added to the Draw List, and will appear (as a very small rectangle) in the centre of the 3D View. 19. Using the same procedures, create the following three Sections: Start Position E0 N7000 U0; Length 9000 Start Position E0 N12000 U0; Length 9000 Start Position E0 N17000 U0; Length 4000 (Don’t forget to Accept each Section on the Section form after you have defined it.) When you have created all four columns, Dismiss the Section form.

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1


5 Viewing the Design In order to see what our design looks like as we build it up. we will now display our current design in a 3D View window and learn how to manipulate this display. 5. so that SCTN 1 in the list was the last Section created (corresponding to Column 1 in the diagram). like this: Note that each newly created Section is placed before the current list position. and to enable us to identify design items by simply pointing to them rather than by navigating to them in the Design Explorer.Creating a Simple Structure Your Design Explorer should now show four Sections (SCTN 1-4). 5-8 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1 .

Creating a Simple Structure 5. 22. You will see the Define Axes form: By default. Do this and select Isometric>Iso 3 to set an isometric view direction.5. simply click on the (Walk to Draw List) button on the View Manipulation toolbar on the left-hand side of the main Design window. See the online help for full details of the axes facilities. but other positioning options are available from the form’s Select pull-down menu. as can the size of the axis arrow lines.6SP1 5-9 . as we are ‘looking down’ on them. as well as the owning Structure element. to do this. the axes are positioned at the origin of the current element. Select the Cardinal Directions check box.Z) or cardinal (North. It is often useful to display coordinate Axes. We want to see all of our current design. Notice how there is a ‘ticked box’ adjacent to each element.1 Defining What Appears in the View Exercise continues: 20. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. Notice how the view is automatically scaled so that all four Sections fit neatly within it. Up) directions can be specified. Ordinal (X.Y. Other looking directions can be selected by positioning the mouse pointer within the 3D View window and pressing the right-hand mouse button. East. then select Close>Retain Axes from the form’s pull-down menu. All four Sections will appear within the 3D View window in cross section. change Size to 1000. 21. The Draw List will contain the four Sections we have just created. click the button on the Main toolbar or select Query>Axes…. To do this.

5.6SP1 . The three basic operations which we will look at here are: • • • Rotate the view Pan the view across the display area Zoom in or out to magnify or reduce the view The current manipulation mode is shown in the status line at the bottom of the 3D View window (it is set to ROTATE in the preceding illustration). 5-10 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.5.Creating a Simple Structure You should now see all four columns like this: Notice that the status line shows the viewing direction. 5.2 for the meaning of ROTATE on the status line. Revert to Isometric>Iso 3 when you have finished.2 Manipulating the Displayed View You can manipulate the displayed model view in a number of ways. 23. Plan and Isometric from the right-hand mouse button. Observe the effect of selecting different view directions (Look. See section 5.

Select . For an alternative way of rotating the model. but this time hold down the Shift key. regardless of the current manipulation mode. The initial direction of movement determines how the view appears to rotate. a tick appears against the selected option. Position the cursor in the view area and hold down the middle mouse button.) Exercise continues: 24. Repeat the rotation operations while holding down the Control key.Creating a Simple Structure To change the view manipulation mode. Now release the mouse button. you can change the manipulation mode by pressing one of the function keys. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. 27. the view can manipulated in the selected way simply by moving the mouse. 29. Select . look at the Middle Button Drag options on the 3D View shortcut menu. try dragging the horizontal and vertical sliders to new positions along the view borders.6SP1 5-11 . By pressing and holding down the middle mouse button with the pointer within the 3D View. You can rotate the model in this way at any time. 25. Note that the word Fast appears in the status line and that the rate of rotation is increased. or by using the View Manipulation tool bar buttons. 26. Note that the word Slow appears in the status line and that the rate of rotation is decreased. Pan and Rotate. this time the observer’s eyepoint appears to rotate up and down around the model. Alternatively. 28. The options of interest are Zoom Rectangle. thus: F2 or F3 or F5 or selects Zoom mode selects Pan mode selects Rotate mode (Try these selection options and observe the effect on the Middle Button Drag shortcut menu. then move the mouse slowly from side to side while watching the effect on the displayed model. Zoom In/Out. Repeat the rotation operations. hold it down again and move the mouse away from you and towards you. starting with a left or right movement causes the observer’s eye-point to move across the view.

5. then move the mouse slowly up and down. Notice how the view changes so that the picked point is now at the centre of the view. then zoom in for a close-up view of the top of the column. they do not change the observer’s eye-point or the view direction. Moving the mouse away from you (up) zooms in. 31. Select . To restore the original view when you have finished.3 Navigating in the Database by Picking Elements Graphically 38. effectively magnifying the view. whatever the current manipulation mode. 32. Position the cursor in the view area and hold down the middle mouse button. Switch to Zoom mode (if not already selected). 34. 37. effectively reducing the view. 33.Creating a Simple Structure 30. Finally.6SP1 5-12 . Position the pointer over each Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. observe the effect of clearing some of the ticked check boxes and changing the colours and translucency of the elements using the controls in the Draw List. you reset the centre of interest. 35. Repeat the zoom operations while holding down first the Control key and then the Shift key. Note that these operations work by changing the viewing angle (like changing the focal length of a camera lens). Whenever you click the middle button. you move the mouse towards that part of the view which you want to see. so that the displayed model appears to move in the opposite direction to the mouse. Modify : . select . Repeat the pan operations while holding down first the Control key (to increase the panning speed) and then the Shift key (to decrease the panning speed). Notice that the pick mode prompt at the top of the 3D View says Navigate : (there is another mode. Note that it is the observer’s eye-point which follows the mouse movement (while the viewing direction remains unchanged). 36.5.see the online help for details of this Model Editor mode. then move the mouse slowly in all directions. You will find this a very useful technique when making small adjustments to the design: we shall use it later to see the effect of realigning sections where they are connected at a joint. Position the cursor in the view area and hold down the middle mouse button. set the centre of interest to the top of Column 2. moving the mouse towards you (down) zooms out. Position the pointer near the centre of Column 1 and click (do not hold down) the middle mouse button. in effect.

and so on. End or (optionally) Secondary Node position to the picked point. Notice how this navigates to the picked element.6SP1 5-13 . the mid-point of a picked item. The position derived from your pointer pick can be the exact point at which you have placed the pointer or. immediately above the graphical view. your action is interpreted in whatever way is appropriate to your current design operation (i. it can be a position which is related to the picked point in a specified way. it is necessary to understand a new way of using the pointer to pick points in the graphical view. Compare the identifier of each SCTN element in the Design Explorer with its designation in the labelled view shown in Step 22. 5. In our examples. This means that when you pick a point in the displayed graphics. a given proportion along the length of a picked item. more commonly. picking in event-driven graphics mode will always be used to specify a position. the current event) rather than simply as a request to navigate to a new current element (as was the case in Step 38). which automatically chooses the nearest Start. the intersection of two picked items. The main concept involved is that of the snap function. The full range of options available for identifying positions is extensive. We will use several of the available facilities in the rest of the exercise. which is highlighted in a different colour in the 3D View and becomes the current element in the Design Explorer.e. so that you do not need to be very accurate when positioning the pointer.6 Event-Driven Graphics Mode Before we begin the next part of the exercise.Creating a Simple Structure column in turn and click the left-hand mouse button. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. SCTN 1 should correspond to Column 1. For example. changed while you were defining positions in Steps 18 and 19). you can specify a position at: • • • • a given offset from the nearest snap point. the graphical view is switched automatically into event-driven graphics mode (you may have noticed that the pick mode prompt. Whenever the Positioning Control form (which you saw but did not use earlier) is displayed.

Exercise continues: 39. Leave the Justification. which this time Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. with automatic length and connection adjustments. we shall create a single beam in the position occupied by Beams 3 and 4 and then split this into two separate beams.Creating a Simple Structure 5.7 Creating Sections Using Graphical Picking In the following part of the exercise. This has the advantage that you do not need to remember which section is which in the Design Explorer. For demonstration purposes.6SP1 40. you work visually. and the Positioning Control form. Member Line and Joint Line set to NA for the purpose of this exercise (you will see later that this would not be your normal choice of justification setting in practice. which you used earlier. 5-14 . Universal Beams. Select Create>Sections>Straight… to redisplay the Section form. 305x165x40kg/m (as in Step 17). Click on the Profile Specification button and set the default profile specification to British Standard. The design which we will build is as follows (with column heights shown as a reminder): Beam 1 Column 2 (9000) Column 3 (9000) Beam 2 Beam 4 Beam 3 Column 4 (5000) U E N Column 1 (4000) Keep these beam designations in mind. We will identify the start and end positions for these beams by using the pointer and left-hand mouse button to pick the columns to which they are to be connected. in a subsequent step. we shall refer to them throughout the rest of the exercise. Apply and Dismiss the form. we will add horizontal beams to our four columns. as you would on a drawing board. we are using this setting for demonstration purposes only).

Creating a Simple Structure you will use to identify positions by picking them with the pointer in the graphical view. we will define the Start Position as a point on one of our existing columns (namely the top of Column 3) which we will pick using the pointer. Select the Secondary Nodes check box so that secondary nodes and joints will be created automatically at all connections between sections. Set this to Snap. On the Positioning Control toolbar. The pick mode prompt will have changed to ‘Define section end (Snap)’. Set the String Method to Single. Select the Confirm check box to begin with and clear it Off later when you feel it is no longer necessary. Note that the Secondary Joint (SJOI) element forms the basis of the analytical model Rather than enter explicit coordinates. see tool tip) to Element. Pick a point anywhere in the upper half of Column 2 to define the End Position of the new beam. The Pick Method setting (right-hand drop-down list) specifies how you want your pointer picks to be interpreted as positions (remember. Pick a point anywhere in the upper half of Column 3. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1 5-15 . This means that you are going to pick sections themselves. Click the Accept button on the Section form to confirm the section creation. this option will remain in force until you change it. Note that the word Start appears in the view to mark the specified start point and that the snap action has placed this at the upper end of the column. Beam 1 will be shown with its start connected to the top of Column 3 and its end connected to the top of Column 2. we are now using event-driven graphics mode). rather than individual plines. for identifying positions within the design model. since we will begin by specifying the start and end points independently for each section. Note how the proposed route of the new beam is shown in the 3D View. The settings will look like this: Notice that the pick mode prompt above the graphical view shows the current event as ‘Define section start (Snap)’. set the Pick Type option (lefthand drop-down list. meaning that you want to snap to the position of the nearest Start or End of a picked section. 41.

We will now correct this by resetting the justification datum to the Top of Steel (TOS) pline. but you will see that the beam’s position is too high. with allowances for the section dimensions. Change the view direction to Look>East. 5-16 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. Pick the new beam to ensure that it is the current element and select Modify>Sections>Specification…. This is because the justification datum is set to the Neutral Axis (NA). Notice that the default specification has changed. set the Justification to TOS. Select the Use as default profile check box. thus. Switch temporarily from event-driven graphics mode to graphical navigation mode by clicking the button on the main tool bar (check the pick mode prompt). The result will be as shown in the following diagram: Node NA of Beam Node TOS of Beam Exercise continues: 42. but this would not have let you reset the default specification for subsequent beam creation. so that the next beams which you create will be aligned correctly without further adjustment. as shown by the Profile Specification setting /BSSPEC/305x165x40kg/m (NA/NA/NA). move the centre of interest to the approximate mid-point of Beam 1. alternatively. On the Section Specification form.Creating a Simple Structure The length of the beam is calculated automatically. and zoom in to see more clearly what happens at the ends of the beam. Apply the change and the beam should move down to the correct position. have realigned just the current beam by selecting the Modify>Sections>Justification option.6SP1 . thus: You could.

In the preceding step. 45. Reset the view. if necessary. select Distance and. Positioning Control and Define section end forms) to suit the current circumstances. Position the Start of the new beam at the top of Column 1 as before (remember to reset the pick option to Snap). From the Positioning Control toolbar’s Pick Method list. in the adjacent Method Value field. Make sure that Verification: Confirm check box is selected so that you can cancel the first method to try the second. to show all sections so far created. without remembering any dimensions. we had to remember the height of Column 4 in order to set the correct snap offset distance. enter 5000 (i. we will use the snap facility with a specified offset distance along the picked Section. running horizontally to connect part-way up Column 3. We will now create a beam from the top of Column 1. the height of Column 4): The pick mode prompt should now say ’Pick section end (Distance [5000])’. Position the Start for Beam 2 at the top of Column 4..e. button on the Section form to display the Define section Click the end form.Creating a Simple Structure 43. with its Start Position at the top of Column 4. The End Position is calculated by snapping to the bottom of the column and then moving up (i. Pick anywhere in the lower half of Column 3. To do this. To pick the End Position. Accept the Section on the Section form. The latter will initially show the coordinates of the last point picked.e. towards the pointer) by 5000 mm. We will now compare two alternative ways of achieving the required End Position.6SP1 5-17 . we can constrain its End Position to have the same elevation as its Start Position. Return to event-driven graphics mode by Dismissing the Section form and selecting Create>Sections>Straight… again. This step will demonstrate the ease with which you can mix the different ways of defining positions (using the Section. 44. Method 1 Because the beam is to be horizontal. We will now create Beam 2. ready to position the start of the next Section (check the pick mode prompt again). namely the top of Column 1. running horizontally to Column 3 (equivalent to Beam 3 plus Beam 4 in our design sketch). Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. but will enter the coordinates on the form by graphical picking rather than by typing them in. we will use the explicit positioning form which we used earlier.

dismiss the section creation forms. like this: Lock On Notice how the Up coordinate is greyed out to show that you cannot change it. then click Reject on the Section form to cancel the creation. since the elevation of the snap point will be ignored in favour of the constraint that the End Position must be at the same elevation as the Start Position. 47. then pick Column 3. We will constrain the new beam’s End Direction to be perpendicular to Column 3. Select Modify>Sections>Split….) Zoom in close to the beam which you created last and notice how it passes straight through Column 2. The derived Click the Perpendicular to button End Position will be the same as for Method 1. Method 2 The Start Position will still be shown at the top of Column 1. OK the Define section end form. You can now pick any part of Column 3 to specify the beam’s End Position. The and buttons on the Section form both let you create a section which is perpendicular to another section. (Note that clicking Dismiss on the Section form also removes the Positioning Control toolbar and returns the pick mode prompt to Navigate. only the East and North coordinates of the pick are used. When you have created the three beams. Set the controls on the Split Sections form as follows: 5-18 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. 46. . We will now split this beam into two separate sections to form Beam 3 and Beam 4.6SP1 . This time Accept the section creation.Creating a Simple Structure Select the Lock check next to the Up field.

Creating a Simple Structure

noting that the lengths of Beams 3 and 4 are to be adjusted automatically where they meet at Column 2 (Connections at split set to Trimmed). Click Apply. When prompted to ‘identify item to be split on’ (see the status line) pick the element which corresponds to the split point, in this case Column 2. Cancel the next prompt (since we are splitting the beam in one place only) by pressing the Esc key. When prompted to ‘identify section to be split’, pick any part of the beam which is to be split to form Beams 3 and 4. Esc the next prompt (since we are splitting one section only). Notice how the proposed split point is identified in the graphical view. Confirm the splitting and then dismiss the Split Sections form. When using this facility, the items to be split on and the items to be split must actually intersect at the required split points. Projected intersection points will not work.

We have now completed the creation of the substructure illustrated at the start of this part of the exercise, namely (looking East):
Beam 1

Column 2

Column 3

Beam 2 Beam 4 Beam 3 Column 4 Column 1 U N E

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1


Creating a Simple Structure

If you look at the Design Explorer, you will see that each column (SCTN) element now owns one or more Secondary Nodes (SNODs; marked in the above diagram) at the locations of the ends of the beams. Each Secondary Node owns one or two Secondary Joints (SJOIs) with connection references to the attached beams. This provides the logical connectivity between the sections.


