What is a sniper, what are his tasks? By David Reed
A sniper is an expert rifleman trained in the techniques of the individual soldier and assigned the mission of sniping. A sniper needs many skills. He must be physically and mentally hard, a crack shot, and must be able to -       

Estimate ranges. Search areas. Locate and identify sounds. Use cover, concealment, and camouflage. Use maps, sketches, aerial photos, and the compass. Recognize enemy personnel quickly. Move without detection. Endure long periods of waiting.

Your Mission as a Sniper Your mission as a sniper is to shoot key enemy personnel -- leaders, gunners of crew served or automatic weapons, communications specialists and radio operators, observers, and enemy snipers. In the absence of these priority targets, fire on any targets of opportunity. You must also collect information for your intelligence officer.

Employment of Snipers Plans must be made to properly locate sniper teams. Other troops in the area must avoid these areas. The use of snipers must be incorporated into the tactical plans of the unit commander.

Your Equipment

You should carry only mission essential equipment. Besides your weapon, you may need binoculars or spotting scope, watch, map, compass, and camouflage clothing. Much has been written about sniper weapon systems. The best caliber is not necessarily the flattest shooting, longest-range cartridge. You have limits in the amount of ammunition that you can carry, because of space and weight considerations. Re-supply is an issue to consider. Field reloading equipment will allow you to make your own ammunition when you need it. But reloading has its disadvantages. It takes time, and the extra equipment is heavy. Equipment used by sport shooters is out of the question. Such equipment is designed for use on a bench. You must be able to load using a volume, not weight, of powder. You must use tools designed to be portable and accurate. You must also practice until you are sure you can make reliable, consistent ammunition. Other sources of resupply are cartridges in standard use by other weapon systems, including the enemies own. Every rifle has a distinctive sound. If you choose a rifle that sounds different than those used by others in your area of operations, you will call attention to yourself. If you choose a system that your enemy uses, you must be careful to let others in your unit know the area in which you will be. Failure to do so could result in friendly fire, and "friendly fire" never is when you are on the receiving end. Your mission will dictate the equipment you carry. Most sniper teams employ rifles that are designed for the types of missions that they will be assigned. If resupply is not an issue, and you will not be in the area long, a .300 Winchester Magnum makes a very good choice. It is expensive to shoot and load and heavy in bulk. .308 Winchester (7.62x51mm NATO) is a popular choice because the ammunition is plentiful, recoil is light, and more ammunition can be carried. Other systems are employed in special circumstances. A good spotting scope is essential. Yes, there are laser range finders that are very good for long range shooting. But one must never take them for granted; good range estimation is something you must be able to do without mechanical or optical aids. Finally, you will need tools for the observation and scouting aspects of sniping. You should carry the following: camera, tape recorder, pencil, and notebook for recording intelligence, a map of the area, compass, camouflage paint, and weapon cleaning supplies.

What It Takes to Be a Good Sniper
By David Reed
Basically, it takes three things to be a good sniper, and a wicked shot is the least of them. Discipline and cunning are the important qualities. Snipers do not (usually) roam around looking for people to shoot. They do not shoot non-combatants, i.e. women and children, other unarmed persons, livestock, windshields, and houses, etc. The sniper is either alone, or with one to three other people, depending on the mission requirements. Taking shots at targets not worth shooting only increases the risks of being discovered, captured or killed. Discipline and patience are essential qualities to have when faced with a shoot or not to shoot decision. Ask yourself this -- Do you have a hot temper? Do you anger quickly? Anger causes the pulse to quicken, which we will discuss later, and may cause careless or irrational behavior, all of which are bad. Do you like to hunt? Do you like to hunt alone? Have you ever spent an entire week

alone? No television, no phone, no friends, no family, no nothing? Have you ever gone camping alone? In a remote area where you saw no one? How did it make you feel, what did you think about? What did you do while you were there? How many times did you masturbate? How often did you eat? Was there a difference in your mental state on the first day and the last? Snipers are not necessarily "loners." In fact, someone who has problems relating to other people may not make a good choice. Why is all of this important? A sniper may stalk a target for days to get a shot. He may never get it. Could you abandon the mission without shooting anything? The window of opportunity for a shot may last only 3 seconds. If you are daydreaming, fooling around, eating, or anything else you will not be successful. You should be studying the kill zone and waiting for your shot. This is why a spotter or second shooter is so desirable. It is very hard on the eyes to use binoculars or a spotting scope for more than 20 minutes at a time. You and your partner can take turns. You can't change positions while in your hide. You must remain still at all times to avoid detection. This sounds easy but it's not. Think of a small child who is just learning to fish. It's impossible for them to leave their line in the water for more than a minute or two without pulling it out to check it. If you have hunted deer you know how hard it is to hold still in a deer blind. It might be easier if you knew that your prey would shoot you if it saw you first. But it is very easy to relax when you think that no one can see you. What does the word "cunning" mean to you? To a sniper it is everything, and it affects everything he does. Cunning alone can make a sniper successful. A sniper must decide where to position himself, how to get there, how to leave, what to take with him, how to camouflage the hide, where to place alternate hides, and what to do if something bad happens. A sniper must be able think an entire shoot through from beginning to end and set it up in a manner which will produce results. Anyone who has watched enough television has seen a million wrong ways to do this. Snipers do not shoot from rooftops, open windows, or a prominent terrain feature. These are the places that will immediately draw attention and return fire. A rooftop can be a hard place to escape from too, as would a climbing stand used by deer hunters. Marksmanship is the final element. A sniper must be able to engage targets at as long a range as is possible under any circumstance. Distance equals escape time. Surprisingly, people who have never before fired a rifle can become excellent shots with proper training. Old habits are hard to break, and this applies to shooting methods as well. In order to develop adequate shooting skills an individual should be prepared to fire between 5,000 to 10,000 rounds of ammunition during long and arduous practice sessions. A good coach is essential. If you don't know how to read shot strings you will not know what you are doing wrong.

