Welcome to Pro/SHEETMETAL

Pro/SHEETMETAL is an optional module of Pro/Engineer. It enables you to design basic and complex parts in sheet metal. You can:

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Design sheet metal parts defining the volume and support structures for the components of an assembly. Add sheet metal-specific features like walls, bends, cuts, punches, notches, hems, and forms in either the formed or flat condition. Create Bend Order tables that specify the order, bend radius and bend angle used for manufacturing. Calculate the developed length of material needed. Pro/SHEETMETAL accounts for bends of different radii and material thickness. Flatten out the part to visualize design and manufacturing needs. Make Drawings of the sheet metal part, incorporating Dimensions, Bend Order tables, Flat Patterns and fully designed parts. Pro/SHEETMETAL, like Pro/Engineer, allows flexibility in design. Changes are made and updated parametrically throughout the entire design process. About Sheet Metal Parts Sheet metal parts are created in one of three fashions:

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Sheet Metal Mode—Create the part individually. Assembly Mode—Create with a top-down approach. Conversion—Convert from a solid part. Sheet metal parts are solid models that can be represented in either the sheet metal form or a flat model. The parts have a constant thickness and can be modified with features. A sampling of features includes walls, cuts, rips, bends, and corner relief. You can also get information about the part, calculate its mass and analyze the engineering. To aid viewing, sheet metal parts have green and white surfaces. Side (depth) surfaces only form after successful regeneration. The green side is called the driving side, and the white side indicates thickness. Because of the general thinness of a sheet metal part, it is recommended to select flat surfaces as references when placing a feature. If a flat surface is not applicable, edges are more convenient than side surfaces. About Sheet Metal Features Pro/SHEETMETAL offers specialized sheet metal environment features. You can create:

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Datum and cosmetic features Walls, cuts, rips, notches, punches, bends, unbend, bend backs, forms, and corner relief. Selected solid-class features applicable to sheet metal (chamfer, hole, round) are also available. A sheet metal wall must be the first feature in your design. After you create the wall you can add any other features to your design. You do not have to create them in manufacturing order, rather, you should create them with your design intent in mind. When creating features it is recommended to select flat surfaces as references when placing a feature. If a flat surface is not applicable, edges are more convenient than side surfaces. Note: You can utilize solid features, including patterns, copy/mirror, chamfers, holes, rounds, and solid cuts when creating your sheet metal designs.

Suppressing and Resuming Sheet Metal Features
You can suppress sheet metal features to temporarily remove them from your design. You can "unsuppress" (resume) suppressed them at any time. You can suppress features on a your sheet metal part to simplify the part model and decrease regeneration time. For example, while you work on one end of a shaft, it may be desirable to suppress features on the other end of the shaft. Similarly, while working on a complex sheet metal assembly, you can suppress some of the features and components for which the detail is not essential to the current assembly process.

To Create a New Sheet Metal Part

1. 2. 3. 4.

Click

. The New dialog box opens.

Under Type click Part. Under Sub-type click Sheetmetal. In the Name box, type a name for your new sheet metal part.


If you want to use the default template, click OK. Pro/ENGINEER opens a new sheet metal part. If you want to use a custom template:

Clear Use default template and click OK. The New File Options dialog box opens. Browse to the desired template. Click OK. The template file is assigned and Pro/ENGINEER opens a new sheet metal part. Note: If an object type is not supported by a template the Use default template option is not available. For templatesupported file types, if you always want to see the New File Options dialog box, set the force_new_file_options_dialog configuration option to Yes. Remember, this configuration setting may be overridden by your system administrator in the config.sup file. About Sketching in Sheet Metal Sketching in Pro/SHEETMETAL is done exactly the same as you would in any other Pro/ENGINEER module. However, keep the following tips in mind when sketching your sheet metal parts and features:

The thicken command—The Thicken command adds material thickness to your sheet metal wall while you are still in Sketcher mode. This enables you to create and fully dimension the wall when you sketch it. Then you do not need to add material to your wall later in the design process. If you change the sketch you have to delete the thicken. Thicken is not used for Flat walls. Be sure to double check your dimensions to make sure they are located in the appropriate locations after the thicken. We recommend using the Thicken command, in sketcher, to dimension your extruded sheet metal surfaces. It enables you to dimension the inside radii on opposite sides of a section and to properly dimension for sizing and clearance. The Thicken command prevents having to add material thickness to your dimension values.

1 Sketch line 2 Thicken line, which enables you to fully dimension the wall while sketching

To Thicken the Sheet Metal Wall:

1.
2.

Select the type of sheet metal wall to create. Note: The Thicken command is not used with flat walls. Once you are in sketch mode, create the sketch of the wall section. Click Sketch > Feature Tools > Thicken. Offset edges automatically add to your sheet metal wall sketch. At this point, consider converting the system dimensions to strong dimensions to insure that your dimensioning scheme is correct.

3.

4.

When the sketch is complete, click

on the sketcher toolbar.

Sheet Metal Feature Order and References 

The proper feature creation order and sketch references help when modifying the part and presenting it in a drawing. The following illustrations compare the results from different order and reference choices.

Order of Feature Creation Option A Option B

1 Create the cut before the bend. 2 When a bend is created new surfaces result. The cut surface stays in the old surface location.

3 Create the cut after the bend and unbend. 4 When you bend back the wall the cut section stays with the cut features. Note: You can obtain the same result if you create the cut while the wall is bent.

References for Feature Creation Option A Option B

1 Horizontal sketching reference created on an unrelated surface. Cut alignment to local edge and dimensioned to local vertex. 2 After bending back, the cut section is still aligned with local edge, but the dimensions are in the wrong location because the sketching references did not move.

3 Horizontal sketching reference is created through the local edge and normal to the sketching plane. The cut is aligned to the local edge and dimensioned to local vertex. 4 After bending back, feature dimensions follow because sketching references follow.

About the Pro/SHEETMETAL Interface The Pro/SHEETMETAL user interface contains the following elements that increase usability and decrease mouse selections. Highlights of the user interface can be reached from the See Also links, however, refer to the Fundamentals module for greater detail on the Pro/ENGINEER user interface. Interacting with the Dashboard As you create and modify your sheet metal designs you can add solid features, like solid class cuts, chamfers, holes, and rounds. When you add these features to your design you will use and interact with the Dashboard, which guides you throughout the modeling process. The Dashboard is a context sensitive interface that monitors your actions in the current tool and provides you with basic design requirements that need to be satisfied to complete your feature. The Dashboard encourages direct graphical manipulation in the graphics window and provides you with modeling flexibility. Note:

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See the Fundamentals module for information about the Dashboard. See the Part Modeling module for instructions on creating solid class features using the Dashboard. Using the Sheet Metal Toolbar The sheet metal toolbar contains short-cut buttons for the most common sheet metal design requirements. Additional functionality and less commonly used commands are available from the main menu or the Menu Manager.

You can customize the sheet metal toolbar with other Pro/ENGINEER commands and your own map-keys (Utilities > Customize Screen) by dragging the desired buttons onto the toolbar. You can turn the toolbar on/off using the Toolbars tab options. The following table lists the sheet metal short-cut buttons according to their default location on the toolbar. Button Function Conversion Corresponding Menu Path Insert > Conversion

Flat Wall Use Radius

Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Flat with Radius

Flat Wall No Radius

Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Flat

Extruded Wall Use Radius

Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Extrude with Radius

Extruded Wall No Radius

Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Extrude

Swept Wall Use Radius

Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Sweep with Radius

Swept Wall No Radius

Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Sweep

Unattached Flat Wall

Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Unattached > Flat

Unattached Extruded Wall

Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Unattached > Extrude

Revolve Wall

Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Unattached > Revolve

Blended Wall

Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Unattached > Blend

Offset Wall

Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Unattached > Offset

SMT-Class Cut

Insert > Sheetmetal Cut

Extended Wall

Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Extend

Bend

Insert > Bend Operation > Bend

Hem

Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Hem

Edge Bend

Insert > Edge Bend

Unbend

Insert > Bend Operation > Unbend

Bend Back

Insert > Bend Operation > Bend Back

Corner Relief

Insert > Corner Relief

Punch

Insert > Shape > Punch

Notch

Insert > Shape > Notch

Rip

Insert > Shape > Rip

Merge Walls

Insert > Merge Walls

Form

Insert > Shape > Form

Flatten Form

Insert > Shape > Flatten Form

Deform Area

Insert > Bend Operation > Deform Area

Flat Pattern

Insert > Bend Operation > Flat Pattern

Using the Model Tree The Model Tree provides a feature-level visual representation of your welding project. Each feature you create in your welding project is chronologically represented in the Model Tree. Highlights of the Model Tree follow, however, refer to the Fundamentals documentation for more details about the Pro/ENGINEER user interface:

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Highlight sheet metal features in the graphics window, making the features more visible. Reorder features, and ultimately change the dynamic of your sheet metal design by dragging features to various locations. Access shortcut menus that enable you to easily create and modify your design. The short cut menu may include commands to:

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Redefine and modify sheet metal features Suppress sheet metal features to simplify or accentuate areas of your design Pattern sheet metal features to quickly meet your design intent Obtain information and create notes for sheet metal features Convert light-weight welding geometry to solid geometry (and vice versa)

You can customize what and how features display in the Model Tree by clicking the Show and Settings tabs About Setting Up Pro/SHEETMETAL The set up commands help you control your overall design process and save time by enabling you to set defaults for common design elements. The commands assist you in effectively capturing your design intent. With the set up commands you can:

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Control sheet metal bend allowance and developed length by setting bend allowance. Document the order in which to make bends on the finished design by setting the bend order. Maintain consistency in your design process by setting fixed geometry, defaults and parameters. Create a flat version, or state, of your sheet metal design for manufacturing by setting flat state. Establish company or industry standards to guide your design by setting design rules. Create corner reliefs automatically while unbending your sheet metal part by setting corner relief.. Customize your software environment and functionality by setting configuration options. Note: The set up commands are only available from Menu Manager.

About Bend Allowance and Developed Length Bend allowance is a method used to calculate the (developed) length of flat sheet metal required to make a bend of a specific radius and angle. The calculation accounts for the thickness of the sheet metal, bend radii, bend angles, and other material properties (like y- and k-factors). The developed length calculation also compensates for stretching in the area of a bend. Typically, when you bend or form a piece of sheet metal, the material on the outside of the neutral bend axis stretches while the material on the inside of the neutral bend axis compresses. You can automatically account for this material behavior by establishing appropriate material descriptions and formulae for accurately calculating developed length. Accurate developed length calculations enable you to capture your design intent in the solid model while also developing a precise flattened model that manufacturers can use when developing the actual product. Make it a practice to determine, in advance, how you calculate developed length. Use one of the following to calculate the developed length in your designs:

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System default equation—Calculate the developed length using only a y- or k-factor. Provided bend table—Calculate the developed length using a predefined, standard bend table. Customized bend table—Calculate the developed length using a bend table customized in Pro/Table. If you do not assign a customized bend table to your part, the following equation is used to calculate developed length: L = (Π/2 x R + yfactor x T) Θ/90 Where: L= Π= R= yfactor = T= Θ= Developed length 3.145 Inside radius The default yfactor = 0.50 Material thickness Bend angle in degrees (°)

Note: If your developed length calculation is inaccurate, you can override the inaccurate value by directly modifying the value or by assigning a unique bend table to your design. About Y­ and K­factors Y- and k-factors are part constants defined by the location of the sheet metal material's neutral bend line. The neutral bend line position is based on a numeric reference for the type of sheet metal material used in your design. The numeric references range from 0 to 1, with the lower numbers representing softer material. Both the y- and k-factors are integral elements in calculating the developed length (the length of flat sheet metal required to make a bend of a specific radius and angle) in your design. The k-factor is the distance ratio between the inside radius of the bend, the neutral material layer, and the sheet metal thickness. The k-factor uses the formula k-factor = δ/T. You use the k-factor to find the y-factor. The y-factor is a ratio based on the neutral bend line with respect to the thickness of the material. The y-factor uses the formula y-factor = k-factor * (Π/2). The default value for the y-factor is 0.50. Developed Length of Material and the Y- and K-Factors 1. Bend condition 2. Flat Condition

Where: = Distance between the inside radius of the bend and the sheet metal edge T = Sheet metal thickness L = Developed length between the squares R = Bend radius N = Neutral bend line k-factor = δ/T You can change the y-factor using any of the following: y-factor = k-factor * (Π/2)

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Set Up command—Initialize the y-factor using the set up command. The new y-factor value takes effect for any new parts or features created after it is set. Material file—Initialize the y-factor using INITIAL_BEND_Y_FACTOR command in the material file. The y-factor will be updated if you change the value in the material file assigned to the part. Configuration option—Initialize the y-factor for new sheet metal parts using the INITIAL_BEND_Y_FACTOR configuration option. After you re-load the configuration file, all new sheet metal parts use the new value. The configuration option does not change the default value for the existing part's y-factor. If applicable, you can to use both the y-factor equation and a bend table when designing a sheet metal part. However, you cannot use both on the same feature. Note: For stretched bends δ is negative, the neutral layer stays out of the sheet metal thickness, causing the y- and kfactors to be negative. Negative Y-factor Where: = Distance between the neutral bend line and the sheet metal edge T = Sheet metal thickness L = Developed length between the squares R = Bend radius N = Neutral bend line

To Set Y­ and K­factors

1. 2. 3.
4.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Bend Allow. The BEND ALLOW menu appears. Highlight the factor you want to change: K-factor—Part constant defined by the location of the neutral bend line. Y-factor—Part constant defined by the location of the neutral bend line.

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If you are setting either the Y- or the K-factor and a bend table is already set for the part, the CONFIRMATION menu appears. You must discard the bend table. Click Confirm.

5.Either select a value from those available or click Enter and type a new value for the factor. 5.Click Yes to accept the changed factor and full part regeneration. The factor is set.

About Sheet Metal Bend Tables Bend tables control calculations for the length of flat material (developed length) needed to make a bend. Developed length fluctuates with different material types and thickness, and the bend table accounts for those variations. Three standard bend tables are available from the Machinery’s Handbook, 23rd Edition: Table TABLE 1 Material soft brass, copper Y-factor 0.55 K-factor 0.35

TABLE 2

hard brass, copper, soft steel, aluminum

0.64

0.41

TABLE 3

hard copper, bronze, cold rolled steel, spring steel

0.71

0.45

You can also define your own tables to support additional material types and methods for calculating developed length. Bend tables consist of:

Formula—Manage the bend allowance/developed length values with calculations and logic statements. It is only used for values outside the table data range.

o

Developed Length Formula—Calculate the developed length for instances where the exact radii, sheet metal thickness, or bend allowance/developed length values are missing from the table. If the value is outside the range of table data the table is aborted and the developed length formula is used. (Makes adjustments to the data/allowance values.)

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Conversion Formula—Interpret the thickness and radii elements of the exact values found in the bend table. If no conversion equation is defined the table data equals the developed length. (Makes adjustments to the data/allowance values.)

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Materials Data—List the materials the bend table is intended for. Note: The materials list is case sensitive. Be sure your part's material type matches the case in the material's list. Table Data—List radii values and sheet metal thickness with their corresponding bend allowance/developed length. The data is pulled directly from these columns. The bend table needs at least one column and one row of tabulated data. You do not have to insert bend allowance data in every cell of the table. Any value not not found in the table data is interpolated. If you only want the formulae used, enter data that will never be encountered in your design (Radius = 1000, Thickness = 1000). Bend tables are, and should be, created for 90° bends. For bends other than 90°, the values are multiplied by Θ/90, where Θ is the specific bend angle, in degrees. Remember, bend tables are only applicable for constant-radius bends. Bends with a varying radius, like a cone, swept wall, hem or cylinder, calculate developed length using the y-factor. You can set bend tables at any time. However, once a part is associated with a bend table its geometry depends on that bend table’s data. Every time the part is regenerated the associated bend table is referenced for appropriate length values. If you modify a bend table, all parts associated with it update upon regeneration. If you create your own library of bend tables, point to the appropriate folder with the configuration option pro_sheet_met_directory_<pathname>. Bend tables specified by name are looked for in your project’s current directory and in the folder specified by the configuration option.

Sheet Metal Bend Table Menu Sheet metal bend tables measure and control the amount of material needed to make a bend. Bend tables ensure that material behavior is accounted for in your design.

With the bend table commands you can:

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Define—Define a new bend table with appropriate data and formulae. Delete—Delete a bend table set to your part. Edit—Modify an existing bend table. Show—Display the bend table set to your part. Write—Save the bend table in your directory. Set—Assign a bend table to your part. Reset—Suspend the use of a bend table and reassigns the Y-factor. You have two options when setting a bend table for a part:

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From Part—Internal bend table stored into your part. The internal bend table automatically updates if you apply an external bend table in session. From File—External bend table stored in separate files on disc. Note: You can have internal and external bend tables with the same name. The content can differ between the table types. You have two options when setting a bend table for a feature:

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Part Bend Tbl—Reference the bend table associated with the overall part. If no table is currently set for the part, the Yfactor formula is used. Feat Bend Tbl—Reference an independent bend table for the individual feature. You can select one of the three standard tables or a customized table. Note: The Part Bend Tbl is typically the most appropriate. To Define a Bend Table

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Bend Allow. The BEND ALLOW menu appears. Click Bend Table. The BEND TAB menu appears. Click Define. Select the type of bend table to create: From Part—Internal bend table. Saved with the design part. From File—External bend table. Saved in a separate file.

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7.Type the name for the bend table and click

. A Pro/TABLE window opens with an outline table.

7.Type your customized data into the outline table. If you would like to use another table as your outline, click File >
Read from the Pro/TABLE main menu. Then type the name of the desired file.

7.Click File > Save after typing your data. The bend table is created and writes to the current directory.

To Edit a Bend Table

1. 2. 3. 4.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Bend Allow. The BEND ALLOW menu appears. Click Bend Table. The BEND TAB menu appears.

5. 6.
7.

Click Edit. The CONFIRMATION menu appears. Note that within a session, you can only edit bend tables created with, or applied to, the current part. Click Confirm. The BTAB TYPE menu appears. Select the type of bend table to edit:

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From Part —Internal bend table. Saved with the design part. From File—External bend table. Saved in a separate file.

The TBL NAMES menu appears, listing all the bend tables associated with the part. 8.Select the bend table to edit. The bend table opens. 9.Edit the bend table as needed:

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Formula—Manage the bend allowance/developed length values with calculations and logic statements. Materials List—Click Edit > Insert to add a row between START MATERIALS and END MATERIALS. Type the new material name. Table Data—highlight the cell. Type the new data in the text box. Click the next cell to edit.

10.Click File > Save after entering your data. The bend table is created and writes out to disk in the current directory.
To Set a Bend Table

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
7.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Bend Allow. The BEND ALLOW menu appears. Click Bend Table. The BEND TAB menu appears. Click Set. The CONFIRMATION menu appears. Click Confirm. The BTAB TYPE menu appears. Select the type of bend table to apply:

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From Part—Select a From Part bend table from the BTAB TYPE menu. If a new From Part bend table was not created during the session the default From Part bend table is TABLE 1. From File—Either select one of the standard bend tables (TABLE 1, TABLE 2, TABLE 3) from the DATA FILES menu or click Names, to browse to a custom bend table.

The TBL NAMES menu appears, listing all bend tables associated with the part. 8.Select the bend table to set. The bend table is applied to the part. To Reset a Bend Table

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Bend Allow. The BEND ALLOW menu appears. Click Bend Table. The BEND TAB menu appears. Click Reset. The CONFIRMATION menu appears. Click Confirm. The bend table is suspended and the Y-factor is assigned.

To Write a Bend Table

1. 2. 3. 4.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Bend Allow. The BEND ALLOW menu appears. Click Bend Table. The BEND TAB menu appears.

5.
6.

Click Write. The TBL NAMES menu appears. Select the bend table to write to your part's current directory. A prompt indicates your file is stored.

Note: You can set your directory with the pro_sheet_met_dir configuration option.

To Show a Bend Table

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Bend Allow. The BEND ALLOW menu appears. Click Bend Table. The BEND TAB menu appears. Click Show. The BTAB TYPE menu appears. Select the type of bend table to display: From Part—Internal bend table. Saved with the design part. From File—External bend table. Saved in a separate file. The TBL NAMES menu appears, listing all the bend tables associated with the part. 7.Select the bend table to show. The bend table opens.

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To Delete a Bend Table

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Bend Allow. The BEND ALLOW menu appears. Click Bend Table. The BEND TAB menu appears. Click Delete. The TBL NAMES menu appears, listing all bend tables associated with the part. Select the bend table to delete. The bend table is removed from the part but still exists in your directory.

Note: You can suspend using a previously set bend table by setting the y- or k-factor. Example: Sheet Metal Bend Table Bend tables must use the following layout and data structure to accurately create your sheet metal design. Comment lines can appear anywhere in a bend table. Each comment line must start with an exclamation point (!). You must enter FORMULA, END FORMULA, CONVERSION, END CONVERSION, START MATERIALS, END MATERIALS, and TABLE exactly as shown:

1.

Formulas—Calculate the developed length of the sheet metal, if the exact value is missing from the table data section. You can also write conversion formulas to manipulate the table data to meet your design needs. Your formulas can contain logic statements to adjust bend allowance values.

2.

Material Data—List the materials the bend table is intended for. The materials listed use the bend table. You receive a warning if your part's material type does not appear in this list. Your materials must be listed between START MATERIALS and END MATERIALS. Enter the material in the first column, uppercase, and one per line.

3.

Table Data—List the radii values across the top, sheet metal thickness down the left side, with the corresponding bend allowance/developed length in the actual table. The data is pulled directly from these columns. If you only want the formulae used, enter data that will never be encountered in your design (Radius = 1000, Thickness = 1000).

4.

Interpolated Data—You do not have to insert bend allowance data in every cell of the table. Any value not found within the table data is interpolated.

About Bend Order Tables Bend order tables document the dimensioning and order for bend features in your design. Bend order tables are constructed by fully unbending your part and recording the bend back process. The standard bend order table contains the bend sequence number, the number of bends, the bend number ID, as well as the bend direction, angle, radius and length. In order to create or work with bend order tables you need your sheet metal part to be in a bent condition. You cannot create or edit a bend order table on a completely unbent part. Unbent Sequence One Sequence Two Sequence Three Original

With the bend order table commands you can:

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Create a new bend order table or edit an existing table using the Show/Edit command. Display the bend order table and write it to a .bot file using the Info command. Delete the existing bend order table using the Clear command. You can display bend order tables in sheet metal drawings to better illustrate the bending process for manufacturing. Note: When you store a bend order table, the file name is <partname>.bot. To Create a Bend Order Table With the part in a bent condition:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
7.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Bend Order. The BEND ORDER menu appears. Click Show/Edit. The GET SELECT menu appears. Select a plane or edge to remain fixed while the part completely unbends. Your part flattens and the SHOW/EDIT menu appears. Click Add Bend. Select the bends for the bend sequence. The sequence can have any number of bends in any order. Click Next. The selected bends highlight. Select a plane or edge to remain fixed while the highlighted bends bend back. Repeat steps 6 through 8 until your part is completely bent back.

8.
9.

10.Click Done Sel. The SHOW/EDIT menu appears. 10.Click Done. The bend order table is created.
To Edit a Bend Order Table With the part in a bent condition:

1. 2. 3. 4.
5.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Bend Order. The BEND ORDER menu appears. Click Show/Edit. The GET SELECT menu appears. Select a plane or edge to remain fixed while your part completely unbends. Your part flattens and the bend geometry in bend sequences highlights.

6.

Click the desired SHOW/EDIT menu option:

• • • • •

Next—Proceed to the next sequence. Skip—Skip a specified number of sequences. You enter the number. Add Bend—Add bend(s) to the sequence. If you select a bend that is currently being used in a later sequence, you can move it to the current sequence. You cannot select a bend that has already been bent back in a previous sequence. Delete Bend—Remove a bend from the current sequence. Use this if you plan to add the bend to a later sequence. Insert—Insert a bend sequence after the previous bend sequence. 7.Select the bend to edit.