Collecting Elements into Temporary Lists
The next design operation will be to create multiple copies of the current substructure, with a specified spacing distance between them. In order to demonstrate another useful facility, we will put all members of the Sub-Frame (Sections, Secondary Nodes and Joints) into a List - a temporary collection of elements which lets you carry out operations on the list as a whole. Each list definition is valid only for the duration of the current PDMS session (although you can save such definitions in a binary file for reloading into a future session).

Exercise continues:


Select Utilities>Lists from the main menu or click the button on the main tool bar. You will see a Lists/Collections form for controlling the existence and contents of all lists for the current session. If any lists existed, you would be able to select the one which you wanted to modify from the list next to the button. Since we have not yet used this facility, this will simply say ‘No List’. From the Lists/Collections menu bar, select Add>List…. In the Description box on the Create List form, enter TESTLIST. Ensure that your current element is the Sub-Frame by clicking on it in the Design Explorer and then, from the Lists/Collections menu bar, select Add>CE Members. All elements owned by the Sub-Frame will now be shown as items within TESTLIST, like this:

49. 50.


Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1

Creating a Simple Structure

Select Control>Close to dismiss the Lists/Collections form when you have finished with it. Notice that the new list automatically becomes the current list, thus:


Copying Parts of the Design Model
Rather than create many more columns and beams individually, we are now going to copy the ones we have already created and reposition the copies thus:

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1


and how each copy is to be positioned relative to its preceding neighbour (Offset). its name (TESTLIST) will be shown without further selection. where the copies are to be stored in the database hierarchy (to). 52.Y. we shall copy the list containing all members of the Sub-Frame rather than the Sub-Frame itself. Note that the Offset must be specified in terms of the local X.Z coordinates of the geometric primitives making up the structural items. X=E. Note that the axes are shown automatically in the displayed 3D View as a guide. The form settings should now look like this: 5-22 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. Set the Number of Copies to 3. Set the Object to be copied to List. by default. how many copies you want. This will create the new element copies in the same part of the database hierarchy as the original elements. leaving Y and Z set to 0. rather than the E. (Relative). You will see a Copy with Offset form which allows you to specify what you want to copy (Object). 54.Creating a Simple Structure Existing Subframe U N E Origin 6000 6000 6000 As explained in the preceding part of this exercise. Select Create>Copy>Offset…. since only one list exists.U coordinates used to position items within the overall design model. Y=N and Z=U. 53. as members of the Sub-Frame.6SP1 .N. Exercise continues: 51. Set the X Offset to 6000. In our case. that is. Set the to option to Rel.

57.Creating a Simple Structure 55. Study the Design Explorer to see what elements have now been created and where they fit into the hierarchy.6SP1 5-23 . 5. Dismiss the Copy with Offset form when you have finished.10 Completing the Initial Design The final design model which we want to achieve in this part of the exercise has beams running in an East-West direction to give the structure stability. as shown in the following diagram: Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. confirm that you want to retain the copies (assuming that they look correct in the graphical view). comprising 16 columns and 16 beams. 56. Note that the SubFrame now owns 32 Sections. when prompted. together with all of the necessary Secondary Nodes and Joints needed to define their interconnections. Click Apply to create the three offset copies and. Click and select Isometric>Iso3 from the 3D View shortcut menu so that you can see the whole of the current design.

labelled A in the diagram). then use the same method to pick the intersection which identifies the end of this beam (B in the diagram). Set the String Method to Continuous on the Section form to begin creating a chained configuration of sections. It is important to stress the behaviour of not picking the attached member first as the sequence of picking the intersections 59. pick first Column 3 and then Beam 2 (whose intersection is at the Start Position of the first required beam. Exercise continues: 58. Next. click Accept to create the beam (otherwise your next picks will simply redefine the end of this section). set Pick Method to Intersect to show that you will identify positions at the intersection points of pairs of existing sections. we will create the three beams directly to the north of those which you have just created (shown cross-hatched on the diagram).Creating a Simple Structure A B C D N U E Origin In creating these beams. On the Positioning Control toolbar. click the Redefine Start button to override this. We will do this in a sequence of operations in which the start of each section (after the first) will be situated automatically at the end of the preceding section. By default. To create the first beam. Start by creating the three most southerly beams (show in black on the diagram). 5-24 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1 . If Confirm is selected. Do this by creating a single beam and then splitting it into three lengths to fit between the columns (use the technique described at Step 47). the start of the next section is assumed to be at the end of the previous section (as shown in the 3D View). we will include some variations of the ways so far used to define the start and end positions of the beams.

Dismiss the Section form when you are satisfied with your results. 60. To leave your current PDMS design session and return to the operating system. If you had made any changes since your last Save Work operation. Note: If you simply copy beams. select Design>Save Work from the main menu bar button. 63. If you make a mistake in the middle of defining a section. To update the database so as to store the design model which you have created so far. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. Switch Confirm to Off to speed up the process as you gain confidence. Click the Redefine Start button on the Section form to define a new start for another section or sequence of sections. To save your current screen layout and display settings. 5. the copies will be positioned but will not be connected automatically.6SP1 5-25 . Note: you will probably need to use the Middle Button Drag view manipulation options available from the 3D View shortcut menu in order to be able to have a clear view of the correct Sections prior to clicking on them. plus any other options that you want to experiment with (using the on-line help for guidance when required). select Design>Exit from the main menu bar. Complete the design using a combination of the techniques which you have learned. click Redefine Start to go back a stage. you would be asked if you wanted to save them. (It is wise to use this function periodically as or click the you build up a design. either singly or as a composite list. Use the same procedure to pick points C and D to create the next two beams. so that next time you use the application you can rapidly restart from where you interrupted your design session.Creating a Simple Structure determines the ownership of the SNOD/SJOI and therefore the connectivity model The start of the next beam will be positioned automatically at B (as shown in the 3D View). such as a power failure. select Display> Save>Forms & Display from the main menu bar.11 Saving Your Changes and Leaving Your Design Session 61. so that you do not have to start from the beginning in the event of loss of work due to an unforeseen interruption. you will just be asked to confirm that you want to leave PDMS.) 62. in the present situation.

6SP1 .Creating a Simple Structure 5-26 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.

need to enter your Password for every session. as in Step 15. Framework and Subframework. so that it can easily be distinguished from the design model which we created in the earlier parts of the exercise.6 A Quick Way to Build a Regular Structure If a significant part of the model that you want to design comprises a regular array of beams and columns. storage areas and specifications need not be set yet. as in Step 11. /REGSTRU. loading the applications from macro files. Notice how the Project. respectively). as explained in Step 8. a special facility is provided to speed up the creation of all the necessary elements to define the fully connected structure. however. The resulting Section Creation form lists all available methods: the options available depend on how your system has been set up. (As you will see soon. but they should include the following: 65.6SP1 6-1 . 66. Check that automatic Profile allocation is On and Primary Node creation is Off. /REGFRMW and /REGSBFR. Even if your model is not completely regular in layout. so that you can judge whether or not it is relevant to your own types of design work. rather than build up the design sectionby-section as we have done so far. (We will see later how to restore the screen layout which you saved earlier. you might find it quicker to use this facility first and then to modify the design as necessary. Navigate to Zone level and below this create a new Structure. Enter the Beams & Columns application. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.) We will store our new model under a separate Structure element in the hierarchy. 67. Exercise continues: 64. In this chapter we will build a new structure using this method.) Select Create>Sections>Specials…. Username and MDB have been remembered from your last session. so that you do not need to enter them again: you do. giving them different names from those specified in Step 13 (for example. Restart PDMS and enter the Design module.

then Dismiss the form.6SP1 • 6-2 . In the following steps. navigate to the Subframe and type CE. we will look at this form in three distinct parts. Set these as follows (replacing /REGSBFR by whatever name you gave the Subframework in Step 65): 69. You will see a Regular Structure form which gives you complete control of the whole design process. click the Profile button to display the Section Specification form and pick the required specification and pline settings. select Regular Structure. The areas labelled Column Data and Beam Data let you set the storage areas. profile specifications and justification p-lines independently for the two types of section. To initiate the use of any available method. you click on it in the list. Note • To enter each Storage area name. The name of the current element will be entered automatically. To enter the Profile specifications. In this case.A Quick Way to Build a Regular Structure 68. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.

It should have the following configuration: 73. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. so that the bottoms of the columns will be truncated at an elevation of 1000 mm. so that the beams will have their lengths calculated to fit between the columns to which they are connected. (We will see the effect of this when we view the completed model. Select the Trim sections to Plines check box.) 71.A Quick Way to Build a Regular Structure 70. The Elevation list specifies the absolute elevations of the beams representing the floor levels.6SP1 6-3 . The Grid Origin area lets you define how your structure is to be positioned spatially. This lets you define the elevations of the structural members relative to a plane which does not correspond to the base of the overall structure. The East Spacings and North Spacings lists specify the relative spacing between adjacent columns in the given directions. click the Preview button to display a ‘stick’ representation of the specified structure. but with the bottoms of the columns truncated so that they do not extend below the 1000 mm elevation specified by the baseplate setting. We have set this to 1000. With view limits set for zone and view direction set to Iso 3. to accommodate two floors at elevations of 3000 mm and 5000 mm relative to the datum plane. The columns will be 4000 mm high. with a uniform inter-column spacing of 3000 mm in the East direction and 5000 mm in the North direction. Enter the following settings: The Datum setting defines the element whose reference axes will determine the origin and orientation of the structure. 72. The Underside of Base-Plate setting lets you set the lowest point of your structure (underside of baseplate) relative to the datum axes. Type in the following values: These settings will create 16 columns on a 4x4 rectangular grid.

and might therefore take a minute or two to complete.6SP1 . if necessary. progress will be shown in the status bar.A Quick Way to Build a Regular Structure 5000 3000 1000 5000 5000 3000 5000 3000 Shaded area is datum plane 3000 Z/U Y/N X/E Origin Check and. We will now modify the structure by removing beams as follows: * * * * * * * * 6-4 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. correct the settings. 74. The sections will first have the specified profiles applied to give them their 3D geometry. then click Apply to create the structure. This process involves a lot of calculation. then they will be trimmed to length and connected.

click on the column again to deselect it.Explicit form. on the resulting Extend Section . create a new list (select Utilities>Lists…. The result should be as follows: 76. Escape the prompt when you have finished picking and confirm the deletion. then Dismiss the form. 75. Select the Maintain Section’s Node Positions check box so that the positions of secondary nodes will not be affected by the length adjustments.) Set the Extension by to a Distance of -2000. pick any of the columns and then. Set the Extend button appropriately. When prompted to ‘Identify Section’. Apply the settings. but is this its Start or its End? To check this. we will reduce the heights of the eight outermost columns (marked * in the preceding diagram). We are leaving the nodes in place here simply to demonstrate another facility in the next step. We need to adjust the upper end of each column. The Extend option list requires you to specify which end of the item is to be moved.A Quick Way to Build a Regular Structure To do so. Finally. press Esc when you have finished. select your new list as the item to be modified. as in Steps 48 and 49) and use the Add>Identified option on the Lists/Collections form to add the columns into the list by picking them with the pointer.6SP1 6-5 . Rather than modify each one separately.) Select Position>Extend>By…. The Start and End will be tagged in the graphical view. since we want to reduce the length of each item in the list by 2000 mm. select Delete>Identified and then pick the 14 beams which are to be removed. (If you make a mistake. (This is only really relevant if you move the Start positions. make any one of the columns the current element and select Settings> Graphics>Mark Section. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.

78. even though they no longer serve any useful purpose. To delete these.6SP1 . 6-6 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. navigate to the Sub-frame and select Delete>Tidy Nodes…. then click OK to delete them. so that they rest on the origin plane (shown shaded in the illustration in Step 73).A Quick Way to Build a Regular Structure 77. Update the Design database to save your work (by selecting Design>Save Work). You will notice that the secondary nodes which were at the tops of the deleted columns are still present. extend the bottoms of all sixteen columns downwards by 1000 mm. You will see a Tidy Nodes form telling you that 8 redundant nodes have been identified. 79. Now. for practice. Select the Mark Nodes for Deletion check box to tag these nodes in the graphical view.

. rather than to reload the applications from their source macros each time you use the Design module. If you intend to continue from where you finish at the end of any PDMS design session. we will modify the structure by moving part of it to a new position and then restoring the correct geometry between its members semi-automatically. restart PDMS and enter Design (as in Step 8). Finally. select Display>Restore>Forms & Display. We will then select some joints from the catalogue. 7.2 Trimming Connected Section Ends to Correct Geometry When you create a section connected to an existing section. 7. it is quicker to use the Display>Save>. we will revert to our original structure and add some bracing members. so that the Beams & Columns application is still loaded.6SP1 7-1 .. we will reload the display setup which we saved earlier.7 Enhancing the Basic Structure In this chapter.1 Restoring a Previously Saved Setup In order to continue developing the first structural model which we created. Exercise continues: 80. If you are continuing straight on from the ‘Regular Structure’ part of the exercise. In either case. If you exited from PDMS after Step 79. so that your graphical view will show the structural model which you created in the first part of the exercise (stored in TESTSTRU). the end points of the new section are usually positioned automatically by Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. the result will be to load the display setup which you saved in Step 61. but this time set the Load from option on the PDMS Login form to User’s Binary. options to save your current settings to a file which you can subsequently reload.

in plan view. For example. see also Appendix B). we will correct any errors of this type which might currently exist (otherwise we could have problems connecting our bracing correctly). Note how the pointer shape changes when it is positioned on a pline and how the status bar helps you by identifying which pline is selected at any given moment.Enhancing the Basic Structure reference to the currently defined Pline Rule. If this rule has not been set up properly. Exercise continues: 81. correct them as follows. looking for any examples where an attached section has been trimmed to the wrong length. the connection between a column and an incoming beam may look like this: or rather than the intended configuration: or To correct this. pick one of the ends which you want to correct (as shown shaded in the preceding diagram). the geometry at the point of connection may be inappropriate. Zoom in to the graphical view and change the viewing direction so that you can see the detailed geometry of each connection point in turn. You will then be prompted to ‘Identify pline to be trimmed to’. If you find any. Before we develop our model further. 7-2 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. Select Connect>Trim to Pline>Pick (force). Press Escape to action the change. you can trim the length of the incoming section to an explicitly picked pline of the owning section. as shown by the black dots in the preceding diagram. change the view if necessary and pick the pline which corresponds to the required section end point (typically NAR/NAL for a web connection or TOS/BOS for a flange connection. When prompted to ‘Identify section end to be trimmed’.6SP1 .

’FOC’.’TOC’) Click the Include button to add the new rule into the list.’NAR’. this probably shows No Rule and Normal. it is advisable switch to wireline display mode by selecting View>Settings>Shaded or by hitting F8 (this toggles between wireline and shaded display modes). you can pick any number of section/pline pairs before pressing Esc.6SP1 7-3 . click the Define Rule button to display the Define Rules form. Enter the Rule thus (taking care to include the apostrophes and commas exactly as shown: PKEY inset (’TOS’. To check the current pline rule (if any).Enhancing the Basic Structure Hint: you will need to make full use of the graphical manipulation facilities detailed in section 5. You will see a Pline Filter form showing all currently defined rules. in particular it is advisable to zoom in close to the joint of interest. Note that. until all errors have been corrected. We will set a rule to give appropriate results for the rest of this exercise. alternately picking section ends and plines.2. Also. Enter the Name as Extremities (this will be used to identify the rule in subsequent lists) and the Description as Flange or web face for trimming at connection.’BOC’.’NAL’.’BOS’. To do so.5. The Normal rule will handle the connections that the rule being created below is going to handle. Repeat this sequence. if you are confident that you have made the correct selections. select Settings>Picking Filters>Plines…. The result is as follows: Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. 82. with the former selected.

3 Adding and Modifying Simple Bracing In the next part of the exercise.Enhancing the Basic Structure Click OK. Click OK and close the Picking Control form. we will insert some simple diagonal bracing and then use a short-cut facility to modify the spacing between the ends of the bracing members and some reference plines. Select the Extremities rule on the Pline Filters tab of the Snap Settings form to make this the current rule.6SP1 . Note: A full explanation of the ways in which pline rules are set and applied is beyond the scope of this introductory guide. (See Appendix C for diagrams showing how these plines are positioned for typical steelwork profiles.) 7. Suffice it to say that the rule we have set here may be interpreted as ‘Select a pline which has any of the PKEY settings specified in the list’. 7-4 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.