Special Operations Target Interdiction Course - Memorandum of Instruction

: AOOP.S. Students will be attached to Company D. North Carolina 28307-5200. . U. Fort Bragg.MEMORANDUM THRU: Commander. Class Size.: AOOP-TP. Special Operations Target Interdiction Course (SOTIC) 1. 2d Battalion. or selected Department of Defense personnel. Army John F. 1st Special Warfare Training Group (Airborne). North Carolina 28307-5200 FOR: Commander. ATTN. Prerequisites. Students who fail to meet these prerequisites will be returned untrained to their parent unit. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School.24 students. c. Fort Bragg. To provide the United States Army Special Operations Command with the information necessary to prepare students for the SOTIC. Vision must be correctable to 20/20 in each eye. Course emphasis it to provide the force with personnel who can achieve first-round hits from a cold barrel on these highvalue targets. General. The SOTIC is a six-week course conducted at Fort Bragg. a. (2) Must have a current periodic physical.8 students. Purpose of the SOTIC. PURPOSE. Students must meet the following prerequisites. North Carolina 28307-5200 SUBJECT: Memorandum of Instruction. b. United States Army Special Operations Command. Students must have their medical records with them when they report for inprocessing. personnel will be able to correct for wind and determine the previous round's bullet trace to achieve second-round hits if necessary. 2. d. (2) Optimum . ATTN. (1) Maximum . United States Army Special Operations Command.24 students. (1) Must be currently assigned to or on orders to a Special Forces detachment of Ranger company. (3) Minimum . Fort Bragg. North carolina. To train selected personnel in the technical skills and operational procedures necessary to deliver precision rifle fire from concealed positions to selected targets in support of special operations forces. currently Ranger-qualified or Special Forces-qualified. Additionally. Course Length.

personnel reporting prior to the course starting date should secure any weapons in the company arms room. As a result. On-post BEQ reservations may be available if coordinated for at least 45 days prior to the course starting date. July 1989. Students arriving after duty hours prior to the starting date should obtain lodging at Moon Hall (bachelor enlisted quarters [BEG]). NC 28307-5200 Waivers must be approved prior to the class starting date. Company D maintains a 24-hour guard post located in our compound (telephone DSN xxx-xxxx or commercial (910) xxx-xxxx). e. Requests for waivers must be addressed to -Commander 1st Special Warfare Training Group (Airborne) ATTN. A copy of the evaluation must be presented on the course starting date.(3) Must have in their possession a memorandum from their unit commander certifying that the student has scored expert with the M16A1/M16A2 rifle in accordance with FM 239. (4) Must have undergone a psychological evaluation (Minnesota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory) under the direction of a qualified psychologist within 12 months of the reporting date. . Height and Weight Standards. M16A1 Rifle and M16A2 Rifle Marksmanship. Students reporting after the closing of inprocessing will not be permitted to start the course and will be returned to their parent unit. Temporary duty orders should reflect that rations and quarters are not available. it is recommended that off-post parent units provide a rental car for their students attending the course. 3. which can be accessed 24 hours a day through the aforementioned guard post phone number. It is the responsibility of the student to file an accurate travel voucher upon his return to his parent unit. dated no earlier than 30 days prior to the course starting date. Additionally. within 12 months of the reporting date.: AOJK-GP Fort Bragg. (6) Must meet the Army height and weight standards as prescribed in AR 600-9. Students will report to Company D at Building O-3550 prior to 1700 on the course report date or telephone DSN xxx-xxxx/xxxx or commercial (910) xxx-xxxx/xxxx during duty hours. If the BEQ is unavailable. statements of non availability will be issued and students may billet off post. (7) Must currently be on jump status and be medically qualified to participate in airborne operations. Personnel who report on the class starting date without an approved waiver will be returned untrained to their parent unit. (5) Must have in their possession an original verification of their security clearance (copies unacceptable). RATIONS AND QUARTERS. Reporting.

r. o. Sewing awl. e. k. and one brown. s. n. One set of the seasonal physical training (PT) uniform. WEAPONS. Three sets of the seasonal duty uniform with a battle dress uniform (BDU) cap and jungle boots or black boots. t. b. complete. The SOTIC is a high-risk course. c. Any student found under the influence of such items will be removed from training immediately and returned to his parent unit for appropriate actions. hook pile tape lowering line. modified 18-inch attaching straps. Two padlocks. Local commanders should screen all attendees to ensure they meet the prerequisites for course attendance. Two sweat shirts. 7. UNIFORMS AND EQUIPMENT. one sand. Personal camouflage sticks/paints: one tan. Two pairs of prescription eyeglasses. PHYSICAL CONDITION. to include two 1-quart canteens with cup and covers and a first-aid pouch with field dressing. 5. f. Parent unit PT uniform is acceptable. i. d. Students are encouraged to attend this course with their unit-assigned M24 sniper system. c. Poncho and poncho liner. and jump helmet (Kevlar). Black gloves with inserts. one light green. Len static compass. q. Flashlight/penlight with batteries and lenses. Camp/survival saw. g. One pair of old sterile fatigues or one set of coveralls for preparation of a ghillie suit. if required. Civilian clothing and toilet articles. Rain suit. g. Students must be in top physical condition and must not be under any medication that may affect their reflexes or their judgment. Light combat equipment. Two pads of paper and two mechanical pencils. j. Field jacket. Pruning shears. b. Student loaner systems are available. e. p. as desired. Each student should bring the following uniforms and equipment. The use of alcohol or illegal drugs is strictly forbidden during the SOTIC. These items will not be brought to the training site. Entrenching tool. Two pairs of jungle boots or combat boots (Gortex boots may be worn only in the field). Sewing kit. u.4. Any weapons bought while attending the SOTIC will not be stored in the Company D arms room. Identification card and dog tags. l. d. a. Suspenders. m. Rucksack. Waterproof bag. OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT. f. h. Air items: H-harness. a. . 6. Privately owned weapons are not authorized on MacRidge Triangle Compound. Hearing protection: Earplugs or earmuffs.

uphill or downhill. 9. SF Chief of Staff Marksmanship Basic Rifle Marksmanship By David Reed Introduction If you can hit what you normally shoot at. b. or. Students should bring adequate monies for incidentals. medical. I however. RICHARD R. I want to know that I can make that shot at any range within the effective range of the rifle. or dry -.I want to know that I can make that shot. NC 28307-5200 NOTE: Mail should not be sent to the above address after the fifth training week. COORDINATING INSTRUCTIONS. that I cannot. STUDENT MAILING ADDRESS. There are approximately 19 days of field duty with a 36-hour final field training exercise. have strived over many years to develop my skills to the point that I am better than that. humid. with relative certainty. nor the direction from which it comes. No routine medical appointments will be allowed during the course. The company operations center may be reached at DSN xxxxxxx/xxxx or commercial (910) xxx-xxxx/xxxx. Students can be contacted at Fort Bragg by mail: Full Name SSN. 2d Bn. raining. and personnel actions are completed prior to the course starting date. Students must ensure that all dental.. that may be good enough for you.8. If I cannot make it then I will not take it. a. c. Class Name and Number Co D. 1st SWTG(A) Fort Bragg. It does not matter whether there is wind or not. . Whether the wind is 5kts or 20kts. SEIM COL. POINT OF CONTACT. administrative. 10.