7.Click Done. The GET SELECT menu appears. 7.Click Done Sel. The bend order table changes are saved.
To Get Bend Order Table Info With the part in a bent condition:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Bend Order. The BEND ORDER menu appears. Click Info. The bend order table for the part opens.

To Clear a Bend Order Table With the part in a bent condition:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Bend Order. The BEND ORDER menu appears. Click Clear. The existing bend order table is deleted from the part.

Example: Bend Order Table Sheet metal bend order tables use the following layout and data structure:

• • • •

Bend Seq—Display the bend sequence number and orders the bends for creation. #Bends—Display the number of bends taking place in a bend sequence. Bend#—Display the original bend order creation number. Bend Direction—The bend direction tells which way to make the bend: IN—Convex bend on the green side. For example, a bend less than 180° on the green side (acute or obtuse). OUT—Concave bend on the green side. For example, a bend greater then 180° on the green side (oblique).

• • •

Bend Angle—Display the angle of the bend. Bend Radius—Display the radius of the bend. Bend Length—Display the length of the bend.

About Fixed Geometry Fixed geometry sets a default surface, edge or plane to remain fixed whenever you unbend or bend back your sheet metal part. The fixed geometry setting helps ensure consistency in your fixed geometry selection. To unbend or bend back your sheet metal part you need to define a surface, edge or plane to remain fixed. Whether or not you use the fixed geometry setting, a good practice is to specify the same fixed geometry element for every unbend and bend back feature. When working with fixed geometry you can:

• • •

Set a surface to remain fixed with the Select command. Highlight the current fixed geometry selection with the Show command. Delete the current fixed geometry selection with the Clear command. After you set a fixed geometry element it is automatically selected during feature creation. You are prompted with the following message: Default fixed geometry highlighted. Use the "Fixed Geom" to select new. To Select Fixed Geometry With your sheet metal part open:

1. 2. 3. 4.
5.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Fixed Geom. The FIXED GEOM menu appears. Click Select. The GET SELECT menu appears. Select the surface, edge, or plane to set as the default fixed geometry. Click Done/Return. The fixed geometry is selected.

6.

To Clear Fixed Geometry With your sheet metal part open:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Fixed Geom. The FIXED GEOM menu appears. Click Clear. The CONFIRMATION menu appears and the fixed geometry highlights in red. Click Confirm. The fixed geometry is cleared.

To Show Fixed Geometry With your sheet metal part open:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Fixed Geom. The FIXED GEOM menu appears. Click Show. The fixed geometry highlights in red.

About Design Rules Design rules are guidelines for your design. Examples include minimal slot widths and depths based on the materials and manufacturing process for your part. Design rules can be ignored during the design process, if desired. You enter specific design standards into a rule table and assign the table to your part. You can develop as many tables as you need. And you can edit the table data at any time. The standard rule table contains the following default sheet metal design rules:

MIN_DIST_BTWN_CUTS—Check the distance between two cuts or punches. (Default: 5T)

• • • • • •

MIN_CUT_TO BOUND—Check the distance between a part edge and a cut or punch. (Default: 2T) MIN_CUT_TO_BEND—Check the distance between a bend-line and a cut or punch. (Default:2.5*T+R) MIN_WALL_HEIGHT—Check the minimum bend height of formed walls. (Default: 1.5*T+R) MIN_SLOT_TAB_WIDTH—Check the minimum width of tabs. (Default: T) MIN_SLOT_TAB_HEIGHT—Check the minimum length of tabs. (Default: 0.7) MIN_LASER_DIM—Check the minimum distance between features to be laser cut. (Default: 1.5*T) The design rules above are standard rules. You can not add new rules or change the names of the existing rules. However, you can customize your design rules by setting up Pro/ENGINEER relations. After you define and assign a design rules table you can test your part design against the assigned design rules table with the Design Check command. The design check displays design rule violations along with the rule name, formula, and dimensional values to help determine why your criteria was not met. Use your industry judgement for acceptable and unacceptable design rule violations. Note:

• •

You can only check design rules for planar surfaces. In order to save the part size, Pro/ENGINEER does not store comments of the rule table.

Design Rules Menu Design rules are general standards for your design. The design rules are entered and stored in a rule table. You can:

• • • • • • •

Define—Define a set of design rules in a rule table. Delete—Delete the design rules for your part. Edit—Edit an existing set of design rules. Show—Display the design rules assigned to your part. Write—Save the rule table to a directory. ( file extension .rul) Assign—Assign a set of design rules to your part. Unassign—Deactivate the design rules table from your part. (It will not be applied to the part anymore.) To Define the Design Rules

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Design Rules. The RULE MGMT menu appears. Click Define. Type a name for the rule table and click metal rules. Edit the rule table as necessary. Click File > Save after entering your data. The design rules are defined. . A Pro/Table window opens a rule table template listing the default sheet

7.

To Assign the Design Rules

1. 2. 3. 4.
5.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Design Rules. The RULE MGMT menu appears. Click Assign. The USE RULE menu appears. Define the type of rule table to assign: From Part—Assign a rule table defined during the part's session.

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Click From Part. The TBL NAMES menu appears, listing all rule tables associated with the part. Select the rule table to assign. The RULE MGT menu appears.

From File—Assign a rule table stored in your directory.

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Click From File. The DATA FILES menu appears. Click Names. Navigate to the appropriate rule table. Click Open. The RULE MGT menu appears.

6.Click Done/Return. The rule table is assigned.
To Show the Design Rules

1. 2. 3. 4.
5.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Design Rules. The RULE MGMT menu appears. Click Edit. The TBL NAMES menu appears, listing all rule tables associated with the part. Select the rule table to display. The rule table opens.

To Write the Design Rules

1. 2. 3. 4.
5.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Design Rules. The RULE MGMT menu appears. Click Write. The TBL NAMES menu appears, listing all rule tables associated with the part. Select the rule table to write to your directory. Type a name for the rule table and click . The rule table writes to your directory. It has the file extension .rul.

6.

To Edit the Design Rules

1. 2. 3. 4.
5. 6.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Design Rules. The RULE MGMT menu appears. Click Edit. The TBL NAMES menu appears, listing all rule tables associated with the part. Select the rule table to edit. The rule table opens. Edit the rule table as needed. Click File > Save after entering your data. The design rules are redefined.

7.

To Delete the Design Rules

1. 2. 3. 4.
5.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Design Rules. The RULE MGMT menu appears. Click Delete. The TBL NAMES menu appears, listing all rule tables associated with the part. Select the rule table to delete. The rule table is deleted.

To Unassign the Design Rules

1. 2. 3. 4.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Design Rules. The RULE MGMT menu appears. Click Unassign. The rule table is unassigned.

Example: Design Rule Table The sheet metal design rule table uses the following layout and data structure. You can customize the rule data to guide your design process, however you can not add new design rules or modify the naming conventions of the existing rules:

The standard rule table contains the following default sheet metal design rules:

• • • • • • •

MIN_DIST_BTWN_CUTS—Check the distance between two cuts or punches. (Default: 5T) MIN_CUT_TO BOUND—Check the distance between a part edge and a cut or punch. (Default: 2T) MIN_CUT_TO_BEND—Check the distance between a bend-line and a cut or punch. (Default:2.5*T+R) MIN_WALL_HEIGHT—Check the minimum bend height of formed walls. (Default: 1.5*T+R) MIN_SLOT_TAB_WIDTH—Check the minimum width of tabs. (Default: T) MIN_SLOT_TAB_HEIGHT—Check the minimum length of tabs. (Default: 0.7) MIN_LASER_DIM—Check the minimum distance between features to be laser cut. (Default: 1.5*T)

About Sheet Metal Defaults and Parameters Sheet metal defaults and parameters automate routine tasks to help streamline your part design. You can predefine some common feature geometry to ensure design consistency and to save time by reducing menu selections. With the defaults and parameters commands you can:

• • •

Set sheet metal defaults and parameters to a part or design using the Assign/Retrieve command. Modify existing sheet metal parameters using the Edit command. Save and writes the sheet metal parameter file (.smd) to your directory using the Save command. At first glance you may not notice a difference between a default and a parameter, however the two elements function uniquely:

• •

Parameter—Hold a numeric value which can be specified in relations and formulas. Default—Reduce the number of menu selections. You can set your defaults and parameters when you first open the part, as the part is in-progress, or by importing an independent .smd parameter file. Remember, defaults and parameters are saved with your parts but you can change their values in-session. List of Sheet Metal Defaults The following options are solely sheet metal defaults. Meaning, their data is only used to reduce the number of menu selections: Default Description Define the sheet metal material properties. Define the K-factor used to measure developed length. Define the Y-factor used to measure developed length Define the Part Bend Table to features. If Yes, the [menu] is skipped and the Part Bend Table is applied to features.

SMT-MATERIAL SMT_K_FACTOR SMT_Y_FACTOR SMT_PART_BEND_ALLOW_DFLTS

SMT_DFLT_RADIUS_SIDE

Define the default radius side. Auto eliminates the RADIUS SIDE menu.

SMT_DFLT_ATTRIBUTES

Define what side to create an extruded sheet metal feature. You can set the default to create the feature on One Side or Both sides of the sketch line

SMT_DFLT_CRNR_REL_TYPE

Define the default corner relief type. If set to Manual, you are prompted for corner relief type during feature creation. You are also prompted for appropriate corner relief dimensions. If set to Auto, the corner relief step is skipped and the matching default depth and width value is accepted automatically. Empty rows in the table are automatically filled.

SMT_DFLT_BEND_REL_TYPE

Define the default type of bend relief. If set to Manual, you are prompted for bend relief type during feature creation. You are also prompted for appropriate bend relief dimensions. If set to Auto, this step is skipped and the default value for depth and width are accepted automatically from SMT_DFLT_BEND_REL_DEPTH, SMT_DFLT_BEND_REL_WIDTH, SMT_DFLT_BEND_ANGLE.

SMT_DFLT_BEND_REL_DEPTH

Define the depth of obround or rectangular relief. (Example: Tan to bend.)

SMT_DFLT_DEPTH_OPTION

Define the default depth option for SMT class-cut. (Example: Blind)

SMT_SHARPS_TO_BEND

Automatically convert any sharp edges to bends when sketching and creating an extruded wall.

List of Sheet Metal Defaults and Parameters The following options simultaneously act as sheet metal defaults and parameters. Meaning, they hold numeric values to include in relations - and - they reduce the number of menu selections: Default/Parameter SMT_DFLT_BEND_RADIUS SMT_DFLT_BEND_ANGLE SMT_DFLT_CRNR_REL_WIDTH SMT_DFLT_CRNR_REL_DEPTH SMT_DFLT_BEND_REL_WIDTH Description Define the default bend radius. Define the default bend angle. Define the width of corner relief. Define the depth of obround relief. Define the width of bend relief. (Example: Thickness or 34.) SMT_DFLT_BEND_REL_ANGLE Define the default bend relief angle. (Example: 47.) Note: This parameter is only relevant for stretch relief.

To Assign and Retrieve a Sheet Metal Defaults and Parameters File

1. 2. 3.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Parameters. The Sheetmetal Parameters dialog box opens, displaying the parameters currently assigned to the part.

4. 5. 6.

Click

. The Load Configure File dialog box opens.

Navigate to the appropriate .smd file. Click OK. The parameters are retrieved and assigned. Click OK. The Sheetmetal Parameters dialog box closes.

To Edit Sheet Metal Defaults and Parameters

1. 2. 3.
4. 5.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Parameters. The Sheetmetal Parameters dialog box opens. Select the cell to edit. The data highlights and a drop-down menu opens. Select the new default value.

You can select from the drop-down menu or enter specific Value data for the SMT_MATERIAL, SMT_K_FACTOR, SMT_Y_FACTOR, SMT_DFLT_BEND_RADIUS, SMT_DFLT_BEND_ANGLE, SMT_DFLT_CRNR_REL_WIDTH, SMT_DFLT_CRNR_REL_DEPTH, SMT_DFLT_BEND_REL_DEPTH, SMT_DFLT_BEND_REL_WIDTH and SMT_DFLT_BEND_REL_ANGLE , parameters. displays in the Status column if you change the Value column data.

• • • • •

You can click

to define all the Attribute parameters as Auto.

You can click

to reset the entire Sheetmetal Parameters table to the original defaults.

You can click

to reset an entire row to the original defaults.

You can click

to reset an entire column to the original defaults.

You can delete a parameter from a Value column cell that originally did not have data entered. Highlight the cell and press Delete.

6.Click OK to save the parameters with the part - or To Save Sheet Metal Defaults and Parameters

to save the parameters to a directory file.

1. 2. 3.
4.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Parameters. The Sheetmetal Parameters dialog box opens. Save the sheet metal parameters as needed: With the Part—You can only access them when that part is open.

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Click OK. The parameters are saved and the Sheetmetal Parameters dialog box closes.

In your directory—You can access them for any other part.

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Click

. The Save As dialog box opens.

Enter a file name and Click OK. The parameters are saved. Click OK. The Sheetmetal Parameters dialog box closes.

Example: Sheet Metal Defaults and Parameters Table The sheet metal defaults and parameters table uses the following layout and data structure. The elements that function as both defaults and parameters are marked with red boxes. Any unmarked elements function solely as defaults.

The sheet metal defaults and parameters table contains five columns and each column has default information already set. If the column contains a dash (-) it is not available.

• • •

Name—List the default or parameter name. Because the name is a symbolic string, parameter names can be used in relation formulas. Note: You cannot edit the default or parameter names. Value—Set a value to automatically highlight in the Menu Manger. (Example: Outside Radius) Attribute—Set how the default or parameter value will be accepted on the Menu Manager.

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Manual—Requires you to accept the default setting as you work through the Menu Manager. (Example: Outside Radius highlights on RADIUS SIDE menu. You must click Done/Return to accept.) Auto—Automatically accepts the default setting and brings you to the next section of the Menu Manager. (Example: Set SMT_DFLT_RADIUS_SIDE to Auto to skip the RADIUS SIDE menu.)

Add Relation—Create a relation between the defined dimension and the parameter, when the attribute is set to Auto. For example, if the SMT_DFLT_BEND_ANGLE parameter is set to Auto and Add Relation is Yes, a relation will be added between the bend angle in your design and the parameter. Status—If you modify the Value column data About Configuring Pro/Sheet Metal Design Pro/SHEETMETAL configuration options enable you to customize your sheet metal design environment. For example, you might specify constants for neutral bend lines, enable corner relief notes and punch axis points, set directory locations, or define certain material behavior in your sheet metal design. Your sheet metal configuration options, like all Pro/ENGINEER configuration options: displays.

• • •

Are set from the Options dialog box (Tools > Options). Are stored in a config.pro file. Use the default value unless you manually set the configuration option. You can set and save multiple combinations of configuration options ( config.pro file), with each file containing settings unique to certain design projects. Pro/SHEETMETAL Help lists the configuration options unique to sheet metal designs. The options are arranged in alphabetical order. Each topic contains the following information:

• • •

Configuration option name. Brief description and notes describing the configuration option. Default and available variables or values. All default values are followed by an asterisk (*). To Set Sheet Metal Configuration Options

1. 2. 3. 4.

Click Utilities > Options. The Options dialog box opens. Click the Show only options loaded from file check box to see currently loaded configuration options or clear this check box to see all configuration options. The configuration options display. Select the configuration option from the list or type the configuration option name in the Option box. In the Value box type or select a value. Note: The default value is followed by an asterisk (*).

5.Click Add/Change. The configuration option and its value appear in the list. A green status icon confirms the
change.

5.When you finish configuring Pro/SHEETMETAL, click Apply. The configuration options are set.
Note: We recommend that you set your configuration options before starting a new sheet metal session. feat_place_follow_unbend Set the feature placement to follow the unbend feature. Defaults and available variables: no*—The feature placement does not follow the unbend feature. yes—The feature placement follows the unbend feature. Note: The default value is followed by an asterisk (*). initial_bend_y_factor Specify a constant used to determine the neutral bend line for a sheet metal part. This value is always used for non-regular bends. It is only used for regular bends when a bend table is not specified. Defaults and available variables: 0.500000*—The y-factor value is set to 0.500000. Note: The default value is followed by an asterisk (*). merge_smt_srfs_without_seam Specify whether to create or remove an edge when merging same-surface sheet metal surfaces. Defaults and available variables: yes*—Remove the edge between merged same-surface sheet metal surfaces. no—Create an edge between merged same-surface sheet metal surfaces. Note: The default value is followed by an asterisk (*). pro_sheet_met_dir Set the default directory for your user-defined bend tables. If not set the supplied Pro/SHEETMETAL bend tables will be used. Type the full directory path to avoid problems. Defaults and available variables: You must type the <full directory path> in Value box. For example, c:\program files\ptc\sheet metal projects

pro_smt_params_dir Specify the directory to save/retrieve sheet metal parameters files. Type the full path name to avoid problems. Defaults and available variables: You must type the <full directory path> in Value box. For example, c:\program files\ptc\sheet metal projects punch_axis_points Control the creation of punch axis points in sheet metal cuts and punches. Defaults and available variables: no*—Disable the creation of Punch Axis points in sheet metal cuts and punches. yes—Enable the creation of Punch Axis points in sheet metal cuts and punches. Note: The default value is followed by an asterisk (*). smt_bend_notes_dflt_display Define the default state of bend note display. Defaults and available variables: yes*—Bend notes display. no—Bend notes do not display. Note: The default value is followed by an asterisk (*). See Also smt_bend_notes_direction_down Define the symbol used to indicate a downward bend in sheet metal mode. Defaults and available variables: default*—Uses to indicate downward bends.

You can customize your bend line note symbol by modifying the symbol source files. Note: The default value is followed by an asterisk (*). To return to the default bend line note symbols type default in the Value box. smt_bend_notes_direction_up Define the symbol used to indicate an upward bend in sheet metal mode. Defaults and available variables: default*—Uses to indicate upward bends.

You can customize your bend line note symbol by modifying the symbol source files. Note: The default value is followed by an asterisk (*). To return to the default bend line note symbols type default in the Value box. smt_bend_notes_order Define the order of bend note symbols and values within your bend notes. Defaults and available variables: &type&direction&angle*—Display the bend type first, the bend direction second, and the bend angle last. Note: The default value is followed by an asterisk (*).

smt_bend_notes_type_formed Define the symbol used to indicate a formed bend in sheet metal mode. Defaults and available variables: default*—Uses to indicate formed bends.

You can customize your bend line note symbol by modifying the symbol source files. Note: The default value is followed by an asterisk (*). To return to the default bend line note symbols type default in the Value box. smt_bend_notes_type_rolled Define the symbol used to indicate a rolled bend in sheet metal mode. Defaults and available variables: default*—Uses to indicate rolled bends.

You can customize your bend line note symbol by modifying the symbol source files. Note: The default value is followed by an asterisk (*). To return to the default bend line note symbols type default in the Value box. smt_crn_rel_display Control the display of corner relief notes. Defaults and available variables: yes*—Corner relief notes will display. no—Corner relief notes will not display. Note: The default value is followed by an asterisk (*). smt_mp_method Determine whether or not to include suppressed flat patterns and flat forms in your design's mass properties calculation. Defaults and available variables: cg*—Mass Properties calculation is performed on current state of sheet metal part. Mass—Suppressed flat pattern and flat forms are temporary resumed before mass properties calculation of sheet metal part. Both—Both mass and cg methods are calculated. Note: The default value is followed by an asterisk (*). smt_outside_mold_lines Determine which mold lines to create during the flat pattern creation. Defaults and available variables: yes—Outside mold lines are created during the flat pattern creation. no*—Outside mold lines are not created during the flat pattern creation. Note: The default value is followed by an asterisk (*). system_sheetmetal_color Specifies the default color in which sheet metal parts are displayed. The three decimal values specify (in order) a percentage of red, green and blue in the resulting color. For example, 0 0 49 specifies a medium blue.

Defaults and available variables: 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000*— Red=0.00, Green=0.00, Blue=0.00 Note: The default value is followed by an asterisk (*).

template_sheetmetalpart Specifies the filename of the default sheetmetal part model template. After you set this option, it takes effect immediately in the current session of Pro/ENGINEER. Defaults and available variables: inlbs_part_sheetmetal.prt—Use the inlbs_part_sheetmetal.prt file as the default template. empty*—Do not use a template. <filename>—Use a specific file as your template. Note: The default value is followed by an asterisk (*). About Designing in Sheet Metal Your sheet metal design can involve both solid and sheet metal application features. Be sure to keep your design intent and feature creation order in mind throughout the entire design process. You can utilize the following sheet metal features:

• • • • • • • • • • •

Notch and Punch—Create templates used to cut and relieve sheet metal walls. Wall—Create the sheet metal material that is the base of your design. Bend, Unbend, Bend Back—Enable you to interchange between bent and unbent conditions. Flat Pattern—Flatten your entire sheet metal part for manufacturing. Form, Flatten Form—Enable you complexly shape the sheet metal and flatten it for manufacture. Rip—Create rips to relieve and control the sheet metal. Cut—Remove material from the sheet metal wall. Deform Area—Control sheet metal stretching. Conversion—Convert a solid part into a sheet metal part, capable of manufacture. Edge Bend—Bend box-edges into rounds. Corner Relief—Relieve corners to prevent unwanted deformation. You can also:

• •

Utilize solid features, including patterns, copy, mirror, chamfers, holes, rounds, and solid cuts. Support multiple manufacturing requirements by creating inheritance features. Possible Sheet Metal Design Approach Consider the following design approach when creating your sheet metal design: 1. Create the basic sheet metal parts in sheet metal mode. Since many of the components will be held in place with screws or bent tabs, you might want to leave the creation of these features for later when the components are assembled. 2. Assemble all the major internal components relative to each other. Include simple supporting structures, or sheet metal parts that are not completely defined at this time, to place the components. Less important components can also wait.
Components and Sheet Metal Platform, Before Assembly

3.Create or modify the sheet metal parts using the internal components as references, if required. Those references aid you in adding any support walls, form features for stiffening panels, and notches or punches for fastening the components. 3.After the cabinet and supporting structures are defined add any remaining sheet metal or assembly features. Components and Sheet Metal Enclosure, After Assembly

5.Create and/or select a bend table to provide material allowances when unbending the part. You could also do this before the first step in the design. 5.In sheet metal mode, create a bend order table to define the bending sequences for each part. 5.Add a Flat State instance. This creates your flat pattern for drawing and manufacturing. The bend table data ensures that the flat pattern’s geometry is accurate. 5.Creating drawings to document your parts. You can include both the generic (as designed) part and the Flat State instance (multi-model drawing). Show the dimensions each model. Then add the bend order table as a note. About Converting to Sheet Metal Parts Converting solid parts to sheet metal parts enables you to modify your existing solid design with sheet metal industry features. The conversion can serve as a short-cut in your design process because you can reuse existing solid designs to reach your sheet metal design intent and you can include multiple features within a single conversion feature. After you convert a part to sheet metal, it acts as any other sheet metal part. A complete conversion may require two steps:

• •

Basic conversion—Make a basic conversion of the solid part that allows you to work in the sheet metal mode. Sheet Metal Conversion Feature—If the converted part is not manufacturable (able to be unbent), create a sheet metal conversion feature to add alterations like rips, bends, and corner relief. The basic conversion defines how you want to use the existing solid part in your sheet metal design. You can either shell out the part, by selecting walls to remove, or you can assign a driving surface, which is the surface that carries the part’s geometry (green side). Block-like parts typically use the shell option to convert to sheet metal while thin protrusions with constant thickness typically use the driving surface option. All of the solid part’s geometry is referenced to create the FIRST WALL in the sheet metal part. Solid Part Basic Conversion Conversion Feature Unbent Part

After you convert the solid part it may still be undevelopable in sheet metal. Creating a conversion feature using some of the following features enables you to make the sheet metal part manufacturable:

Point Relief—Places datum points on edges (selected or created on the fly). The datum points act as point relief. They can:

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Define a point break that divides an existing edge into two separate edges that can be partially ripped and partially bent. Define the end of a rip connection. Define point relief at vertices of bends and rips.