) The first bracing member will be connected to Columns A and B and its end positions will be specified in terms of their spacing from Beams 1 and 2. therefore.0x100. This will be the profile used for the bracing members. Exercise continues: 83. Using Pick Type: Element and Pick Method: Intersect on the Positioning Control form. IMPORTANT: When you pick the sections defining each intersection point. We will then use the Mirror Copying facility to create the other two bracing members. respectively. as shown by the thick black sections in the following diagram: 2 4 6 1 3 5 U N A E B C D (The letters and numbers identifying the columns and beams. in the above diagram will be used for reference purposes in the steps which follow.Enhancing the Basic Structure We will create bracing members connected between columns. Click the Default Profile Specification button and reset the default specification to British Standard. your first pick defines the section to which the connection is made.6SP1 7-5 . This facility lets you create a copy of an existing element and to reposition the copy automatically by reflecting it about an axis in a specified plane (so that the original and copy elements are mirror images of one another). In this case. Member Line and Joint Line all set to NA.0 with Justification. you must pick the column 84. Rect (Rectangular) Hollow Sections. create a single bracing member with its Start at the intersection of Column A and Beam 1 (A1 for short) and its End at B2. 200. Select Create>Sections>Straight. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.0x10.

A pline on the upper face of Beam 1. you might find it easier to pick the plines if you switch the graphics to a wireline view. such as NAL or NAR.Enhancing the Basic Structure before the beam when defining each end. Accept the beam. we will correct this in the next step. • • Hint: As previously mentioned. you will see a Brace Gap(s) form. Ignore the Default Gap setting and select Distance on picked Pline from a fixed point. 86. Do not worry if the vertical alignment of the bracing member ends looks wrong at this stage. 85. ready to pick the plines from which the bracing gap is to be calculated. otherwise the bracing gap trimming facility will not work correctly. Using the diagram on the Brace Gaps form as a guide. such as TOS. Click Apply. A pline on Column A along which the gap is to be defined. Check that the bracing member is the current element and select Modify>Bracing Gap…. Pick close to the connection.6SP1 . You will see a Brace Gaps form listing the different ways of specifying the required gap. such as BOS. but do not enter the Gap A data yet. noting how the diagram on the form is updated to show the relevant dimensions and picking sequence. We will first position the lower end of the bracing member (currently at A1 in the preceding diagram). so that the gap is calculated for the correct end. pick plines in the following order: • A pline on the lower face of the bracing member. or just hit F8. Select the Confirm check box.) 7-6 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. You are now in event-driven graphics mode. then Dismiss the Section form. (Select View>Settings>Shaded from the main menu bar.

Rather than create and position the other two bracing members B4-C3 and C5-D6 by repeating the preceding sequence of operations. Pline on lower fof bracing member Bracing Member Column A Gap (to be set to 150mm) Beam 1 3. Before we create the next bracing members. Dismiss the Brace Gaps form. To achieve this.Enhancing the Basic Structure 1. Pline on upper face of reference member 2. With the bracing member as your current element.) 88. Pline along which gap is to be measured When you have picked the third pline. the calculated distance for the current position will be shown in the graphical view and will also be inserted into the Gap A text-box on the Brace Gap(s) form. pick Tag>All ends. change the Gap A data to -150. try this facility for checking whether or not the ends of a section are connected. (We will see another way of checking connectivity later. select Utilities>Beams & Columns. we shall use a short-cut by copying the existing A1-B2 section. then click Accept to move the section end. The Accept/Reject buttons are now active. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. We will reposition each copy by defining it as a mirror image of its original reflected in an appropriate plane. whereas we want to move the bracing section upwards. Repeat the procedure to position the upper end of the bracing member with a gap of 150mm measured down Column B from Beam 2. check that the new position shown in the graphical view is as required. The ends of the current section should both be tagged as Connected. 87.6SP1 7-7 . From the menu bar of the small form which results. Note that the displayed distance is measured downwards (because of the way the plines currently intersect).

You will see a Mirror form which allows you to specify what you want to copy (Object). we will use Column B to define the position and will enter the direction explicitly. and the plane in which the copy position is to reflected. The Mirror form provides several methods of specifying these by picking items in the existing model. where the copies are to be stored in the database hierarchy (to). 91. You will see a symbolic representation of the plane’s position and orientation in the graphical view. The position identified will snap to the start or end of this column (depending on where you picked) and its coordinates will be entered into the East/North/Up text boxes automatically. Set the Type of mirror option to Mirror Copy (since we want to create a new element rather than simply reposition the original one). Existing member Copied member N U E B This plane is specified in terms of its direction (i. set the Object to be copied to CE and set the to option to Rel. the direction of the normal to the plane) and of the position of any point within it. pick any part of Column B. Select Cursor>Element from the Mirror form’s menu and. Change this to East and observe the reorientation of the symbolic plane in the graphical view. when prompted. Select Create>Copy>Mirror.Enhancing the Basic Structure Exercise continues: 89.6SP1 .e. 7-8 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. Assuming that you are still at the bracing member. Note that the Plane Direction text box now shows the cutplane direction of the column’s start or end (namely Up or Down). The plane in which we want to reflect the copied section is represented by the shaded area in the following diagram: 90.

6SP1 7-9 . create the third bracing member (C5-D6) by copying and reflecting the second member (B4-C3).Enhancing the Basic Structure Note: If you want to enter the Plane Direction before you pick the position. when prompted. Using the same procedure. select Query>End Connections. confirm that you want to retain the copy. 93. 94. click on a coloured button if you would prefer a different highlight colour. select the Lock check box to l to prevent its setting being updated when you pick the position. The form settings should now look like this (the Up coordinate will be 9000 rather than 0 if you picked near the top of Column B rather than near the bottom): 92. The two copies which you have just created should be positioned correctly. instead of using the Tag utility for each new bracing member as in Step 88. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. The numbers on the coloured buttons show the number of sections in each category: they should show 40 sections with both ends connected and 16 sections with neither end connected. Navigate to the SubFrame TESTSBFR and click the CE button on the Highlight Connections form to update the displayed data. Select the corresponding Highlight check boxes to colour the sections in the 3D View. To check this. but will not yet be connected. The resulting Highlight Connections form lets you see the connectivity status of all relevant members of the current element. Click Apply to create the mirrored copy and.

Select Create>Sections>Bracing configurations….Enhancing the Basic Structure Note: You might think that the upper ends of the columns should be shown as connected. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. even though the Secondary Nodes in this case happen to be coincident with the tops of the columns. 7. To connect the ends of the two bracing sections to the appropriate columns. the beams at those points are connected (via Secondary Joints) to Secondary Nodes positioned along the columns. we will first add a cross bracing configuration (using angle sections) in the vertical plane and then a diamond bracing configuration (using universal beam sections) in the horizontal plane. 95.4 Adding Standard Bracing Configurations To avoid the need for creating individual bracing sections as we have just done. (Escape terminates each stage of the process in the usual way. You will see a Bracing form. select Connect>Connect and follow the status bar prompts carefully. the application provides a quick way of adding some predefined bracing configurations.6SP1 7-10 .) Use the Highlight Connections form again to confirm the results. However. rather than to Primary Nodes at the column extremities. Therefore. in the locations shown by the thick black lines in the following diagram: U N E Exercise continues: 96. To demonstrate this facility. the diagnoses are correct.

. Repeat the procedure used in Steps 96 and 97 to create the diamond bracing at the top of the structure.6SP1 . that is. 70x70x6. Justification to NAL (Neutral Axis Left: this will align the angle sections back-to-back. 97.Enhancing the Basic Structure This form does not use the default settings for section data. When you are satisfied with the configuration shown in the graphical view. Select Confirm. Member Line and Joint Line to NA. accept the creation of the sections forming the bracing members and then dismiss the Bracing form. pick reasonably close to the required connection points for the bracing members. there is no cross beam at this position.0. Notice how the parameterised diagram shows the details of the selected configuration. For the cross bracing configuration it looks like this: Gap B Pick 2 Pick 1 Gap A Note: In our design this datum is the lower end of the column. Set the Profile to British 7-11 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.) so as to position and connect the bracing members correctly. In the Available Bracing Configurations list. To achieve the required configuration. select Cross Bracing. You are now in event-driven graphics mode. Profile to British Standard.. Leave the Bracing Plane option set to Derived by Section so that the bracing members will lie in the same plane as the sections to which they will be attached. 2. B) and the order in which existing sections must be picked (1. 98. Click Apply. Equal Angle. since. The diagram shows the dimensions which must be specified (A. pick the two columns between which the bracing members are to be connected. so first set the following: Hint: Use the same methods for entering this data as in Step 69. make sure that your first pick is near the bottom of the first column and that your second pick is just below the cross beam on the second column.. you will see a Cross Bracing form. Set Gap A to 150 and Gap B to 300. Storage area to the Subframe /TESTSBFR. Using the diagram on the Bracing form as a guide. see diagram in Appendix D).

Enhancing the Basic Structure Standard. and pick the four beams (in the correct sequence. these do not yet have any geometry associated with them and are not therefore shown in the graphical view.5 Representing Joints Although each connection has created a corresponding Secondary Joint element in the Design database (shown in the Design Explorer as SJOIs. Dismiss the Bracing form when you have finished. Note: You must dismiss the Diamond Bracing form. select Diamond Bracing.6SP1 . however. In the Available Bracing Configurations list. 7. and the Justification. Universal Beams. we must associate a catalogue specification with each joint (in the same way that each section profile is defined by an associated catalogue specification). 203x133x25. owned by SNODs). The key to success lies in the optimum design of the joint as defined in the catalogue. Joints have a number of attributes whose settings allow you to position and orientate them and to modify the ends of sections connected to them. which is a specialised field beyond the scope of this user guide. leave confirm selected. If you want to add more sections using the current bracing configuration. refer back here when necessary): 7-12 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. Click Apply to display the Diamond Bracing form on which to enter this data. so that we can represent some simple joints in our design model. in order to change the bracing configuration (as you did between Steps 97 and 98). you can simply continue picking connection points in the graphical view. Set both Gap A and Gap B to 500. as shown in the diagram) to complete the operation. Member Line and Joint Line all to NA. In order to represent them properly. The following topics illustrate the main features (do not try to remember them all now. thereby leaving event-driven graphics mode. We will look at the most important of these attributes here. The parameterised diagram will show that you need to specify the separations between the bracing members for each pair of opposing sections.

Plines extrude in Y direction. Pline direction is Z direction Note: Origin plane is shown by heavy lines in the following diagrams.Y axes Y X Owning Section (2D view only) Position Line (POSL) (here set to TOS) defines position TOS SNode NA BOS ZDIST defines position of SNode relative to POSS of Section Z Connecting a Joint to the Start of an Attached Section: Owning Section BOS NA TOS TOS SNode POSS BANG of Joint OPDI of Joint JLIN of Joint set to BOS of Attached Section JLIN of Attached Section set to NA of Joint POSL of Joint set to TOS of Owning Section Logical Connectivity: JOIS of Attached Section points to Joint CREF of Joint points to Attached Section CTYA of Joint must match CTYS of Attached Section (for connection compatibility) BANG of Section NA BOS Attached Section Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. Origin plane direction is Z. NA Origin Position and orientation of a Secondary Joint relative to a Secondary Node: Beta Angle (BANG) defines orientation about Z axis Origin Plane Direction (OPDI) defines orientation about X.Enhancing the Basic Structure A Shelf Angle Joint as defined in the Catalogue: (only the Neutral Axis pline is shown for clarity) Z Y X Origin plane is X.Y plane through origin.6SP1 7-13 .

with reference to the orientation of the diagram. You will see a Joint Specification form for the joint to which your picked section end is attached. Select Column 100. while its position within the constraints of that plane is set with reference to the Attached Section (by aligning the plines defined by the JLINs of both Joint and Section). pick the end of any N-S beam (that is. the Joint about its OPDI). we need only set a pointer to the joint specification in the catalogue to define each joint’s geometry. Remember that the joint elements (SJOIs in the Design Explorer) already exist as a result of connecting the sections together. Both the Section and the Joint can be rotated independently by changing their BANGs (the Section rotates about its NA. How the Section end configuration depends on the Joint to which it is attached: (using a wedge-shaped Joint to demonstrate the principles) Owning Section NA POSS offset along NA by Cutback (CUTB) of Joint SNode POSS DRNS of Attached Section determined by CUTP of Joint NA Attached Section Joint's Cutting Plane Exercise continues: For the purpose of this exercise. The method for selecting from the available joint specifications is the same as that which you used to select section profiles. Select Modify>Joints>Specification….Enhancing the Basic Structure Note how the origin plane of the Joint is set with reference to the Owning Section (via the POSL attribute). When prompted to ‘Identify end of section joint is connected to’. the Joint is moved horizontally by changing its POSL and vertically by changing its JLIN. any beam which abuts a column flange rather than a web) where you want to insert a bolted joint. we will add some simple bolted flanges where the beams are attached to the columns. 7-14 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1 . 99. That is.

select Modify>Joints>Position Line. select the Holes Drawn check box. The joint should look something like this: 102. with adjustments to suit the values entered on the Define Properties form. This is possible because the joint dimensions in the catalogue are specified as design parameters whose values are derived from the attached and owning sections. button.. Set Thickness of Plt to 10. select Settings> Graphics… from the main menu bar and. respectively. Click the Properties. Notice how the height and width of the endplate have been set automatically from the dimensions of the beam and column. Change 7-15 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11..6SP1 . You will see a subsidiary Modify Properties form which lets you specify some local dimensional data for the selected type of joint. OK the settings. Zoom in close to the beam end to see what the joint looks like.) To see a correct representation of the joint. we must set up the graphical view so that it displays holes (negative volumes) as well as solid items (positive volumes).Enhancing the Basic Structure Connections. its owning section) is determined by the joint’s position line. Section end used to identify joint Dist from BOS = 30 Thickness of Plt = 10 Notice how the attached beam has been shortened to accommodate the thickness of the plate and how the bolt holes in the plate have generated corresponding holes in the column flanges. To see the effect of changing this. OK the Modify Properties form and Apply the Joint Specification form to complete the setting of the joint specification.e. The position of the joint relative to the profile of the column (i. leaving all other form settings at their defaults. (The geometry of most types of joint can be modified via appropriate entries on a form such as this. depending on how the catalogue has been set up. 6M24_flange. The Position Line form will show the current setting as either BOS or TOS (depending at which end of the beam the joint is situated). and Dist from BOS to 30 (we will see what these do in a moment). 101. 103. Dist from TOS to 0. To do so. on the Representation tab. Column Flange.

the end shown in the preceding diagram). set automatically to opposite flanges of the column (TOS for one. select the Re-trim attached section check box. Using the same method as in Step 105. select Modify>Joints>Joint Like>Maintain Pline. such as a shelf angle. TOS or BOS). pick the other end of the same beam. and click Apply. we can apply the specification for one joint to other joints. 106. We will use this facility to specify the joint at the other end of the beam which we have just been looking at. to give the correct alignment. The joint and its attached section end will move thus: Section end used to identify joint (view rotated) 104.e. BOS for the other). Note: If the joints were ‘handed’.Enhancing the Basic Structure this to the opposite setting (i. Press Escape for both of the next prompts (we are only modifying one joint in this step). Joint Specification forms. When prompted to ‘Identify end of section to be copied like’.e. Reposition the joint correctly. When prompted to ‘Identify section end to be modified’. however. To do so. but if you select Query>Attributes you will be able to see which attributes differ between the two joints. Zoom in close to the second joint and notice how its geometry matches that of the first joint. 105.6SP1 . This is not apparent for the endplate. 7-16 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. set the specifications for some of the other column flange joints. The position line settings for the two joints are. then Dismiss the Position Line and Rather than set each joint specification explicitly. you would also see that the second joint has been rotated automatically about its vertical axis to match the start/end directions of the section. pick the same section end as in Step 99 (i.