This is because your muscles are starting to fatigue. a target at 900 meters. If you have a question I will try to clear up my text. wild boar rifle. The cross hairs bump along the target as our heart beats. and fingers all move when our heart beats.Read it. while you are studying these phenomena. I will allow others to contribute their own material. I will not belabor this point. arms. This is not a forum for arguments about which cartridge is best. bullet placement is far more important than caliber when your shot must achieve an effect. Mag. shoulders. reformat. Think about the time you missed that deer and blamed it .This site is going to focus on rifle marksmanship at a level above and beyond that used for clay pit plinking. However. or organize the thoughts better. I had an acquaintance once respond with incredulity that I would have the audacity to suggest that anyone could see. Your pulse rises when you work out or become excited. and the pattern the cross hairs follows changes as well. Your respiration increases in the same way. rainy weather. My philosophy is that some cartridges are better than others for certain situations or targets. This is a new site and I appreciate all germane comments. Change your body position slightly. and as a gathering place for those who do shoot well. This was a guy who never shot his rifle except to check his scope at the beginning of deer season. let alone hit. Remember that these things are touching. but it does make the question of 30-06 or 7mm Rem. Body Physiology This section delves into the human body and the factors that must be considered before one sits down behind a rifle. I created this material for those who want to learn to shoot well. or which makes the ultimate dense brush. not only is your pulse moving the rifle but it's probably hard to see clearly because your breathing is moving it even more! If you have a less than optimum grip and hold on the rifle. This can be seen through a very hi-power scope. neck. It will not allow you to stalk dangerous game with a . hands. If you fall in this category please do two (2) things before you send flames:  Talk to anyone who has graduated from the XVIIIth Airborne Corps Sniper School at Fort Bragg North Carolina (or other similar service school)  Pick up any copy of the NRA's American Rifleman that highlights the annual pilgrimage to Camp Perry -. Now If you try this experiment you will find something else out real quick. waxing moon. Stop breathing and the lack of oxygen to those muscles will cause them to tremble even more! You cannot make your heart stop. or connected to parts that are touching. you will notice that it starts getting worse. academic within the effective range of a medium size high velocity rifle -. just think about it and use common sense. and when they fatigue they begin to tremble. You can find that garbage in any number of gun magazines at your local drugstore or news stand. One final note. This is not really evident through a 9X hunting scope.22.about 900 meters. Our heartbeat causes our body to move. but you can slow it. There are many things that influence accuracy and I am going to include all that come to mind. Chest. our rifle.

 Think of nothing -. You must take advantage of bone structure when supporting the rifle. working up to your fingers. Think about it did you feel when you saw that buck? What were you experiencing when you raised your rifle and took aim? Chances are that the experience was quite different from the feeling you got when you were sighting in that rifle at the range. Conditioning is important. When shooting you do not want to take your eyes off your target to reload or work the action. If it's buck fever. You are looking for the combination that will allow the least vibration. What to do about it?     Relax! Feel the targets presence. scope or whatever. Straight up and down. This is easier when you are prone. flat position. look at your hands . You must be able to do this without your movement being seen. out. you can control this too. Keep forearm vertical under the forearm of the rifle. Point your toes out so your feet lay sideways. Find the position you could hold for hours without tiring. Breathe normally.Clear your mind -. load. What part of the rifle is close to your nose? I will explain this when I discuss sight alignment. your breathing will be silent. Was it really the rifle? Was it you? Buck fever is an extreme case. It . and the flexibility needed to work the action on your rifle. you are in trouble. Try to smell the target.Think only of what you must do. Your body must lie in a relaxed. If they are not here. use these tips as guides. This will reduce the maximum range that clean shots are possible. Start with your feet and think about the position of all body parts. and where the rifle is resting in relation to your nose.  Control yourself. take a mental snapshot of each part of your body and it's position. steady breaths. arms elbows. I have pictures in an army field manual for the prone shooting position that I will add when I get them scanned. Try every variation you can think of with your rifle in your shoulder.on your rifle. in. if you do not have good form you will shake. Remember how each part feels in that position. When you angle your arms you are using muscles to hold them still. flat against the ground. Practice assuming this position until you have it down pat. If the target is close just open your mouth wide. Gravity will do this for you if you keep your forearm vertical. If you are using muscles to hold your position you will shake. When you have found it. you will get this shot only once Fatigue Yes. but it no matter what your condition is. the shooter is so overwhelmed by the experience that they cannot even remember pulling the trigger while the gun was still pointing up in the air! Many people suffer from increased pulse and respiration when they sight game.

If you don't know where your eye should be without "looking" through the scope to find it. it is very hard to tell whether the front post is centered in the rear sight groove. The distance from your eye to the rear sight can change and this must be avoided. Hopefully you will be able to see that the rear sight in each example (graphic missing) is fuzzy looking. The target will be fuzzy too. Yes. If you are a hunter and you must use this process from a blind or tree stand. you will find yourself chasing a fleeting image through the scope. For those of you unfamiliar with these.your shooting eye. the front sight. Practice assuming the position by the numbers. you'll lose it when it's bright too. The relationship between your eye and the rear sight is important. When using a scope it is also important to note the relationship between the gun and your nose. behind. The position the hunter must shoot from depends on the situation. put your nose in the same place. This will give you something to think about when the time comes. you will lose a great deal of the field of view. use the same principles. note the relationship between your nose and the stock or action of the rifle. In dim light. . the peep sight is far superior. There are four things in this equation -. The are adequate for hunting purposes on a . You will focus on a problem and the solution. This will help you get your sight picture consistent. Sight Alignment and Sight Picture When shooting a rifle without a scope. not freak out because you finally have that 8 point in front of you! For the rest of you. I took the principles I learned about shooting at long ranges and applied them where the situation warranted. If you shoot infrequently you may want to write this down so you will remember it if you forget. Leaf sights work well out to 100 yds. But for serious target work. or to the side of you. Once you find the right position for your eye. The distance between the sights does not change. Peep sights are the best sights for a rifle. Each time you aim. In dim light the correct view is also very dark. You hunters can do as I did. Eventually it will become second nature. I will try to stay away from hunting situations. It is very hard to focus on the front sight post with leaf sights. You will have to align the front sight post in the center of the rear sight aperture using your "peripheral" vision. Notice that when your eye is not in position that areas of the scope view are black. it is important to align the front and rear sights perfectly and consistently. The peep sight system is better because it allows you to get a better picture of sight alignment.may help to sequence the movements necessary to assume this position and number them. they will take some getting used too.22 rifle. When the leaf sight blurs out of focus. The only part of the front sight that is visible through leaf sights is the very top. What you do will be different from every tree you hunt and for every game animal that walks out in front. That is because you should always focus on the front sight post. the rear sight. but in dim light this problem is not readily apparent. and the target. if your eye is not perfectly positioned.