Edge Rips—Makes a rip along the edge, which enables you to unbend your sheet metal part. Corner edges can be open, blind, or overlapping.

Rip Connects—Connects rips with planar, straight-line rips. The rip connects are sketched with point-to-point connections, which require you to define rip endpoints. The rip endpoints can be datum points or vertices and must either be at the end of a rip or on the part border. The rip connects cannot be collinear with existing edges.

Bends—Converts sharp edges to bends. By default, the inner radius of the bend is set to the thickness of the sheet metal. When you specify an edge as a rip, all non-tangential intersecting edges convert to bends when you click OK or Preview in the dialog box.

Corner Reliefs—Places relief in selected corners. Converting Back to Solid Parts Converting your sheet metal part back to a solid part enables you to modify the solid part and make any design changes. Be sure to consider the effects your alterations will have in the sheet metal environment, especially with respect to unbending. You can alter the solid part in the following ways:

Insert Features—Alters your solid part design without having to convert from sheet metal to a solid part and back again. You can insert new features before the sheet metal conversion feature in your design by clicking Feature > Insert Mode on the PART menu in the Menu Manager. Doing this enables the menu commands and features for solid parts. If inserting features does not meet your design needs, you can convert a sheet metal part back to a solid part in the following ways:

Suppress the Conversion Features—Suppresses the sheet metal conversion feature (the Smt Conversion feature appears in the Model Tree) and modifies the solid part. By suppressing this feature (click Edit > Suppress) you can work on the original part and resume the suppressed conversion features when needed.

Delete the Conversion Features—Deletes the first sheet metal feature (FIRST WALL) in the model tree by clicking Edit > Delete. Remember, when you delete this feature, every feature after it will also delete. To Convert to Sheet Metal

1. 2.
3.

Open the existing solid part in Standard mode. Click Applications > Sheetmetal. The SMT CONVERT menu appears in the Menu Manager. Define how to convert the solid part to sheet metal: Driving Srf—Select the wall to carry the part’s geometry (green side of the part).

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Click Driving Srf. Select the desired driving surface on the part. You are prompted for the wall thickness. Type the wall thickness and click . The FIRST WALL feature is created and the part opens in sheet metal mode.

Shell—Select wall(s) to remove to create a shell part.

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Click Shell. The FEATURE REFS menu appears. Select one or more surfaces to remove and then click Done Refs. You are prompted for the wall thickness. Type the wall thickness and click . The FIRST WALL feature is created and the part opens in sheet metal mode.

If your part needs to be adjusted for manufacture, continue with step 4.

4.Click

on the sheet metal toolbar or click Insert > Conversion. The SMT CONVERSION dialog box opens.

4.Highlight a conversion element (described below) and click Define. The appropriate menu appears in the Menu Manager.
Repeat Step 5 for any of the conversion elements below:

Point Reliefs:

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Click Add to create a new point relief. Select an existing datum point or an edge to place the new datum point on. Place the datum point by using: Offset—Set the point a specified distance from a plane. Length Ratio—Set the point location as a decimal fraction of the edge length (range 0.0 through 1.0) Actual Len—Enter a value for the actual distance along the edge.

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Click Done Sel > Done after defining all point reliefs. You return to the SMT CONVERSION dialog box.

Edge Rip:

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Click Add to create an edge rip. Select the desired edges to rip using the RIP PIECES menu. If you created point reliefs, select the edge pieces to rip. Click Done Sets. You return to the SMT CONVERSION dialog box.

You can customize the corner type for each edge rip at any time:

o o o o o •

Click Redefine from the RIP PIECES menu. The PIECE SEL menu appears. Select the edge piece to redefine. The RIP PIECES dialog box opens. Highlight Corner Type and click Define. The CORNER DEF menu appears. Select the desired corner type (Open, Blind, or Overlap) and then click Done. Click Ok in RIP PIECES dialog box.

Rip Connect:

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Click Add to create a new rip piece connection. Select the first endpoint for the rip piece. A series of dashed lines radiates from the rip's first endpoint to possible second endpoints. Select the second endpoint of the rip piece from the possible endpoints identified by a dashed line. The extraneous dashed lines clear and the new connecting rip line displays. Click OK on the RIP CONNECT dialog box. Click Done Sets on the RIP CONNECT menu. You return to the SMT CONVERSION dialog box.

Bends: Click Add to create a new bend. Select the edges to bend. Click Done Sel > Done Sets after selecting all edges to bend. You return to the SMT CONVERSION dialog box.

Corner Reliefs: Click Add to create new corner relief. Select the 3D note for each corner needing similar relief. Click Done Sel. Select the type of corner relief: No Relief—No relief is added. The corner retains the rip characteristic. None—Generate a square corner. The default V-notch characteristic is removed. Circular—Add a circular relief. The corner has a circlular section removed. Obround—Add an obround relief. The corner has an obround section removed.

o

Define the relief dimensions: Thickness—Use a default radius that is equal to the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Thickness * 2—Use a default radius that is twice the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Enter Value—Use the absolute value that you type in the Enter dimension value box.

o

Click Done Sets after applying all corner relief. You return to the SMT CONVERSION dialog box.

6.Click OK on the SMT CONVERSION dialog box. The conversion feature is created.
Working with Rip Connects Rip connects join existing rips with planar, straight-line rips. The rip connects are sketched with point-to-point connections, which require you to define rip endpoints. The rip endpoints can be datum points or vertices and must either be at the end of a rip or on the part border. The rip connects cannot be collinear with existing edges. Selecting the First Rip Endpoint Connecting the Rips

1 Two existing edge rips. 2 The first endpoint defined for the rip connect. 3 The series of possible second endpoints, based on the first rip connect endpoint.

4 The two existing edge rips. 5 The completed rip connect.

Example: Sheet Metal Conversion The following examples depict the two types of sheet metal conversions; driving surface and shell. Block-like parts typically use the shell option to convert to sheet metal while thin protrusions with constant thickness typically use the driving surface option. Original Solid Part Driving Surface Conversion

Original solid part maintains a constant thickness. Original Solid Part

1 Driving surface of FIRST WALL sheet metal feature. Shell Conversion

Original box-like solid part.

2 Sheet metal surface to remove before creating the FIRST WALL sheet metal feature.

About Walls A wall is any section of sheet metal material in your design. There are two main types of walls in Pro/SHEETMETAL:

• •

Primary walls—Are independent and do not need another wall to exist. Primary walls can be Flat, Extruded, Revolve, Blend, Offset, and Advanced. Secondary walls—Are dependent on at least one primary wall. They are children to primary walls. Secondary walls include all the primary walls, as well as Twist, Swept, Hem, Extend and Merge. If you are designing a part from scratch a primary wall must be your first feature. All feature options are unavailable until after you create the primary wall. You can then add any applicable sheet metal and solid-class features to your design. When you create secondary walls you have the option of making the wall attached or unattached. Except for extend walls, secondary walls can either be attached to a whole edge, or to a portion of the edge (which is a partial wall). An attached secondary wall can use an: Automatically generated radii (USE RADIUS) Manually sketched radii (NO RADIUS)

The unattached wall option enables you to create walls separate from the primary wall. You could potentially create the side walls before knowing what the middle section should look like. However, keep in mind that secondary walls are dependent on the primary wall. If you delete the primary wall the secondary wall will also delete. Note: While the unattached wall option resembles an Assembly, it is not. Eventually you must connect or merge the walls. Unattached

Sheet metal walls have a constant thickness. The wall's thickness is formed by offsetting the sheet metal part's white surface from its green surface. The side surfaces form after the part is fully regenerated. Many sheet metal walls require some kind of relief. Without relief some unwanted ripping or stretching may occur. Automatic relief is available for walls. About Wall Relief Wall relief helps control the sheet metal material and prevents unwanted deformation.

For example, an unrelieved secondary wall might not represent the accurate, real life model you need due to material stretching. By adding the appropriate relief, like StrtchRelief, your sheet metal wall will meet your design intent and enable you to create an accurate flat model. You can create five types of wall relief:

• • • • •

No Relief—Attach the wall using no relief. StrtchRelief—Stretch the material for bend relief at wall attachment points. Rip Relief—Rip the existing material at each attachment point. RectRelief—Add a rectangular relief at each attachment point. ObrndRelief—Add an obround relief at each attachment point. No Relief StrtchRelief Rip Relief RectRelief ObrndRelief

Which Type of Wall to Use The following is a quick-reference to guide you in selecting the wall type that most accurately meets your design intent. Here is how sheet metal walls have been used in actual designs: Wall Type Flat Design Example Attached to planar surface, attach edge straight, take any shape – but must be flat, No Radius if want new wall in the same plane as adjacent wall, Bend at a sharp edge select Use Radius and make= 0 Extruded Attached to planar surface, attach edge straight, can have complex profile, always created rectangular so you have to add Cuts to obtain desired shape, sometimes have to use a No Radius “workaround” because Use Radius removes some material from original wall at bend location meaning that some Use Radius geometry cannot be constructed (or you make 0 = Use Radius radius) Swept Attached to virtually any surface, attach edge does not have to be a tangent chain, sometimes use No Radius “workaround” and sketch the wall section with a tangent arc of desired radius because Use Radius creates fillet with a specified radius along the trajectory edge between the swept wall and adjacent surface. (The fillet takes away material from the adjacent wall) Partial Sometimes have to No Radius because Use Radius removes some material from original wall at bend location meaning that some Use Radius geometry cannot be constructed.

About Flat Walls A flat wall is a planar/even/unbent section of sheet metal. It can either be a primary wall, the first wall in your design, or a secondary wall, dependent on the primary wall. Flat walls can take any flat shape. You can create three types of secondary flat walls: unattached, no radius, and use radius.

• •

If the flat wall is the primary wall you only have the unattached option available. Unattached walls require closed loop sketches. If the flat wall is a secondary wall, you must sketch the wall as an open loop aligned with the highlighted vertices of the attachment edge. The surface adjacent to the attach edge must be planar. The following is an example of an attached flat wall use radius:

Existing Wall

Flat Wall Sketch (open loop)

Completed Flat Wall

1. Attachment edge To Create a Flat Wall No Radius

1. 2. • •

Click

or click Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Flat. The USE TABLE menu appears.

Select the bend table to use and click Done/Return: Part Bend Tbl—Reference the bend table associated with the overall part. Feat Bend Tbl—Reference an independent bend table for the individual feature.

3.Select the attachment edge for the wall. The DIRECTION menu appears. 3.Reference and sketch the wall. When the sketch is complete, click 3.Click OK on the Wall Options dialog box. The wall is created.
on the sketcher toolbar.

To Create a Flat Wall Use Radius

1. 2. • •

Click

or click Insert > Sheet Metal Wall > Flat Wall. The USE TABLE menu appears.

Select the bend table to use and click Done/Return: Part Bend Tbl—Reference the bend table associated with the overall part. Feat Bend Tbl—Reference an independent bend table for the individual feature.

3.On the RADIUS SIDE menu, define the radius side and click Done/Return: • •
Inside Rad—Measure the radius from the inside surface of the part. Outside Rad—Measure the radius from the outside surface of the part.

4.Select the attachment edge for the wall. The DEF BEND ANG menu appears. 4.Click the desired default bend angle or click Enter Value, and type the exact bend angle value in degrees. Click
Done. The DIRECTION menu appears.

4.Click Okay to accept the direction for sketching or Flip to reverse the view. 4.Reference and sketch the wall. When the sketch is complete, click
appears. 4.Define the type of bend relief to use: on the sketcher toolbar. The RELIEF menu

• •

No Relief—Do not control the bend behavior. w/ Relief—Control the bend behavior at each attachment point:

o o o o

No Relief—Maintain the existing material shape. StrtchRelief—Stretch the existing material. Rip Relief—Rip the existing material. RectRelief—Add a rectangular relief.

o

ObrndRelief—Add an obround relief.

9.Define the relief's width:

o o o o

Thickness—Use a default radius that is equal to the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Thickness * 2—Use a default radius that is twice the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Enter Value—Use the absolute value that you type in the Enter dimension value box. From Table—Select the appropriate radius value from the list. The radii values are defined in the bend table assigned to the part. The From Table command is unavailable if a bend table is not assigned to the part.

10.Type the bend relief's angle and click

.

If necessary, repeat steps 8, 9 and 10 for each highlighted end.

11.Click OK on the Wall Options dialog box. The wall is created.
To Create an Unattached Flat Wall

1. 2.

Click

or click Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Unattached > Flat. The SETUP PLANE menu appears.

Reference and sketch the wall. You must sketch a closed loop. When the sketch is complete, click toolbar.

on the sketcher

3. 4.

Type the wall's thickness value and click flat wall automatically adopts its thickness.

. Note: If a sheet metal wall already exists in the design, the unattached

Click OK on the Unattached Wall dialog box. The wall is created.

About Extruded Walls An extruded wall extends from one edge into space. You sketch the side section of the wall and project it out a certain length. It can either be a primary wall, the first wall in your design, or a secondary wall, dependent on the primary wall. You can create three types of secondary extruded walls: unattached, no radius, and use radius. If the extruded wall is a primary wall you only have the unattached option available. When you are designing a secondary extruded wall, be sure to select a sketching plane normal to the attachment edge. If the extruded wall needs to be tangent to an adjacent surface make sure the entity at the attachment point is tangent. The adjacent surface must be planar or a twist wall. In all cases, the attachment edge must be a straight line. The following is an example of an attached extruded wall use radius: Existing Wall Extruded Wall Sketch Completed Extruded Wall

1. Attachment edge

To Create an Extruded Wall No Radius

1.

Click

or click Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Extrude. The USE TABLE menu appears.

2.Select the bend table to use and click Done/Return: • •
Part Bend Tbl—Reference the bend table associated with the overall part. Feat Bend Tbl—Reference an independent bend table for the individual feature.

3.Define the Attributes (where the wall should thicken from) • •

and click Done:

One Side—Specify the wall thickness to one side of the sketching plane. Both Sides—Specify the wall thickness to both sides of the sketching plane. You must define the “from” and “to” sides separately. 4.Select the edge to attach the wall.

4.Reference and sketch the wall. When the sketch is complete, click
WALL Options dialog box.

on the sketcher toolbar. You return to the

If you want to specify how far the wall should extrude, highlight Depth in the WALL Options dialog box. Click Define. If you want to convert the sharp edges to bends, highlight SharpsToBend in the WALL Options dialog box. Click Define.

6.Click OK on the WALL Options dialog box. The wall is created.

To Create an Extruded Wall Use Radius

1. 2. • •

Click

or click Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Extrude with Radius. The USE TABLE menu appears.

Select the bend table to use and click Done/Return: Part Bend Tbl—Reference the bend table associated with the overall part. Feat Bend Tbl—Reference an independent bend table for the individual feature.

3.Define the radius side and click Done/Return: • •
Inside Rad—Measure the radius from the inside surface of the part. Outside Rad—Measure the radius from the outside surface of the part.

4.Define the Attributes (where the wall should thicken from) • •

and click Done.

One Side—Specify the wall thickness to one side of the sketching plane. Both Sides—Specify the wall thickness to both sides of the sketching plane. You must define the “from” and “to” sides separately.

5.Select the edge to attach the wall. The SETUP PLANE menu appears. 5.Reference and sketch the wall. When the sketch is complete, click
appears. on the sketcher toolbar. The RELIEF menu

5.Define the type of wall relief for each highlighted end and click Done: • •
No Relief—Do not control the bend behavior. w/ Relief—Control the bend behavior at each attachment point:

o o o o o

No Relief—Maintain the existing material shape. StrtchRelief—Stretch the existing material. Rip Relief—Rip the existing material. RectRelief—Add a rectangular relief. ObrndRelief—Add an obround relief. Define the relief's width:

o o

Thickness—Use a default radius that is equal to the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Thickness * 2—Use a default radius that is twice the thickness of the sheet metal wall.

o

Enter Value—Use the absolute value that you type in the Enter dimension value box.

Type the bend relief's angle and click 8.Specify the bend radius;

.

• • •

Thickness—Use a default radius that is equal to the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Thickness * 2—Use a default radius that is twice the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Enter Value—Use the absolute value that you type in the Enter dimension value box. If you want to specify how far the wall should extrude, highlight Depth in the WALL Options dialog box. Click Define. If you want to convert the sharp edges to bends, highlight Sharps ToBend in the WALL Options dialog box. Click Define.

9.Click OK on the WALL Options dialog box. The wall is created.

To Create an Unattached Extruded Wall

1. 2. • •

Click

or click Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Unattached > Extrude. The ATTRIBUTES menu appears.

Define the Attributes (where the wall should thicken from) and click Done. One Side—Specify the wall thickness to one side of the sketching plane. Both Sides—Specify the wall thickness to both sides of the sketching plane. You must define the “from” and “to” sides separately.

3.Reference and sketch the wall. When the sketch is complete, click
menu appears.

on the sketcher toolbar. The DIRECTION

3.Select the direction to thicken the wall: Okay or Flip – to change the direction. 3.Type the wall thickness value and click
. The SPEC TO menu appears.

3.Specify how far the wall should extrude and click Done: • • • • • • • •
Blind—Extrude the wall to an exact depth on one side of the sketching plane. 2 Side Blind—Extrude the wall to an exact depth on both sides of the sketching plane. Thru Next—Extrude a wall to the next surface. Use this option to terminate a feature at the first surface it reaches. Note: You cannot use a datum plane as a terminating surface. Thru All—Extrude a wall to intersect with all surfaces. Use this option to terminate a feature at the last surface it reaches. Thru Until—Extrude a section to intersect with a selected surface or plane. UpTo Pnt/Vtx—Extrude a section to intersect with a selected point or vertex. UpTo Curve—Extrude a section to intersect with a selected curve. UpTo Surface—Extrude a section to intersect with a selected surface. If you want to convert the sharp edges to bends, highlight Sharps ToBend in the Unattached wall dialog box. Click Define. If the extrude wall is not the first wall in your design and you want to switch the green and white surfaces of the wall, highlight Swap Side in the Unattached wall dialog box. Click Define.

7.Click OK on the Unattached wall dialog box. The wall is created.

Tip: Tangent Arc or Spline Use the following sketching technique to create an extruded tangent arc or spline. 1. Sketch a small straight line segment tangent to the existing wall and opposite to the direction you want the tangent arc or spline to be created. 2. 3. Sketch a tangent arc from the end of the straight line. Delete the straight line segment.

1Sketch a small straight line segment.

2 Sketch a tangent arc.

3 Delete the straight line segment.

About Revolve Walls A revolve wall rotates about an axis. You sketch the side section of the wall and revolve it about a sketched centerline. A revolve wall can be a primary or secondary wall. The revolution of the wall can either be entered as an exact variable or selected from standard values:

• • • • • • •

Variable—Enter an exact number, in degrees, to revolve the wall. 90—Revolve the wall 90° 180—Revolve the wall 180° 270—Revolve the wall 270° 360—Revolve the wall 360° Up to Pnt/Vtx—Revolve the wall up to a specified point or vertex Up to Plane—Revolve the wall up to a specified datum plane Sketch Variable (60°) 270° Up to Plane

To Create a Revolve Wall

1. 2. • •

Click

or click Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Unattached > Revolve. The ATTRIBUTES menu appears.

Define the Attributes (where the wall should thicken from) and click Done. One Side—Specify the wall thickness to one side of the sketching plane. Both Sides—Specify the wall thickness to both sides of the sketching plane. You must define the “from” and “to” sides separately.

3.Reference and sketch the wall. Your sketch must include a center line. When the sketch is complete, click
sketcher toolbar.

on the

3.Select the direction to thicken the wall: Okay or Flip - to change the direction. 5.Type the thickness value for the wall and click
value in degrees. . The REV TO menu appears.

5.Define the wall’s revolution angle. Either select a default value from the menu or click Variable, and type the exact

5.Click OK on Revolve Wall dialog box. The wall is created.
About Blend Walls A blend wall connects at least two sections by combining the characteristics of each section. You sketch the multiple boundaries of the wall sections and then connect them using one of the three types of blends available:

• • •

Parallel: All blend sections lie on parallel planes in one sketch. Rotational: Blend sections are rotated a maximum of 120 degrees about the Y-axis. You sketch each section individually and align them using coordinate systems. General: Blend sections are rotated about and translated along the X-, Y-, Z-axes. You sketch each section individually and align them using coordinate systems. The following examples shows the sketch and resulting parallel blend wall: Sketch (Toggled and Second Sections) Parallel Blend Wall

To Create a Parallel Blend Wall

1. 2.

Click

or click Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Unattached > Blend. The BLEND OPTS menu appears.

Define the following blend options and click Done:

o o o

Click Parallel to define the blend type. Define the sketch type: Regular Sketch or Project Sketch. Define the sketch to use, either Select Sketch or create a Sketch Section.

3.Define the blend attributes (Smooth or Straight) and then click Done.
3.Reference and sketch the first section of the blend wall.

3.Toggle the sketch for the next section: Sketch > Feature Tools > Toggle Section. 3.Sketch the next section. When the sketch is complete, click
on the sketcher toolbar.

3.Select the direction to thicken the wall: Okay or Flip - to change the direction. 3.Type the wall's thickness value and click
. .

3.Type the depth(s) for the additional sections and click

3.Click OK on the WALL Options dialog box. The wall is created.

To Create a General Blend Wall

1. 2.

Click

or click Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Unattached > Blend. The BLEND OPTS menu appears.

Define the following blend options and click Done:

o o o

Click General to define the blend type. The default sketch type is Regular Sketch. Define the sketch to use, either Select Sketch or create a Sketch Section.

3.Define the blend attributes (Smooth or Straight) and then click Done. 3.Reference and sketch the first section of the blend wall. Make sure you include a coordinate system in the sketch.
When the sketch is complete, click on the sketcher toolbar.

3.Type the appropriate rotating angle for the second blend section. You must enter values for the x, y, and z-axes.

3.Sketch the next section. Make sure you include a coordinate system in the sketch. When the sketch is complete, click
on the sketcher toolbar.

3.If you want to add more sections to the blend wall, type Y and repeat steps 4 to 6 for each additional section.
Otherwise, type N.

3.Select the direction to thicken the wall: Okay or Flip - to change the direction. 3.Click OK on the WALL Options dialog box. The blend wall is created.

To Create a Rotational Blend Wall

1. 2.

Click

or click Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Unattached > Blend. The BLEND OPTS menu appears.

Define the following blend options and click Done:

o o o

Click Rotational to define the blend type. Define the sketch type: Regular Sketch or Project Sketch. Define the sketch to use, either Select Sketch or create a Sketch Section.

3.Define the blend attributes (Straight , Smooth, Open, or Closed) and then click Done. 3.Reference and sketch the first section of the blend wall. Be sure to include a coordinate system. When the
section sketch is complete, click on the sketcher toolbar. . You return to a blank sketching window.

3.Type a rotation angle for the section and click

3.Sketch the next section of the blend wall. Be sure to include a coordinate system. When the section sketch
is complete, click on the sketcher toolbar.

3.If you want to add more sections to the blend wall, type Y and repeat steps 4 to 6 for each additional
section. Otherwise, type N.

3.Select the direction to thicken the wall: Okay or Flip - to change the direction. 3.Type the wall's thickness value and click
. You return to the WALL Options dialog box.