If JFRE is set to False (the default for a new joint). the joint is said to be subordinate (also described by saying that the section is dominant). where the joint’s owning section is moved thus: We will use this feature in the next part of the exercise. Consider the following effects. the joint is said to be dominant.6 Dominant versus Subordinate Joints When you reposition a joint which has one or more attached sections.6SP1 7-17 . as defined by the setting of the joint’s Joint Freedom (JFRE) attribute.Enhancing the Basic Structure 7. we shall move the columns and beams at the eastern end of our structure to increase the overall length of the design model. 7. the effect on those sections depends upon whether or not the joint has been defined as dominant or subordinate.7 Moving Part of the Structure and Maintaining Correct Geometry In the next part of the exercise. This will require the horizontal beams and the bracing Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. If JFRE is set to True.

The result which we want to achieve is as follows. Press Escape when you have finished. In order to make the bracing member realign itself to maintain the specified bracing gap. For the purposes of this exercise.Enhancing the Basic Structure member connected to the moved columns to be extended and. only the joints at the ends of the bracing members would be made dominant. we will also make dominant the joints at both ends of each of the four N-S beams between the columns to be moved (i. the concept of joint dominance. To ensure this. in the case of the bracing member. where the thick black sections will be moved explicitly and the broken lines indicate the new final configuration: * * * * * * * The joints marked * must be dominant Note realignment of bracing member * N U E Exercise continues: 107. pick both ends of each bracing member created in Section 7. the joint to which it is connected must be dominant. we will make the joints dominant at both ends of all bracing sections (as would be normal practice). among other features. Each joint is identified by picking the section end to which it is connected.e.3 (six picks) and the ends of all relevant beams (eight picks). In normal practice. Select Connect>Joint Dominant. realigned to maintain the correct configuration. the beams shown shaded in the preceding diagram).6) and to show how you can easily restore geometry between sections which has been disrupted by moving parts of a structure independently. The objective is to demonstrate the dominant joint concept (as described in Section 7. Note: This part of the exercise has been designed to illustrate.6SP1 . 7-18 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. When prompted.

In the next part of the guide we shall see how to add some sheet cladding (floor plates and/or wall panels) to our structure. the columns should move as follows: 109. thereby retaining any previously defined trimming. Use the Utilities>Lists… facility to create a new list and use the Add>Identified option to add into it the four columns to be moved (shown black in the preceding diagram).) 111. Use the option button near the top-left of the form to set the item to be moved to the list containing the columns (Current List). as long as we have set all of the connectivity rules correctly. in this case specify a move by 2000 mm in the East direction. we can easily rectify the problem by reconnecting all of the sections which should be connected to the columns. Select Connect>Trim to Section>all attached. which we used before. particularly the joint dominance settings. However. When you Apply the settings.Enhancing the Basic Structure 108. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. pick each of the four columns in turn. (Note that Trim to Section differs from the Trim to Pline option. Enter the required movement in the By text boxes. U N E At first sight.6SP1 7-19 . 110. When prompted. Save your design changes. then press Escape and watch the results in the graphical view as the correct geometry is restored. You will see a Position By form which lets you move an item by a given distance in a given direction. Select Position>Relatively (BY). this appears to be a rather disastrous result. whereas Trim to Pline resets the connectivity to an explicit or ruledefined pline. That concludes the introduction to the basic operations involved in the design of a simple structural framework. in that Trim to Section maintains the existing pline connectivity.

Enhancing the Basic Structure 7-20 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1 .

1 Starting the Panels & Plates Application In order to access the panel design facilities. 8. although the differences may not be obvious at a first glance. a vertical wall panel. or click the button. we will change to another of the structural design applications. They will now look like this: Look at each pull-down menu in turn. Exercise continues: 112.6SP1 8-1 . or any similar planar item. Select Design>Structures>Panels & Plates from the main menu bar (available from within all design applications. the term panel will be used for such items in all descriptions. The main menu bar and tool bar will change. not just the current Beams & Columns application). you will see that the options in the upper parts of the menus are common to the equivalent Beams & Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. We will then modify this in various ways to demonstrate some of the facilities provided for detailing panels. we must leave the Beams & Columns application and load the complementary Panels & Plates application. Many of the options available in the latter application are very similar to those which you have already learned to use from the preceding chapters of this guide. a sloping roof panel. namely the Panels & Plates application. Throughout this text. Note: The facilities which we will look at next let you add planar material to the design model in any orientation. and add a floor plate to our existing structure. so only the differences will be dealt with in any detail.8 Adding Panels and Plates In this chapter. regardless of whether the element represents a horizontal floor plate.

Each panel Edge is defined by a line joining adjacent vertices. The panel thickness is defined by setting the Height (HEIG) attribute of the Panel Loop. Its geometry is defined by two types of data: • The panel’s planar area is defined by a Panel Loop (PLOO) element.6SP1 . whereas many of the options in the lower parts of the menus are specific to the Panels & Plates application. Each Panel Vertex can have an optional Fillet Radius setting which represents a circular arc which curves towards (positive radius) or away from (negative radius) the vertex position. thus: 8-2 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. which is itself defined by linking together a set of Panel Vertex (PAVE) elements.Adding Panels and Plates Columns menus.2 How PDMS Represents Panels A Panel (PANE) element can be used to represent any sheet material used to clad a structural model. This represents the distance through which the 2D Panel Loop is extruded to form the 3D panel. 8. each of which has a specific position in the panel’s 2D coordinate system. Panel (PANE) • Panel thickness = HEIG of PLOO = Panel Loop (PLOO) = Panel Vertex (PAVE) Note that the resulting justification of a panel may be dependent upon the clockwise/anticlockwise direction of creation for the panel. Using a similar principle to that for representing a Section (which is an extruded 2D catalogue Profile). a Panel is represented by extruding a user-defined 2D shape.

Exercise continues: 113. as in Step 15.6SP1 8-3 . until a little later. These automatically set the storage areas to the current element. just as we did for the Beams & Columns application. Rather than using the Settings>Storage Areas option.3 Setting Default Storage Areas In the next part of the exercise we will set up some defaults to customise the application to suit our planned method of working. 8. These panels will represent the schematic areas only. We will specify where the principal panel design elements are to be stored in the design database hierarchy. Navigate to TESTSBFR and then click the (Panels) and (Panel Linear Joints) buttons in turn. we will defer detailed trimming of the edges to fit around structural sections etc.4 Creating Simple Panels We will first create a panel which defines the overall area of a large floor plate and will then divide this up into more manageable sizes such as might be specified for fabrication purposes. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.Adding Panels and Plates PAVE with +ve radius PAVE with -ve radius The default radius of zero denotes a point. We shall store both types of element under the same SubFrame which we have been using for our basic framework design. The current storage area settings are shown like this: 8. we will use a short-cut method to set default storage areas for Panels and Panel Linear Joints (which we will look at later).

The methods we will use are: lets you pick a point graphically using any of the standard pointer picking options lets you specify a distance and direction relative to the preceding vertex (See the online help for a description of all the icons.) 8-4 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. which define the overall area of the floor plate shown shaded in the following diagram (all bracing members omitted for clarity): V1 A B V2 V4 A B V3 U N E (The broken lines A-A and B-B show where we will later split the panel into three. You will see a Create Panel form which provides. Leave the Representation set to Predefined: Default for now. We will not enter the optional names for panels in this exercise. These settings (Levels and Obstruction) affect the way items are shown in 3D views and how they are dealt with when checking for clashes between design items.Adding Panels and Plates Exercise continues: 114. among its other settings. Select Create>Panel…. various ways of specifying the positions of vertices. Set the Justification to Bottom (this will let us position the bottom face of our panels on the top of their supporting sections) and set the Thickness to 30. V1-V4.) The Create Methods buttons give you several ways to define each vertex. We will define the positions of four vertices. the defaults should be adequate for our current purposes.6SP1 .

You will see a Define vertex form on which you can specify the required offset. we will use these options to illustrate the principles. 8. one PLOOP and four PAVERT elements (as defined in Section 8.2). Click the button. Leave the Display modification form check box clear (you would select this only if you wanted to modify the panel vertices immediately). we could have measured it by means of a useful utility. As a demonstration. Note: The first vertex defined for a new panel becomes the panel’s origin (as displayed) by default.Adding Panels and Plates In the next steps. Note that the Design Explorer now includes one PANEL. we had to enter the required distance between V3 and V4. the overall length of the structure in the East-West direction. As soon as you have defined three vertices. ready to pick the position of the first vertex. Click OK to complete the panel creation operation. Instead of calculating this. 118. The text below the icon buttons on the Create Panel form will change from ‘No vertices currently defined’ to ‘1 Vertices defined (no Panel created)’. The figure which we entered (20000) was derived from knowledge of the original design data. The text below the icon buttons on the Create Panel form will now say ‘4 Vertices defined ( Panel created)’.5 Measuring Distances/Directions in the Design Model When we completed the Define Vertex form in Step 118. Set Pick Type to Element and set Pick Method to Intersect. Repeat this point-picking procedure to define V2 and V3. 115. Click Apply to create the vertex. that is. You can change this later if required. as follows: Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. in that order. we will position V4 relative to V3. Click the button. 117. Now pick the column and either of the beams whose intersection coincides with V1 in the preceding diagram.6SP1 8-5 . 116. The Positioning Control form will show that you are now in event-driven graphics mode. the plane of the new panel will be shown in the graphical view (as a triangle) and a PANEL element will be added into the Design Explorer. Set the Direction to West and the Distance to 20000.

including some in skewed directions. the XYZ components of that distance. each with its own panel loop and set of four vertices. 120.. you can pick either of the other beams which are aligned parallel to A-A in the required plane. and split this along B-B to give a total of three panels. The Information area on the Measure form will show the direct distance between the Neutral Axes of the sections. Ensure that the panel is the current element (shown as PANEL 1 in the Design Explorer) and select Modify>Split Panel. set Pick Type to Element and Pick Method to Snap. 121. simply create a section 8-6 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. Experiment with some other graphical picking options to measure a few other distances and directions. alternatively.6SP1 . Navigate to the larger panel. pick either of the beams aligned along A-A in the diagram. The distance will also be shown in the graphical view. PANEL 2.. to be split on’. (You might need to change the view direction so that the beam you want to pick is not obscured by the panel. When prompted to ‘Pick . 8. Note that your current element is still PANEL 1. On the Positioning Control form. which is the smaller of the two panels.6 Splitting a Panel We will now split our new panel along the axes of the intermediate beams which support it (shown by the broken lines A-A and B-B in the diagram at Step 115). Hint: Zoom in if necessary and pick carefully at the ends connected to bracing sections to avoid snapping to the secondary nodes rather than the column extremities. then pick near the tops or bottoms (but not one of each) of the columns through the V4 and V3 positions. 122. You will see a Measure form and a Positioning Control form which together let you measure the distance between any two points or lines in the design model. To introduce a split line anywhere else. Either select Query>Measure Distance or click the button. thus forming three smaller panels.Adding Panels and Plates Exercise continues: 119. and the direction of the second point relative to the first. then dismiss the Measure form. (Note that you can only split a panel along the axis of an existing element.) The panel will be split along the picked line to form two separate panels.

e. As displayed now. Exercise continues: 123.7 Tailoring Panel Edges by Editing Individual Vertices The edges of the panels which we have created run from vertex to vertex along the centrelines of the beam flanges on which they rest. that between V1-A-A-V4 in the diagram for Step 115) and select Modify>Extrusion/Panel…. you will usually need to detail the edges more accurately for fabrication purposes. Check that the options Settings>Confirm and Settings>Confirm on delete from this form’s menu bar are both selected. To introduce this concept. delete or reposition individual vertices which define the shape of the panel loop. change to suit the current circumstances as you use the form. etc. Note: When we split our original panel into three. so the vertex numbers for the current panels do not correspond to those of the original panel. all vertices are constrained to remain in the plane of the panel loop (i. As you insert new vertices. and their titles. You will see a Loop Vertex Editor form which lets you modify the shape of the current panel by manipulating individual vertices. we will add intermediate vertices between existing panel corners so that the edges fit round the columns which intersect them. The active controls on the form. the numbering will change to accommodate them. new vertices were created automatically. then delete the section.6SP1 8-7 . While this may be an adequate representation for an overall design layout. so care is needed to check that you are at the correct vertex for each panel editing operation. you can add. split the panel. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.Adding Panels and Plates where you want the split to occur. We will also set a radius for some of the vertices to give rounded corners. you will notice that many of the buttons (especially those relating to Group and Line operations) are greyed out.e. Navigate to the westernmost panel (i. To do so.. edges between vertices.) 8. Whatever methods you use for picking new positions. groups of vertices. the underside of the panel) throughout these operations.

while the lower part shows the coordinates and fillet radius of this vertex.6SP1 • 8-8 . thus: Navigate to vertex by picking Step through vertices The geometry of the current panel in Plan view (not to scale) is as follows: V2 V3 P V7 A N E L V6 V1 V8 V5 V4 Y V1 V4 New vertices to be inserted Origin at V1 X We will insert four new vertices between V4 and V1. so first navigate to V4 in either of the following ways: • Click the ‘select vertex/edge’ button on the Loop Vertex Editor form and pick the p-point at V4. you might find it easier to switch to wireline mode to see it. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. as shown in the inset view. because this position is within the column. Each new vertex is added to the sequence immediately after the current vertex.Adding Panels and Plates The upper part of the form shows that the current focus is on Vertex 1. Notice how the current vertex and the edge direction to the next vertex are shown in the 3D View as you do this. Note that. Use the up/down arrow buttons next to the displayed vertex number to step through the vertex list sequentially. so that this panel edge fits round the column (note that V4 comes before V1 when defining this edge. 124. since vertex numbering is clockwise as viewed in the diagram).

click the button again.e. A ‘New vertex’ tag is added to the graphical view so that you can check the proposed position. To change from ‘create mode’ to ‘modify mode’. though. are useful here for checking directions in the panel’s coordinate system). select Settings>Pick Filters>Plines from the main menu bar and reset the current filtering rule to No Rule (it is probably still set to Extremities. click the button and pick V5. change the setting in the X box by adding 10 (the axes.1). ready for the next one to be added after it. 126. at the intersection of the corner of the column with the panel. Don’t forget to click Create when you have positioned the vertex.6SP1 . To do so. adding or subtracting as necessary. Set the Positioning Control to Element Snap and position the vertex at the end of the beam which joins the column from the direction of V4 (i. Y and Radius text-boxes). as in Step 83). V6. Click the Modify button to confirm the new setting. To introduce a 10mm clearance. 129. At present the panel edges are abutted against the column flanges. 128. set the Positioning Control to Pline Snap. V7 and V8 to give a 10 mm clearance all round. if it is correct. noting that V6 and V7 must be moved in both the X and Y directions.2. at point V5 on the diagram). shown at the panel’s origin. Create V7 and V8 by using similar methods to those in Steps 126 and 127. that the numbering may change as you edit the list. see diagram in Section 5. as shown in the diagram at the end of Step 124. Position the next vertex. Repeat the procedure from Step 129. click the Create button at the bottom of the Loop Vertex Editor form to confirm the creation. to move V6. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. We will next introduce a small clearance gap by moving the relevant vertices using the explicit editing facilities. Note how its current settings are copied into the Vertex area at the bottom of the form (X. Rotate the graphical model as necessary and check that the panel now incorporates a cut-out which fits round the column. Do not forget. Notice that the new vertex is now the current vertex (labelled <5>). Click the ‘Create points’ button in the Mode Selection area of the Loop Vertex Editor form. you can type it directly in the Vertex number field. respectively. 125. If you cannot pick the pline you want. 8-9 127. and pick the column pline which passes through the required point (RBOS or LBOS. it is usually safer to pick a vertex graphically.Adding Panels and Plates If you know the number of the vertex you want.

we have aligned the panel edges along the centrelines of the beam flanges on which they are supported. then repeat the process for V7. We will specify the new position by aligning the edge with the appropriate pline of the beam on which it rests (LTOS in the following diagram). The final result will be as follows: V7 PANEL V6 V8 V5 (Set the view to Look>Down and zoom in to see this in detail.) 8. thus: V7 PANEL RTOS V6 Move edge Move edge TOS LTOS V1 V8 V5 V4 8-10 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1 . You might find it easier to see the detail if you switch to wireline mode.Adding Panels and Plates 130. Pick V6 and change the Radius setting from the default of zero to 15 mm. We will now move the panel edges linking V4-V5 and V8-V1 to the outer edges of the beams.8 Moving Panel Edges to New Positions So far. Update the V6 data to the new setting.