. The movement of your finger is to the side and back.a big unpleasant event. and in your mind they will be one and the same -. Do not use the tip by the nail. Once you realize that the kick is not that bad. stop breathing for a second or two. and the trigger squeeze to coincide with that "place". hard kicking rifle and not wear hearing protection. and try your best to eliminate all lateral pressure. breathing. This time when you get to that "place". You must time this rise and fall so that the target is sighted at that "place". or to start breathing in again. your forearm that supports the rifle does not move so the muzzle drops. It rises again when you exhale. You want to put the very end of your finger on the trigger. pulling like this will exert a sideways pressure on the trigger. the sight alignment & picture.Breathing If you don't breath you will shake. Isolating recoil and noise is very important when trying to overcome a flinch. Notice that at no point on your finger. The shot should come as a surprise every time. Now simulate trigger pull and watch your finger.  Now try it again. you will never be able to shoot well. Try this exercise -   Take a breathe. What do you think the muzzle will do? If you are right-handed. The place on your finger that moves the the LEAST to the side is the very tip. you will be able to focus on sight picture. but the soft part between the tip and the first joint. When your chest expands your shoulder rises. Let it out. You will begin to associate the noise with the recoil. bend it to a hook shape like you would when pulling a trigger. No matter where you touch the trigger. does your finger move straight back. Trigger Squeeze Look at your finger. While exhaling. two at most. The biggest mistake a shooter can make is to start off with a loud. It's easy! That is the place in your breath cycle you want to take your shot. powerful. There is a correct way to breath when shooting. you must time the rise and fall of the rifle. notice that there is a point during exhale where you do not feel it necessary to to continue exhaling. Since you can only hold it a second. but the noise will be most unpleasant. Not only can you damage your hearing. When you pull the trigger you must apply steadily increasing pressure until the gun fires. and squeezing. and flinch. the muzzle will move to the right because you are pushing the portion of the rifle behind your forearm to the left. When squeezing the trigger be conscious of this. Notice that when you inhale the muzzle of the rifle drops. If you anticipate. and it certainly will not hurt you.

Mag. of him. Once a bullet has flown 60% of it's maximum range. This means that out to 25 meters the rifle will shoot low.300 Win. LOS crosses BP. I have been to the range and heard people talking about how their [insert bullet here] climbs for the first 50 yds. and won the 1965 Wimbledon Cup with a . comfortable body position Breathe Sight Picture Squeeze Bullet Flight Ballistics will be covered in detail in a section devoted to the subject. After this the bullet is below LOS again. size has little to do with it. Bullshit. The moment a bullet leaves the barrel it begins to fall. and the farther it will drop. I'll include a picture when I can get it scanned. Accordingly. The bullet will steadily drop until it crosses the LOS again. you may have problems with a big rifle. It covers the first 30% of it's maximum range very quickly. The laws of physics do not work differently for these people or their guns. These topics will be discussed in greater detail in the section titled "Exterior Ballistics". Their sights are pointed down at an angle like everyone else's. In fact. If they are straight. This is what people are referring to when the say that their "bullet climbs after so many feet". between 25 and 250 meters the rifle will shoot high. In proportion. drag is very small. The point at which the two paths cross the first time is referred to as "battle sight zero" in the US Army. The longer a bullet flies. It is something you will have to get used to. then the only way the two paths will ever intersect is if the LOS is adjusted to cross the BP at some point.A . it crosses the bullet path twice. For now I'll only discuss a few fundamentals. Many gun writers recommend that people of slight build stick to lighter weapons for this reason. or wear cheapies. the effect of gravity is very small during this period. after first intersection bullet is ABOVE LOS. But if you think you are too tough to wear hearing protectors. Carlos Hathcock.300 Winchester Magnum. If any of you have one scanned feel free to donate it!    Between sights and the first intersection. If the rear sight post is raised then the LOS will cross the bullet path. or so. they will also be zeroed at 250 meters (where the two cross again). The LOS is perfectly straight. and the bullet is always dropping. When a bullet leaves the barrel it is moving very fast. kicks hard. The sights on a rifle are on top of the rifle. As the bullet slows the proportional effects of drag and gravity swap places. all 140 lbs. the drag effect is quite high. That is exactly what we do. Bullets do not drop at a constant rate. They just don't understand the relationship between the line of sight (LOS) and the bullet path (BP). . Shooting Fundamentals Summary     Solid. and after 250m the rifle will shoot low again. Bullet drops more and crosses the LOS. killed most of his 93 confirmed people with a 30-06. As soon as a bullet leaves the barrel it is a prisoner of gravity and drag. bullet is BELOW LOS. If an M16's sight's are adjusted until they are "zeroed" at 25 meters. the longer it is exposed to gravity. and gravity is causing the bullet to drop very fast.

(See section on rifle tuning where I discuss harmonics. When I need data. and the BC governs the amount of drag. the BC of the bullet determines its trajectory. It might surprise you to know that one of my guns shoots 180gr round nose bullets better than any other bullet I've tried! Don't be to quick to assume that a match grade bullet will fly better than others in any particular rifle. the better it bucks the wind. drops everything I shoot with it. When the manufacturer recommends a bullet for a particular purpose don't try to read to much between the lines. I have favorite bullets for each rifle that I own. . My . It would take days to convert all of their data to HTML and it would be full of errors. Speer. The potential of the standard bullet can be calculated very precisely. it is easier to compare the ballistics potential of the bullet in question to one standard bullet. piss them off. and Hornady also have good references.300 Win. then the higher the BC of any bullet. The drag deceleration of another bullet can be compared to this standard to produce a factor for calculating deceleration. The drop at any range is nearly proportional to the square of the time of flight. I've tried many bullets and can't honestly say that any brand is better than any other for my purposes. The effect of the BC enters mainly through the time of flight. All reloading manuals contain extensive disclaimers and Sierra's is no exception. It simple terms the BC of a bullet is a measure of it's efficiency. the flatter it shoots. It is clear that a bullet with a .95 US for it and as I mentioned. They do good work and I encourage you to support them by buying their manual.) Try them all and decide for yourself. I usually compare all of them. . This factor is known as the Ballistic Coefficient. For a given bullet fired at a known muzzle velocity. it is my favorite. This is because drag is the strongest force acting on the bullet.300 that is not a disadvantage! And now.     Ballistic Coefficient Altitude and Humidity Uphill/Downhill Shooting Wind Effects Ballistic Coefficient Rather than try to calculate ballistics for every bullet made. Bullet weight has a lot to do with it. If you do not have this manual then I urge you to get it. I have many books and manuals but Sierra's is by far the best. I am providing this information because I have not found it elsewhere on the Web.Advanced Marksmanship By David Reed Most of the data and discussions which follows is taken directly or paraphrased from the Sierra Rifle Reloading Manual 3rd Edition. and the better it retains its velocity as it travels downrange. Nosler. A hollow point bullet is designed to expand rapidly. and keep you from buying their book! These pages should not be considered a worthwhile substitute for their manual. If we compare several bullets all fired at the same muzzle velocity. but if you are shooting whitetail with a . on to exterior ballistics . I think I paid around $34.