3.Click OK on the WALL Options dialog box. The blend wall is created.
About Offset Walls An offset wall is a reflection, of a quilt or surface, set a specified distance from the original. You can select an existing surface or sketch a new surface to offset. Unless you convert a solid part, an offset wall cannot be the first feature created in your design. You can create three types of offset walls: Normal to Surf, Controlled Fit, and Auto Fit. To Create an Offset Wall

1.
2.

Click opens.

or click Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Unattached > Offset. The Unattached Wall: Offset dialog box

Select the quilt or surface to offset the wall from. Type the offset distance and click .

3.

4. 5. • • •

Select the direction to thicken the wall: Okay or Flip - to change the direction. Define the type of offset wall you need. Highlight Offset Type and click Define. Select the appropriate type: Normal to Surf—Create the offset normal to the quilt or surface. Controlled Fit—Create the offset at a controlled distance. Auto Fit—Automatically fit the offset from the quilt or surface. You can further customize the offset wall with the LeaveOut, MaterialSide, and Swap Side options.

6.Click OK in the Offset Wall dialog box. The wall is created.
About Advanced Walls Advanced walls are not used frequently because they create contoured walls that are difficult to unbend. However, if you have a specific case were such contours are needed, several advanced walls are available, including variable section sweeps, helical sweeps, tangent to surface, and free form walls. To Create an Advanced Wall

1. 2. 3. 4.
5.

Click PART > Feature. The FEAT menu appears. Click Create. The FEAT CLASS and SHEET METAL menus appear. Click Wall. The OPTIONS menu appears. Click Advanced and then click Done. The ADV FEAT OPT menu lists the available advanced walls. Define the advanced feature option to create and then follow the appropriate steps as required.

About Twist Walls A twist wall is a spiraling or coiling section of sheet metal. The twist forms around an axis running through the wall's center, as if by turning the wall ends in opposite directions by a relatively small, specified angle. You can attach the twist to a straight edge on an existing planar wall. The twist wall typically serves as a transition between two areas of sheet metal because it can change the plane of a sheet metal part. The twist can be rectangular or trapezoidal. Twist Wall Twist Wall Dimension Start Width: (75 )Width of the twist wall at the attachment edge. End Width:(5 )Width at the end of the twist wall. Twist Length: (100 )Length of the twist wall, measured from the attachment edge to the end of the twist axis. Twist Angle: (120 )Angle of twist. Developed Length: (100 )Length of the twist wall, when untwisted.

Note:

• • • •

You can only add a flat or extruded wall to the end of a twist if the additional wall has no radius and is tangent to the twist. You can unbend a twist wall with the regular unbend command. The twist axis runs through the wall's center, perpendicular to the attach edge. You cannot use a radius with twist walls. To Create a Twist Wall

1. 2.
3.

Click Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Twist. The FEATURE REFS menu appears. Select the attachment edge for the twist wall. The TWIST AXIS PNT and FEATURE REFS menus appear. Select a datum point on the attachment edge to locate the twist axis, which is the centerline of the twist wall. It is perpendicular to the start edge and coplanar with the existing wall:

• • •

Select Point—Choose an existing datum point. Create Point— Create a new datum point. Use Middle—Create a new datum point at the midpoint of the attachment edge. 4.Define the twist wall dimensions:

• • •

Start Width—Width of the twist wall at the attachment edge. Type a value and click End Width—Width at the end of the twist wall. Type a value and click .

.

Twist Length—Length of the twist wall, measured from the attachment edge to the end of the twist axis. Type a value and click . . .

• •

Twist Angle—Angle/rotation of the twist wall. Type a value and click

Developed Length—Length of the twist wall, when untwisted. Type a value and click

5.Click OK on the TWIST dialog box. The wall is created.

About Swept Walls A swept wall follows the trajectory formed by the attachment edge. You sketch a cross section along the attachment edge and the wall sweeps along that edge. The attachment edge need not be linear. And the adjacent surface does not have to be planar. Swept Wall Geometry 1 Attachment surface/edge 2 Trajectory edge 3 Cross section sketch

What is the line of intersection? You can create two types of swept walls:

No Radius (looking from above)

Use Radius (looking from below)

For Swept Walls No Radius:

For Swept Walls Use Radius: The line of intersection between the sketching plane and the attachment surface must be a straight line.

If the line of intersection between the sketching plane • and attachment surface is not a straight line the swept wall must be attached tangentially to the adjacent surface at the attachment edge.

The system creates a fillet of the specified radius along the attachment edge. That fillet takes material away from the adjacent surface. To prevent this, select the No Radius command and sketch the desired radius with an arc.

The angle between the attachment edge and surface can not exceed 180 degrees. If you need a larger angle use the opposite side of the sheet metal (white instead of green or vice versa).

If you specify the radius to be "r," a fillet of radius r forms along the trajectory edge, between the attachment surface and the swept wall.

You can use swept walls to manually create hem walls and flanges but there is a hem wall option available. Remember:

• •

You cannot create a bend on, or attach any other wall to a swept wall. You cannot copy a swept wall with the Mirror command, however you can use the Copy To Create a Swept Wall No Radius

1.
2.

Click

or click Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Sweep. The CHAIN menu appears.

Select the attachment edge for the swept wall. Select the needed attach chain and options in the CHAIN menu:

3.

o o o

One by One—Select individual edges, one at a time. You can select the edges in any order. Tangnt Chain—Define a chain by selecting an edge, which includes all the edges tangent to the edge. Intent Chain—Select a predefined collection of edges in the model. Select—Select/add a chain, using one of the above methods. Unselect—Remove an edge from the current selection for a chain. For One by One, select the individual edges to remove from the chain. For Tangnt Chain, use the Confirmation menu to confirm or cancel the Unselect command. Trim/Extend—Trim or extend an edge after you accept the end to trim or extend from. You can either drag the edge to its new length or type a value. Start Point—Specify the startpoint of the trajectory edge. If you select it, the Choose menu appears and you can flip between the two ends of the trajectory edge.

4.Select the direction to view in sketcher: Okay or Flip - to change the direction. 4.Reference and sketch the wall. When the sketch is complete, click
appears. 4.Define the type of bend relief to use: on the sketcher toolbar. The RELIEF menu

No Relief—Do not control the bend behavior.

w/ Relief—Control the bend behavior at each attachment point:

o o o o o

No Relief—Maintain the existing material shape. StrtchRelief—Stretch the existing material. Rip Relief—Rip the existing material. RectRelief—Add a rectangular relief. ObrndRelief—Add an obround relief. Define the relief's width:

o o o

Thickness—Use a default radius that is equal to the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Thickness * 2—Use a default radius that is twice the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Enter Value—Use the absolute value that you type in the Enter dimension value box.

Type the bend relief's angle and click

.

7.Click OK on the WALL Options dialog box. The wall is created.
To Create a Swept Wall Use Radius

1.
2.

Click

or click Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Sweep with Radius. The RADIUS SIDE menu appears.

Define the radius side: Inside Rad—Measure the radius from the inside surface of the part. Outside Rad—Measure the radius from the outside surface of the part. 3.Select the edge to attach the swept wall.

• •

3.Select the needed attach chain and options on the CHAIN menu. 3.Select the direction to view in sketcher: Okay or Flip - to change the direction. 3.Reference and sketch the wall. When the sketch is complete, click
appears. 3.Define the type of bend relief to use: on the sketcher toolbar.The RELIEF menu

• •

No Relief—Do not control the bend behavior. w/ Relief—Control the bend behavior at each attachment point:

ο o o o o

No Relief—Maintain the existing material shape. StrtchRelief—Stretch the existing material. Rip Relief—Rip the existing material. RectRelief—Add a rectangular relief. ObrndRelief—Add an obround relief. Define the relief's width:

o o o

Thickness—Use a default radius that is equal to the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Thickness * 2—Use a default radius that is twice the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Enter Value—Use the absolute value that you type in the Enter dimension value box.

Type the bend relief's angle and click

.

1.Click OK on the Swept Wall dialog box. The wall is created.

Tip: Swept Wall Greater Than 180 Degrees If you want to use an angle greater than 180 degrees, you must:

Pick the opposite side of the sheet metal as the attachment edge (white instead of green or vice versa). About Hem Walls A hem wall is a folded sheet metal edge. It is part of a butt joint (weld) used to connect sheet metal walls. You can place hems on straight, arced or swept edges. The type of hem you use depends on the style of lock seam you need. You can create the following default hem walls. Note the shaded region is the hem. Open Flushed Duck C Z

In the Wall:Hem dialog box, you can name, locate, and preview hem types and dimensions. You are able to modify each option before and after placing the hem, however, you cannot change the hem wall’s material thickness. Hem walls increase the wall height of your design. If your hem design requires a specific wall height, you can set your hem walls to maintain the overall length of the wall. Hem Wall: standard Hem Wall: Keep wall height

Depending on where you position the hem wall, you may need to add bend relief. The bend relief will help control the sheet metal material and prevent unwanted deformation. You can automatically set the relief attributes (type, width, depth, and angle) by defining bend relief defaults and parameters. If the defaults and parameters are not applicable they are ignored. Relief is only available if you set Keep wall height. You can either define the bend relief sides simultaneously or individually. If you define the sides individually, you can assign different relief types to each side. Hem Wall with Obround and Rectangular Relief

If you add a hem wall to curved surface you can not set the wall to Keep wall height. The feature is aborted. Note: You can manually add a hem wall to the curved surface using swept or extruded walls. Keep wall height Limitation

1 Keep wall height is allowed 2 Keep wall height is NOT allowed Hem walls are created in two fashions: action-object and object-action. With action-object you first choose the desired hem type and then select the attaching edge or trajectory. Object-action requires you to first select the attaching edge or trajectory, and then the desired hem type.

To Create a Hem Wall

1.
2.

Click

or click Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Hem. The Wall:Hem dialog box opens.

Select the attachment edge for the hem. Select the needed attach chain and options in the CHAIN menu:

3.

o o o

One by One—Select individual edges, one at a time. You can select the edges in any order. Tangnt Chain—Define a chain by selecting an edge, which includes all the edges tangent to the edge. Intent Chain—Select a predefined collection of edges in the model. Select—Select/add a chain, using one of the above methods. Unselect—Remove an edge from the current selection for a chain. For One by One, select the individual edges to remove from the chain. For Tangnt Chain, use the Confirmation menu to confirm or cancel the Unselect command. Trim/Extend—Trim or extend an edge after you accept the end to trim or extend from. You can either drag the edge to its new length or type a value. Start Point—Specify the start point of the trajectory edge. If you select it, the Choose menu appears and you can flip between the two ends of the trajectory edge.

4.Define the hem attributes:

• •

Name—Display the hem feature name in the model tree. Either keep the default name or type a file name in the Name box. You can rename the hem at any time. Location—Indicate the location(s) to place the hem wall. If the location is not selected or you want to change the location, click and select the attachment edge.

• • •

Type—Identify the hem type. Click the desired hem in the Type box. Keep wall height—Set the hem wall to maintain the wall height. Click the Keep wall height check box to maintain the overall length of the wall. Section—Define the applicable dimensions of the hem type (height, width, radius). Either click an available value or type a new value in the appropriate box.

Relief—Define how to relieve the hem wall. Relief is only available if you set the hem to keep wall height.

o

Define each side separately—Individually specify the wall relief type for each side of the hem wall. Click the Define each side separately check box and define how to relieve each side. Side 1—The start point of the hem wall trajectory. Side 2—The end point of the hem wall trajectory.

o

Relief Type—Indicate the type of bend relief to apply. No Relief—Attach the wall using no relief. StrtchRelief—Stretch the material for bend relief at wall attachment points. Rip Relief—Rip the existing material, at each attachment point. RectRelief—Add a rectangular relief at each attachment point. ObrndRelief—Add an obround relief at each attachment point.

o

Relief Dimensions—Define the dimensions of the bend relief, including: Depth (Blind)—Enter a specific value, Tan To Bend - Tangent to the bend, Up To Bend -) The depth options are only available for certain criteria. For example, Tan To Bend is not available for Rectangular relief.

If you want to change the direction of the hem, click

. .

If you want to create another hem without closing the dialog box, click

5.Click

on Wall:Hem dialog box. The hem wall is created.

About Extend Walls An extend wall lengthens an existing wall. You can extend the wall from a straight edge on existing wall to either a planar surface or a specified distance. You can close gaps between walls and model various overlap conditions. The extend wall is typically utilized at corners. Tangent Inside Edges Tangent Right Outside Edge

Corner with extend wall added to the tangent inside edges. To Create an Extend Wall

Corner with extend walls added to the tangent left inside edge and tangent right outside edge.

1. 2.
3.

Click

or click Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Extend. The WALL Options dialog box opens.

Select the straight edge to extend. The EXT DIST and SETUP PLANE menus appear. Define how to extend the wall: Up To Plane—Extend the wall up to a plane.

o •

Either select and existing datum plane or make a new datum plane.

Use Value—Extend the wall a specified distance.

o

Either select a default value from the menu or click Enter, and type the exact value in degrees.

4.Click OK on the WALL Options dialog box. The wall is created.

About Merge Walls A merge wall combines at least two unattached walls into one part. The merger requires that:

• •

The walls butt against each other (tangent). The green sides of each wall match. If the colors of the walls do not match you can use the Swap Sides command in Unattached Wall dialog box. Unattached Tangent Walls Merge Wall

1. Unattached wall. 2. Base wall to which the unattached wall is merged. Note: The walls have matching green sides. To create the merge you must define the following elements in the WALL Options dialog box:

• • • •

Basic Refs—Select surfaces of the base wall. Merge Geoms—Surfaces of the wall to be merged. Merge Edges—(optional) Add or remove edges deleted by the merge. Keep Lines—(optional) Control the visibility of merged edges on surface joints. Note: Only unattached walls can merge with the base wall. To Create a Merge Wall

1.
2. 3.

Click appears.

or click Insert > Merge Walls. The WALL Options dialog box opens and the FEATURE REFS menu

Select the base wall surfaces you want the unattached wall to be merged with. Select the unattached wall surfaces you want to merge to the base wall. Click OK on the WALL Options dialog box. The walls are merged.

4.

About Rips A rip shears or tears your sheet metal walls, especially along seams. If your part is a continuous piece of material it cannot be unbent without ripping the sheet metal. Create a rip feature before unbending. When you unbend that area of the model, the material will break along the rip section. In general, a rip is a zero-volume cut. There are three types of sheet metal rips available:

• • •

Regular—Creates a sawcut along a sketched rip line. You select a surface and sketch the rip line. You can select boundary surfaces to protect certain surfaces from the rip. Surface—Cuts and exclude an entire surface patch from the model. You select a surface to rip out. Surface rips remove model volume. Edge—Creates a sawcut along an edge. You select the edge to rip. The resulting corner edges can be open, blind, or overlapping. Regular Rip Surface Rip Edge Rip

While edge rips are intended for unbending your part, you can customize the corner type to be open, overlapping, or cut/extended to a specific depth. You can create rips with open or overlapping corners. You can create multiple versions of a regular rip by setting bounding surfaces—a surface that will not be ripped. The rip extends around the model until it meets the edges of the bounding surface. If your rip design requires most of the surfaces not to be ripped, you can exclude all the surfaces (as bounding surfaces) and select/remove the desired surfaces that need to be ripped. No Bounding Surfaces One Bounding Surface Bounding Surfaces

No bounding surfaces 1 Bounding surface 2 Multiple bounding surfaces

Note: If you add wall relief after a rip the sheet metal may have larger, more unpredictable ripping than desired. To Create a Regular Rip

1. 2. 3.

Click

or click Insert > Shape > Rip. The OPTIONS menu appears.

Click Regular Rip. Click Done. Reference and sketch the rip. All entities must form one continuous open chain with endpoints that align to surface edges or silhouettes. When the sketch is complete, click on the sketcher toolbar.

To define the boundary surface, highlight Bound Surf in the Rip dialog box and click Define. The FEATURE REFS menu appears. Select the surfaces to exclude from the rip feature and then click Done Refs and Done/Return.

4.Click OK on the Rip dialog box. The rip is created.

To Create a Surface Rip

1. 2. 3.

Click

or click Insert > Shape > Rip. The OPTIONS menu appears.

Click Surface Rip. Click Done. Select the surface(s) to rip out. The selected surfaces highlight in the active window. Click Done Sel. You can add and remove rip surfaces by highlighting Surfaces in the Rip dialog box and clicking Define. After you modfiy the surface selections click Done Refs.

4.Click

OK

on the

Rip

dialog box. The rip is created.

To Create an Edge Rip

1. 2. 3.

Click

or click Insert > Shape > Rip. The OPTIONS menu appears.

Click Edge Rip. Click Done. The Rip dialog box opens and the RIP PIECES menu appears. Select the edge(s) to rip. Click Done Sel.

You can customize the corner type for each edge rip at any time:

o o o o

Click Redefine from the RIP PIECES menu. The PIECE SEL menu appears. Select the edge piece to redefine. The RIP PIECES dialog box opens. Highlight Corner Type and click Define. The CORNER DEF menu appears. Select the desired corner type and click Done: Open—Create standard open corner edges. Blind—Customize the open corner using a specific dimension. Overlap— Create standard overlapping corner edges.

o

Click Ok in RIP PIECES dialog box.

4.Click Done Sets after selecting and defining all desired edges. The selected edges highlight in the active window. 4.Click OK on the Rip dialog box. The edge rip is created.
Working with Edge Rips An edge rip is a sawcut along an edge. Like all rips, edge rips are intended to help unbend your part. Depending on your design needs you can customize the corner type of the edge rip to be open, cut/extended to a specific depth, or overlapping. As you customize the corner type edge rip drag-handles appear. The handles snap to the corner edges. The following explains how the edges and system behave when you customize the edge:

Open edge rip—The edge rip remains open, however, drag-handles appear for each edge. If you click on the handles the edge is defined as blind (see Blind edge rip below). Open Edge Rip with Drag-handles Open Edge Rip

Blind edge rip—Drag-handles and dimensions appear for each edge coming into the corner. To set the depth of the edge, you can double-click the edge dimension and then type or select a new dimension or you can use the drag handle and drag the corner edge to its new location (which can be within the confines of the edge or extend beyond the intersecting edges). You can also establish relations by selecting Thickness or Thickness*2 from the dimension box. The relation is set using the smt_thickness parameter. It is removed if you type a value or define the edge as open or overlapping. Blind Edge Rip with Drag-handles and Dimension Box Blind Edge Rip

Overlap edge rip—Drag-handles appear for each edge and an arrow indicates the overlap direction. One edge automatically overlaps the other. You can reverse the overlapping edge by clicking Flip on the CORNER DEF menu. Overlapping Edge Rip with Drag-handles and Direction Arrow Overlapping Edge Rip

Note:

You can redefine the edge rip type in the middle of defining the edge by clicking one of the other commands. For example, if while defining a blind edge rip you discover it should be overlapping, simply click Overlap and the blind dimensions are aborted.

Dimensions only appear with your model when you are creating a blind edge rip.

About Sheet Metal Cuts
A sheet metal cut removes material from your part. The cut is made normal to the sheet metal surface, as if the part were completely flat, even if it is in a bent state. The cut adopts the sheet metal material's natural behavior, like bending and warping, when the part is bent. You sketch cuts on a plane and project them onto the sheet metal wall. Either the green or white side of the sheet metal wall can drive the cut direction. Sheet Metal Cut Behavior Solid Cut Behavior

You can create three types of cuts:

• • •

Sheet Metal Cut (solid)—Removes solid sections of the sheet metal wall. Sheet Metal Cut (thin)—Removes only a thin section of material, like a thin cut made with a laser. Solid-Class Cut—Removes solid sections of the sheet metal wall. You can extrude, revolve, sweep, blend, use quilts and make advanced solid-class cuts. To make a defined-angle cut, you must use the solid-class cut. Solid-class cuts can be made on an edge. See the Part Modeling Functional Area for information about solid-class cuts. Note: Always use the sheet metal-class cut, unless you need tapered edges. Sheet Metal Cut (Solid) Sheet Metal Cut (Thin) Solid-Class Cut

Because sheet metal cuts are surface cuts, you cannot make a cut to partially remove wall thickness. For example, you can not cut a 1cm deep hole in a 10cm thick wall. This may make the Blind depth command somewhat difficult to understand. The Blind depth command applies to cutting on bends. You can sketch the cut to the edge of the bend and project it a blind depth down the bent wall, saving you the time of unbending the wall, making the cut, and bending back the wall.

Original Wall

Blind Cut Sketch

Blind Cut

Note:

• • • •

A cut cannot cross two bend lines. A cut can never be made on an edge. Cutting on angles or bend areas might require a larger dimension scale for proper clearance. Cuts can be used to create notch and punch UDFs. About Cuts and Datum Axes

Individual datum axes are automatically created for each circular cut that intersects more than one sheet metal wall. The created axes behave like all other axes; they have an ID, can be referenced, can be turned on/off on the main toolbar, and follow the cut during any bending and unbending. Sketch Sheet Metal Part With Circular Cuts Unbent Sheet Metal Part With Cuts

Projecting Datum Curves When you develop geometry in the formed (bent) state you can project datum curves to communicate information from the bent state to the flat state. You sketch and project a curve onto the surface of the sheet metal part. You place the curve by either following a surface when the model is bent or unbent, or by following a surface during a bend back operation (if the part is in the unbent state). Original Part Projected Curve Formed Part with Cut Following Curve

See the Part Modeling module for more information about working with projected datum curves To Create a Sheet Metal Cut (Solid)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. • • •

Click appears.

or click Insert > Sheetmetal Cut. The CUT Smt Cut dialog box opens and the SOLID OPTS menu

Click Extrude and Solid. Click Done.

Reference and sketch the cut. When the sketch is complete, click appears.

on the sketcher toolbar. The DIRECTION menu

Select the direction to remove material: Okay to accept the current direction or Flip to change the direction. Define the depth of the cut and click Done: Blind—Removes the depth you specify. Thru Next—Removes material only from the first sheet metal surface under the sketched cut. Thru All—Removes material from all the sheet metal surfaces under the sketched cut. To define the side to create the cut on, highlight Driving Surf on the CUT dialog box. Click Define. The DRIVE SIDE menu appears. Select either the green or white surface as the driving surface and click Done.

6.Click OK on the CUT Smt Cut dialog box. The cut is created.
To Create a Sheet Metal Cut (Thin)

1. 2. 3.
4.

Click Insert > Sheetmetal Cut. The Smt Cut Thin dialog box opens and the SOLID OPTS menu appears. Click Extrude and Thin. Click Done.

Reference and sketch the cut. When the sketch is complete, click appears. Select the direction to remove material:

on the sketcher toolbar. The THIN OPT menu

• • •

Okay—Accept the direction. Flip—Change the direction. Both—Remove material from both sides of the sketch line.

5.Type the width of the cut and click
5.Define the depth of the cut:

.

• • •

Blind—The system removes the depth you specify. Thru Next—The system removes material only from the first sheet metal surface under the sketched cut. Thru All—The system removes material from all the sheet metal surfaces under the sketched cut.

To define the side to create the cut on, highlight Driving Surf on the CUT dialog box. Click Define. The DRIVE SIDE menu appears. Select either the green or white surface as the driving surface and click Done.

7.Click OK on the CUT dialog box. The cut is created.
About Forms A form is a sheet metal wall molded by a template (reference part). Merging the geometry of a reference part to the sheet metal part creates the form feature. You use assembly type constraints to determine the location of the form in your model. When doing so, be mindful of placement references and references to other features in the model. You can create two types of sheet metal form features, punch and die. Each form type can create the same geometry: Punch Molds the sheet metal wall using only the reference part geometry. Punch forms use the entire form reference part to create the correct geometry. Punch Form Reference Part

Die Molds the sheet metal using the reference part to form the geometry (convex or concave) surrounded by a bounding plane. Die forms need a plane surface/boundary plane (2) surrounding the entire die shape to apply the correct geometry. The seed surface (1.) gathers the surrounding geometry to create the appropriate form shape.