By default. we will look at other ways of doing this later). and the fact that START is tagged in uppercase letters in the 3D View (at the V4 end of the beam). These are examples of how the form changes to suit current circumstances. as shown by the Start option. we want to move V4 and V5 simultaneously).Adding Panels and Plates Exercise continues: 131. thus: Set the Positioning Control to Pline Snap.6SP1 8-11 . 134. pick the LTOS pline on the top outer edge of the beam and then click the Modify button to move the panel edge to this position. We want to move the whole edge (that is. Notice how the upper part of the form now shows the current focus as Edge 4. Repeat the method of Steps 132 and 133 to move Edge 8 (V8-V1) to the outer edge of its supporting beam. so change the option to Aligned. Use the same process to move the non-abutting edges of all three panels to the outer edges of their supporting beams (but do not modify any more edges to fit round columns yet. Still using the Loop Vertex Editor form. V4) and the length of the edge. while the lower part shows the coordinates of the Start of the edge (i. thus: Navigate to edge by Step through edges Notice also that the controls in the Line area are now active (they were previously greyed out). click the ‘select edge to modify’ button in the Mode Selection area and then pick a point on the panel near the edge between V4 and V5. Select Settings>Tag edges from Loop Vertex Editor menu. as mentioned in Step 124. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. 132. 133.e. the next modification would be applied only to the Start position of the edge.

so you can also position Vertex (VERT) elements to form a 2D Loop (LOOP) and then extrude this to create a 3D Negative Extrusion (NXTR). although you can move it later if necessary.6SP1 . its justification is set automatically to be the same as that of its owning panel. Similarly. (Negative extrusion vertices are shown in italic to distinguish them from panel vertices.9 Creating Negative Extrusions In exactly the same way that you position Panel Vertex elements to define the shape of a 2D Panel Loop and then extrude this by the required thickness to create a 3D Panel. We will use this facility to create a hole through the floor plate where one of the columns passes through it.) A negative extrusion is owned by the panel through which the hole is required. the negative extrusion represents a negative volume.Adding Panels and Plates 8. The difference is that. as illustrated in Section 12. (We have already encountered negative volumes used in the catalogue definition of a bolted flange. their numbering is independent of the panel vertices. namely: V3 PANEL V4 Panel V3 V2 NEGATIVE EXTRUSION Panel V2 V1 Note: Vertices V1-V4 in this diagram define the negative extrusion. see illustration in Step 101. where they were used to remove the end of the section to accommodate the joint and to represent bolt holes through both the joint and the flange of its owning column. the thickness of the negative extrusion should exceed the thickness of the panel to ensure that the hole always penetrates completely through the panel. 8-12 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. When created. a hole. as its name implies.) Notice how the outer edge of the negative extrusion (V1-V2) extends beyond the outer edge of the panel to ensure that the hole always penetrates through the panel edge. that is.2. The negative extrusion will have the same shape as that created by the interposed vertices (V5-V8) in the preceding diagram.

To achieve the correct justification and orientation for the negative extrusion relative to its owning panel.Adding Panels and Plates Exercise continues: 135. The settings should now be as follows: 136.4 and 8. 8-13 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1 . To see the negative extrusion volume in the graphical view when you create it.7). since the application automatically adds 1 mm to ensure that the hole always cuts through the referenced panel surface. Navigate to that panel (which should be PANEL 3 in the Design Explorer) and select Create>Negative Extrusion…. Introduce a clearance of 10 mm round the column and set the radii of the two vertices within the panel area to 15 mm. align V1 and V2 with the outer face of the column (although any position beyond the panel edge would be satisfactory). through) the panel thickness from this surface. Using any combination of the methods which you used to create and modify panel vertices (Sections 8. in our case. at the opposite end of the structure from the vertices added in Section 12. For ease of positioning. Select the Update all Graphics check box and OK the change. 138. The hole will penetrate into (or. as shown in the preceding diagram. select Settings>Graphics>Representation and clear the Holes Drawn check box (we selected this in Step 103. we will see the effect of this setting in more detail shortly). create the four vertices needed to define the required hole round the column. click the Surface button in the Settings area of the form. We will create the negative extrusion where a column passes through the midpoint of the easternmost edge of the largest panel (that is. This large depth will make it easy to see the volume of the negative extrusion once you have created it: a depth slightly greater than the panel thickness would normally suffice. You will see a Create Negative Extrusion form (similar to the Create Panel form which you used earlier). Set Hole Depth (equivalent to the thickness of the negative extrusion) to 250. then pick the upper face of the panel.7). 137. Hint: zoom in close to the panel and the column of interest and look along (and slightly above) the panel.

Their effect of removing material from positive (solid) items in the design is not shown. If you have positioned it correctly.Adding Panels and Plates Note that the origin plane of the negative extrusion is its bottom face. negative volumes are shown as outline shapes in the graphical view and can be picked using the pointer (you must pick a visible edge. thus: Look>North: Look>West: Negative extrusion V2 V1 Panel V3 Negative extrusion V2 (If not. When Holes Drawn is On. it does not affect the column. revert to Holes Drawn On representation (see Step 102). Use this mode for normal design work to view a realistic 3D representation of the design model. including two methods for representing holes in the panels where they fit round structural members. we shall look at ways of adding predefined catalogue fittings to panels. 8-14 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. In the next part of the guide. 139. its upper face will just protrude from the top face of the panel. Only their effect on positive volumes through which they pass is visible. the negative extrusion will appear as an outline volume superimposed on the design in the graphical view. negative volumes are not shown explicitly in the graphical view and cannot be picked using the pointer (although you can still navigate to them using the Design Explorer as normal). Note the effects of the Holes Drawn setting on the Representation form: • When Holes Drawn is Off.6SP1 . • That concludes the addition of simple panels to the structural framework. use the Position>Relatively (BY) menu option to move the negative extrusion vertically to a position where it cuts both faces of the panel. When created. as shown by the positions of the graphical aids when you are creating and modifying its vertices. not an invisible surface).) 140. Use this mode when explicitly creating or modifying a negative item. Notice how the negative extrusion creates a hole only through its owning panel. To see the result of applying the negative volume represented by the negative extrusion to the positive volume of the panel.

a panel. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.9 Using Panel Fittings In this chapter we will introduce the concept of Panel Fittings and then incorporate such a fitting into our design to represent a manhole giving access through a floor plate. a stylised manhole might be defined like this: Z Positive volume representing lid Negative volume representing hole through panel Beta Angle defines orientation about Z axis X Origin Plane determines justification relative to panel Origin When you create a new panel fitting. lifting lugs. 9. or bottom face of the panel by setting its Justification (SJUS) attribute. the catalogue might include panel fittings representing doors. panel fittings can incorporate (or consist entirely of) negative volumes which represent holes in their owning panels.6SP1 9-1 . centre plane. and positioned relative to. As an example. Typically.1 How Panel Fittings are Defined A Single Panel Fitting (PFIT) is a catalogue item which can be used to represent any type of geometric entity which is to be owned by. A panel fitting is positioned relative to its owning panel’s origin by setting its Position (POSI) attribute and is orientated about an axis perpendicular to the panel by setting its Beta Angle (BANG) attribute. As with the bolted joint which we used earlier. You can then move it to the required position in any of the standard ways. access manholes. It can be justified to align its origin plane with the top face. windows. it is positioned automatically at the origin of its owning panel. and so on.

By default. select Modify>Fitting and. set the Positioning Control to either Graphics Snap or Graphics Cursor. (The default orientation has the Beta Angle set to zero. the form is set to show New Panel Fitting as the current element. We will position it by eye.Using Panel Fittings 9. Navigate to the panel in which you want to insert the manhole and select Create>Fittings>Single…. Click the ‘Pick Position’ button . You will see a Create Panel Fitting form giving access to all available panel fitting specifications in the current catalogue. select Orientate>ß Angle>90 Degrees to rotate the fitting within the plane of the panel. Access Cover. Standard Manhole Access. 9-2 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. ACCESS_COVER (probably the only item in the list). The new panel fitting is shown in the Design Explorer as a PFITTING owned by the PANEL. centre or bottom) to be used as the alignment datum and the orientation of the fitting relative to this plane. These options let you specify the panel plane (top.2 Creating a Panel Fitting Exercise continues: 141. like this: Top outwards Top inwards Centre outwards Centre inwards Bottom inwards Bottom outwards 142. Set the Justification to Top outwards. OK the Pick Fitting Position form to transfer the coordinates of the picked position to the Create Panel Fitting form. the fitting will be positioned at the origin of its owning panel (as shown by the Position field). Select the Specification for Standard Access. and pick a point somewhere near the centre of the panel area. Because we are creating a new panel fitting. try each of the Justification options in turn. using the pointer. Zoom in and look at both faces of the panel to see how the negative part of the fitting creates the 143. 144.6SP1 . then Apply the latter to create the fitting. on the resulting Modify Panel Fitting form.) To see the effects of changing the justification. With the PFIT as your current element. rather than modifying the specification of an existing one.

each of which can own a set of Subfittings. but similar principles apply to their creation and manipulation. Note: Sections can also own Fittings (FITTs rather than PFITs in this case) which can serve a similarly wide range of purposes.6SP1 9-3 . We will not look explicitly at these in the exercise. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. You will see an example of how these may be used when we look at Penetrations in the next chapter. Note that such a fitting is positioned along its owning section by setting its distance from the section’s start (the Zdistance). More complex fittings may be represented by Compound Fittings. Reset whichever justification you think is most appropriate before dismissing the form.Using Panel Fittings necessary access hole. You may want to experiment with these yourself by switching to the Beams & Columns application. see section B.5 for some examples.

Using Panel Fittings


Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1


Penetrating One Item With Another
Several of the design applications include the concept of a Penetration to allow one or more items to pass through another such that there is a logical link between the penetrating and penetrated items (in contrast to, say, a negative extrusion which can be positioned and dimensioned independently of any item which passes through it or through which it passes). In this chapter you will use this facility to show yet another way of creating a hole in a panel where a section passes through it.

10.1 How a penetration is defined
Each type of penetration is a selectable catalogue item whose dimensions are parameterised in such a way that they can be derived automatically from the dimensions of the component which passes through the hole. You can modify the final dimensions by specifying clearance distances etc. to allow for any special requirements of the local design geometry. Such a penetration can be used where pipes or sections pass through a panel, or, with some restrictions, through a section. The element types used to represent a panel penetration are as follows: • The point along a pipe at which it passes through a penetration is represented by an Attachment (ATTA) element owned by the appropriate Branch. The point along a section at which it passes through a penetration is represented by a Fitting (FITT) element. The point at which a penetration is positioned through a panel is represented by a Compound Panel Fitting (CMPF) element which owns a separate Subfitting (SBFI) for each associated penetrating item.

• •

When you create a panel penetration, the application sets up crossreferences between the ATTA or FITT and the CMPF/SBFI, like this:

Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1


Penetrating One Item With Another

ATTA owned by Branch SBFI by CMPF; CMPF by panel

FITT owned by Section SBFI by CMPF; CMPF by panel





CREF of ATTA points to CREF of SBFI points to ATTA

CREF of FITT points to CREF of SBFI points to FITT

(These diagrams show only single penetrations, where each CMPF owns just one SBFI. For a multiple penetration, each CMPF would own one SBFI for each penetrating pipe or section.) For your present purposes, you will consider only the case of a structural section passing through a panel, so you will be concerned with specifying a FITT and a SBFI for each penetration.

10.2 Creating a steelwork penetration
Your design model currently looks like this (bracing members and manhole omitted for clarity), showing the two methods so far used for allowing columns to pass through panels:

Vertices fitted round column




Negative extrusion

Penetration to go here N U E

You will now add a penetration, as indicated in the above diagram, to allow the column to pass through the corner of Panel 1.


Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1

When prompted to ‘Identify items that penetrate’. Select the Confirm before penetrating check box and click Apply. You will see a Create Section Penetrations form. that is. Check that the picked intersection point is correct. the penetrating item will be dominant in determining the penetration’s position and geometry. Set the Penetration Type option to Single Penetration. as tagged in the 3D view. The default specification of the catalogue penetration which is to be used (the first penetration in the selected specification will be used by default). Pick the panel and Escape the next prompt. 129. Set the Defaults: Spec. Both menus are active: one gives access to the general steelwork design functions. whether it is the section or the panel which is to be regarded as the owner of the penetration. whose menu bar will be displayed in addition to the existing Beams & Columns Application menu. pick the column and Escape the next prompt.6SP1 10-3 . Set both the Elements to be penetrated and Elements that penetrate options to Pick using cursor. How you want to identify the section(s) which are to pass through the penetration (the penetrating items). Here we want the penetration to be owned by the section. showing that you will identify each item individually by picking it in the graphical view. You can create a penetration for a section through a panel either from the Beams & Columns application or from the Panels & Plates application. Select Utilities> Penetrations…. This starts the Panels Penetration subapplication. How you want to identify the panel(s) through which the penetration is to pass (the penetrated items). 130. This form requires you to specify four types of data: • • • • Whether the penetration is to allow for a single penetrating item or for multiple items. and confirm the creation of the penetration. option to Penetrations.Penetrating One Item With Another Exercise continues: 128. You will be prompted to ‘Identify item to be penetrated’. the other accesses those functions specific to penetration design. From either application. Change to the Beams & Columns application. From the Panels Penetration Application menu select Create>Penetration… then select Steel Penetration. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.

this is displayed automatically so that you can complete the specification of the penetration elements. labelled Hole Information. The List option controls how the hierarchy is sorted.Attached lists all FITTs for each panel (grouped by CMPF). so the difference here is less significant than when you have several penetrations. you will see how to modify it later.Penetrating One Item With Another 131. This data is shown for reference only.6SP1 .Owner lists all FITTs for each section.Owner. shows the relevant attribute settings for the current FITT (as selected in the upper list). Penetrating Items . Select the Navigate on selection check box. You will now see a Penetration Item List form. It shows all data settings relevant to the penetrating item (FITT) and the penetrated item (or hole. labelled Penetrating Item. It is in this list that you select the settings which you want to modify. 10-4 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. shows the relevant attribute settings for the SBFI which is referenced from the current FITT. SBFI). The upper scrollable list acts as a specific Design Explorer for the rapid selection of. Any item picked in the upper list will then automatically become the current element in the Design Explorer. Since your penetration is owned by the section rather than by the panel. The lower list. the options work as follows: Penetrating Items . It displays the penetrating and penetrated items in a hierarchic (indented) format. thus: (You have only a single penetration. and navigation to.) Select Penetrating Items . The middle list. Leave the Show option set to Items. elements relevant to penetrations.