However the difference is pretty small and probably not worth figuring out. Therefore the BC increases when we go from dry to more humid air. So a high BC bullet may drop more than a lighter bullet fired much faster. but don't wear blinders. thus offsetting the difference. If you sight your rifle in on a cold day. Look for the higher BC. the heavier bullet will be flatter than the lighter bullet. and final velocity when choosing a bullet. The air is less dense. The author is very knowledgeable and his program is based on solid physics. you will see a difference in trajectory. I highly recommend JBM's On Target! Ballistics software. larger BC means less drop. Sierra uses standard factors in their ballistics tables. We should also note that after 1000 yds. because drag slows a bullet down. You should try to prepare a table which shows how your rifle will shoot over a reasonable range of altitudes. Since the drag gets less as BC gets larger. the heavier bullet is actually moving faster and of course. For a comparison to be fair. carrying more energy. and barometric pressure. The values are: Altitude: sea level Pressure: 29. . energy. The best way to calculate the difference is to use a ballistics program. you should also compare the final velocity and energy at the range in question.shorter time of flight will drop less than one with a longer time of flight. Consider MV. humidity. Time of flight also depends on muzzle velocity (MV). you will be close enough to make accurate shots. If you would like one for Windows. Humidity: 78% You may think that if you develop a load at lower elevations and then go to the mountains on a hunt. that your round will shoot flatter. however it will probably be colder. That is because the molecular weight of water is less than the molecular weight of dry air. but this is pretty much out of the effective range of the rifle. Altitude & Humidity Drag depends on the density of air and on the speed of sound.53 inches of mercury (Hg) Temperature: 59 degrees F. You'll find a freeware/shareware version to download on my home page. What may surprise you is that a bullet will shoot flatter in humid air than it will in dry air. The most dramatic effect on bullet performance is a change in altitude provided that the temperature increase is not that great. These depend on temperature. but you cannot get the MV very high on a heavy bullet. It should be evident that between 600 and 1000 yards. It is the best ballistics program that I know of. Once you commit to memory the altitude effect. The very best way is actually test your rifle under conditions that are close. Time of flight is affected by drag. and go to the mountains and it's not that much colder. A large heavy bullet typically has a high BC (Inertial).

the opposite occurs. We will ignore head & tail winds (HTW) in this discussion. you could calculate wind using 2:15. The mirage will lean away from the wind up until about 20mph when it disappears almost completely. or adjust your sights slightly. In the morning. To be exact. With a 2-4mph breeze the grass will move and you will see the eddies of air moving the ground. You must understand wind effects to shoot well. there is less than 2mph wind.Shooting Uphill/Downhill Bullet drop does not change very much when shooting uphill/downhill. the wind will be 7mph for 3 min. 6:00 is on the back of the head. the land . The western slope of a hill will have stronger currents than the eastern slope. and 10:00. the reverse occurs. In the evening. Check your tables or ballistics program for your rifle. 8:00. and 5mph at the target (from a slightly different direction). Wind Effects This is a big one. especially as range increases. If you know what the drop (d) is for your bullet at any given range. the air and ground begins to warm.2. Anywhere you are shooting.. 1:48. Vertical deflection of bullets is very slight. Aviators know this too. each made up by an almost infinite number of microsystems. Those of you who are sailors know that wind is constantly shifting. 12:00 is straight in the face. and 3:00. On big grassy fields you can see this too. Therefore you must adjust your hold or change your scope when taking shots at high angle. Frequently there will be a brief lull in the wind.sea heat differential effect also occurs.Instead of a 50" correction we are talking about a 40" correction. they must look for other signs. Shooters cannot see ripples in the water. Warm air rises over the ground and is replaced by cooler air over the water. then the wind effect of a 2:00 wind is the same as a 4:00. Thus we only need to remember wind adjustments for 1. in inches. You will have to find the right place to hold. you are in the doldrums where nothing much is happening (minus the presence of a system). the wind4:00the target will always be different than the wind where you are shooting from. If you are near the water. Fields are excellent places to read the wind because . convection currents form cause air to move uphill. etc. If the shimmer is straight up. 7mph halfway down range (from a slightly different direction). When on the water. There is no substitute for practice. If you would like to know what it is right now. although not as strong. Watch trees and grass. After the sun has gone down is when the onshore breeze gets stronger. Think about a 600 yd shot downhill at 40 degrees -. when the sun comes up. A shooter must study these winds as they swirl along the ground. It changes all the way to the target. then try JBM's online ballistics calculator! Just use your "back" button on your web browser to return. But the rifle will appear to shoot high. If we discount HTW. This is known as an offshore breeze and occurs midmorning. Mirage's move with the wind just like grass does. As the ground cools in late afternoon. It may be 2mph where you are. then it will reappear from the new direction. you can see "wind lines". Formulas abound for this. When shooting across flat ground you can see the shimmer of the heat rising off the ground. you can use the following table to calculate the amount your bullet will shoot high. The wind swirls across the earth in large systems. at most a few inches at long ranges with 20+ winds. During the day. then clock 5 degrees to the right for 5 minutes. They look like areas of the water that have ripples. then veer back to the left 5 degrees. In fact it shoots high by almost the same amount whether you are shooting up or down. for this component. For our purposes we will refer to wind direction using the clock method. As the ground warms. but as we'll see. exact calculations are of little use. Over a period of 10 minutes lets say. Usually the wind clocks or veers. late morning through afternoon.

50% and 90%. 10-14mph and the thicker limbs are moving and the grass is being pushed strongly during the stronger gusts. The leaves will also shimmer and and small limbs will move. . Wind has a dramatic effect on long range shots. 2. If you have time.5. always giving more credence to wind that is closer to the target (where the bullet is moving slower). (Or use JBM's) If your bullet moves 36" inches at some range with a 3 or 9 wind.7. Be aware that trees block the wind on fields. You only need to remember wind effects for your bullet at each range where wind is an issue. or 11. 59mph and the grass starts to lean pretty well. The windward side of the field will not have as much air as the leeward because the trees are blocking it. (Pronounced "looward"). Now that you understand a bit about reading wind. Look at a ballistics table for your bullet and use these factors to determine can see the air currents. figure windage for lulls and strong winds both. Recall that I said we would only consider winds from 1. Then remember two other numbers -. you can see why complex calculations are fruitless. but you'll know how much. those who can read wind well will always outshoot those who can't. As you look across the field you will be able to see the stronger air moving at the center and leeward sides. and shoot. You must average these effects. Only with practice will you become good at this. Now look downrange and average it all out. Use this target below to establish zero's on your tactical rifles out to 200 yards. 15-20mph and the trees are swaying and the grass is in constant motion. For target shooters. The grids are 1/2 inch. you'll have to adjust. 1/2 and "almost all of it". come up with your number. all other things being equal. Smaller limbs on the trees are moving constantly and thicker limbs barely move. and 3. then it will move about 18" with winds at 1. If you can't get your shot off in a lull.