Die Form Reference Part

To simulate real manufacturing needs, create your form reference part in the standard application. If you use a sheet metal reference part, the sheet metal to be formed should conform to the green side of the component part. When creating a form model, keep the following in mind:

• • • •

Convex surfaces—Must have a radius that is larger than the thickness of the sheet metal or equal to zero if the form is mated to the sheet metal geometry. Concave surfaces—Must have a radius that is larger than the thickness of the sheet metal or equal to zero if the form is aligned to the sheet metal geometry. Combination surfaces—The form can contain a combination of convex and concave geometry, creating hollows. The hollows in the form must not drop below the base plane or mating surface. Coordinate systems—You can create a coordinate system reference within the form to define where to strike the part during the manufacturing process. You can create multiple form placement scenarios by turning specific constraints on or off with the forced check box For example, you might place a louver form with constraints that force the opening to face the outside edge of the wall while also having a constraint that forces the opening towards the center of the wall. By turning either constraint on or off  you can quickly change your sheet metal design. .

Note:

• •

You can pattern both types of form features. You can create UDFs based on the forms. Any elements you define when creating the form are modifiable when placing it as a UDF. The one exception is form type, die or punch, which cannot be changed at that time. Forms with Hollows Your form can contain a combination of convex and concave geometry, creating hollows. The hollows in the form must not drop below the base plane or mating surface, meaning all the form geometry must be on the same side of the base plane. Note: Make sure that the distance between the hollow surface and the outer surface allows for the material thickness of the sheet metal. Form Reference Part Allow for Material Thickness

1. Allowance for the sheet metal material thickness To Create a Die Form

1. 2. 3.

Click Click Die.

or Insert > Shape > Form. The OPTIONS menu appears.

Define how to use the punch reference part and click Done:

Reference—The form is dependent on a saved punch part. Any changes made to the saved part parametrically update when you regenerate the sheet metal part. If the saved part cannot be located the sheet metal form geometry freezes. Copy—The form uses copied geometry and is independent of the saved form part.

6.Open the punch reference part. The punch reference part opens in a separate window and the Form Placement
dialog box opens.

6.In the Type box, select the type of constraint to use for the reference: • • • • • • • • •
Automatic—Constrains the form references using a constraint type chosen by the system. Mate—Constrains two surfaces to touch, either coincident and facing each other or parallel and facing each other. Align—Constrains two planes to be coplanar, either coincident and facing in the same direction or parallel and facing in the same direction..This option also aligns revolved surfaces or axes to be coaxial. Insert—Inserts a male revolved surface into a female revolved surface, making their respective axes coincident. Coord Sys—Constrains the coordinate system of the form reference part to the coordinate system of the sheet metal part. Both coordinate systems must exist before starting the assembly process. Tangent—Constrains two surface to be tangent. Pnt On Line—Constrains a point to be in contact with a line. Pnt On Srf—Constrains a point to be in contact with a surface. Edge On Srf—Constrains an edge to be in contact with a surface.

8.In the Offset box, select how to offset the references: • • •
Offset—Determines the distance between the two references. Oriented—Constrains two surfaces to be parallel. An offset value is not specified. Coincident—Constrains two surfaces to be touching. An offset value is not specified.

9.Under Form Reference, click 9.Under Part Reference, click

and select the desired constraint on the reference part. and select the corresponding constraint on the sheet metal part. .

9.Type the appropriate value for the reference position and click
Repeat steps 7-11 until the form is Fully Constrained.

o o o o o o

To preview the form positioning, select the constraint type and click Preview.

To create additional constraints click

. You can add up to 50 constraints.

To delete constraints, select the constraint and click

.

To change the orientation of the constraint, click

.

To fix the current location of the form, click

.

To align the default coordinate system of the form reference part to the default coordinate system of the part reference, click .

o o

To modify an existing constraint, select the constraint element and make the desired change. To turn a constraint off, clear . Click to turn the constraint on.

12.Select a boundary plane from the reference part. The boundary plane is the surface surrounding the die geometry. 12.Select a seed surface from the reference part. The seed surface can be any section of the actual die geometry.

o o o

To exclude surfaces, highlight Exclude Surf on the FORM dialog box and click Define. Select the form feature surface(s) to exclude and click Done Refs. To designate a coordinate system, highlight Csys in the FORM dialog box and click Define. To change the tool name, highlight Tool Name in the FORM dialog box and click Define.

14.Click OK on the FORM dialog box. The die form is created.
To Create a Punch Form

1. 2. 3. • •

Click

or Insert > Shape > Form. The OPTIONS menu appears.

Click Punch. Define how to use the punch reference part and click Done: Reference—The form is dependent on a saved punch part. Any changes made to the saved part parametrically update when you regenerate the sheet metal part. If the saved part cannot be located the sheet metal form geometry freezes. Copy—The form uses copied geometry and is independent of the saved form part.

4.Open the punch reference part. The punch reference part opens in a separate window and the Form Placement
dialog box opens.

4.In the Type box, select the type of constraint for the form reference: • • • •
Automatic—Constrain the form references using a constraint type chosen by the system. Mate—Constrain two surfaces to touch; either coincident and facing each other or parallel and facing each other. Align—Constrain two planes to be coplanar; either coincident and facing in the same direction or parallel and facing in the same direction.. This option also aligns revolved surfaces or axes to be coaxial. Insert—Insert a male revolved surface into a female revolved surface, making their respective axes coincident.

• • • • •

Coord Sys—Constrain the coordinate system of the form reference part to the coordinate system of the sheet metal part. Both coordinate systems must exist before starting the assembly process. Tangent—Constrain two surface to be tangent. Pnt On Line—Constrain a point to be in contact with a line. Pnt On Srf—Constrain a point to be in contact with a surface. Edge On Srf—Constrain an edge to be in contact with a surface.

6.In the Offset box, select how to offset the references: • • •
Offset—Determine the distance between the two references. Oriented—Constrain two surfaces to be parallel. An offset value is not specified. Coincident—Constrain two surfaces to be touching. An offset value is not specified.

7.Under Form Reference, click 7.Under Part Reference, click

and select the desired constraint on the reference part. and select the corresponding constraint on the sheet metal part. .

7.Type the appropriate value for the reference position and click
Repeat steps 7-11 until the form is Fully Constrained.

o o o o o o

To preview the form positioning select the constraint type and click Preview.

To create additional constraints click

. You can add up to 50 constraints.

To delete constraints select the constraint and click

.

To change the orientation of the constraint click

.

To fix the current location of the form click

.

To align the default coordinate system of the form reference part to the default coordinate system of the part reference click .

o o

To modify an existing constraint, select the constraint element and make the desired change. To turn a constraint off clear . Click to turn the constraint on.

10.Select the surface to use for the punch geometry: Okay or Flip - to change the direction. o o o
To exclude surfaces, highlight Exclude Surf on the FORM dialog box and click Define. Select the form feature surface(s) to exclude and click Done Refs. To designate a coordinate system, highlight Csys in the FORM dialog box and click Define. To change the tool name, highlight Tool Name in the FORM dialog box and click Define.

11.Click OK on the FORM dialog box. The punch form is created.
Tip: Creating Punch and Die Reference Parts To simulate real manufacturing needs, your form's reference part must be created in the standard application. When creating the reference part:

• •

Try and keep the datum planes in the center and references to a minimum. This will make dimensioning and placing the form easier. The base of a die form must be a plane surface (boundary plane) surrounding the actual die. A punch form does not need this base plane, except, if the base plane is used for placing the form (in this instance the base plane could be a datum plane).

• •

Concave angles and bends in the form must have either a zero radius or a radius greater than sheet metal thickness. The reference part can contain hollows. All the form geometry must protrude from one side of the base plane. Make sure the hollow accounts for the sheet metal thickness or else the material inside the hollow will overlap and the form will fail. The form reference part can contain geometry for multiple die or punch models:

• •

You can create an infinite number of die models. Be sure to leave an appropriate distance between each die instance. You can create punch models with two sides. You select the desired side when mating the surfaces. Multi-die Reference Part Dual Punch Reference Part

About Flatten Forms A flatten form unbends punch or die forms and returns the features to their original flat state. In order to create flat sheet metal surfaces where punch or die forms exist you need to use a flatten form feature. You can flatten multiple form features at the same time. Flatten form features are typically created at the end of the design process, when you are preparing your model for manufacture. The flatten form option adjusts the width of the part after flattening, ensuring the material volume after flattening is the same as before flattening. Form (before flattening) Flatten Form

Width: 9.00 Thickness: 1.0 Chamfer cross-section area: 0.50 x (0.40 x 0.40) = 0.08 Sheet side cross-section: (9.0 x T) – 0.08

Width: 9.00 Thickness: 1.0 Chamfer cross-section area: 0.50 x (0.40 x 0.40) = 0.08 Sheet side cross-section: (9.0 x T) – 0.08

When creating a flatten form, consider:

A form can be flattened if it is located on a plane.

• •

A form that crosses a bend can only flatten after you unbend the bend. However, if the form is higher than the bend radius it cannot be unbent or flattened. You must suppress the form. To accurately compensate for mass, you should use the flattened surface area for real life calculations. About Stamped Edges Stamped edges are sheet metal edges modified by solid class features, like chamfers, rounds, holes, and cuts. You can use stamped edges to denote multiple types of sheet metal geometry (for example, a radius in the corner of a cut) or to show edge treatments to make the sheet metal a nonconstant wall thickness. Stamped edges can be used for both cosmetic and structural requirements (wall strength). The stamped edge is intended to increase design efficiency where you need to create complex geometry that sheet metal specific features cannot. Because stamped edges use solid class features, you will create them using the Dashboard functionality. See the Fundamentals or Part Modeling modules for information and instructions on creating solid features using the Dashboard. As you prepare your sheet metal design for manufacture you need to flatten your design. In order to accurately flatten stamped edges, you should create a Flatten Form feature. The flatten form calculates the flat pattern for the stamped edges based on the assumption that the volume of the material in the part is the same both before and after it is flattened. You have the option, however, to modify the volume that is transformed. The following example shows the adjustments made to the width of the part after flattening, ensuring the material volume before and after flattening is the same. Before Flattening After Flattening

1 Chamfer on sheet metal edge Width (9.00), Thickness (1.00) Chamfer cross section area: 0.50 x (0.40 x 0.40) = 0.08 Sheet side cross section: (9.00 x T) - 0.08

2 Stamped edge flattened with a Flatten Form feature. Width (8.92), Thickness (1.00) Sheet side section: Wflat x T = (W - 0.08/T)*T therefore Wfalt = W - 0.08/T = 9.00 - 0.08/1.00 = 8.92

Note: When creating rounds and chamfers be sure to the sheet metal thickness and the desired geometry (angle or radius) into account. To Create a Flatten Form

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Click

or Insert > Shape > Flat Form. The FLATTEN dialog box opens.

Highlight Form. Click Define. Select the form feature from the model tree or select each individual section to flatten. Note: All form sections must be selected. Click Done Sel. The FEATURE REFS menu appears. Click Done Refs after all the form sections are selected. Click OK on the FLATTEN dialog box. The flatten form is created.

About Notches and Punches

Notch and punch are templates used to cut and relieve sheet metal walls. In Pro/SHEETMETAL, notches and punches both perform the same function and have the same menu commands, so the one you choose depends on your naming convention. Industry standards place notches on edges and punches in the middle of the sheet metal wall. Notch Punch

Notches and punches are manufacturing operations made using the following three phases:

• • •

Phase One—Create the desired type of cut on a sheet metal part. Phase Two—Convert the cut into a user-defined feature (UDF). This UDF is saved in your directory and can be included in multiple designs. It carries the file name extension, .gph. Phase Three—Place the notch or punch UDF on the desired sheet metal part. You can create a reference part to help place your notch or punch UDF. Typically, you want to keep the reference part simple. The reference part carries the file name extension: gp.prt. Remember, create your UDFs in Sheet Metal mode because UDFs created in Part mode do not work on sheet metal parts. UDF Reference Part Sheet Metal Punch Placement

Each sheet metal notch and punch has a specific tool that defines its shape. The same tool is referred to when and wherever you use that UDF. Because of the tool dimensions, you cannot scale the size of the sheet metal notch and punch UDF. In order to change the size of these UDFs you must reassign the appropriate reference tool used in manufacturing. About Skipped References Skipped references are notch or punch placement references that have not been defined. Skipped references can be either intentional, if you are unsure of a notch or punch placement reference, or unintentional. In either situation, you must define a skipped reference to place a notch or punch correctly. Skipped references are reported with the status comment References are missing. Defining Skipped References To define any skipped references for your notch or punch you use the same options and prompts originally used when you began placing the feature in your design. After you have answered each UDF placement prompt, if you intentionally skipped any references an Information Window opens and the CONFIRMATION menu appears. Click Confirm to redefine the skipped references on the base part, or the actual notch or punch. You enter the feature creation environment. The dialog box for the feature with skipped references appears. Note: To return to the references you skipped, click Cancel. Then select the references you need to specify from the GP REFS menu. You return to the original UDF prompt. Pro/Engineer displays the feature dialog box and lists skipped references and variable elements. To reconcile the skipped reference, highlight the element to fix and click Define on the feature dialog box. Depending on the type of reference skipped you are defining, you need to use one of the following procedures to define your references:

The skipped reference is used by an element other than a sketched section. For the skipped reference, you enter into the feature creation environment enabling you to redefine the element that uses the skipped references.

If the skipped reference is a sketching plane or horizontal reference for a section. If you redefine a sketching plane or horizontal references, the dialog box for the feature using the skipped reference appears. From the dialog box, select the Section element and click Define. Click Sketch Plane and define the reference as appropriate.

If the skipped reference is used by a section other than the sketching plane or horizontal reference. If you must redefine a section reference (for example, edges used as dimensioning references), the dialog box for the feature using the skipped reference appears. Select the Section element and click Define. Choose the appropriate sketch option from the Section menu; the part reappears in the sketching view and the Section Place menu appears with the following options:

o

DragAndDrop – Places the existing UDF section directly on the part. When you enable this option the section is outlined in red. Use the mouse to move the section to its new location. Place the section by left-clicking the mouse. Dimension the section to the part and regenerate. The middle mouse button quits section placement. Note: The DragAndDrop option is not available for sections fully aligned or created with the Use Edge option.

o

Create New - Discards the existing UDF section and creates a new section. Select Confirm to verify your action. Sketch a new section.

When you redefine a missing reference used by several features double check to see if:

The skipped reference has a single prompt for all features. You must redefine the reference for each use. For example, if you use an edge to place a hole and a cut, and you set up a single prompt for both features, you must reselect the reference edge for both the hole and the cut if you skip the edge reference when placing the notch or punch.

The skipped reference has individual prompts for all features. You only have to redefine the reference for the feature where it is skipped. To Create a Notch/Punch UDF 1. Create a simple sheet metal part with the desired cut feature. Be sure to keep references to a minimum and to sketch a coordinate system in the cut.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. • •

Click PART > Feature. The FEAT menu appears. Click UDF Library. The UDF menu appears. Click Create. Type a name for the notch or punch UDF in the UDF name box and click Define the type of UDF file to create and click Done: Stand Alone—The UDF is functional by itself. Create a complete .gph file. You can just pass the UDF file along and to recreate the part. Subordinate—The UDF is driven by the current model. Create a .gph file, but with less information than the stand alone file. You need to pass along the .gph file and the current model to re-create the part. If you chose Stand Alone and want to create a reference part, type Y; otherwise, type N. . The UDF OPTIONS menu appears.

6.Click Add on the UDF FEATS menu. The SELECT FEAT menu appears. 6.Define the UDF feature using either Select, Layer, or Range, and then click Done > Done/Return. 6.Type Y for the prompt: Are you defining a UDF for PUNCH or NOTCH feature? <Y/N>.
Note: If you do not have a coordinate system in the feature, the UDF creation is aborted. The following error message appears: Selected CUT must have a coordinate system in the section. You are still able to complete the remaining steps, but your UDF will be undevelopable because the coordinate system is needed for manufacturing.

6.Type a tool name in the Tool name box. Be sure to enter the correct tool name because the tool is referenced when
and wherever the UDF is used. This tool name prompt confirms you are creating a useable UDF. 6.Define the symmetry flag for the tool:

X Axis—The tool is symmetrical about the X-axis of the coordinate system.

• •

Y Axis—The tool is symmetrical about the Y-axis of the coordinate system. Both—The tool is symmetrical about both the X and Y-axes of the coordinate system. 12.Type a prompt for the highlighted surface. Use simple naming conventions that will help you place the UDF. You need to type a prompt for each reference made during the cut creation.

12.Click Done/Return after naming all prompts. 12.Click OK on the UDF dialog box. The UDF is created.
To Place a Notch

1. 2. 3.
4.

Click

or click Insert > Shape > Notch. The Open dialog box opens.

Browse to the appropriate UDF file (.gph). If a reference part is available and you want to retrieve it, click Yes; otherwise click No. The DISP OPTION menu appears. Set the display options for invariable dimensions: Normal—Creates normal dimensions. You can modify the values to create a unique version of the UDF notch or punch. Read Only—Creates read-only dimensions. You can display them, but you cannot modify them. Blank—Blanks the dimensions so they cannot be displayed or modified in any mode. Use this option carefully. The only way to retrieve the dimensions is to delete the group features and replace the UDF notch or punch. 5.Reference and place the UDF using the prompts defined during the UDF creation:

• • •

o

Select the Alternate reference on the base part that matches your UDF prompt. If you are unsure of a reference, click Skip and move on to the next prompt. You can redefine the reference as appropriate.

6.Click Done after defining all the references. The notch or punch is placed.

To Place a Punch

1. 2. 3.
4.

Click

or click Insert > Shape > Punch. The Open dialog box opens.

Browse to the appropriate UDF file (.gph). If a reference part is available and you want to retrieve it, click Yes; otherwise click No. The DISP OPTION menu appears. Set the display options for invariable dimensions: Normal—Create normal dimensions. You can modify the values to create a unique version of the UDF notch or punch. Read Only—Create read-only dimensions. You can display them, but you cannot modify them. Blank—Blank the dimensions so they cannot be displayed or modified in any mode. Use this option carefully. The only way to retrieve the dimensions is to delete the group features and replace the UDF notch or punch. 5.Reference and place the UDF using the prompts defined during the UDF creation:

• • •

o

Select the Alternate reference on the base part that matches your UDF prompt. If you are unsure of a reference, Click Skip, and move on to the next prompt. You can redefine it as appropriate.

6.Click Done after defining all the references. The notch or punch is placed.
Tip: Creating and Using Notches and Punches In order for you to use a user defined feature (UDF) for a notch or punch be sure to:

Only include one feature in a notch or punch definition. If you select more than one feature, the group is treated as a regular UDF – you are not asked for tool information. If you try and place a regular notch or punch UDF an incomplete UDF warning appears because the notch or punch cannot be used in manufacturing. To create more than one cut for your notch or punch use a cut with more than one contour in its section.

• •

Include a coordinate system in the section sketch. You need the coordinates for manufacturing and tool axis symmetry. You cannot create or place the UDF without a coordinate system. Enter the proper tool ID for the UDF. The tool ID refers to that same tool when and where ever you use the UDF. When creating notch or punch UDFs, consider:

Limiting the number of references you use. The more references used in creating the cut, the more will be needed when placing the UDF. One way to decrease the UDF references is to click No when asked if your sketched lines should be aligned. What is the minimum number of references you can have? (The least I’ve had was 4)

• • • • • •

Creating notches intended to relieve bends after creating and unbending the bend. You can use the bend geometry to place, dimension and align the notch. Creating datum plane references on the fly when setting up the sketching plane. This eliminates creating extra datum planes before placing the UDF. Locating all dimension references to sheet metal edges rather than datum planes. The edge location carries the UDF as the sheet metal is bent and unbent. It also eliminates creating extra datum planes before placing the UDF. Using relations in the reference part to reduce the number of variable dimensions needed when placing the notch or punch. (Relation example: Cut height is always 0.5 of wall height.) Creating punch axis points while sketching the cut. These special datum points are unbent and bent back with the feature. You can dimension to them in drawings. When you are creating a table-driven notch or punch, you can modify any tool name instance for in the table. About Bends A bend forms the sheet metal wall into an angular or roll shape. You sketch a bend line and determine the bend's direction with direction arrows or your sketching view. The bend line is a reference point for calculating the developed length and creating the bend geometry. Bends can be added at any time during the design process, as long as a wall feature exists. You can add bends across form features, but you cannot add them where they cross another bend. Depending on where you place the bend in your sheet metal design, you may need to add bend relief. There are two main types of bends: Angle—Bend a specific radius and angle. Direction arrows determine the bend location. The angle bend either forms on one side of the bend line or equally on both sides.

Roll—Bend a specific radius and angle, which is determined by both the radius and the amount of flat material to bend. Sketching view affects the bend location. The roll bend forms in the direction you view your sketch. If you intend to roll the material in a spiral, be conscious of the material length. Your roll bend will fail if the material bends through itself. There are three bend options available for each angle or roll bend: Regular Bend w/Transition Bend Planar Bend

Create a normal bend with no transition surfaces.

Deform the surface between the bend and an area you want to keep flat.

Create a bend around an axis that is perpendicular to the green surface and the sketching plane.

Note:

• • • •

You cannot copy a bend with the mirror option. While you can generally unbend zero-radius bends, you cannot unbend bends with slanted cuts across them. Bends can improve wall stiffness by increasing the moment of inertia. You can modify the developed length of a bend area using the DEV LENGTH menu. If you do modify the developed length, remember that revising the developed length only affects unbent geometry and does not affect the bend back features. About Bend Radius The bend radius determines the angle of the bend. Bends are made along the axis of the radius. You can dimension bends in the following ways: Specified Surface Inside of Bend Outside of Bend

(White Side or Green Side)

(Inside Rad) Sheet metal parts typically dimension to the inside radius.

(Outside Rad)

Make sure you add material thickness to the desired radius. If you create the bend when adding an extruded wall, you can thicken the sketch section and re-dimension to the inside of the bend. For extruded or swept walls, you can specify No Radius and manually sketch the radius in the section. Zero-Radius Bends You can enter zero for the bend radius. The resulting geometry shows a sharp edge on the side to which the bend is dimensioned. If you want the geometry to show a radius, enter a very small value (0.0001). For sheet metal thickness this should not matter. You can generally unbend zero-radius bends. If you want to unbend the sheet metal part make sure the bend has a small radius. You cannot unbend bends with slanted cuts across them. Zero-bend Radius (outside radius) Zero-bend Radius (inside radius)

About Bend Relief Bend relief helps control the sheet metal material behavior and prevents unwanted deformation. For example, an unrelieved bend might not represent the accurate, real life model you need due to material stretching. By adding the appropriate bend relief, like RipRelief, your sheet metal bend will meet your design intent and enable you to create an accurate flat model. After you sketch and regenerate the bend, the RELIEF menu appears with the following relief options:

• • • • •

No Relief—Create the bend without any relief. StrtchRelief—Stretch the material to provide relief where the bend crosses an existing edge of the fixed material. RipRelief—Cut the material at each bend endpoint. The cuts are made normal to the bend line. RectRelief—Add a rectangular relief at each bend endpoint. ObrndRelief—Add an obround relief at each bend endpoint. No Relief StrtchRelief Rip Relief RectRelief ObrndRelief

You can either assign bend relief individually or you can set automatic bend relief using the SMT_DFLT_BEND_REL_TYPE default. About Bend Lines Bend lines determine the location and shape for the bend geometry in your sheet metal parts. You sketch a bend line and determine the bend's direction with direction arrows or your sketching view. The bend line is a reference point for calculating the developed length and creating the bend geometry. The behavior of the bend geometry is determined by the bend line location, the bend angle, and the fixed geometry. Bend Line Sketch

1. Bend line 2. Fixed geometry Bend One Bend Two Bend Three

You can adjust the bend line to make the resulting bend geometry coplanar with the side of the sheet metal. Make sure any added bend relief does not exceed the developed length of the bend.

