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Research Article ISSN: 0974-6943

Suriyavathana M et al. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2010, 3(2),260-262

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Studies on phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plants from kolli hills
*Suriyavathana M, UshaV and Shanthanayaki M
1 2

Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Periyar University, Salem-11,Tamil Nadu, India. Department of Biochemistry,Periyar University,Salem-11,Tamil Nadu,,India. 3 Department of Biochemistry,Periyar University,Salem-11,Tamil Nadu,India.

Received on: 27-10-2009; Revised on: 16-11-2009; Accepted on:09-01-2010 ABSTRACT

In the present study we carried a systematic record of the qualitative and the antioxidant activity in Desmodium gangeticum and Premna tomentosa willd plant species.The distribution of the main active principles [alkaloid, flavanoids, phenols, steroids and tannins] in desmodium gangeticum and premna tomentosa willd. The ethanolic extracts of leaves Desmodium gangeticum and Premna tomentosa willd were screened for their in vitro enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity. The extract was found to possess excellent antioxidant activity.The antioxidant may be attributed to the presence of flavanoids and phenolics present in the drug.

Keywords: Phytochemical , desmodium gangeticum, antioxidant, Premna tomentosa willd. INTRODUCTION Medicinal plants are the local heritage with global importance world is endowed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. These plants have made a good contribution to the development of ancient materia medica. The plants that possess therapeutic properties or exert beneficial pharmacological effects on the animal body are generally designated as Medicinal plants. The green leafy part of the plant is often used, but herbal medicine make use of the roots, flowers, seed, root bark, inner bark (cambium) berries and sometimes the pericarp or other portion. These medicines are safer and environment friendly [1] It is moderately sized deciduous tree with shoots, leaves and inflorescence densely clothed with a tawny yellow stellate tomentum. The bark is light grayish colour, greenish yellow. [6].The genus premna comprised of 50-200 species, is distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia, Africa, Australia and Pacific islands[7]. The leaves of P.tomentosa possess diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and hypnotic effects. They also show the cytoprotective and immuno modulatory activities. [8] Materials and Methods:

Phytochemical is a natural bioactive compound found in The Desmodium gangeticum and Premna tomentosa plant plants such as vegetables, fruits, medicinal plants, flowers, leaves were collected from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. The plant species and root that work with and fibers to act as a defense system against were authenticated by the taxonomist, Consultant Central Siddha diseases of more accurately, to protect against diseases [2] Research, ABS garden, Karipatty, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. Desmodium gangeticun commonly known as salpan, salpani in hindi and shalparni in sanskrit. It is a sub-erect, diffusely branched under shrub 2-3 feet, height, stem woody, branched, irregular angled [3]. Desmodium gangeticum is one of the important plant used in indigeinous system of bitter tonic, febriuge, digested, anticatarrahal, antiemitic, in inflammatory condition which are due to vata disorder [4][5]. The fresh leaves of Desmodium gangeticum and Premna tomentosa willd were collected and washed thoroughly with distilled water. The cleaned leaves are then allowed for the complete shade drying and then made to fine powder with homogenizer. About 1gm of clean dried leaves of Desmodium gangeticum and Premna tomentosa willd was taken along with 10 ml of ethanol and mashed well using a homogenizer and filtered and used for phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity.

Premna tomentosa belongs to the family verbenaceae commonly called as Krishnapalai or Pudangai Nari is a medicinal plant. Qualitative analysis on phytochemical constituents *Corresponding author.
Dr. M. Suriyavathana, Assistant Professor,Department of Biochemistry, Periyar University,Salem-11,Tamil Nadu, India Tel.: + 91-98943 29286

The qualitative analysis of Tannins, Phenols, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids and flavonoids was done by standard method (Bot .Y.S.and Megujikw. L.O., 2006).

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Suriyavathana M et al. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2010, 3(2),260-262 Antioxidant Activity: Enzymatic Antioxidant : Superoxide Dismutase: The Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was determined by the method of Kakkar et al., (1984). Catalase: The activity of Catalase was determined by the method of Sinha (1972). Glutathione Peroxidase: Table 3: In vitro non-enzymatic antioxidant activity of ethanolic exThe Glutathione peroxidase was estimated by the method of tract of Desmodium gangeticum and Premna tomentosa willd Rotruck et al., (1973).

Table 2: In vitro enzymatic antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Desmodium gangeticum and Premna tomentosa willd
S.No Enzymatic Antioxidan Glutathione Peroxidase Catalase Superoxide Dismutase Glutathione-STransferase Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Desmodium gangeticum ( g/mg) 1661.87 164.041.9 789.72.19 44.054.04 0.75014 Premna tomentosa willd ( g/mg) 317.47.02 156.46.93 290.37.14 17.597.14 0.780.1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Values are expressed in (Mean SD)

Glutathione-S- Transferase: The Activity of glutathione-S-transferase was determined by method of Habig (1974). Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase: The Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was assayed by the method of Ellis and Kirkman (1961).
1. 2. 3.