Date: ______________ Caliber: ______________ Rifle: ______________ Bullet: ______________ Powder: __________Grs: _____ Case: ______________ Primer: ______________ Conditions: .

The mannequin's natural point of aim is what it is. after all. the legs and spine. the front rest or rear bag would be adjusted in preparation for making the shot. therefore. and variations that violate the three elements of a good position must be avoided. In comparison. True enough. and natural point of aim. If one were standing on a street corner and decided to unconditionally relax every muscle. However. It is very important to understand this concept. sling and handstop. the rifle. this is not the least bit strange. it is necessary to learn the basic principles of the position. The discussion begins with the left arm.22 caliber bullet hole at 50 meters. is something routinely performed without any special effort. This is exactly the sort of relaxation that is required in the prone position. Hanenkrat say the prone position should provide a sight picture that is motionless and that an experienced shooter should easily be able to hold a scoped rifle on the inside of a single . Standing. These groups are the left arm and hand. and the head and neck. that standing can be done while remaining fully relaxed. specialized variations based on physical size and other factors are to be expected. however.22 caliber bullet hole at 50 meters is less than a half-minute of angle. The prone shooter. muscular relaxation. then.S. The third component is a natural point of aim.just like the bench rest. without being interrupted by any special muscular effort. right or left. Army Sniper Training Manual calls the three elements of a good position: bone support. In order to achieve a solid prone position that allows the shooter to maintain the proper bone support and muscular relaxation. Bone support and muscular relaxation provide a system in which the weight of the rifle is transferred from bone to bone. To achieve this halfminute hold. the right arm and hand. it is necessary to learn and employ what the U. the 10-ring on a UIT target is one full minute and the 10ring on the 600yard NRA Highpower Rifle target is about two minutes. according to Pullum and Hanenkrat. The only possible way to get the rifle on target would be to move the mannequin and. It is interesting to note that there are widely differing ideas about this perfect prone position amongst top scoring shooters. They explain that. hand. A . The basic principles can be thought of in several logical groups. Is that not also exactly what the prone position can do? Bill Pullum and Frank T. Nevertheless. Position of the Left Elbow . One could also visualize a mannequin with a rifle glued in place. Rather. must learn to similarly adjust their point of aim. It is easy to agree. the body would collapse into a heap. Using the bench rest example again. and ultimately to the ground. no shooter would lower the point of impact by pressing down on the rifle while trying to slowly pull the trigger. up or down .The Prone Position We Don't Need No Stinkin' Sandbags 16 February 2001 By JD Hicks * The object of a bench rest is to provide a stable and repeatable platform for executing a string of shots. the basics are not to be overlooked. within reasonable bounds.

The left elbow is the single foundation point of the entire position. The sling should extend from the upper arm in a straight line on the inside of the left wrist. A wider sling is less likely to cut off the blood flow as it spreads the weight of the system over a larger area of the upper arm. Most shooting jackets have some type of hook. A good starting point for an adjustable hand ." A match rifle may provide an adjustable hand stop that allows the position to be adjusted to any number of possible configurations. thus removing the need for the muscles in the left arm to hold this weight. ring or strap on the top of the left arm expressly for this purpose." the sling swivel is fixed and the shooter's prone position must be built around that fact. The length of the sling and. The brachial artery can become compressed between the sling and the bone when the sling is placed in the middle of the upper arm. This is not necessarily the case when using a "match rifle. A "high" position is one in which the left hand and indeed the entire position is high off the ground relative to what would be the lowest possible legal position. The sling can also slip down the upper arm if it is not adjusted snugly and held in place with some type of keeper. The sling should be made of a material that does not stretch and is as wide as the rules allow. This can likewise degrade the position or cut off the flow of blood. The sling must transmit the rifle's weight to the bone in the upper left arm. "High" and "low" prone positions are just what they sound like. It should then pass flatly under the wrist and back of the hand to the connection point on the rifle. Moving the left elbow farther out to lower the position or closer to the body to lift the position is a mistake. The sling should be placed either high or low on the arm. A "high" prone position usually works best with the sling higher on the arm. and. Position and Configuration of the Sling The sling running from the upper left arm to a point on the rifle near the left hand forms a triangle with the upper left arm and left forearm.World-class prone shooter Ernest Vande Zande says the most common error prone shooters make is developing a position where the left elbow is not extended far enough forward. A heavy button sewn to the sleeve just below the sling will work just as well. Pullum and Hanenkrat remind shooters to remove their wristwatch. The use. but not in the middle. utility and merit of cuff-type slings are left to the reader to discover. The placement of the left elbow should not be the enabling factor for building a "high" or "low" prone position. the height of the position are governed to a great extent by this fixed point. It may also be necessary to adjust the cuff of the shooting jacket and/or the shooting glove under the sling at this point. The Hand Stop / Sling Swivel On the "service rifle. conversely. therefore. A sling that stretches will allow the position to creep and become increasingly difficult to maintain without extra muscular effort. a "low" prone position usually works best with the sling lower on the arm. The left elbow should be fully extended and set just to the left of the rifle. It is certain that any extra bulk from a watchband or heavy jacket seam will become a distraction under continued pressure from the sling. Everything else is adjusted and oriented around this point.

Once a stable position is established. If after some experience with a particular position one is convinced that higher or lower might be better. Ultimately. Index numbers are found stamped in many commercially available slings. Try several. then proceed to experiment with caution. and the position of the hand stop. The Legs and Spine The position should be oriented so that the spine is straight and relaxed. The left leg should be parallel to the spine with the toe of the left foot pointed in towards the position. a stable position should be sought and then simply labeled as high or low.stop is to arrange it so that the distance from the rifle butt to the trigger is the same as the distance between the hand stop and the trigger. These adjustments should not be initially tinkered with in order to achieve some desired higher or lower position. The Left Hand The left hand and wrist must be kept straight. This notwithstanding. The point needs to be made that the position of any single element of the prone position affects all others. a simple black line marked with a "P" for prone can be employed.not that he actually needs any help. One may also unconsciously "finger" the rifle the last little bit onto the target when aligning the sights. Rather. can control the effect of breathing. The position of the hand stop and length of the sling will govern the shape of the supporting triangle discussed earlier and raise or lower the position. There are as many different types of hand stops as there are hands. The arm bone is connected to the shoulder bone. Finally choose the one that is the most comfortable for the longest period of time. The right leg should be brought up to about a 450 angle with the lower part parallel with the left leg and the toe of the right foot pointing out and away from the position. Many rifles equipped with an adjustable hand stop are similarly indexed. record the length of the sling. The angle of the right leg controls the relationship of the right shoulder to the center of the position and by moving the chest up and down. a piece of tape or any other suitable mark may be substituted. This will result in shots that look and feel clean but are off call. use the same type of hand stop on all of them. to use a juvenile example. as well as allowing general analysis of the position. If this is not the case. A home video camera can be most illuminating in this particular exercise. When using multiple rifles. As an extra note: If a journal is not currently being maintained . one will . Just as the trigger releases the supporting fingers relax and the rifle springs back to the true natural point of aim.start one now. It is also important not to grasp the rifle with the fingers of the left hand. Any force exerted by the left hand will change recoil from shot to shot and thus the bullet's impact on the target. It is an interesting experiment to set oneself in position and then observe the position of the right shoulder and chest as the right leg is swung through the entire possible range. The individual shooter is invited to experiment with the right leg through the entire range of motion. if possible. Using a hand stop that hurts like the devil just because Lonnes Wigger uses that type will only help Lonnes . as any bending will cause extra muscles to be used and set up a springing motion that affects recoil. the position of the sling on the upper arm.