Non-coplanar Surfaces

Coplanar Surfaces

1. Original bend line 2. Fixed geometry and bend side

3. Adjusted bend line 4. Fixed geometry and bend side BLA = L - ( R + T )

Where: BLA = Bend line adjustment L = Developed length of the bend (determined from a bend table or formula) R = Inside radius of the bend T = Thickness of the sheet metal RL = Relief length ( = cutback length in rip relief)

About Bend Line Notes Bend line notes describe basic information about the bend type, bend direction, and bend angle. The bend line notes are automatically created for each bend in your design. Because the notes are parametric and aligned with the bend they, enable you to easily provide drawing dimensions and bend annotations, which allow manufacturers to program their bending machines, locate punch positions, and create dimension inspection documents. Example: Bend Line Note

90° You can add bend line notes to drawings and the bend line notes are also present in any flat state instances you create. You can customize both the display order and bend line note symbols used in your designs. You can change the order of the note elements by setting the smt_bend_notes_order configuration option. You can customize the default bend line note symbols or create your own symbols by modifying the symbol source files. The following table defines each bend line note element: Bend Line Note Element Bend Type Formed Inside bend radius is equal to or smaller than ten-times the sheet metal thickness. (Inside Bend Radius =< Thickness * 10) Rolled Inside bend radius is greater than ten- times the sheet metal thickness. (Inside Bend Radius > Thickness * 10) Description Default Symbol

Bend Direction Up Down Bend Angle Inside Radius is on the sheet metal's green surface. Inside Radius in on the sheet metal's white surface.

Pro/E measures the inside angle of the bend. The bend angle displays according to the format set in the ang_units configuration option.

45°

In order for bend line notes to display, the last feature in your active part design must be a Flat Pattern feature and the following conditions must be met:

• • • •

Bend Notes must be enabled (View > Sheetmetal Notes > Bend Notes). 3D Notes must be enabled (Utilities > Environment). Notes must be selected to display in your model tree (Settings > Tree Filters). smt_bend_notes_dflt_display (configuration option) is set to yes. Note: The default for bend line notes is yes. In order to not see the bend line notes you need to set the configuration option to no. To Customize Bend Line Notes You can customize each of the symbols used in bend line notes (formed, rolled, up, and down). 1. Make a backup copy of the following files, the backup will be used to restore the original files: <loadpoint>/text/usascii/special.src <loadpoint>/<machine_type>/text/usascii/special.fnt

• •

2.Open <loadpoint>/text/usascii/special.src with an appropriate file editor and make the desired
modify the file remember that "m" means move, "d" means draw, and numbers are x and y coordinates:

changes. As you

To modify the "rolled bend" text symbol, change the section just after the lines: # Upside-down U rolled bend "code 128 80"

To modify the "formed bend" text symbol, change the section just after the lines: # Formed bend "code 131 83"

To modify the "down arrow" signifying bend down, modify the instructions after the lines: # Down arrow "code 129 81"

To modify the "up arrow" signifying bend up, modify the instructions after the lines: # Up arrow "code 130 82" 3.After completing your modifications, compile the font with the command: <loadpoint>/<machine_type>/obj/compile_font <loadpoint>/text/usascii/special.src <loadpoint>/<machine_type>/text/usascii/special.fnt

Note:

• •

You can copy the .fnt file to another machine's <loadpoint>/<machine_type>/text/usascii/special.fnt of the same machine type. You can copy the .src file between machines of different types, and recompile it on the new machine type. About Regular Bends

A regular bend forms the sheet metal wall, around a neutral bend axis, into angular or roll shapes. You sketch a bend line and determine the location of the bend with direction arrows or sketching view. The regular bend is the bend you will use most often. It has no transition surfaces. There are two types of regular bends available:

• •

Angle—Bends a specific radius and angle. Roll—Bends a specific radius, but the angle is determined by both the radius and the amount of flat material to bend. Bend Line Sketch Regular Bend (Angle) Regular Bend (Roll)

1 Bend line To Create a Regular Bend

1.
2.

Click

or click Insert > Bend Operation > Bend. The OPTIONS menu appears.

Define the type of bend to create: Angle—Create a bend with a specific radius and angle. Roll—Create a bend with a specific radius and an angle, where the angle is determined by both the radius and the amount of flat material to bend.

• •

3.Click Regular on the BEND OPT menu. Click Done. 3.Select the bend table to use and click Done\Return: • •
Part Bend Tbl—Reference the bend table associated with the overall part for developed length. Feat Bend Tbl—Reference an independent bend table for the individual feature for developed length.

5.Define the radius side and click Done/Return: • •
Inside Rad—Measure the radius from the inside surface of the part. Outside Rad—Measure the radius from the outside surface of the part.

6.Select the surface to bend. Reference and sketch the bend line. The bend line must be a line and can only be one
entity. You must align the line ends to the outside edges of the sheet metal wall. When the sketch is complete, click on the sketcher toolbar. The BEND SIDE menu appears. 6.Define the side of the bend line to create the bend:

• • •

Flip—Change the direction of the bend creation. Okay—Accept the selected direction. Both—Create the bend equally on both sides of the bend line.

8.Define the direction in which to make the bend: Okay or Flip—to change the direction.
8.Define the type of bend relief to use:

• •

No Relief—Do not control the bend behavior. w/ Relief—Control the bend behavior at each attachment point:

o

No Relief—Maintain the existing material shape.

o o o o

StrtchRelief—Stretch the existing material. Rip Relief—Rip the existing material. RectRelief—Add a rectangular relief. ObrndRelief—Add an obround relief.

10.Define the relief's width:

o o o o

Thickness—Use a default radius that is equal to the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Thickness * 2—Use a default radius that is twice the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Enter Value—Use the absolute value that you type in the Enter dimension value box. From Table—Select the appropriate radius value from the list. The radii values are defined in the bend table assigned to the part. The From Table command is unavailable if a bend table is not assigned to the part.

11.Type the bend relief's angle and click

.

If necessary, repeat steps 9, 10 and 11 for each highlighted end.

12.Either select one of the standard bend angle values or click Enter Value, and type the exact bend angle value (in
degrees). 12.Define the bend radius:

• • •

Thickness—Use a default radius that is equal to the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Thickness * 2—Use a default radius that is twice the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Enter Value—Use the absolute value that you type in the Enter dimension value box.

14.Click OK on the BEND Options dialog box. The bend is created.
About Planar Bends A planar bend forces the sheet metal wall around an axis that is normal (perpendicular) to the surface and sketching plane. You sketch a bend line and form the planar bend around the axis using direction arrows. While this type of bend is not utilized on the factory floor, it can help you reach your overall design intent. There are two types of planar bend available:

• •

Angle—Bends a specific radius and angle. Roll—Bends a specific radius, but the angle is determined by both the radius and the amount of flat material to bend. Planar Bend Sketch Planar Bend (Angle) Planar Bend (Roll)

Note: The neutral point for a planar bend is placed according to the current y-factor. Bend tables are not applicable. To Create a Planar Bend

1.
2.

Click

or click Insert > Bend Operation > Bend. The OPTIONS menu appears.

Define the type of bend to create: Angle—Create a bend with a specific radius and angle.

Roll—Create a bend with a specific radius and an angle, where the angle is determined by both the radius and the amount of flat material to bend.

3.Click Planar on the BEND OPT menu. Click Done. 3.Select the bend table to use and click Done\Return: • •
Part Bend Tbl—Reference the bend table associated with the overall part. Feat Bend Tbl—Reference an independent bend table for the individual feature.

5.Select the surface to bend. Reference and sketch the bend line. When the sketch is complete, click
toolbar. The BEND SIDE menu appears. 5.Define the side of the bend line to create the bend:

on the sketcher

• • •

Flip—Change the direction of the bend creation. Okay—Accept the selected direction. Both—Create the bend equally on both sides of the bend line.

7.Define the area to remain fixed: Okay or Flip—to change the direction. 7.Either select one of the standard bend angle values or Enter Value, and enter the exact value (in degrees).
7.Define the radius:

• • •

Thickness—Use a default radius that is equal to the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Thickness * 2—Use a default radius that is twice the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Enter Value—Use the absolute value that you type in the Enter dimension value box.

10.Define the side of the bend axis to create the bend: Okay or Flip – to change the direction. 10.Click OK on the BEND Options dialog box. The bend is created.
About w/Transition Bends A w/Transition (with transition) bend shapes one section of a sheet metal plane while leaving another section flat or with different bend conditions. You sketch multiple sections: first the section containing the bend line, then one or more sections to remain flat or bent differently. The flat/bent differently sections are transition areas. You can create one or more transition areas for each with transition bend. Each transition area sketch must consist of two lines. One line needs to be adjacent to the bend area. Sketch this line first. A second line must complete the transition area. There are two types of with transition bends available:

• •

Angle—Bend a specific radius and angle. Roll—Bend a specific radius, but the angle is determined by both the radius and the amount of flat material to bend. The following example shows a w/transition sketch and the resulting roll bend:

w/Transition Bend Sketch

w/Transition Bend (Roll)

1 Bend line 2 Transition area sketch Note:

• •

w/Transition bends do not accept bend relief. If your design calls for a cut in a transition area, either create it before you make the w/Transition bend or by unbending the bend, making the cut, and using the bend back feature. To Create w/ Transition Bend

1.
2.

Click

or click Insert > Bend Operation > Bend. The OPTIONS menu appears.

Define the type of bend to create: Angle—Create a bend with a specific radius and angle. Roll—Create a bend with a specific radius and an angle, where the angle is determined by both the radius and the amount of flat material to bend.

• •

3.Click w/Transition on the BEND OPT menu. Click Done. 3.Select the bend table to use and click Done\Return: • •
Part Bend Tbl—Reference the bend table associated with the overall part. Feat Bend Tbl—Reference an independent bend table for the individual feature.

5.Define the radius side and click Done/Return: • •
Inside Rad—Measure the radius from the inside surface of the part. Outside Rad—Measure the radius from the outside surface of the part.

6.Select the surface to bend. Reference and sketch the bend line. When the sketch is complete, click
sketcher toolbar. The BEND SIDE menu opens. 6.Define the side of the bend line to create the bend:

on the

• • •

Flip—Change the direction of the bend creation. Okay—Accept the selected direction. Both—Create the bend equally on both sides of the bend line.

8.Define the direction in which to make the Bend: Okay or Flip—to change the direction.
8.Define the references for the transition area. The previous line “grays out.” 8.Sketch the transition area(s). The first line you sketch dictates the side that should remain bent. If you want to define another transition area, type Yes. Otherwise, type No. 11.Select one of the standard bend angle values or select Enter Value to enter the exact value (in degrees)

11.Define the radius:

• • •

Thickness—Use a default radius that is equal to the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Thickness * 2—Use a default radius that is twice the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Enter Value—Use the absolute value that you type in the Enter dimension value box.

13.Click OK on the BEND Options dialog box. The bend is created.
About Unbends The unbend feature flattens any curved surface on the sheet metal part, whether it is a bend feature or a curved wall. There are three types of unbend available:

• • •

Regular—Unbends most bends in a part. You select an existing bend or wall feature to unbend. If you select all bends, you create a flat pattern of your part. Transition—Unbends undevelopable surfaces, such as blended walls. You select stationary surfaces and specify a crosssectional curve to determine the shape of the unbend feature. Xsec Driven—Unbends undevelopable surfaces, such as hems and flanges. You select stationary surfaces and specify a cross-sectional curve to determine the shape of the unbend feature. When creating an unbend you are asked to designate a surface or edge to remain fixed. Your choice changes the default view of your model. Try to pick major surfaces that you want to keep in the same position. If possible, be consistent and use the same surface when creating several unbend features. You can save design time and maintain consistency by setting an automatic fixed geometry element (Set Up > Fixed Geom). Features created after the unbend are children/dependent on the unbend. If you are only temporarily unbending the part and do not need the unbend to maintain your design intent, you should delete the unbend. By keeping it, you are merely crowding the model tree with extra features that slow down part regeneration. Remember, if you delete an unbend that has features created after it, those additional features will also delete. To sketch the flat state of walls that cannot be unbent due to complicated and non-regular geometry, use the Metamorph option. With the DEFORM CONTROL menu you can highlight and sketch contours of corresponding deformation areas. The formed state of the wall suppresses and that flat state becomes active after the unbend feature creation. The DEFORM CONTROL menu is available in the unbend dialog box when you select Unbend All. Unbending Undevelopable Surfaces Undevelopable (deformed) surfaces, like wall features with complex curved surfaces, typically must be unbent for manufacture. To unbend the deformed material the unbend must be simple. The defining rule is that all surfaces to be unbent must either have an outside edge or be adjacent to an area that has an outside edge. The outside edge or adjacent area serves as a way for the deformation to escape and the material to stretch. Developed length is not calculated for unbent deform areas. Note: If your unbend fails and you receive an error message citing undevelopable regions, try one of the following:

• • •

Regular Unbend with Surface Rip—Remove the existing surface(s) between the undevelopable regions and outside edges. Regular Unbend with Edge Rip—Make a tear along the surface edge that extends from the undevelopable region to the outside. Think of the edge rip as a contact between an enclosed undevelopable region and the outside. Regular Unbend with Deform Areas—Divide an existing surface into a number of smaller adjacent ones. One or more of the smaller surfaces contacts an enclosed undevelopable surface. Likewise, one or more of the smaller surfaces contacts an outside edge.

Sketch Unbend with Deformed Areas—Sketch the flat state of the deformation area using the Metamorph option. To Unbend Undevelopable Surfaces

1. 2.
3. 4.

Click

or click Insert > Bend Operation > Unbend. The UNBEND OPT menu appears.

Click Regular. Click Done. Select the plane or edge to remain fixed during the unbend. Define the sections to unbend:

• •

UnbendSelect—Select specific bend surfaces to unbend. Click Done Sel > Done Refs after picking all the desired bends. Unbend All—Unbend all bends and curved surfaces. 5.Select the surface(s) to deform. They need to have an edge on the outside of the part.

5.Click Done Sel. The FEATURE REFS menu appears. 5.Click Done Refs after picking all desired deform areas. 5.Click OK on the Unbend dialog box. The unbend is created.
About Punch Axis Points A punch axis point is a reference point that moves with a feature during both the unbend and bend back operations. You must set the punch_axis_points configuration option to enable such points. 1. Placement of punch axis point, in Sketcher. 2. Cut with resulting punch axis point and datum point.

3. Unbent part, displaying actual positions of punch axis and datum points.

• •

Like a regular datum point, the punch axis point appears in the part, has a standard point symbol, and an assigned name (for example, PNT0). Unlike a regular datum point, the punch axis point is not a separate feature. The point moves with the placement plane of its parent feature during the unbend and bend back operations. It is comparable to the feature axis in a revolved cut in part mode.

You can dimension to a punch axis point in detail drawings. To Create a Punch Axis Point Make sure the punch_axis_points configuration option is set to yes (Utilities > Options). Begin creating the desired cut, punch, or notch in your sheet metal design. Complete the following steps while defining the feature:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Click Insert > Datum > Point. You are prompted for two placement points. One placement point is for the punch axis point, the second is for the corresponding datum point. Select the point placements and then click Done/Select. You are prompted for plane and edge references. Select the plane or edge references and then click Done/Select. Type the desired distances/coordinates for the punch axis points and click Continue defining the cut, punch, or notch feature. . The punch axis points are created.

Best Practices: Unbend and Bend Back Remember, the proper use of the unbend and bend back features is very important for robust design. Consider these best practices when utilizing the unbend and bend back features:

• •

Do not add unnecessary pairs of unbend/bend back features; they inflate the part size and might cause problems at regeneration. If you add an unbend feature (or bend back) feature just to see how your model looks flattened (unbent), delete the sample unbend feature before proceeding with your design.

If you specifically want to create features in a flattened state you should add an unbend feature. Create the features you need in the flattened state and then add a bend back feature. Do not delete the unbend feature in this case, features that reference the unbend feature might fail regeneration.

If you want a projected datum curve to follow a sheet metal bend, project the curve after creating an unbend feature. The curve will follow the sheet metal surface when you bend back the sheet metal wall. About Regular Unbends A regular unbend is a generic unbend that applies to almost all sheet metal unbends. You can unbend both a wall and a bend, the material must be developable and able to unbend. You cannot unbend nonruled surfaces using a regular unbend feature. You have the option of unbending all surfaces and bends or selecting specific areas:

• •

UnbendSelect—Select specific bend surfaces to unbend. Unbend All—Unbend all bends and curved surfaces. Formed Part Unbend Select Unbend All

After you unbend an area you can continue to add features, like cuts and rips. Remember, the features following the unbend are children/dependent on the unbend. If you delete the unbend the features will also delete. If you are temporarily viewing the unbent model, be sure to delete the unbend feature before adding features. The unnecessary features can slow down part regeneration and development time. If you add walls that intersect when they are unbent, Pro/E highlights the intersecting edges in red and warns you with a prompt.

To Create a Regular Unbend

1. 2.
3. 4.

Click

or click Insert > Bend Operation > Unbend. The UNBENT OPT menu appears.

Click Regular. Click Done. Select the plane or edge to remain fixed during the unbend. Define the sections to unbend: UnbendSelect—Select specific bend surfaces to unbend. Click Done Sel > Done Refs after picking all the desired bends.

• •

Unbend All—Unbend all bends and curved surfaces.

5.Click OK on the Unbend dialog box. The unbend is created
About Transition Unbends A transition unbend flattens non-developable geometry that cannot be unbent with a regular unbend. Non-developable geometry has bending in more than one direction. The transition geometry is temporarily removed from the model, so you must define that geometry to utilize the feature. The developable surfaces can then unbend. The transition geometry is placed back into the flat pattern. After you unbend an area you can continue to add features, like cuts and rips. Remember, the features following the unbend are children/dependent on the unbend. If you delete the unbend the features will also delete. If you are temporarily viewing the unbent model, be sure to delete the unbend feature before adding features. The unnecessary features can slow down part regeneration and development time. To Create a Transition Unbend

1. 2.
3.

Click

or click Insert > Bend Operation > Unbend. The UNBEND OPT menu appears.

Click Transition. Click Done. Define any planes or edges to remain fixed during the unbend. The selected entities highlight. Remember, both the green and white sides of a surface must be selected for the selection to be valid.

4.
5.

Click Done Sel > Done Refs after picking all the desired planes and edges. Define any surfaces to be deformed and complete the transition unbend feature.

About Xsec­Driven Unbends A Xsec Driven (cross section) unbend… You can unbend undevelopable sheet metal geometry, like walls curved in more than one direction. The unbend consists of a series of cross sections along a curve that are projected onto a plane. The cross section term refers to the curve you use to influence the shape of the unbent wall. You can either select an existing curve or sketch a new curve. Whether you select or sketch the curve it must be coplanar with the fixed edges you define. If you sketch the curve be sure to dimension/align the curve. The curve you select or sketch will affect the unbent state of the part. Remember, the curve can be a straight line. Sheet Metal Part Xsec Driven Unbend

After you unbend an area you can continue to add features, like cuts and rips. Remember, the features following the unbend are children/dependent on the unbend. If you delete the unbend the features will also delete. If you are temporarily viewing the unbent model, be sure to delete the unbend feature before adding features. The unnecessary features can slow down part regeneration and development time. You can not bend back a cross section unbend. Note: The cross sections created must not intersect within the unbent geometry. To Create a Xsec­Driven Unbend

1. 2.
3.

Click

or click Insert > Bend Operation > Unbend. The UNBENT OPT menu appears.

Click Xsec Driven. Click Done. Select the needed attach chain and options on the CHAIN menu

4.Click Done after selecting the edges needed.
4.Define the curve to control the cross sections as they unbend:

• •

Select Curve—Select a curve on a plane that is coplanar with the fixed edges. Sketch Curve—Sketch the cross section curve. The curve can be a straight line.

6.Define the side of the bend to remain fixed: Okay or Flip—to change the direction. 6.Click OK on the Xsec Driven Type dialog box. The unbend is created.

About Bend Back The bend back feature enables you to return unbent surfaces to their formed position. As a rule you should only bend back a fully unbent area. Bent Part Bend Back All Bend Back Select

Note:

• • •

If you partially bend back a regular unbend containing a deform area the original bent condition might not be obtainable. Pro/SHEETMETAL examines the contours of each bend back section. Contours partially intersecting a bend area are highlighted. You are prompted to confirm whether the section bend back or remain flat. You can not bend back a cross section (Xsec-Driven) unbend To Create a Bend Back

1. 2.
3.

Click

or click Insert > Bend Operation > Bend Back. The BEND BACK dialog box appears.

Select the plane or edge to remain fixed while you unbend the part. The BENDBACKSEL menu appears. Define the section to bend back: Bend Back Sel—Bend back selected sections. Bend Back All—Bend back all sections. If you chose to bend back selected sections:

• •

o o o

Select the surface or edge to bend back. Be sure to select an UNBEND feature. Click Done Sel. The FEATURE REFS menu appears. Click Done Refs.

If you chose to bend back all sections:

o

Click Done.

4.Click OK on the BEND BACK dialog box. The part bends back.
About Corner Relief Corner relief helps control the sheet metal material behavior and prevents unwanted deformation. To utilize the corner relief option you must have at least one ripped edge and the 3D notes turned on (Utilities > Environment). You can create four types of corner relief: No Relief None Circular Obround

No relief is added. The corner retains the default V-notch characteristic.

Generate a square corner. The default V-notch characteristic is removed.

Add a circular relief. The corner has a circular section removed.

Add an obround relief. The corner has an obround section removed.

There are four possible ways to apply corner relief to bends or converted parts:

Create the corner relief as a feature ( Feature > Create > Corner Relief)

• • •

Create default relief automatically while unbending (Set Up > Corner Relief) Create default relief for all corners in the model or part templates (Set Up > Parameters) Define the corner relief in the conversion feature dialog box (Feature > Create > Conversion) You can use and dimension corner relief that is smaller than the deformation area bordered by the tangent lines of the intersecting bends. To Create Corner Relief (Feature)

1. 2.
3.

Click

or click Insert > Corner Relief. The GET SELECT menu appears.

Select the 3D Note(s) needing similar corner relief. Click Done Sets. Define the corner relief to apply: No Relief—No relief is added. The corner retains the rip characteristic. None—Generates a square corner. The default V-notch characteristic is removed. Circular—Adds a circular relief. The corner has a circlular section removed. Obround—Adds an obround relief. The corner has an obround section removed.

• • • •

4.Define the dimensions for the relief:

• • •

Thickness—Uses a default radius that is equal to the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Thickness * 2—Uses a default radius that is twice the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Enter Value—Uses the absolute value that you type in the Enter dimension value box. To relieve another corner, click Add. Click Done Sets after selecting all desired corners.

5.Click OK on the CORNER RELIEF dialog box. The corner relief is created.
To Set Corner Relief (Default)

1. 2. 3.
4.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Corner Relief. The CRNR TYPE menu appears. Define the type of relief to use as the default: No Relief—No relief is added. The corner retains the rip characteristic. None—Generate a square corner. The default V-notch characteristic is removed. Circular—Add a circular relief. The corner has a circlular section removed. Obround—Add an obround relief. The corner has an obround section removed.

• • • •

5.Define the dimensions for the relief:

• • •

Thickness—Use a default radius that is equal to the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Thickness * 2—Use a default radius that is twice the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Enter Value—Use the absolute value that you type in the Enter dimension value box.