133. Rectangular. You will see a Penetration List form. you must now do the same for the part which relates to the penetrated panel (the CMPF and its SBFI).. Set the XClearance and Y-Clearance to 20 so that the fitting extends beyond the section extremities by 20mm in each direction. is set automatically from the calculated penetration coordinates. OK these settings and Apply the Modify Fitting form.Penetrating One Item With Another 132. Its relevant attribute settings appear as follows: You want to set the specification. Having fully specified the part of the penetration which relates to the penetrating section (the FITT). You will see a Modify Fitting form. Navigate to the panel and select Modify>Penetrations from the Steelwork Penetration Application menu. so that the fitting is centred on the section’s neutral axis. Click the Properties. The resulting Penetration Display form lets you specify whether you want to modify penetrating or penetrated items: select List Penetration Holes and click Apply. Dismiss the Penetration Item List form and its associated forms. so select this in the upper list. When you have finished setting the specification for the FITT. Set the Justification to NAL or NAR (it does not matter which). The ‘navigation’ lists now look like Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. The resulting Modify Properties form lets you set the local geometry for the fitting (similar to the way in which you specified joint details in Step 102). From the list of fitting specifications displayed. Leave the Beta Angle (which determines the orientation of the fitting about the section) at the default value of 0.. button. PENI/RECT. except that the lists are now based on the CMPF and SBFI data rather than the FITT data. select Steel Sections. Steel Sections. leave this value as it appears. Leave the X-Offset and Y-Offset set to zero. This is very similar to the Penetration Item List form which you used in the preceding step. You have only one FITT which you can modify. so select SpecRef in this list (the > symbol shows that this is an editable entry). The Zdist(ance). which determines the position of the fitting along its owning section.6SP1 10-5 .

select Position>Align with ref. the effect is to set the X and Y dimensions of the SBFI to be compatible with those of the FITT. Leave all properties at their default values of zero and OK/Apply the forms to set the SpecRef. Click the Properties. The effect is to change the attributes of the current SBFI to match the corresponding settings of the FITT to which it refers. you need to ensure that it is correctly aligned with the FITT from which it is to derive some of its settings. so the owner/attached definitions have been reversed when compared with the equivalent lists shown in Step 131: Note that the middle list now shows Hole Information ready for modification. select Modify>Copy like ref. Although you could set Xlength and Ylength explicitly to match those of the penetrating item. Set the specification to Hole Penetrations. there is an easier way of doing this by copying the data automatically from the referenced item (namely the FITT).. 134. look at the Ref Data settings shown in the Hole Information list on the Penetration List form: 135. button to display the Modify Properties form for the dimensions of the hole. Select the SBFI in the upper list. while the lower list now shows Penetrating Item data for the referenced FITT. 136. Hole Penetrations. PENH/FITT/RECT2. In this case. from the Steelwork Penetration Application menu.. Select SpecRef in the middle list to show the Modify Panel Fitting form. To do this. To check this.6SP1 . 10-6 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. Rectangular. From the Steelwork Penetration Application menu.Penetrating One Item With Another this. Before you modify the SBFI’s specification.

you will look at some ways of checking the design model and outputting some design data derived from the database settings. select Holes Drawn (from Settings>Graphics>Representation.) and zoom in for a close inspection of the new penetration.6SP1 10-7 . In the next part of the exercise.Penetrating One Item With Another 137.. Save your design changes to conclude this part of the exercise. Close all of the forms relating to penetrations.. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.

6SP1 .Penetrating One Item With Another 10-8 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.

and the creation of a plot showing the structural layout. so it does not matter which application you are currently using.1. In this chapter you will look at one of these checking facilities. the analysis of some mass properties of the steelwork members (centre of gravity.11 Checking and Outputting Design Data To ensure maximum design integrity. the structural applications let you check the data in several ways so that any potential mistakes are drawn to your attention. Note: The facilities which you will be using here are available from both the Beams & Columns and the Panels & Plates applications (from all design applications. A soft obstruction (OBST=1) represents a volume which is not solid but which needs to be kept clear for access. namely the method of checking for clashes (spatial interferences) between design elements. you will look at three ways of outputting design data derived from the structural model: the generation of a tabulated report showing the material required to build the design (categorised by section profile). surface area and weight calculations). such as a steel beam or a plant vessel. Any primitive with OBST=0 represents a freely accessible volume and is ignored for clash checking purposes. 11.6SP1 11-1 . Finally.1 Checking for clashes The types of clash identified depend on two factors: • • The obstruction levels of the clashing elements The current touch and clearance tolerances 11.1 Obstruction levels All design primitives and all catalogue primitives have an obstruction attribute (OBST) which defines the physical type of obstruction which the primitive represents: • • • A hard obstruction (OBST=2) represents a rigid and impenetrable object. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. in fact).

1. or it may indicate a problem. This usually means that a definite interference exists. a clearance is reported If the items are separated by more than 8mm. Touch limits: Clearance limit: • • • • • 5mm overlap to 2mm gap 8mm • • These three classes are illustrated below for the clash specifications: so that the following criteria apply: If the items overlap by more than 5mm.2 Extent of clashing As well as distinguishing between hard and soft clashing items. A clearance: the primitives are separated at their closest point by more than the amount necessary to constitute a touch but less than a specified clearance distance. the checking utility recognises three categories of clash between them. a clash is reported If the items overlap by less than 5mm. This may simply mean that one item is resting upon another as intended. depending on how far the two primitives intrude on each other’s allocated space. which you may want to investigate. This represents a near miss. a touch is reported If the items do not overlap but are separated by less than 2mm.Checking and Outputting Design Data 11. no interference is found overlap > 5mm a physical clash overlap < 5mm gap < 2mm touches 2mm < gap < 8mm a clearance 11-2 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. These categories are: • A physical clash: the primitive volumes overlap by more than a specified amount. a touch is reported If the items are separated by more than 2mm but less than 8mm.6SP1 . A touch: the primitives either overlap by less than the amount needed to cause a clash or are separated at their closest point by less than a specified distance.

Select Control>Check CE from the form’s menu bar to run the clash checking process and. or in the Add/Remove Obstruction Items form) and select Utilities>Clashes…. select Settings>Clasher>Obstruction>List….6SP1 11-3 . so that each element to be clash checked is tested against every other element. You will see an Add/Remove Obstruction Items form. ignore the reference to ‘Branch’. Exercise continues: 138. The default obstruction list (all elements in the current design database) will include the regular structure created in Chapter 6. the clashing and obstruction items are shown in contrasting colours in the graphical view (two shades of red. which relates to piping designs only). You will see a Clash Display form. the obstruction list includes all elements in the database. when completed. Items which are not in the obstruction list are ignored during the clash checking operations. study the Clash List which shows all clashes found.3 The clash detection process Each element which is to be checked for clashes has its own geometry checked against that of all other elements which are specified by a current obstruction list. To see what these are. 140. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. To control the amount of checking carried out in a large database. Think about the meaning of each setting shown (refer to the preceding introduction. so you must edit the list to remove this. You will check the westernmost panel (PANEL 1) for clashes against all other elements in the test framework. Remove All current entries and then Add the framework /TESTFRMW. select 139.1. To do so. By default. Navigate to the panel which you want to check (by clicking on it in the display.Checking and Outputting Design Data 11. then Cancel the form. You will start by using the defaults for all clash checking settings. To see a summary of all clashes found. To highlight the locations where clashes are found. by default). or in the Design Explorer. You will see a hard-hard (HH) clash at both points where the panel has a column passing through it. and a hard-hard touch where the panel rests on each of its seven supporting beams and where it abuts the adjacent panel. the right-hand side consists of a 3D view in which you can look in detail at any clashes diagnosed. select Settings>Clasher>Defaults… to display the Clash Defaults form. The left-hand side of this form controls the clash checking process. you can restrict the obstruction list to a few specific elements and/or you can specify a 3D volume (the clash limits) within which the clash checking is to be confined.

that there are no clashes where the panel has been modified to fit round the columns.6SP1 . Notice how the clashing items are highlighted in different colours in the graphical view. and the calculated position at which the clash was diagnosed. 142. The Clash Detail form shows the extent of the clash. Note: If the Auto Clash button is selected. Experiment with some of the other options on the Clash Display menus and then close the form. 11-4 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. each new element that you create is checked immediately for clashes as the design is built up. This can slow down progress when you are adding many new elements. the identities of both the clashing and obstruction items. thus: .Checking and Outputting Design Data Query>Clash>Summary… from the form’s menu. The resulting Summary form shows the total number of clashes in each category: Note. select the corresponding line in the Clash List and then select Query>Clash>Detail…. To change these colours. display the Clash Defaults form again (as in Step 138) and choose the colours you want to use. To study any clash in detail. 141. but is very useful when you want to add a few new items to an existing design which has already been checked for clashes. in particular.

Checking and Outputting Design Data 11. • • generating a tabulated report showing the material required to build the design creating an plot showing the layout and associated manufacturing data. in which case this is the method you would normally use in practice.1 Generating a tabulated data report The reporting utility lets you read selected types of information from the design database and present the output in a convenient tabulated format. The ways in which you define how a given report is to be generated and presented are beyond the scope of this exercise. including number and positions of columns. Each report can be customised by specifying some or all of the following: • • • • • • Where the output is to appear (on the screen or in a file ready for printing). The selection criteria which define which data settings are to be included in the report.) Exercise continues: 143. column headings. 11. Select Utilities>Reports>Run… to initiate the reporting process. The page layout.2 Generating a data output report This section describes two ways of outputting design data derived from the structural model.2. Once such a report has been designed.6SP1 . The page length (if the report is to be paginated). Any introductory header which is to appear at the beginning of the report. (You will probably use your company’s standard templates for most reports anyway. but you will look at the results of the process by using a pre-prepared template which outputs a material take-off list for each type of steel profile used in your design. etc. Any headers and footers which are to appear at the top and bottom of each page. You will see a File Browser listing all files in the current reporting 11-5 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. its specification can be saved for future use in the form of a report template file.

The calculation can be set to derive either a gross or a net result. These 11-6 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. enter /TESTFRMW. Leave the Filename text-box empty (which will send the report to the screen automatically).Checking and Outputting Design Data directory (specified by your System Administrator as part of the project setting-up procedure). This report shows the total cut length for each of the steel profiles used in the design and the number of lengths into which each profile is divided. for example: • Gross weight is the weight of material needed before any negative geometry (such as end preparations) is applied. The tabulated report output will be displayed in a Command Input & Output window which is opened automatically. When you OK the File Browser to specify the template.. Click OK on the File Browser. Select steel_mto.6SP1 . a Report Details form will appear which lets you do this. this wording is written into the template simply as an example of the type of heading which you might want to use. Net weight is the weight of material after any negative geometry is applied. which has been designed to produce a material take-off report for steelwork sections. • (The detailed way in which positive and negative geometry is used in calculations is determined by the Representation Level settings. volume. since you want to list the material take-off for the whole of the design model. you must specify two things (as determined by the rules within the template): where the report is to appear.tmp. In the Hierarchy text-box. 145. mass and the position of the centre of gravity (CofG) of a structural item from a knowledge of its geometry and the properties of the material from which it is made. Click OK to run the report.3 Querying mass properties You can calculate the surface area.\REPORTS\TEMPLATES directory. 144. To run the report defined by the chosen template. transport planning etc.tmp suffix are report templates. All files with a . and what part of the database hierarchy is to be read when extracting the required types of data. This data is appropriate for determining as-built weights for loading calculations.) 11.. (Do not worry if part of the heading seems inappropriate for your project. This data is appropriate for material cost estimating etc. Select the .

) From the Materials list.1).6SP1 11-7 . Set the upper option to CE (still at subframework level). It is the material density which is the significant property used in the mass calculations. Select Query>Mass Properties…. joints. you will first specify the material for each structural element in your design model and will then use this data to derive some mass-related details. (The latter will set the MatRef for all elements below the current subframework to the selected material automatically. select GR275 (density 7850.). Confirm the change. this small difference is due to the material removed for joint allowances. set the Results option to Gross. is specified by setting the design element’s SpecRef attribute to refer to an entry in a Catalogue database (as explained in Section 5. so first navigate to the subframework TESTSBFR and then select Modify>Material… from the main menu. In the next steps of the exercise. select the Append to list check box (so that you can compare the next result with the existing one in the list). Note the difference between the calculated net and gross weights. Change the Results option to Net. Exercise continues: 146. joint. etc. You will see a Set Material form listing all available material specifications in the Properties database. panels etc. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. 148. fitting etc. fittings. volume and mass for the whole subframework will be shown in the Mass Properties list. and click Apply. panel cut-outs. 147. together with the position of the centre of gravity. Leave the option set to CE and select the Cascade Material to all offspring check box.) In the same way that the geometry of a section profile.00 Kg/M3) and click Apply. You will see a Mass Properties form which lets you make all necessary calculations based on the current material density. You will specify the same material for all structural items (sections. The calculated gross surface area. The centre of gravity will also be tagged in the graphical view. The whole framework will be highlighted in the graphical view to show that all design elements have been selected for modification to the selected material. so its material properties are specified by setting its Material Reference (MatRef) attribute to refer to an appropriate entry in a Properties database.Checking and Outputting Design Data are beyond the scope of this introduction and you will use the default levels throughout this exercise. and click Apply again.

which you have been using to create the design model. and an empty 2D view window (the Main Display. Set the upper option to Pick. and perform similar calculations for individual items or groups of items which you pick using the pointer. Navigate to the Zone which you created in Step 13 (/TESTZONE) and select Modify>Attributes…. Exercise continues: In order for the drawing facilities to apply the correct rules for representing structural items. it is this setting which you need to change. You will see a small Function form showing the current setting. you must set a design attribute which will tell the drawing module how to interpret the design data. to the DRAFT drawing module. you will see the DRAFT General menu bar and tool bar. 151. Select the Function line in the list.6SP1 . You will use just a small part of this power to produce an isometric plot of your structural layout using default settings only. OK/Apply the changes. The Function attribute will probably say unset. analogous to the 3D View which you have been using in DESIGN). When the DRAFT applications have been loaded from their macro files.Checking and Outputting Design Data 149. thus: 11-8 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. You must now switch from the DESIGN module. 150. The attribute used for this purpose is the Function attribute of the parent Zone. You will see a Modify Attributes form listing the current settings for the Zone.4 Plotting the design model PDMS’s drawing module provides very powerful facilities for generating annotated and dimensioned plots of all or part of the design model. click Apply. Edit the text to replace unset by Steelwork.) 11. (Use Esc to terminate each picking sequence in the usual way. Select Design>Modules>Draft>Macro Files.

Checking and Outputting Design Data You must next set up an administrative hierarchy to define how plots are to be stored (in a real project this would probably have been done for you already).6SP1 11-9 . The parts of the hierarchy with which you are concerned here are as follows: Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.

6SP1 . Set Backing Sheet Reference to Reference and select /DRA/MAS/BACKS/MET/A4_Land.Checking and Outputting Design Data DEPARTMENT (DEPT) REGISTRY (REGI) LIBRARY (LIBY) DRAWING (DRWG) SHEET (SHEE) VIEW Design database elements to be drawn LIBRARY (LIBY) Standard symbols. Leave all pen definitions. From the Ruleset Reference options. This will apply standard borders and data areas to all drawings created in this Department. select /DRA/PRJ/REPR/GEN/STRU. annotations etc. hatch patterns and terminators at their default settings. Select Create>Department and name the element STRUCDEPT. 152. Attributes set at Department level are cascaded down to all lower levels. The settings should now look like this: 11-10 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. click the Attributes button to display a Department Attributes form. To set them. You will now see a Department Information form. On the latter form: • • • • Select the A4 drawing sheet size (note that this sets the Width and Height automatically). Click OK.

Click OK.Checking and Outputting Design Data • Click Apply. 11-11 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. Note that all attribute settings for the Registry have been copied from its owning Department (any individual attribute cascaded in this way can be overwritten at a lower level if required). to see a Registry Attributes form. Click Attributes.. 153. You will see a Create DRWG form. Name the Registry STRUCREGI and click OK. Dismiss the Registry Attributes form. You will see a Registry Information form.6SP1 . You will see a Create REGI form.. Select the Create Drawing check box and select Explicitly. 154. Check that the Create Registry check box on the Department Information form is selected and OK this form. then Dismiss.