Non Enzymatic Antioxidant Reduced Glutathione Ascorbic acid (Vit C) -Tocopherol (Vit E)

Desmodium gangeticum (M/mg) 2.980.80 69.541.53 28.240.9

Premna tomentosa willd (M/mg) 6.02.82 4.37.6 104.47.01

Values are expressed in (Mean SD)

The present study carried out on the plant samples revealed the presence of medicinally active constituents. The alcoholic extracts were used to identify for the presence of various phyto chemiNon-Enzymatic Antioxidant : cals. Flavonoids, Alkaloids, Phenols, tannins and steroids showed positive response, while Glycosides showed negative response indiReduced Glutathione: cating their total absence in Desmodium gangeticum and Premna The Reduced glutathione activity was estimated by the tomentosa willd. The systemic research for useful bioactives from method of Ellman (1959). the plants is now considered to be a rational approach in nutraceuticals and drug research. The results of phytochemical analysis compreAscorbic Acid (Vit C): hensively validates that the presences of therapeutically important and valuable secondary metabolites (Flavonoids, Alkaloids, Phenols, The Ascorbic acid was estimated by the method of Omaye et tannins and Steroids). al., (1979).

-Tocopherol (Vit E):

Antioxidant activity :

The levels of -Tocopherol was estimated by the method of Enzymatic Antioxidant : Baker et al., (1980). Non-Enzymatic Antioxidant RESULT AND DISCUSSION The result of present study shows that presence of signifiQualitative Analysis cant level of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activity in the The qualitative phytochemical analysis in Desmodium gangeticum and premna tomentosa willd results are presented in Desmodium gangeticum and Premna tomentosa willd.. So the selected plant contains good store of antioxidant potential. It can be the table 1. recommended as dietary supplement there by the nutritive potential indulged by the plant has been explored by this comprehensive study. Table 1:Phytochemical studies qualitative analysis
1 2 3 4 5 6

Parameters Desmodium gangeticum Premna tomentosa willd

Alkaloids Flavonoids Glycosides Tannins Phenols Steroids + + + _ + + +

CONCLUSION: The scientific investigation of traditional herbal remedies may provide valuable tool for the development of alternative drug and therapeutic strategies. Since all human beings require a number 260-262

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Suriyavathana M et al. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2010, 3(2),260-262 of complex organic compounds have added caloric requirement to meet their need for the activities.The antioxidant profile and nutritional store indulged in Desmodium gangeticum and Premna tomentosa willd will aid in the interpretation of clinical research in biological models are recommended for chronic diseases. It is reasonable to exploit the high antioxidant store which have greater potential to reduce free radical in the body. The phytochemical screening shows desmodium gangeticum and premna tomentosa willd are rich in (alkaloids, flavanoids. Steroids, tannins and phenols) which are popular phytochemical constituents. Hence the study has provided some biochemical basis for ethanopharmacological claims of this plant in the treatment and prevention of various diseases and disorders. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We are grateful to UGC and Department of Biochemistry , Periyar University, Salem, Salem -11 for support in these studies. REFERENCES:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Sandhya .B., Thomas.S., Isabel W., Shenbagarathai. R Ethanamedicinal plants used by the vilaiyan community of piramalai hills (Reserved forest), Tamil Nadu, India A pilot study .,2006 African Ethnomedicines. Krishnaiah. D, Devi,T, Bono A and Sarabatty,R: Studies on phytochemical constituents of six Malaysian medicinal plants. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research ., 2009 :Vol. 3(2), pp.067-072. Iyer K.N., Pharmacognosy of ayurvedic drugs [Travncore cochin]. University of Travancore, Central Research Institute, Trivendrum, India., 1953. Series; no:2, 97 Chopra,, R.M., Nayar, S.L., chopra, I.C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal plants. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi ., 1956 P.94 Nadkarni, K.M). Hedysarumgegeticum Linn.In:. The Indian Materia Medica. Popular prakashan Private Limited, Bombay ., (1976 Haines. The Botany of bihar and Orissa, Calcutta :SriGoranga Press:1961 Kadereit. Flowering Plants_dicotyledons In: Kubitzki, K.(Ed), the families and genera of Vascular plants.,2004: vol-7 Springer berling Pg-193-194 Devi. Immunological effects of Premna tomentosa willd extract in J779 macrophages cell culture under VI induced immunosuppression. J.altern. Complemmed.10 ., 2002 ; pg 535-539

Source of support: Nil, Conflict of interest: None Declared

Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol.3.Issue 2.February 2010