6.Click Done/Return. The default corner relief is set.
About Deformation Areas A deformation area is a section of sheet metal that helps to accurately stretch the material when you unbend the sheet metal part. You may need to create these areas when unbending sections that:

• •

Do not extend to the edge of the model Bend in more than one direction

The deformation area acts as a bridge between the multiple direction bend section and the outside edges of the part. The deformation area must be tangent to both the undevelopable surface and an outside edge. Multi-direction Bends Distorted Surfaces Deformation Areas

1 Multi-direction bends

2 Undesirable surface distortion upon regular unbend

3 Accurate stretching due to deformation areas

You can either create the deformation area before unbending the section or you can define the area during the unbend. To prevent undesirable distortion, it is recommended that you define the deformation area before unbending and then use it as the fixed surface during the unbend. The developed length of unbent sheet metal geometry reflects the proper values. Pro/SHEETMETAL approximates deformation area geometry by attaching vertices with a line segment. The geometry does not become thinner or thicker. Because developed length is typically determined empirically, you sketch the deformation area geometry. Deformation Area Sketch

4 Multi-direction bend section 5 Deformation area sketch Note:

• •

You can use a deformation feature to define edges for edge rips or to split surfaces for bend line development. You can add features to deformation areas when the areas are unbent. Be sure to bend back the area after you add any features. To Create a Deformation Area

1. 2.

Click

or click Insert > Bend Operation > Deform Area. The DEFORM AREA dialog box opens and the SETUP

PLANE menu appears. Reference and sketch the deform area. The deformation area must be a closed section, in contact with the undevelopable region, and have an outside edge. When the sketch is complete, click on the sketcher toolbar.

Sketching Technique: Select a common edge between the undevelopable region and the deformation area. Click Use Edge from the GEOM TOOLS menu. Then select the outside edge of the deform area and two points on that outside edge as vertices. Connect the two outside edge vertices to the vertices of the undevelopable surface on the common edge.

3.Click OK on the DEFORM AREA dialog box. The deform area is created.

About Edge Bends An edge bend converts nontangent, box-type edges to bends. Depending on the material side you choose to thicken, some edges appear rounded while others have distinctly sharp edges. The edge bend option enables you to quickly round the edge. Sharp, Nontangent Edges Edge Bends

By default, the bend parameters are set to the following values:

• • •

Bend Table—Part Bend Table Radius Type—Inside Radius Radius—Default radius, else Thickness. If your design requires different bend parameters you can either change the entire model’s bend parameters or you can customize the values for each edge individually by redefining specific edges. To Create an Edge Bend

1. 2. 3.

Click

or click Insert > Edge Bend. The Edge Bend dialog box opens and the Bend Pieces menu appears in the

Menu Manager. Select the edge or edges to bend and then click Done Sets. Click OK on the Edge Bend dialog box. The edge bend is created.

To Customize an Edge Bend

1. 2.
3.

Click PART > Feature. The FEAT menu appears. Click Redefine. The SELECT FEAT menu appears. Select the desired edge bend from the model tree – or – select the desired edge bend from the graphics window. The edge bend highlights on the model.

4. 5. 6. •

Select Edge Bend on the EDGE BEND dialog box. Click Define. The BEND PIECES and PIECE SEL menus appear. Select the edge piece(s) to customize. Each edge you select is subject to any value change. Click Done after selecting all desired edges. The Redefine Bend Settings dialog box opens. Select the bend element you want to redefine. Click Define. The appropriate menus open for each element: Bend Table –

ο ο •

Part Bend Tbl—Reference the bend table associated with the overall part. Feat Bend Tbl—Reference an independent bend table for the individual feature.

Radius Type –

o o •

Inside Rad—Measure the radius from the inside surface of the part. Outside Rad—Measure the radius from the outside surface of the part.

Radius –

o

Thickness—Use a default radius that is equal to the thickness of the sheet metal wall.

o o

Thickness * 2—Use a default radius that is twice the thickness of the sheet metal wall. Enter Value—Use the absolute value that you type in the Enter dimension value box.

7.On the BEND PIECES dialog box, click OK. You return to the EDGE BEND dialog box.
If you have redefined all the desired edge bend(s), click Done Sets. If you want to change additional edges, click Redefine.

8.Click OK on the EDGE BEND dialog box. The edge bend is customized.
About Sheet Metal Inheritance Features Sheet metal inheritance merges geometry and feature data from a reference (base) part to your existing (target)sheet metal part. Because inheritance is a one-way associate merge, the data moves from the base to the target without physically modifying the design model. Inheritance features are useful in sheet metal because different factories manufacturing your product may have slight variations in tool shapes. Inheritance enables you to submit the same model design to multiple manufactures, who in turn use inheritance features to adjust the design data for manufacture in their factory without modifying your design. Finally, you merge the data and create the feature, however you can still make post-merge changes like dimension and feature status modifications. Inheritance Feature Behavior (Sheet Metal) In general, sheet metal inheritance features behave the same as Part mode inheritance features. Each feature type uses a reference part and requires you to specify geometry and feature data applicable for change. The features also enable you to make post-merge changes, such as dimension and feature status modifications. Like Part mode inheritance features, sheet metal inheritance features always use reference (base) parts to obtain geometry and feature data. The following list highlights some key sheet metal inheritance feature characteristics. See the Advanced Assembly Extension module for more information on using inheritance features:

If the existing (target) sheet metal part includes a FIRST WALL feature then the reference (base) part can not contain solid geometry, even if the base part is a sheet metal part. The base part can only contain nonsolid geometry such as datums and surfaces.

• •

If the existing (target) sheet metal part does not include a FIRST WALL feature then the reference (base) part can either contain solid sheet metal geometry or nonsolid geometry, such as datums and surfaces. You can not create inheritance features for existing (target) and reference (base) features that contain a Thicken feature. If the target part contains a Thicken feature the inheritance command is not available. If the base part contains a Thicken feature you are prompted with an error message.

The thickness of the sheet metal wall is driven by the FIRST WALL feature, which can be in either the reference (base) part or the existing (target) part. You can remove this thickness dependency by adjusting the VAR DIMS or DEPENDENCY options in the inheritance feature dialog box. Set the DEPENDENCY option to Independent.

• •

Inheritance features containing a FIRST WALL feature can not be suppressed (added to the Var Feats list) or erased. Bend allowance measurements are calculated using the bend allowance from the part the feature is in. For example, a feature created in the reference (base) part will be calculated according to the base model bend allowance. A feature created in the existing (target) part will be calculated according to the target model bend allowance.

• • • • • •

Relations can not be added to the VAR DIMS list because they are 'read only.' The sheet metal bend radius is only accessible for the VAR DIMS list if you define the radius as a numeric value. For example, d1 = 15 enables you to add the radius to the list while d1 = smt_thickness() does not. The sheet metal developed length is only accessible for the VAR DIMS list if you define the developed length as a numeric value. For example, L = 15 enables you to add the developed length to the list. Any part Set Up commands (sheet metal parameters table, corner relief, bend order) are taken from the existing (target) part. You can copy more than one inheritance feature into a target part. Sheet metal inheritance features have the same capabilities with relations, parameters, redefining, and modifying. To Create a Sheet Metal Inheritance Feature

1. 2. 3.
4.

Click Insert > Shared Data > Inheritance from Other Model. The LOCATE MDL menu appears and the Inheritance dialog box opens. Either click Select and select the reference (base) part from an open window or click Open and open the appropriate base part. The LOCATION menu appears. Either click Default and use automatic coordinate system selection or click Coord Sys and select the appropriate coordinate system. Initially, all data from the reference part are present in the inheritance feature. Define the data for the following inheritance feature options:

• • •

Attributes—Add or remove material geometry. Varied Dimensions—Select specific dimensions propagated from the reference part. These dimensions will be added to the Varied Dimensions table. You may then change the value of the dimension in the table by entering a new value. Varied Features—Select the features propagated from the reference part that you would like to define as variable. You may then choose to suppress or erase the variable feature before creating the inheritance feature. If you choose not to suppress a variable feature upon creation of the inherited feature, you will be allowed to suppress that feature within the inheritance feature later. You can resume suppressed features.

• • •

Variable Parameters—Select and modify parameter values while preserving the same type, context, and attributes of the base model. Detail Item—Select and modify geometry tolerances. Copy Notes—Define whether 3D notes are copied to the inheritance feature. In Pro/ENGINEER, 3D notes can be copied to the derived object, but cannot be modified in the derived object. Inherited 3D notes can not be deleted or erased except by using the Copy Notes option in the inheritance feature.

Dependency—Make the Inheritance feature dependent or independent of the reference part. Making an inheritance feature Dependent will create a dependency between the derived object and the reference part. If changes are made in the reference part, they will be reflected in the derived object. An independent inheritance feature will not update when the reference part is modified. Use the Global Reference Viewer to show external dependencies.

5.Click OK on the Inheritance dialog box. The inheritance feature is created.
About Preparing for Manufacture Manufacturing preparation helps ensure that your sheet metal design can actually be manufactured. You can analyze your design's geometry, obtain reports, and create flat versions of your model. By making manufacturing preparations you can isolate any problem areas and correct them before they reach the factory floor. You can use the following options to prepare your model for manufacture:

• • • • •

Reports—Obtains information on bends, radii, and specific design rules established for your sheet metal part. Flat Pattern—Flattens your sheet metal part when the design is complete. Measurement—Determines any curve lengths, angles, surface areas, or distances for the sheet metal part. Surface Analysis—Evaluates your ability to unbend the sheet metal part. Flat State—Flattens your sheet metal part at various stages in the design process. About Reports Reports provide information on bends, radii, and specific design rules established for your sheet metal part. The reports enable you to investigate your design and to ensure that it adheres to company standards. Reports are typically needed before manufacturing the part. Each report displays in a separate window. You can view, edit, or save each report to a file. You can access three types of reports:

Bend Report—Lists detailed information about bends in your part. You retrieve information on the overall calculation parameters for the bends. The report lists information on bends assigned to a Feat Bend Tbl and bends that are not 90 degrees. The report also provides part information, including the part name, material code, thickness, and the appropriate bend allowance (y- or y-factor, or bend table).

Radii Report—Lists detailed information about the bend radii in your part. The report lists any bend radii that do not match the values in an assigned bend table or the default radius (that is you chose the Enter Value command). You retrieve the feature ID, dimension parameter name, and the radius value. The report also provides part information, including the part name, material code, thickness, and appropriate bend allowance (y- or y-factor, or bend table).

Design Check—Lists detailed information about how your design complies with your defined Design Rules. The report lists any violations in the model. You retrieve the design rule name and formula, the desired and the current rule values, as well as the reference IDs of edge features in violation. In order to obtain this report, you must first define a rule table (Design Rules) and assign it to your sheet metal part. Only planar walls are checked.

To Access Reports

1.
2.

Click Info > Sheetmetal. The Sheetmetal Info dialog box opens. Click the desired report. You can only access one report at a time. Bend Report—List detailed information about bends in your part. Radii Report—List detailed information about the bend radii in your part. Design Check—List detailed information about how your design complies with the assigned design rules.

• • •

3.Define where to output the results to:

• •

Screen—Open the report in a separate window. File—Save the report in the part's working directory.

4.Click OK. The report is processed.

About Flat Patterns A flat pattern is equivalent to the unbend all feature, it flattens any curved surface, whether it is a bend feature or a curved wall. However, unlike the unbend all, the flat pattern feature automatically jumps to the end of the model tree to maintain the flat model view. Sheet Metal Part Flat Pattern (with Bend Notes)

The flat pattern is helpful if you are constantly toggling between the solid and flat versions of the design. If you add new features to your design the flat pattern suppresses. It automatically resumes after the feature is added. If you do not want to flip between the flat pattern and solid views for each new feature, manually suppress and resume the flat pattern as needed. Sometimes you need to tweak the flattened version of your design to ensure the manufactured version is accurate You can create a flat pattern early in your design process so you can simultaneously create and detail your sheet metal design. Note: You can only create one flat pattern per part; after you create it, the flat pattern option becomes unavailable. To Create a Flat Pattern

1.
2.

Click

or click Insert > Bend Operation > Flat Pattern. The GET SEL menu appears.

Select a plane or edge to remain fixed when the part is unbent or bent back. The flat pattern is created.

Example: Tweaked Flat Pattern Sometimes you need to tweak the flattened version of your design to ensure the manufactured version is accurate. For example, you may need to modify the corner of an flattened box to account for unwanted deformation during the unbending process. If you add a tweak feature to an unbent sheet metal part generally you must suppress the protrusion before you can bend the model back. Tweaked Flat Pattern

1. Box with rounded sides and top. Vertical round surfaces ripped out.

2. Box flattened with Flat Pattern feature. Note the deformations at the corners after unbending.

3. Flat Protrusion feature added to tweak the corner geometry.

About Flat States A flat state is a completely unbent copy of your part. It streamlines the creation of flat patterns needed in manufacturing because you can create any number of flat states, at any time in your design process, whether your part is fully formed or fully flat. Flat states are managed with family tables. With the flat state commands you can:

• •

Produce a new flat state instance with the Create command. Transfer any features you added specifically to a flat state from the flat state to the generic part with the Update command. The only exceptions are features you specifically suppressed. You can then delete or suppress desired features which, in turn, are deleted or suppressed in any other flat state in that part's family table.

List the flat state instances related to the generic part you have open with the Show command. Select a flat state instance and it opens in a separate window. You can make any needed design changes. Fully Formed Part Flat State (original) Flat State (modified)

While flat states are copies of the generic part, you can edit individual flat state instances to make any necessary modifications. Any new features you add to a flat state are enabled in that specific flat state instance but suppressed in the generic part. Any features you delete from a flat state are suppressed in the specific flat state instance but still enabled in the generic part. Keep in mind that any features you add to the generic part, after you create the flat state, are added to all flat state instances. When you create a flat state instance it automatically adds to the generic part's family table. And every feature change you make in the flat state instance records in the generic part's family table. A new feature receives a new column. A deleted feature also receives a new column, unless the appropriate column already exists. Note: Features added to flat state instances behave like features added to regular family table parts. However, if you suppress a flat protrusion or unbend, you cannot resume them with the Resume > All command. You must resume those features individually (Resume > Feat ID or Resume >By Table). To Create a Flat State

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Flat State. The FLAT STAT menu appears. Click Create. Type a name for the flat state instance and click .

If this is the first flat state instance for the generic part, the PART STATE menu appears. Define the state the part is in:

Fully flat—Your part is already unbent (or fully flat).

o o o •

Click Fully Flat. The GET SELECT menu appears. Select the unbend features you used to unbend your part. Click Done Sel. Define the state to put the generic part in. Click Yes or No.

Fully formed—Your part is bent (or as designed).

o o o

Click Fully Formed. The GET SELECT menu appears. Select a plane or edge to remain fixed while the part is unbent/bent back. Click OK on the Regular Type dialog box. The FLAT STAT menu appears.

6.Click Done/Return. The flat state is created.
To Show a Flat State

1. 2. 3. 4.
5.

Click PART > Set Up. The PART SETUP menu appears. Click Sheet Metal. The SMT SETUP menu appears. Click Flat State. The FLAT STAT menu appears. Click Show. The Flat Models menu appears, listing all the flat states associated with the part. Select the desired flat state to show. The flat state opens in a separate window.

About Detailing Your Sheet Metal Designs Sheet metal drawings are the blue-prints of your sheet metal design. They enable you to effectively communicate the layout and details needed for manufacture. Because drawings are associative, any changes made to the part are updated in the drawing - and vice versa. The following is a multi-model sheet metal drawing which displays some essential sheet metal detail functionality: Multi-model Sheet Metal Drawing

A Model One

1 Bend order table

B Model Two of the multi-model drawing

2 Bend line notes 3 Driven dimensions

You can document the creation of the part using various views of the part and any usual detailing capabilities. For example, you can:

• • •

Display your part both in a designed condition and in a completely flattened condition, in the same drawing. Sheet metal drawings are typically multi-model drawings. Display bend order tables and bend ID notes for various views and models. Annotate your sheet metal drawing with bend line notes, which contain information about the bend type, bend direction, and bend angle. You can customize which model views display the notes, although generally only the flat view of the model is annotated with bend line notes. While you can customize the position of your bend line notes, the following default placement formats are available in your sheet metal drawings:

o

Horizontal bends:

a.Bend down—Below the bend line. b.Bend up—Above the bend line. o
Vertical bends:

a.The bend line note is below the leader line which is terminated with a dot. You can move

Display the driven dimensions in your design. You can automatically ordinate the dimensions in your drawing using the Automatic command. This command saves you time when detailing and organizing your sheet metal model in drawings. To Create a Sheet Metal Drawing Before proceeding, close all working windows.

1. 2. 3.

Click File > New. The New dialog box opens. Under Type, click Drawing. In the Name box, type a name for your new sheet metal drawing.

o o

If you want to use the default template, click OK. Pro/ENGINEER opens a new drawing. If you want to use a custom template: Clear Use default template and click OK. The New File Options dialog box opens. Browse to the desired template. Click OK. The template file is assigned and Pro/ENGINEER opens a new drawing. Note: If an object type is not supported by a template the Use default template option is not available. For template-supported file types, if you always want to see the New File Options dialog box, set the force_new_file_options_dialog configuration option to Yes. Remember, this configuration setting may be overridden by your system administrator in the config.sup file.

You can now add views of your sheet metal parts, display dimensions, bend line notes, bend order tables, and other detailing information. See the Detailing functional area for information on creating and customizing your sheet metal drawings. To Create Automatic Ordinate Dimensions With your drawing open:

1. 2.

Click Insert > Ordinate. A sub-menu appears. Click Automatic. The ordinate dimensions are added to your drawing. The dimensions contain appropriate jogs, but you can organize them as needed.

To Display Bend Line Notes in Drawings With your drawing open:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Click View > Show and Erase. The Show / Erase dialog box opens. Click Show.

Under Type, click

.

Under Show By, click the option (Feature, Part, View, Feat_View, Part_View, or Show All) where to display the bend line notes. Use the Options and Preview tabs to define what and when the bend notes display.

7.Click Close. The bend line notes display in your drawing.
To Display Bend Order Tables in Drawings With your drawing open:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Click View > Show and Erase. The Show / Erase dialog box opens. Click Show.

Click

.

Click Show All. The Confirm dialog box opens, asking: Are you sure that you want to show all? Click Yes. The bend order table appears in the top left corner of the drawing. The bend ID notes appear on the flattened view. Click Done Sel. The Close button is now available on the Show / Erase dialog box. Click Close. The bend order table and bend ID notes are displayed.

About Quilts In Pro/ENGINEER, when you create or manipulate nonsolid surfaces, you are working with quilts. A quilt represents a "patchwork" of connected nonsolid surfaces. A quilt may consist of a single surface or a collection of surfaces. A quilt contains information describing the geometry of all the surfaces that compose a quilt and information on how quilt surfaces are "stitched" (joined or intersected). A part can contain several quilts. You can create or manipulate quilts using a surface feature. Accessing the Surface Functionality You can access most surface commands through the Insert and Edit menus. Naming a Quilt You can assign a name to an entire quilt or an individual surface using Edit > Setup > Name > Other. To Blank a Quilt To turn off the display of individual quilts, place them on a layer and then blank the layer. You can also right-click and click Hide from the shortcut menu to temporarily blank a quilt. Note: You can blank individual quilts in a merge feature. If the first quilt in the merge is blanked, the whole merge is blanked. If only the second quilt is blanked, the merge will not be blanked. To Assign a Color to a Quilt You can assign a color from the existing user-defined colors to a specified side of a quilt or surface.

1.
2.

Click View > Color and Appearance. The Appearance Editor dialog box opens. Assign the color. Select Surfaces as the object type. Each side can be colored differently, and it is only visible when shaded edges do not change color with this method.

3.

To Shade a Quilt

1. 2. 3. 4.

To shade an entire model, click View > Shade . To set the shading by default, click View > Display Settings > Model Display. The Model Display dialog box opens. Click the General tab and select Shading for the display style. Click OK.

Note:

• •

You can also set the shading by default by setting the shade_surface_feat configuration option. To override the environmental or cosmetic shading selection, click the Shade tab from the Model Display dialog box. Under Shade, click or clear the Surface features check box and click OK.

To Mesh Quilts and Surfaces

1. 2.
3. 4.

Click View > Model Setup > Mesh Surface. The Mesh dialog box opens. Select the object type, Surface or Quilt. Select the surface or quilt for creating a mesh. For a surface, specify the mesh spacing in the first and the second direction. For a quilt, specify the change density. Click Close.

5.

Note: To remove the mesh, redraw the current view (repaint). About Creating a Surface

You can create surface features by using any of the following options on the Insert menu:

Extrude—Creates a quilt by extruding the sketched section at a specified depth in the direction normal to the sketching plane.

When you use Up To Surface as a depth option, the new surface can be extruded to planar surfaces, a quilt, or a datum plane that is parallel to the sketching plane.

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Revolve—Creates a quilt by rotating the sketched section at a specified angle around the first centerline sketched in the section. You can also specify the rotation angle. Sweep—Creates a quilt by sweeping a sketched section along a specified trajectory. You can sketch the trajectory, or use an existing datum curve. Blend—Creates a smooth quilt connecting several sketched sections. Parallel blends can only be Blind. You can also create Rotational or General blends, or blends From File. Boundary Blend—Creates a quilt by selecting boundaries in one or two directions. Variable Section Sweep—Creates a quilt using the variable section sweep geometry Swept Blend—Creates a quilt using swept blend geometry. Helical Sweep—Creates a quilt using helical sweep geometry. Fill—Creates a planar quilt by sketching its boundaries. Offset—Creates a quilt offset from a quilt or surface. Copy—Creates a quilt by copying existing quilts or surfaces. Specify a selection method, and select the surfaces to copy. Pro/ENGINEER creates the surface feature directly on top of the selected surfaces. Fillet—Creates a new quilt from the geometry of a surface-to-surface round between the surfaces of a solid model or quilt. Advanced—Opens the Advanced menu, allowing you to create surfaces using complex feature definitions.

Note: For more information about the creation of surfaces, refer to the Part Modeling module of Pro/ENGINEER Help. Creating a Feature with an Open or Closed Volume When creating a surface feature with Extrude , Revolve , Sweep , or Blend, you can create a quilt that encloses a closed volume by capping the ends of the feature, or you can leave the ends open.

To create a surface feature without closing the ends, click Options from the dashboard and clear the Capped Ends check box. Else, click Capped Ends from the ATTRIBUTES menu. For example, an extruded circular section creates an open-ended tube with the open ends displayed with yellow edges.

To create a surface feature with a closed volume, click Options from the dashboard and click the Capped Ends check box. Else, click Capped Ends from the ATTRIBUTES menu. For example, an extruded circular section would result in a closed cylinder so all edges of the quilt are two-sided, shown in magenta. Note that the section must be closed for this option. To Create a Joined or Unattached Quilt A simple sweep created along the outer edges of another quilt or along datum curves created on these edges can be joined with the reference quilt. A swept blend can be joined along the origin trajectory. Once you have selected a valid reference edge or a datum curve, the SRFS JOIN menu appears with the following options:

• •

Join—Joins the surface feature with the existing quilt. No Join—Creates a surface feature that is not attached to the existing quilt. You can redefine the Join/No Join attribute when you redefine the feature’s trajectory using Modify. About Advanced Surface Features Use Insert > Advanced to create the following advanced surface features:

• • •

Conic Surface and N-sided Patch—Creates a conic quilt and creates a quilt from more than four boundaries. Blend Section To Surfaces—Creates a quilt as a blend from a section to tangent surfaces. Blend Between Surfaces—Creates a quilt as a blend from a surface to tangent surfaces.