The United States Army Sniper Training Manual agrees with Master Sergeant Owens. This will be one that allows the trigger to be pulled straight back without disturbing the sights. Master Sergeant James R. "dragging wood. "Move the elbow to the rifle.including the trigger guard . The Right Shoulder The butt plate should be placed close to the neck and have as much contact with the shoulder as possible. Difficult? Probably impossible." To achieve this. The finger touching or brushing on the stock during trigger pull is called. No extra muscular effort should be used to pull or push the position into place. Next. As needed. a stern faced drill instructor growls. The Right Elbow In Full Metal Jacket. the surface of the elbow pad or shooting mat can be roughed up to improve friction. the shooter must grip the rifle with the right hand first and then plant the right elbow. pull the trigger and close the grip on the rifle snugly as one action. sight on an appropriate and safe target. With the right hand intentionally loose.determine the position of the right leg that is most stable and results in the least disturbance of the front sight from pulse beat. A sheet of course grit sand Ppaper or emory paper should be in your shooter's equipment box. a symptom of this is a group of shots strung out horizontally." This makes it impossible to pull the trigger straight back or in a fashion that does not disturb the sights. Owens instructs shooters that the position of the right hand must be such that the trigger finger is able to move without touching the rifle stock. not your head around the rifle!" Exactly the same thing applies to the right elbow. try the same exercise while concentrating on not allowing the front sight to move. the less likely it will be for the rifle to slide around and require constant adjustment. "Move the rifle around your head. and further states that touching any part of the rifle . The United States Army Sniper Training Manual explains that one will close the whole hand while pulling the trigger if the grip is not firm enough. While in the prone position with an empty chamber and un-cocked rifle. The Right Hand The grip of the right hand should be just strong enough to hold it in place on the rifle. One might also extend this exercise using the correct technique to discover the best possible grip and hand position. A simple exercise will clearly show this action. It will also be . not the rifle to the elbow. This action of closing the hand along with pulling the trigger will move the rifle off target as the shot is being fired. Special care should be taken to guarantee that the right elbow does not slide around. The larger the contact area is between the shoulder and the butt plate. According to Master Sergeant Owens. To imitate the drill instructor.even at a slight angle will disturb the sights. It is also important to allow the right arm to relax normally when planting the elbow. The placement of the right elbow must be governed by the position of the rifle. Notice the wild movement of the front sight. The fingers should be firm but not tight.

The position and relative size of the front sight as seen through the rear sight should appear exactly the same every time the head is positioned on the cheek piece. and resulting different recoil. Appendix: A. In an article published in InSights. the cheek piece will be set such that the top of it is in line with the axis of the bore. It is the duty of every shooter to know and understand the rules. Sight Alignment vs. Sight Picture: Sight alignment error has a far greater effect on where a shot hits the target than does sight picture. If a match rifle is being used. in the prone position. in addition to being natural and relaxed. your shot will . Jr. the height of the butt plate can be adjusted to help improve the amount of shoulder contact and pressure. Pushing the envelope of legal is begging for a challenge.easier to keep a consistent cant angle if the butt plate has a large contact area. A visit from a match official in the middle of a string of shots can be pretty distracting. This pressure should be adjusted by adjusting the length of the stock rather than the position of the hand stop or length of the sling. Joseph Roberts. The reason for this is that sight alignment is angular while sight picture is parallel. With this in mind. Recall that the position of the hand stop and length of the sling should be used to adjust the height of the position and front sight. insufficient pressure on the butt plate is the main cause of most weaknesses in the prone position. It should be understood that the physics of recoil include the weight of the head on the rifle. says that seeing your sights the same way every time will keep you from making sight alignment errors. Stay within the rules Recall any position must pass the test of remaining legal under the rules. A rifle supported by the very top or bottom of the butt plate is free to swing on the pivot point created by the small contact area. If during the first shot the head is being held up off of the rifle in order to align the sights and then during the next shot the head is pressed down firmly. the cheek piece should also be moved one-quarter inch. will cause the shots to be strung out across the target. the cheek piece should be adjusted to allow the head to rest in a natural position without straining the neck or shoulder muscles. A proper head position. This changing cheek pressure. The Head Position Generally. According to the Small Arms Marksmanship Manual of the Bureau of Naval Personnel. The upper body and right shoulder should be as close to the ground as possible. If the rear sight moves one-quarter inch to move from 300 to 500 yards for example. Ernest Vande Zande says that it is also important to move the cheek piece up and down with the rear sight. the recoil will be different. The position of the shooter's head can be quickly referenced using the sight picture. The pressure on the butt plate should be equal to the pressure on the hand stop. Keeping journal entries for how much the sight physically moves when adjusted from one yard-line to the next is key. If you aim three inches off center (a parallel error). There is an explanation of sight alignment verses sight picture in the appendix. should allow the shooter to look through the sights without obstruction from the bridge of the nose or eyebrows.

the pressure in that system changes and causes blood vessels to expand and contract with this change in pressure. The use of a spirit level on a Match Rifle can prevent canting or maintain a constant intentional cant. October 1951: (a. that the same color filter be used on the spotting scope as is currently being used for the rear sight. Canting the Rifle: Each one-degree of cant results in a 1/4 minute change in impact. As the heart pumps blood through the vascular system. B.) Place the rifle butt on your right hip and cradle the rifle on the inside of your right forearm. C. the spotting scope can be just as fatiguing on the eyes as the sight picture. He suggests in his September 1970 American Rifleman three inches off at all ranges. sights to the right (Figure 1). Pulse Beat: Pulse beat is the motion of the position generated by the beating of the heart. If you misalign by three minutes (an angular measurement) a 600-yard shot will be three minutes (approximately 18 inches) off. Figure 1 . The Spotting Scope: According to N. Kalinichenko. D. by Walt Kuleck From FM 23-5. How the Soviets View Aiming Problems. The use of the Model of 1907 sling.