To modify this to the nearest smaller standard scale. The chosen standard scale will now be displayed (e. Select Create>View>User-defined… and OK the resulting form. Select Create>Sheet>Explicitly… and OK the Create SHEE form. You must now set the drawing scale so that the plotted model representation fits sensibly into the area available on the sheet. and a default rectangle will be added to the Main Display to show where the design data for this view will be plotted. The part(s) of the design model which are to be plotted are specified by means of a drawlist. set the View Type to Global Hidden Line. you are now in a position to define the content of a drawing sheet ready for viewing and plotting. You will plot a single view on the sheet. then Dismiss. That completes the setting up of the drawing administration hierarchy.Checking and Outputting Design Data 155. Click Apply. when prompted. Name the Drawing STRUCDRWG and click OK. 1/200). enter the Title as ISO3 View. 156. Select Graphics>Drawlist… from the UserDefined View menu to display the Drawlist Management form. To do so. On the User-defined View form. In the Reference List Members list. select Frame>Size>Cursor from the User-Defined View menu and. so you will first resize the default view area to fill the available space. pick points just inside the top-left and bottom-right corners of the drawing area within the backing sheet layout. The detailed design data. First click the Auto Scale button on the User-Defined View form and notice how the precisely calculated scale is displayed in the adjacent text-box. Dismiss the Drawlist Management form. You will also see a Sheet Definition form. Note that all settings have been cascaded down from Department level. 157. then Dismiss. and set the Direction to ISO3 (select this using the options from the middle Direction control). navigate to the subframework holding the design model (/TESTSBFR) and click the Add button to add it to the drawlist. extracted directly from the Design database. is applied to the sheet in the form of individual Views. Click Apply. click the Nearest button. The Main Display view will show the backing sheet specified in Step 152. Enter the Title as Structural View. You will see a Drawing Definition form. The final settings will look something like this: 11-12 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. Note that the Date and Drawn By entries are derived automatically from your system log-in data. A Userdefined View form will be displayed. Click Apply to implement the new scale calculation.6SP1 .g.

thus: Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1 11-13 .Checking and Outputting Design Data Click the Update Design button to plot the drawlist element(s) in the Main Display at the chosen scale.

chapter. you will look at some of the facilities available for creating and modifying some nonlinear structural design elements. although the full range of 2D drafting facilities available is extensive. and final. allowing you to add dimensioning and labelling data derived directly from the design model. and to add any other specific 2D annotation which you require. 11-14 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.Checking and Outputting Design Data This is as far as you will go with Draft in this exercise.6SP1 . In the next.

2 Creating a semicircular platform In order to demonstrate the principles. you will create a semicircular ring section which projects out from your existing structure. comprising any number of Spine Points and Curves. The ends of the Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. In order to provide some reference points for use when routing a curved section. owned by the GENSEC. This path is represented by a Spine element. 12. comprising two Spine Points separated by a single Curve.6SP1 12-1 . you will construct a temporary working grid. For example: End POINSP CURVE PROFILE Sta rt POINSP CURVE = SPINE = POINSP The Beams & Columns application menu provides options for creating two versions of the GENSEC: A ring section. 12. restricted to an arc of a circle (up to a full circle). the geometry of which is defined by sweeping a 2D catalogue profile along a path. A more general curved section. whose route is specified in terms of a sequence of member Spine Points (POINSP) and Curves. In this final chapter you will add some nonlinear sections.1 How PDMS represents curved sections Curved structural items are represented by Generic Section (GENSEC) elements.12 Adding Some Curved Steelwork So far you have built your design model entirely from straight steelwork sections.

120x120x10.6SP1 . Member Line and Joint Line all set to NA. like this (only sections shown. In the Beams & Columns application.0. set the default profile specification to British Standard. Equal Angle. You will see a Ring Section 159.Adding Some Curved Steelwork ring section will be positioned near the ends of the topmost beam at the western end of the structure. with Justification. From the main menu bar. Navigate to the Subframe element (TESTSBFR). and it will be supported from below by two straight sections. select Create>Sections>Ring…. not panels): Looking Down: End Support 180º Ring Section Support N E Existing diamond bracing Start Looking East: Inset 100 End End Inset 100 Start U N Existing cross bracing Exercise continues: 158. 12-2 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.

The point you pick will determine the plane in which the ring section lies (the plane through all three points) and the direction in which the section curves (depends on the position of the third point relative to the line joining the first two points. although the current configuration is adequate for your present purpose. click the ‘Derived diameter’ button (fourth button. modify the angle sections to give more realistic geometry at their ends. The third prompt says ‘Define . if you wish.. the buttons on which provide many different ways of specifying the section’s geometry.. control point’. The diameter of the circle will be derived automatically from the distance between the first two positions. then Esc. first point’). You will probably need to unset the pline picking rules (Settings>Pick Filters>Plines) and zoom in very close to distinguish between the plines. about one third of its length from each end (not forgetting to Accept each support).. second row).. You will now create two straight sections which run from the midpoint of the beam below the ring section. so click Circle Definition: Arc. To define the start of the ring section (prompt says ‘Define . You may. so on the Section form set String Method to Radial.. so pick any point on the NAR pline of the beam. Mid-Point and pick the BOS pline of the beam. second point’). (This has the same elevation as the NA pline and lies to its west. and which support the ring section at points equispaced along its length (as shown in the preceding diagram). Fraction 3 and pick the ring section twice. set the Positioning Control to Pline. Distance 100 and pick near the southern end of the NA pline of the beam (see figure at start of this section. You do not want to create a full circle. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1 12-3 ..Adding Some Curved Steelwork form. or create an additional pline rule for ‘NA’ only). You want the ring section to lie in a horizontal plane and to curve towards the west. Select Create>Sections>Straight…. use the same procedure at the northern end of the same pline.) 160. whether it curves towards the East or the West). To do this. Both sections will have the same start point. To position the upper ends of the two supports. set the Positioning Control to Element. Set the Positioning Control to Pline. You will define the path of the section (the GENSEC’s Spine) by picking the two positions at its ends plus a third point which specifies how the arc is directed (that is. To define the end (prompt says ‘Define .

. as a construction aid. You will define the panel boundary by picking points around the ring section (GENSEC) whose shape it is to follow. 12. Second point: snap to mid-point of GENSEC. you will position an overhead runway beam along the southern end of the structure. Escape the next prompt. You will complete the semicircular platform by positioning a floor plate inside the supporting angle section. Notice that. half of which follows the ring section. thus: 12-4 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. Click the ‘Derived arc passing through three points’ button Pick the three points defining the panel boundary as follows: • • • First point: snap to one end of GENSEC. although you have only picked three points. Third point: snap to other end of GENSEC.3 Creating a runway beam with multiple curves To demonstrate how you can create and modify a section which follows a multiply-curved path. Change to the Panels & Plates application. On the Create Panel form.Adding Some Curved Steelwork 161. Select Create>Panel…. These vertices are positioned thus: First pick V1 V4 Third pick fillet radius fillet radius V2 Second pick V3 Click OK to complete the panel creation. set Thickness to 20 and Justification to Centre.6SP1 . the message ‘4 vertices defined’ is shown. The 3D View will show a circle.

Leave the 12-5 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.3.6SP1 . Switch back to the Beams & Columns application. select Define>Linear Grid…. this setting controls only the size of the grid shown in the 3D View. with an optional grid superimposed on the plane to help you position graphical picks without needing to refer to existing parts of the design model. and the position and orientation of the grid’s plane.Linear Grid form lets you define the number and spacing of the grid lines.1 Defining a working grid 162. In practice. From the Working Plane form’s menu. for convenience.Adding Some Curved Steelwork 7 End Start Y Grid origin N E X 6 12 20 = existing structure = working grid (1000mm spacing) = runway beam (curved section) The upper face of the runway beam will. To make it easier to position the points and curves defining the GENSEC’s spine. Select Utilities>Working Plane…. Exercise continues: 12. you will first create a horizontal working grid as a working aid (as shown in the diagram). The resulting Working Plane form lets you define a plane onto which all graphical picks will be projected. The default position of the plane’s centre and its orientation are shown by the green dotted-line square in the 3D View. you would probably want to interpose hangers or bolted flanges to support the runway beam.) 163. be positioned against the lower faces of the beams from which it is suspended. Set both the X and Y Spacing to 1000 and enter the Number of visible lines as 40. The resulting Working Plane . (The grid behaves as though it is of infinite size.

You want the elevation of the plane to be at the lower faces of the beams. North 0. Set the default profile specification to British Standard. (X 20. since you 12-6 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. with the undersides of the supporting beams. for example.Linear Grid form. Because your section follows a complex path which does not conform to the simplified standard geometry provided by most of the buttons.3 for a diagram of a similar profile. Click the Preview button to see the grid in the 3D View. so set the Positioning Control to Pline. the picked point will always snap to the grid intersection nearest to the pointer position.6SP1 166.3. 12. X is E).2 Creating a curved section Note: In the following steps. . Select the Detail check box and click Preview again to number the grid lines. The red highlight on the toggle button is intended as a reminder when the working plane is active. Notice that the Working Plane toggle at the left-hand side of the Positioning Control form is now selected. Set the Justification to TOS.6 (the latter is the height of the column less the depth of the beam). select the Active and Visible check boxes (so that the grid will be both effective and visible in the graphical view). Intersect and pick the BOS plines for the two beams which meet at the required origin (see preceding diagram). so that the upper face of the runway beam will coincide with the working plane and. Up 4696. The Position should be East 0. You will see a Curved Section form. 164. 165. Select Control>Close from the Working Plane form’s menu to complete the operation. Z is U. (See generic type DINI in Appendix B. Y0) is the position of the southeastern corner of the overall structure. you will identify positions along the path of the spine by their (X. 203x152x52kg/m. Click the ‘Free definition’ button . OK the Working Plane . the buttons on which provide various ways of specifying the path of the section’s spine. therefore.) Select Create>Sections>Curved….Y) coordinates on the working grid. Select Working Grid Snap. you will use a free-form definition which will let you build up any sequence of spine points and curves. On the Working Plane form. Joists. which means that when you later pick positions on the grid. This provides a way of switching the working plane on or off without having to display the Working Plane form each time.Adding Some Curved Steelwork Orientation as it is (Y is N.

Y2) to define the start (origin) of the GENSEC. With reference to the grid coordinates. Y6). Any pointer pick you make will be projected onto the working plane and will then snap to the nearest grid intersection point (remember that you set Working Grid Snap to On when you defined the grid in Step 164). pick position (X0. Set the Positioning Control to Screen.6SP1 12-7 . Snap. you will reroute part of the runway beam as follows: 7 End Start 1 Y 4 5 0 X 6 = original path = modified path 12 20 1 = curve number (at new fillet position) Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.3.3 Modifying a curved section 168. Y2). you will be warned that it is not possible to fit in a curve with 2000 radius so close to the preceding position and will be asked if this represents the end point: click Yes to complete the operation. in this order: (X4. (X20. Y6). Set the Radius to 2000 and pick (X4. Y2) to define the position of the first curve. (X18. If you make a mistake at any stage. (X18. Y6). You are now in event-driven graphics mode. the Undo button on the Curved Section form lets you delete one or more points in reverse order. 167. ready to pick the sequence of positions which will define the spine. To demonstrate how easily you can modify a curved section. 12. pick the following positions.Adding Some Curved Steelwork can get unexpected results if you forget it is on when you make graphical picks. When you pick the last position. (X8. Y6). Y2). With Radius still set to 2000. (X8. Close the Curved Section form.

Save your design changes and exit from PDMS. not in terms of the working grid positions. 170. Y4). Move Curve 1 to (X4. Y1) and change its Radius to 3000. Move the centre to (X15. Think about the reasons for the extra clashes which are diagnosed for the current design. Note: The graphical aids show the position and radius of the current and adjacent curves as you modify the spine shape. Change the first Spine Point option to Curve and set the second Spine Point option (up/down arrows) to 1. Y2). Y1). Select Curve 5 and change the third Spine Point option from Fillet to Centre: Notice how the graphical aid now shows the radius centre at (X16. leaving its Radius set to 2000. You will see a Modify Section (Curved) form which lets you edit the position and/or radius for each individual point/curve in the spine. Y1).1. The latter operation illustrates the two ways of specifying a curve’s position: Fillet position Radius Centre position 169. Click the Modify button to implement the move. Set the first Spine Point option to Start and pick the new start position at (X0.Adding Some Curved Steelwork Check that the new GENSEC is the current element and select Modify>Sections>Definition…. Repeat the clash checks which you carried out on the earlier version of the design model in Section 11. press Modify. The X and Y Attributes on the Modify Section (Curved) form show the coordinates relative to the GENSEC’s origin (start). Move Curve 4 to (X8.6SP1 . Y4) instead of the radius fillet at (X18. 12-8 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. then change the Radius to 3000.

Adding Some Curved Steelwork 12. You should now have an insight into the potential power of PDMS and sufficient confidence to explore some of the more advanced options on your own.4 Conclusion This concludes both the tutorial exercise and this introduction to some of the ways in which PDMS and AVEVA applications can help you in your structural design work. you are strongly advised to attend one or more of the specialised PDMS training courses.6SP1 12-9 . which will show you how to get the maximum benefits from the product in your own working environment (see Section 1. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. refer to the sources of information listed in the last appendix.5). If you have not already done so. For further technical details.

Adding Some Curved Steelwork 12-10 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1 .


6SP1 .The Structural Design Database A-2 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.

(For full details of the way in which the catalogue is built up and used. Point Set.) B. Each catalogue item is defined in terms of two subsidiary sets of data: • A Geometry Set. which defines a number of reference points and directions superimposed on the geometric shape so that individual parts of that shape can be identified and manipulated. which represent a 1D point position and a direction. used in the design are selected from the Catalogue database by setting the Specification Reference for the corresponding design element so that it points to the required catalogue entry. fittings etc.B Structural Catalogue Guide This appendix gives a much-simplified introduction to the way the structural catalogue is used in creating the design model and lists the principal features of some standard catalogue components to which you may want to refer when creating your design model. These reference points can include p-points. a joint or a fitting is made up of 3D primitives which define its complete volume. The dimensions of the items are not fixed in the catalogue but are expressed in terms of design parameters. and p-lines (or plines). Values are allocated to these parameterised dimensions when the item is used in a specific part of the design model: they may either be set explicitly or derived from associated dimensions of other design components to which the item is to be connected. • A range of catalogue components with similar overall geometry will all reference the same geometry set and point set.6SP1 B-1 . which defines the overall physical shape of the item in terms of a set of 2D and/or 3D basic shapes (known as primitives). see the PDMS PARAGON Reference Manual. so that the amount of data needed to represent all possible items is kept to a minimum. which represent a 2D line and a direction. joints. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. A sectional profile is made up of 2D primitives only (which are extruded to form a 3D section in the design model).1 The Basic Features of the Catalogue All profiles. A geometry set can include negative 3D primitives to represent holes.

6SP1 B-2 . left Bottom bolt hole. bottom of angle Hole. outside of angle Inside of channel Left bottom of angle Left bottom of channel Left bottom of steel Left bottom top of steel Left top bottom of angle Left top bottom of steel Left top of channel Left top of steel Left top of angle Neutral axis Neutral axis bottom Neutral axis left Neutral axis left outside Neutral axis right Neutral axis right outside Neutral angle top Right bottom of angle Right bottom of channel Right bottom of steel Right bottom top of steel Right of angle Right outside of channel Right top bottom of steel Right top of channel Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. The most commonly referenced PKEYs use the following naming conventions (each profile uses only a subset of these): BBH BBHL BBHR BLW BLWT BOC BOS BRW BRWT FOC HBA HOA IOC LBOA LBOC LBOS LBTS LTBA LTBS LTOC LTOS LTTA NA NAB NAL NALO NAR NARO NAT RBOA RBOC RBOS RBTS ROA ROC RTBS RTOC Bottom bolt hole Bottom bolt hole. right Bottom left of web Bottom left web top Bottom of channel Bottom of steel Bottom right of web Bottom right web. three or four letter code (known as its PKEY) which identifies its relative position in the 2D profile (remember that each p-line is extruded in the design model to represent a line running along the length of a section).2 P-line Identification Each p-line is identified by a two. top Face of channel Hole.Structural Catalogue Guide B.

showing the p-lines and parameterised dimensions associated with each.3 Some Standard Profiles The following pages illustrate the principal catalogue profiles. bottom Top of angle. X orientation Top of angle.Structural Catalogue Guide RTOS TBH TBHL TBHR TLW TLWB TOAX TOAY TOC TRWB TOS TRW Right top of steel Top bolt hole Top bolt hole.6SP1 B-3 . Y orientation Top of channel Top right web. bottom Top of steel Top right of web B. right Top left of web Top left web. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. left Top bolt hole.

Structural Catalogue Guide Generic Type: BOX PARA 2 TOS PARA 4 RTOS LTOS PARA 7 PARA 3 NA LEFT PARA 1 RIGH PARA 6 LBOS BOS RBOS Other Parameters: PARA 5 = Weight per unit length B-4 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1 .