• • • • • •

Blend From File—Creates a blended surface from a file. Blend Tangent to Surfaces—Creates a surface as a blend from an edge or a curve to tangent surfaces. Surface Free Form—Creates a surface by dynamic manipulation. Vertex Round—Trims a surface by filleting a flat surface. Silhouette Trim—Trims a quilt by using its outline seen in a particular orientation. Flatten Quilt—Creates a flattened quilt. About Creating a Blended Surface from a File You can create a blended surface by importing curves from a file in the IBL (.ibl) format. You can also redefine the surface by redefining the curve definitions in the .ibl file. Using Associative Topology Bus (ATB), you can relink the changed .ibl file to the surface feature created. This allows ease of design modification without having to create another surface and re-route the old surface references to the new surface. The dependent geometry can easily refer to the changed surface. As the data for the surface feature is stored in the part as well as in the file, even if the file is deleted from the disk, you can still modify the feature. ATB does not support blending a surface from a file for features created prior to the J-03 release of Pro/ENGINEER. You can:

• •

Unlink the feature from the .ibl file to remove the associativity between the feature and the data file. Link another file to the feature. Note: To be able to update the surface when the .ibl file changes, you must set the environmental variable topobus_enable to "yes" in your config.pro file before you start the Pro/ENGINEER session. If the environment variable is set during the Pro/ENGINEER session, it does not work. To Create a Blended Surface from a File

1.

Click Insert > Advanced > Blend From File > Surface Surface. The SURFACE: Blend from File dialog box opens, listing the following elements from the surface feature:

o o

Coord System—Defines the coordinate system for the surface feature to be created. File Name—Specifies the file name from which to create the surface. By default, Pro/ENGINEER searches for this file in the current working directory. When using Pro/INTRALINK, link the .ibl file with respect to the parent part and then export the file from the workspace to the Pro/INTRALINK startup directory. You cannot read the .ibl file from the workspace.

o

MaterialSide—Specifies the side for adding the material. To change the direction, click Flip and then click OK.

2.Click OK to create the defined surface.
To Update a Blended Surface from a File

1. 2.

To redefine and update a blended surface from a file, open the .ibl file and edit it. To update the feature geometry with the changed data file, click File > Associative Topology Bus. The following options are available :

o o o o o o o o

Check Status—Checks the selected feature for outdated imported geometry. Check Status All—Checks all the features for outdated imported geometry. Update—Updates outdated geometry for the selected feature. Update All—Updates outdated geometry for all the features in the active part. Change Link—Changes the file associated to the selected feature. Make Independent—Removes the associativity between the .ibl file and the selected feature created from file. Make Independent All—Removes the associativity between the .ibl files and all the corresponding features in the active part. Auto Check Status on Activate—Automatically verifies outdated features while activating a part.

o o o

Auto Check Status on Retrieve—Automatically verifies outdated features while retrieving a part. This option is selected by default. Auto Check Status on Update—Automatically verifies outdated features while updating a part. Show Log—Shows a log of updates to geometry.

To Create a Conic Surface

1. 2.

Click Insert > Advanced > Conic Surface and N-sided Patch. Click Conic Surf, Shouldr Crv or Tangent Crv, and Done from the BNDRS OPTS menu. A dialog box opens and lists the following elements of the surface feature:

o o

Curves—Specifies geometrical references for this feature. Conic Param—Specifies the conic parameter.

3.The Boundaries option in the CRV_OPTS menu is active. Define opposite boundaries of the conic surface by
selecting two curves or edges.

3.After bounding curves are defined, click Shoulder Crv or Tangent Crv from the OPTIONS menu and select the
conic curve in the same way as you selected bounding curves.

3.Click Done on the OPTIONS menu.
3.Enter the conic parameter value; it must be from 0.05 to 0.95. Sections of the surface are one of the following types, according to their conic parameter value: 0.05 < parameter < 0.5 - ellipse parameter = 0.5 - parabola 0.5 < parameter < 0.95 - hyperbola

7.Conclude feature creation by clicking OK in the dialog box.
Defining a Conic Surface There are two types of conic surfaces listed in the OPTIONS menu:

• •

Shouldr Crv—The surface passes through the control curve. The control curve defines the location of conic shoulders for each cross section of the surface. Tangent Crv—The surface does not pass through the control curve. The control curve defines the line that passes through the intersections of the conic sections’ asymptotes. Rules for selecting curves or edges:

• •

Only single-segment composite curves can be selected as boundary or control curves. When selecting curves or edges with the Chain option, the chain cannot have more than one edge/curve component. Example: Conic Surface This figure shows a conic surface created ShouldrCrv.

1 Boundaries 2 Control curve The next figure shows a conic surface created with the Tangent Crv option.

1 Boundaries 2 Intersection of asymptotes 3 Control curve To Create a Surface from More Than Four Boundaries

1. 2.

Click Insert > Advanced > Conic Surface and N-sided Patch. The BNDRS OPTS menu appears. Click ADV FEAT OPT > Boundaries > Done > N-Sided Surf > Done. The system opens a dialog box and lists elements of the surface feature. They are:

o o 1.

Curves—Specifies geometrical references for this feature. Bndry Conds—(Optional) Defines Boundary Conditions.

Select at least five boundaries in the consecutive order for the N-sided surface. Using the One By One option in the CHAIN menu, select at least five curves or edges forming a loop. When finished, click Done from the CHAIN menu. Note: The boundaries of the N-sided surface cannot include tangent edges/curves.

4.To define Boundary Conditions, click Bndry Cond and Define in the dialog box. The BOUNDARY menu lists all surface
boundaries. As you move the cursor over the boundary name, the corresponding boundary highlights in cyan.

4.Click the boundary for which you want to define Boundary Conditions. For the selected boundary, the system opens a
dialog box with the Bndry Cond element selected for definition.

4.Specify the boundary condition by choosing one of the following options in the BNDRY COND menu, followed by
Done:

o o o

Free—No tangency conditions are set along the boundary. Tangent—The blended surface is tangent to the reference surface along the boundary. Normal—The blended surface is normal to the reference surface or datum plane.

7.For conditions other than Free, accept the defaults or select reference surfaces. 7.To complete the feature creation, click OK in the dialog box.
Tip: Creating an N-Sided Surface The shape of the N-sided patch depends on the geometry of the boundaries to be patched together. For some boundaries, the N-sided patch may produce geometry with undesirable shape and characteristics. For example, bad geometry may occur if

• • •

The boundaries have inflections The angles between the boundary segments are very large (more than 160 degrees) or very small (less than 20 degrees) The boundaries consist of very long and very short segments If the N-sided patch does not create a satisfactory geometry, you can either create a series of N-sided patches on a smaller number of boundaries, or use the Blended Surf functionality.

To Create a Quilt Tangent to a Surface Use Blend Tangent to Surfaces to create a new quilt that is tangent to a surface.

1. 2.
3. 4.

Click Insert > Advanced > Blend Tangent to Surfaces. The dialog box appears and lists feature elements. Specify the trajectory of the tangent draft using options in the CHAIN menu. Select curves on the parting surface to define the trajectory of the nonsolid tangent draft. Specify the pull direction by selecting a plane normal to the pull direction. Select the approximate location on the reference model where the draft should be tangent to the reference above the draft line. It is recommended to pick near the draft curve (if present) above the parting surface. The INSPECT menu appears, allowing you to perform the following actions:

5.

o o o

Change—Modifies the nonsolid tangent draft by changing its pull direction, draft line, point of tangency, or closing its open ends. To close the open ends of the nonsolid tangent draft, you must specify surfaces for which to close. Show—Displays the nonsolid tangent draft. Info—Opens a window listing information about the feature, including parent feature, internal feature ID, and feature name.

Tip: Creating a Solid Draft from a Non-Solid Draft To create a solid draft from a nonsolid draft, you must create a quilt tangent at both sides, cap the ends, and merge the quilted surfaces, then create the solid protrusion with either the Use Quilt or Patch command. Note: The system cannot generate drafts (solid or nonsolid) if any portion of the draft line is parallel to the pull direction. To Create a Surface-to-Surface Blend Use the Blend Between Surfaces command to create a smooth surface or solid transition between two surfaces. The surfaces used for this feature must have matching tangency points for each point on their surfaces, such as with two spheres. The surfaces must be inclined toward each other by at least a 30 angle.

1.
2. 3.

Click Insert > Advanced > Blend Between Surfaces > Surface. The SURFACE: Surface to Surface Blend dialog box opens. Select the first surface to form the tangent surface boundary. Select the second surface and middle-click. The blend is created.

To Create a Section-to-Surface Blend Use Blend Section To Surfaces to create a transitional surface or solid between a set of tangent surfaces and a sketched contour. The set of surfaces selected for the tangent boundary must be closed.

1.
2.

Click Insert > Advanced > Blend Section To Surfaces > Surface. The SURFACE: Section to Surface Blend dialog box opens. Select surfaces to form the tangent boundary. The surfaces must be tangent to each other. Pick all the surfaces, then middle-click.

3. 4. 5.

Select or create the sketching plane for the section boundary. Specify the direction of feature creation and enter Sketcher mode. Sketch the section boundary. The section must be closed. Click .

6.

About a Ribbon Surface A Ribbon surface is a datum that represents a tangent field created along a base curve. The Ribbon surface is tangent to reference curves that intersect the base curve. You can use a Ribbon surface to impose tangency conditions between two surface features. With the Ribbon surface you can define the patch structure so that adjacent surfaces can be made tangent to each other without using one of them as a tangent reference. In this way, the Ribbon surface acts a tangent reference. Using this method, you first create the Ribbon surface. They you can create each surface and make it tangent to the Ribbon surface. After you have created tangency between two adjacent surfaces, you can put the Ribbon surface on a layer and blank it.

You can predefine a layer for ribbon surfaces. To do this, specify the name for the layer using the def_layer (LAYER_RIBBON_FEAT) configuration option. Each time you create a ribbon surface, the system automatically adds it to this layer. To Create a Ribbon Surface

1. 2.

Click Insert > Model Datum > Ribbon. The DATUM: Ribbon dialog box opens. On the Menu Manager, Add Curve in the RIBBON ITEM menu is active. Select the base curve. You can select a single curve or a chain of curves. The system uses the base curve as a trajectory for the ribbon surface. You can remove the curve with the Remove Curve command and show selected curves with the Show All Curves command. When finished selecting the base curve, click Done Curves.

3.Select the first reference curve. You can continue selecting additional reference curves. When you are finished, click
Done Curves. The system creates the Ribbon surface with the default width.

4.Optionally, you can define the width of the ribbon surface. Select the Width element in the dialog box and click
Define. Enter the width of the surface.

4.Click OK to finish.
Example: Using a Ribbon Surface This example shows how to create two boundary blends on both sides of the middle curve that are tangent to each other. To impose tangency between two boundary blends, create a Ribbon surface along the middle curve. When defining reference curves for the Ribbon surface, select the three inner curves on both sides of the middle curve.

The Ribbon surface (shown with red boundaries) is now tangent to all the reference curves. Create the boundary blend on the left side of the middle curve. When defining boundary conditions, specify a tangency condition on the middle curve by referencing the Ribbon surface. Because the Ribbon is tangent to the inner side curves on the right, the boundary blend on the left is now tangent to the curve on the right.

Create the boundary blend on the right and make it tangent to the Ribbon surface. About Trimming Quilts You can trim quilts in several ways:

• • • •

By adding a cut or slot as you do to remove material from solid features By trimming the quilt at its intersection with another quilt or to its own silhouette edge as it appears in a certain view By filleting corners of the quilt By trimming along a datum curve lying on the quilt For more information refer to the topic About Trim of the Part Modeling module of Pro/ENGINEER Help.

To Trim a Quilt Using a Basic Form

1.
2. 3.

Click Insert > Sweep, Blend, Helical Sweep or Swept Blend > Surface Trim. The SURFACE TRIM dialog box opens. Select the quilt to trim. Start creating the cut geometry, as you do for solid protrusions. The surface definition that you create is used only for trimming and will not appear in the model.

4.

If you create geometry using the Solid option, specify the side of the quilt to keep by choosing Side 1, Side 2, or Both Sides from the DIRECTION menu. Click Done. Selecting either side of the quilt to keep preserves references of the original quilt.

5.

If you chose Both Sides, an additional element Primary Quilt is added to the dialog box so that you can specify which of the two new quilts will inherit the children of the original quilt. To do this, click Primary Quilt and Define in the dialog box. Click Side 1 or Side 2 and Done from the DIRECTION menu.

6.

Click OK.

Trimming a Quilt Using Curves You can trim a quilt along a chain of datum curves or edges. The rules for defining a surface trim using a datum curve are as follows:

• • •

You can use a continuous chain of datum curves, inner surface edges, or solid model edges to trim a quilt. Datum curves used for trimming must lie on the quilt to be trimmed and should not extend beyond the boundaries of this quilt. If the curve does not extend to the boundaries of the quilt, the system calculates the shortest distance to the quilt boundary and continues the trim in this direction. Example: Trimming a Quilt Using Curves

1 Select these datum curves. 2 This arrow indicates the portion to keep. To Trim a Quilt Using Vertex Round Use Vertex Round to create fillets on outer quilt edges.

1. 2.
3.

Click Insert > Advanced > Vertex Round. The SURFACE TRIM: Vertex Round dialog box opens. Select vertices at the corners of the quilt to be rounded and click Ok . All selected vertices must belong to the same quilt. Enter the fillet radius. This radius will be applied to all selected vertices. Click OK in the dialog box.

4.

Example: Trimming with Vertex Round This figure shows the corners to be rounded with the Vertex Round command.

1 Select these vertices to be rounded. The next figure shows the resulting quilt. To Trim a Quilt Using Silhouette Trim Use Silhouette Trim to trim a quilt using its outline seen in a particular view orientation.

1.
2. 3.

Click Insert > Advanced > Silhouette Trim. The SURFACE TRIM: Silhouette dialog box opens. Select a quilt to be trimmed. Select or create a planar surface or datum plane to specify the viewing direction. The viewing direction is normal to this plane.

4. 5.

Specify the side of the quilt to keep by choosing Side 1, Side 2, or Both Sides on the DIRECTION menu. Click Done. If you chose Both Sides, an additional element Primary Quilt is added to the dialog box so that you can specify which of the two new quilts will inherit the children of the original quilt. To do this, click Primary Quilt and Define in the dialog box. Click Side 1 or Side 2 and Done from the DIRECTION menu.

6.

Click OK.

Example: Using Silhouette Trim This figure shows the original quilt.

1 Pick this surface to trim. 2 Arrow points to the portion of the surface to keep. 3 Pick this plane as the viewing direction. The next figure shows the resulting surface, trimmed to a silhouette line.

1 The remaining portion of the surface

To Create a Flattened Quilt

1.
2. 3. 4.

Click Insert > Advanced > Flatten Quilt. The FLATTEN QUILT dialog box opens. Select a source quilt to flatten. Select a datum point on the quilt to be the origin point. Two red arrows indicate the u-v directions of the quilt. Specify one of the following methods for determining the parameterization of the quilt:

o

Automatic—(Default) The system defines the parameterization. Note: If the system cannot perform a transformation, use the Aided or Manual option.

o o

Aided—Select four vertices or datum points on the quilt boundary. The system uses these four points to create a reference surface. Manual—Specify a reference surface to use for parameterization. The reference surface must exist in the model prior to the operation.

5.Optionally, you can position the flattened quilt so it lies in the XY plane of a selected coordinate system and orient
the quilt as desired. To do this, select Specify Placement and specify the following:

o o

To define the XY plane, select or create a coordinate system. To orient the flattened quilt in the XY plane, select a point on the original quilt. The system creates a vector from the origin point to the selected x-direction point. The system orients the flattened quilt to align this vector with the xaxis of the plane.

6.Specify the number of steps for each direction by typing an integer from 10 to 100 in the Number of Steps fields. The number of steps determines the density of the grid used for the surface parameterization. When you click in the Number of Steps field, a red arrow shows the corresponding direction of parameterization.

6.Click

to create the feature.

Using Flatten Quilt Use Flatten Quilt to unfold a quilt. To unfold the quilt, the system creates a uniform parameterization of the surface and then unfolds it, preserving the parameterization of the original quilt. To create the parameterization of the source quilt, the system uses a reference surface that approximates and encloses the source quilt. The system can define the reference surface internally, or you can create a surface and then use it for parameterization. Note: A Flatten Quilt feature is a single surface of the type Plane. The system unfolds the quilt with respect to the fixed origin point that you select. By default, the system places the flattened quilt on the plane that is tangent to the original quilt at the origin point. Optionally, you can specify a different placement plane and orient the quilt as desired. To place the quilt, select a coordinate system whose XY plane will be the placement plane. To orient the quilt, select a datum point on the quilt. The system creates a vector from the origin point to specified datum point and aligns this vector with the x-axis of the coordinate system. Consider the following rules and recommendations:

• • • • •

The origin and the x-direction points must lie on the source quilt. Surfaces of the source quilt must be tangent to each other. For the Manual transformation method, a reference surface must be present in the model before you start the Flatten Quilt operation. When you use the Aided option, the corner points must lie on the boundaries of the source quilt or their extensions. If the system fails to transform the quilt using the Automatic and Aided option, click the Manual transformation method and select a reference surface that you have previously created. Tip: You can create a reference surface for a quilt as a boundary blend by using the source quilt boundaries and several additional curves to approximate the original quilt.

Example: Flattening a Quilt Case 1: Flattening a Quilt Using the Default Placement This figure shows a quilt to flatten. The datum point PNT0 is selected as the origin point.

The next figure shows the flattened quilt (shown on top of the source quilt) in its default placement. Notice that the flattened quilt is tangent to the source quilt at the origin point PNT0. Case 2: Flattening a Quilt with the Placement Option The next figure shows a quit to flatten. The datum point PNT0 is selected as the origin point. The coordinate system CS1 and datum point PNT1 are used for positioning the resulting quilt.

The next figure shows the results of the Flatten Quilt operation. The flattened quilt lies in the XY plane of the coordinate system CS1. A vector created from PNT0 to PNT1 is aligned with the x-axis of the XY plane. To Create a Solid Bend After you have created a flattened quilt, you can use Solid Bend to flatten curves and bend a solid.

1.
2.

Click Insert > Advanced > Bend Solid. The SOLID BEND dialog box opens. Select a Flatten Quilt feature. Specify the Bend Options by choosing one of the following options:

3.

o o

Flatten Curves—Transform datum curves from the original quilt to the flattened quilt. Bend Solid—Transform a solid from the flattened quilt to the original quilt. flattening curves, select the curves on the flat quilt that you want to transform. To reselect the curves,

4.If you are

click Source Curves.

4.Click

to create the feature.

Using Solid Bend You can use Bend Solid to:

• •

Flatten (unbend) curves Bend solids Use Bend Solid to transform the solid that lies in the vicinity of the flattened quilt to the source quilt. Alternatively, you can transfer datum curves from the source quilt to the flattened quilt using the Flatten Curves option. Consider the following restrictions:

• •

Selected curves must reference the surfaces of the source quilt of the Flatten Quilt feature. The solid should lie in the vicinity of the flattened quilt and should not cross the boundaries of this quilt. About Creating Solid Geometry Using Quilts To create solid geometry using quilts, you must first select the quilts before using the required commands. There are three methods of creating solid geometry by using quilts:

Replace an entire part surface with a quilt. Surface replacement differs from protrusions and cuts because it can add material in some places and remove it in others. Surface replacement is a surface deformation feature, and is created using Offset on the Edit menu.

• •

Create a "patch", a feature that replaces a portion of a solid surface (or surfaces) with a quilt whose boundaries lie on the surfaces being patched. This feature is created using Solidify on the Edit menu. Create a construction feature (protrusion, cut, or slot) by using a quilt as the solid feature’s boundaries. Geometry will be added or subtracted up to the border of the quilt used. This is done using Solidify on the Edit menu. To Replace a Solid Surface with a Quilt Offset allows you to replace a specified solid surface on the model with a datum plane or a quilt. By default, when you replace a solid surface with a quilt, the system consumes the quilt. To preserve the quilt, define the Keep Quilt element in the dialog box. 1. Select the solid surface that needs to be replaced. Click Edit > Offset. The dashboard appears. From the list of offset types on the dashboard, select Replace 4.Pick the replacement quilt.

2. 3.

4.By default, the system consumes the replacement quilt. If you want to keep the quilt, click Options and click the
Keep Quilt check box.

6.To complete feature creation, click

.

Note: If a child feature references the quilt that was kept with Keep Quilt, redefining the features so as to not keep the quilt causes the references of the child to be missing. About Creating Freeform Surfaces You can create a freeform feature either as a solid tweak feature or as an advanced surface feature. Surface Free Form allows you to "push" or "pull" on a surface, interactively changing its shape either to create a new surface feature, or to modify a solid or quilt. Whenever the underlying surface changes shape, the freeform feature also changes shape proportionally. The real-time surface definition feedback allows you to immediately evaluate and modify the surface as required. Display options for the surface include porcupine curvature, deviation, Gaussian curvature, sectional curvature, slope, intersection curves, reflection curves, and cosmetic shading. For a freeform surface, you can use the boundaries of the underlying base surface. Alternatively, you can sketch the boundaries of the freeform surface; the system will then project them on the underlying base surfaces. The grid boundaries may extend beyond the underlying base surface. When creating a freeform surface, you can trim or extend it to fit the underlying surface boundaries.

Example: Sample Freeform Surface In this figure, the underlying surface boundaries appear in dashed font. The base surface is shown meshed.

1 Base surface grid boundaries To Select an Entire Surface for the Freeform Surface

1.
2. 3.

Click Insert > Advanced > Surface Free Form. The SURFACE: Free Form dialog box opens. Select an existing surface. The system displays a grid of red isolines in the first direction. Enter the number of control curves in the first direction. The system displays a grid of red isolines in the second direction.

4.

Enter the number of control curves in the second direction. The Modify Surface dialog box opens. You can select a point on the grid to drag, or optionally you can use the Modify Surface dialog box to define the Poly Motion region, turn on the dynamic diagnostics, or use sliders.

5. 6.

When finished tweaking, click

in the Modify Surface dialog box.

Click OK in the dialog box to create the freeform feature.

To Sketch a Boundary Region

1. 2. 3.
4. 5.

Click Insert > Advanced > Surface Free Form. The SURFACE: Free Form dialog box opens. Click Sket On Pln and Done on the FORM OPTS menu. Select the sketching plane and specify model references. Sketch a circle or a rectangle. The system displays a grid of red isolines in the first direction. Enter the number of control curves in the direction of the arrow.

6.

The system displays another grid of isolines in the second direction. Enter the number of control curves in the direction of the arrow.

7.

The Modify Surface dialog opens. You can select a point on the grid to drag, or optionally you can use the Modify Surface dialog box to define the Poly Motion region, turn on the dynamic diagnostics, or use sliders.

8. 9.

When finished tweaking, click

in the Modify Surface dialog box.

Click OK in the dialog box to create the freeform feature.

To Create a Freeform Quilt

1.
2.

Click Insert > Advanced > Surface Free Form. The SURFACE: Free Form dialog box opens. Select an existing surface to provide the solid or quilt reference (base) surface for the freeform surface definition. The system displays a grid of red isolines in the first direction.

3.

Enter the number of control curves in the first direction. The system displays a grid of red isolines in the second direction.

4.

Enter the number of control curves in the second direction. The Modify Surface dialog box opens. You can select a point on the grid to drag, or optionally you can use the Modify Surface dialog box to define the Poly Motion region, turn on the dynamic diagnostics, or use sliders.

5. 6.

When finished tweaking, click

in the Modify Surface dialog box.

Click OK in the dialog box to create the freeform feature.

To Copy a Trimmed Portion of the Quilt You can copy a trimmed portion of a quilt (surface patch). To define the portion of the quilt to copy, you must select edges and curves that form a single closed loop. 1. Select the quilt from which you want to copy a patch. Click Edit > Copy. The dashboard appears. Click Options and click Copy Inside boundary. Click inside the Boundary curve collector. Select a closed contour as the boundary of the patch. Click . The system creates a new quilt on top of the selected portion of the quilt.

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