Structural Catalogue Guide Generic Type: ANG PARA 2 PARA 10 PARA 5 TOAX TOAY NAT RTTA PARA 8 PARA 4 LOA PARA 9 NAB PARA 7 HBA RTOA NA NAL PARA 1 NAR HOA PARA 3 LBOA RBOA Other Parameters: PARA 6 = Weight per unit length Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1 B-5 .

Structural Catalogue Guide Generic Type: TUBE HH II JJ GG FF EE DD KK NAII NAKK MM NAMM NAOO NN NAQQ OO NA & NAGG NAEE NACC NAAA NAWW CC LL BB AA PARA 1 XX NASS NAUU WW PP QQ RR SS TT PARA 2 UU VV There are three types of Pli AA-XX every 15 degrees round the S i f S NAAA-NAWW every 30 degrees from the S NAtequivalent to NAGG Other Parameters: PARA 3 = Weight per unit length B-6 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1 .

Structural Catalogue Guide Generic Type: BEAM PARA 2 LTOS TOS TLW TRW PARA 4 RTOS LTBS TBHL TLWB PARA 6 TRWB TBHR RTBS PARA 3 NA PARA 8 NAR NARO PARA 1 NALO NAL LBTS BBHL BLWT BRWT BBHR RBTS LBOS BLW BOS BRW PARA 12 RBOS Other Parameters: PARA 5 = Weight per unit length PARA 7 = Cross Sectional Area PARA 9 = Nominal Depth PARA 10 = Nominal Width PARA 11 = Surface Area per unit length Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1 B-7 .

Structural Catalogue Guide Generic Type: DINI PARA 2 LTOS PARA 4 TOS PARA 7 RTOS TBHR TBHL PARA 6 PARA 3 NA PARA 8 NALO NAL NAR NARO PARA 1 BBHL BBHR PARA 10 (as percentage) LBOS BOS PARA 11 RBOS PARA 4 measured midway between TOS and LTOS Other Parameters: PARA 5 = Weight per unit length PARA 9 = Nominal Depth B-8 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1 .

Structural Catalogue Guide Generic Type: BSC PARA 2 LTOC TOC PARA 4 RTOC TBH PARA 5 NA PARA 10 FOC IOC ROC PARA 1 PARA 3 PARA 7 BBH PARA 9 (degrees) LBOC BOC PARA 13 PARA 8 RBOC PARA 4 measured midway between LTOC and RTOC Other Parameters: PARA 6 = Weight per unit length PARA 11 = Nominal Depth PARA 12 = Nominal Width Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1 B-9 .

Structural Catalogue Guide Generic Type: DINU PARA 2 PARA 14 LTOC TOC = PARA 4 = RTOC TBH PARA 5 NA PARA 10 FOC IOC ROC PARA 1 PARA 3 PARA 7 BBH PARA 9 (as percentage) LBOC BOC PARA 13 PARA 8 RBOC PARA 4 measured midway between the PARA 14 limit and RTOC PARA 14 is usually either zero or equal to PARA 3 Other Parameters: PARA 6 = Weight per unit length PARA 11 = Nominal Depth PARA 12 = Nominal Width B-10 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1 .

6SP1 B-11 .Structural Catalogue Guide Generic Type: TEE PARA 1 LTOS TOS PARA 4 RTOS PARA 5 LTBS TBHL TLWB PARA 7 NA TRWB TBHR RTBS NALO NAL NAR NARO PARA 3 PARA 2 LBOS BOS RBOS Other Parameters: PARA 6 = Weight per unit length PARA 8 = Nominal Width PARA 9 = Nominal Depth PARA 10 = Original Depth PARA 11 = Original Width PARA 12 = Original Weight Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.

6SP1 .Structural Catalogue Guide Generic Type: DINT PARA 1 PARA 13 LTOS PARA 4 TOS RTOS PARA 14 PARA 16 (as percentage) TBHL NA TBHR PARA 7 NAR PARA 3 PARA5 NALO NAL NARO PARA 2 PARA 15 BOS PARA 3 measured midway between TOS and BOS PARA 4 measured midway between LTOS and TOS Other Parameters: PARA 6 = Weight per unit length PARA 8 = Nominal Width PARA 9 = Nominal Depth PARA 10 = Original Depth PARA 11 = Original Width PARA 12 = Original Weight B-12 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.

4.Structural Catalogue Guide B.6SP1 B-13 . B.4 Some Standard Joints The following diagrams illustrate the principal types of joint in the catalogue. showing the parameterised dimensions (as described on the corresponding forms) which must be specified when each joint is connected to a section in the design.1 Column Connections Column Flange: c a Dist from TOS = a Dist from BOS = b Thk of Plt = c b Column Web: c a d d b Dist from TOS = a Dist from BOS = b Thk of Plt = c Notch Depth = d Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.

4.6SP1 .Structural Catalogue Guide B.2 Cleated Connections Bolted Web: 4M20_bolted_web_cleats a Length of cleats = a Cutback Bolted Web: a Length of cleats = a Welded Seat: a Extension Width of Bottom Angle = a B-14 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.

Structural Catalogue Guide B.4.6SP1 B-15 .3 End Preparations Single Clearance: a Radius of Rathole = a Double Clearance: Flush_p_cutback: a Radius of Rathole = a Flush_p_cutback_with_snipe: a Radius of Rathole Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.

6SP1 .4 Baseplate Connections 30mm_thick_attached_baseplate: a Dia of Bolt = a 30mm_thick_user_defined_baseplate: c e Depth of Plt = a Width of Plt = b Bolt wrt Depth = c Bolt wrt Width = d Dia of Bolt = e a c d b d B-16 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.4.Structural Catalogue Guide B.

5 Some Standard Fittings The following diagrams illustrate some typical fittings from the catalogue.6SP1 B-17 .5 Double Notched End Plates Dble Notch End Plate: 4M6_10mm_thk_plt B.4.Structural Catalogue Guide B.6 Single Notched End Plates Sgle Notch End Plate: a b 1st Row = a 2nd Row = b 3rd Row = 0 (in this example) B. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. showing the parameterised dimensions (as described on the corresponding forms) which must be specified when each fitting is added to the design.4.

Structural Catalogue Guide B.6SP1 .6 Stiffeners Single Full Depth: 10mm_flange_stiffener Double Full Depth: 8mm_double_stiffener Single Partial Depth: 8mm_single_stiffener a b short length = a long length = b B-18 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.

6SP1 B-19 .7 Fire Insulation Parallel Flange Beam: a c d b f e g Top Flange Top Thickness = a Top Flange Width = b op Flange Bottom Thickness = c T Web Thickness = d Bottom flange Top Thickness = e Bottom flange Width = f Bottom Flange Bottom Thickness = g Position Line NA Zdistance (measured from POSS of section) determines start of insulation Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.Structural Catalogue Guide B.

Bolted: B-20 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.Structural Catalogue Guide B.6SP1 .8 Lifting Lugs General Lifting Lug (GEN- d e a Height of Pad Eye = a Width of Pad Eye = b Vertical Distance = c Shape Radius = d Hole Radius = e Pad Eye Thickness = f (not shown) c b Lifting Lug.

Reporting from PDMS Introduces the database reporting utility available from within most PDMS applications.C Other Relevant Documentation This guide serves purely as an introduction to those parts of PDMS most relevant to structural design. C. The complete set is: Accessways. Documents that can provide you with further information are listed below. including the use of expressions to select relevant data. Stairs and Ladders Design Using VANTAGE PDMS HVAC Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Industrial Building Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Pipework Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Support Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Introduction to PDMS Design Templates Drawing Production Using PDMS Introduces the range of facilities available in the Draft module.6SP1 C-1 . that introduce a subset of principal PDMS facilities to new users. Therefore. which enables you to reposition selected Plant Items using the mouse pointer. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. it describes only the main concepts needed to get you started.1 PDMS introductory guides There is a set of introductory guides like this one. PDMS DESIGN Graphical Model Manipulation Guide Introduces the DESIGN Model Editor.

Members and Methods.3 General guides The following guides are intended for use only by experienced PDMS users who want to write their own applications: Plant Design Software Customisation Guide Explains how to write your own application macros using PML (AVEVA’s Programmable Macro Language) and how to design your own forms and menus interface. These manuals also describe the underlying command syntax which can be used to control PDMS directly (should you wish to bypass the forms and menus interface). C. Includes a list of PML 2 Objects. PARAGON Reference Manual Explains how to set up a PDMS Catalogue. SPECON Reference Manual Explains how to create tabulated specifications. C-2 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. ISODRAFT Reference Manual Explains how to create customised piping isometric plots. DRAFT Reference Manual Explains the PDMS 2D drafting facilities. Reference manuals particularly relevant to structural design work include: DESIGN Reference Manual Covers concepts and commands for all design disciplines.Other Relevant Documentation C. For Forms and Menus objects. the command syntax relating to the objects is included.2 PDMS reference manuals The full PDMS documentation set includes a number of reference manuals which give detailed explanations of all the technical concepts involved.6SP1 . Plant Design Software Customisation Reference Manual Supplements the Customisation Guide.

6SP1 D-1 .D Sample Plots This appendix comprises some examples of typical (though relatively simple) plots showing the sorts of structural designs which may be created using PDMS with the AVEVA structural applications. Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.

Sample Plots D-2 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1 .

Sample Plots Structural Design using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.6SP1 D-3 .

6SP1 .Sample Plots D-4 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11.

3-6 Application Beams & Columns. 11-3 clash limits. 11-10 Density. See List Compound panel fitting penetrations. 11-3 extent of clash. 3-10 Catalogue database. 10-1 Control button. 7-6 Button control. 3-5 Design parameters.Index 3D view. 11-2 obstruction levels. 1 Design session ending. 2-1 loading. 12-1 Curved section creating. 3-10 Copying mirror option. 7-10 modifying bracing gaps. 11-3 Clashing extent. 11-2 Collection. 11-1 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. 4-3 Curve definition. 11-6 Check box. 3-10 Clash definition. 8-1 Panels & Plates. 12-1 modifying. 12-6 definition. 3-9 toggle. 5-27 Display index-i . 11-3 principles. 3-10 radio. 5-1 Centre of gravity calculations. 11-2 Clash checking checking process. 11-2 Clearance definition. 12-7 Database hierarchy. 10-1 Attribute definition. 7-4 creating standard configurations. 8-1 Attachment pipe penetrations.6SP1 obstruction list. 4-2 Draft data. 7-8 offset option. 4-2 Bracing creating individual members. 4-1 definition. 11-7 Design Explorer. 5-22 Current element definition. 11-1 Clash limits.

8-2 setting. 8-8 Element definition. 7-14 cutting plane.Index restoring. 3-11 Holes negative extrusion. 11-8 Drag panel edge. 8-6 Draft applications loading. 5-20 Event-driven graphics mode. 11-8 Generic Section (GENSEC) definition. 7-15 Joint line definition. 10-1 Forms and display restoring. 8-2 dragging. 7-18 joint freedom. 5-26 Distance measuring. 3-9. 8-13 penetrations. 7-13. 5-21 selecting from catalogue. 5-27 Escape key/button. 8-10 Fitting section penetrations. 7-1 saving. 7-13 position and orientation. 11-8 Draft database hierarchy. 7-18 origin plane direction. 12-1 Geometry set. 4-2 Function attribute setting for Draft. 7-15 specifying. Draft. 4-2 End position definition. 5-26 Framework (FRMW) creating. 11-1 Help. 7-14 dominant/subordinate. 7-12. 7-14 cutback. 1 Graphical view. 10-1 Isometric view. 7-13 connection references. 5-10 Joint beta angle. 5-5 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS . 3-6 Gross weight. 7-14.6SP1 definition. 8-10 picking. 11-12 Edge definition. 12-1 GENSEC definition. 5-14 Fillet radius definition. 7-1 saving. on-line. 7-16 position line. 6-5 Ending design session. 4-4 Index-ii Version 11. 8-10 Drawing sheet. 7-16 secondary. 5-1 identifying. 11-10 Draft module. 5-5 Justification definition. 11-6 Hard obstruction.

3-10 Loop (LOOP) definition. 11-7 Measuring facility. 8-7 Index-iii . 8-2 Panel vertex (PAVE) definition. 8-13 Negative volume. 3-6 Menu bar. 5-21 scrollable. 8-2 modifying. 6-6 primary. 3-11 Option button. 4-3 Member line definition. 11-6 Node definition. 11-6 Material reference (MatRef). 11-1 Obstruction list. 5-2 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. 8-2 dragging. 11-3 On-line help. 5-5 Menu pull-down. 5-22 creating. 8-8 Panel fillet radius definition. 11-6 Mass properties querying. 3-3 Owner definition. 3-2 Negative extrusion (NXTR) definition.Index specifying. 9-1 Panel loop (PLOO) definition. 5-2. 9-1 position. 3-6 Module definition. 9-1 justification. 8-2 Panel origin definition.6SP1 deleting. 5-21 Obstruction levels. 8-13 Net weight. 4-3 Panel (PANE) creating. 8-5 Panel thickness definition. 9-1 definition. 5-22 definition. 5-2 secondary. 8-6 Member definition. 3-5. 8-10 Panel fitting (PFIT) beta angle. 8-4 definition. 2-1 Mouse buttons functions. 5-17 Leaving design session. 8-13 Mass calculations. 8-10 picking. 5-27 Linear grid defining. 8-2 setting. 12-5 List adding members. 8-2 Panel edge definition.

2 Pline definition. 3-9 Properties Index-iv Version 11. 1 Penetration creating.Index picking. 11-7 Pull-down menu. 3-9 Regular structure creating. 1 P-point definition. 4-3 definition. 3-2 Site creating. 5-26 Saving design changes. 7-2 setting. 11-1 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS . 5-11 Parameters. 5-11 Save work facility. 11-12 shortcut menu. 5-21 Secondary node (SNOD). 7-2 Section (SCTN) definition. 1 Profile (PROF) definition. 6-1 Reports templates. 4-2 Snap function. 11-8 Point set. 12-1 Rotating view. 1 Primary node automatic creation. 3-3 Prompt cancelling. 2 Pline rule function. 7-16 Representation level. Draft. 10-1 detailing. 10-2 definition. 5-1 specifying. 5-26 Screen layout saving. 5-20 Prompts. 7-15 Properties database. 11-7 Ring section creating. 6-5. 5-3 Primitives. 11-5 Representation setting graphical view. 12-3 definition. 3-6 Radio button. 10-4 Physical clash definition. 1 identification. 5-21 Section extending/shortening. 5-1 Sheet. 5-3 Project selection. 3-10 Secondary joint (SJOI). 5-14 Soft obstruction. 8-8 Panel vertex creation.6SP1 setting. 7-3 Plotting facilities. 5-14 PKEY. 5-2. 11-2 Pick mode prompt. 8-4 Panning view. 5-26 Scrollable list.

1 definition. 8-3 Structure (STRU) creating. 5-1 identifying. 5-1 specifying. 3-9 Storage area specifying. 11-2 Trimming sections. 5-13 panning. 10-1 Subframework (SBFR) creating. 4-4 definition. 4-4 definition. 8-6 sections. 11-6 Weight calculations. 5-20 Start position definition. 12-5 Working plane. 3-6 Touch definition. 4-2 Submenu. 12-1 Split facility panels. 3-6 Surface area calculations. 5-11 zooming. 5-4 Spine definition. 6-6 Title bar. 4-4 definition. 11-6 Working grid. 5-3. 4-2 Zooming view. 5-11 representation setting. 3-6. 6-5 Status bar. 3-6. 3-3 Tidy nodes facility. 5-11 Structural Design Using VANTAGE PDMS Version 11. 12-1 Spine Point (POINSP) definition. 3-5 Tool bar.6SP1 Index-v . 8-4 View 3D/graphical. 4-2 Zone creating. 4-2 Subfitting penetrations. 5-9 centre of interest.Index Specification reference (SpecRef). 12-5 World definition. 11-6 Text box. 5-10 Volume calculations. 7-2 Vertex (VERT) definition. 7-16 rotating. 3-5. 5-11 View direction. 8-13 Vertex creation (panels).

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