locking it in place (Figure 3. To shorten or lengthen the sling to conform with your body and arms. and sitting positions is about two holes shorter than that for the prone position.) For the average soldier. Insert your left arm through the loop until the loop is high on the upper arm. rotate the sling through the upper swivel. pull the upper keeper down tight against the upper hook. Now. right hand on the inside. then give it a half turn to the left (Figure 2. Figure 3 This tightens the loop on your arm. unhook the upper hook and engage it four to six holes from the end of the long strap (Figure 1.Both of your hands are now free to adjust the sling. Figure 2 Straighten out the sling so that it lies flat. note 6). (c. the adjustment of the loop sling in the kneeling. The feed end of the sling is left hanging downward. Now. note 3). moving the lower keeper and upper hook downward to your arm (Figure 3. Do not roll it up between the keepers as this will stretch them. For the average sling adjustment. Push the lower keeper up (Figure 2. note 4). make the adjustment by moving the upper hook.) The loop to be placed on your arm is formed by that part of the long strap between the D-ring and the lower keeper. the loop now formed is the loop for your left arm (Figure 2. to keep the loop from slipping. above the biceps (Figure 2. (b. then unhook the lower hook and rehook it down near the butt swivel (Figure 1. note 8). note 7). using both hands. left hand on the outside strap. Loosen the sling. note 5). . note 2). squatting. note 1).

note 10). . (g. place your left hand so that the rifle lies in the center of the V formed by your thumb and first finger. The tendency of most men is to use a sling adjustment which is too long (loose). note 9) and the sling lies flat against the back of the left hand (Figure 4.) Be sure the sling is doing its share of the work in giving your rifle full support. however.(d. Figure 4 (e.) Some leeway in the position of the loop on the arm is permitted. the loop should be above the biceps. grasp the rifle so that the hand is against the stock ferrule swivel (Figure 4. In general.) Before taking your position.) After the sling has been adusted on the upper arm. experience has shown that many men get good results with the sling somewhat lower. A properly adujsted sling means a steady rifle (Figure 5). (f. It is important that daylight be visible between the sling and the crook of the arm formed at the elbow.

Elementary Training. It's a carrying strap that just hangs there. Fire Discipline. I have in front of me as I type this the "Imperial Army Series (Based on Official Manuals): Musketry (. Range Practices and Field Practices. Judging Distance.S. isn't it? How to attach the Model of 1907 Sling to the Rifle by Walt Kuleck The US sling is singularly adapted to steadying one's aim in position shooting. Army way. 1) is placed on your rifle as shown in figure 2. here is the U.Figure 5: A Properly Adjusted Sling! Simple. at least in 1915. from FM 23-5. October 1951: The Gun Sling M1907 (leather) (fig. .22 Cartridges). British (non) use of the sling for position shooting. Visual Training.303 and . I suspect the Germans were too. In no case is the sling used for support whilst shooting from any of the positions. Based on Musketry Regulations" (1915). So the Brits were in the dark about the use of the sling as an aid to marksmanship. circa 1915 In contrast.

grasp the sling between the hooks. grasp the inside strap of the sling near the trigger housing with the left hand.Figure 1: Nomenclature and Arrangement of M1907 Sling Components Figure 2: The M1907 Sling on the Rifle 1. Figure 3: Attaching the M1907 Sling to the Rifle 2. . The sling is now attached to the rifle. With the right hand. To tighten the sling (fig. 4). Engage the lower hook in the pair of holes below the upper hook. then place the upper hook in the third of fourth pair of holes near the feed end of the long strap. Thread the feed end of the long strap through the upper keeper as shown in figure 3.

To hold the sling in a tight position. Now force the inside strap toward the muzzle and at the same time pull the outside strap toward the butt of the rifle. but have found that using what little bit I know about it can help the unit a lot in terms of intelligence and help out my fellow Snipers by helping us hunt down our targets. isn't it? Applying Basic TrackingFor The Sniper 6 November 2000 By Jeff Waters Since the Army FM on Sniping covers tracking skills pretty well. 4. slide the lower keeper down from the feed end of the long strap and grasp the inside strap with the left hand. First. Figure 4: Tightening the M1907 Sling 3. This will help you analyze tracks you find although it shouldn't dominate your thinking. start by getting an S-2 update on known/suspected enemy activity in your Area of Operations (AO). force the upper keeper against the stock ferrule swivel and slide the lower keeper up until it has passed the feed end of the long strap. Slide the lower keeper toward the muzzle until the feed end of the long strap has been passed. I will simply discuss integrating those skills into a mission. To loosen the sling for carrying purposes.Now pull toward the butt with the left hand and push toward the muzzle with the right hand until the sling is tight. Simple. I am not a master tracker. .

Plot the location and direction of the tracks. More useful information can be gathered even if significantly behind the enemy patrol by studying the sites in which they halt. be careful! We are not the only people in the world who set up rear security or double back on their trails. establish a SLLS halt. Call in the report then move away a safe distance from the site and after setting up security. The enemy has to have water. . look. You have learned something useful yourself. (that's stop. you can identify terrain in which someone is going to leave tracks in because the ground is soft. listen. to include their back azimuth. depth. Make sure you have someone covering you and don't step out in the open. pull out your map. Are they headed towards a danger area where you can be waiting for them? Even if you don't pursue them. count the number of prints in a meter long box and divide by 2 persons : for a reasonable estimate Guestimate. toes in/out etc Direction of Magnetic azimuth travel : Number of Box method. Think about the intelligence you have and the situation and see if you can make a reasonable guess about where they are coming from and where they are going. are their strides long or close together. you have gathered/reported a valuable piece of information which can be fitted into the bigger picture by the S-2. Track Report: Type of prints : Boots? Tread pattern. Each should be thoroughly and carefully studied and reported when discovered. After being satisfied that the track makers are not in the immediate area carefully move forward for a look.When you find a set of tracks. set up patrol bases etc. Where would you do it if you were leading an Infantry Patrol? Does the S-2 have any info on enemy routes or tactics that can help you? If you decide to follow the tracks. but gather the following information. tactics and terrain to try and help you estimate where they are headed. How deep are the tracks etc. are there marks high up indicating crew-served Load : weapons being carried and so on Age : How fresh are the tracks Note: there is probably a better format out there in the FM or elsewhere. Some people call these traps. When Scouting an area for the enemy. I won't cover the stuff already written in the FM's that you can get online. Use your knowledge of the enemy's direction of travel. are the heels dug in deeper Speed : than the toes etc. just like you do and they have to cross rivers/streams somewhere. situation. smell and watch your perimeter!). Again.

but just this little bit of knowledge and making the teams practice it and report it on the radio and debriefs will develop them into much better snipers and provide a real benefit to the unit. I am far from a master tracker. Put the end of the stick at the base of the heel on a print and slide a rubber band up the stick where the print's toe is. Hitting a leader who is trying to reorganize and consolidate a unit that has already fallen back can deal a strong psychological blow to the entire unit. Who knows. Teams should always be debriefed on a terrain analysis of the AO and any signs of enemy activity. Cut a stick at least the length of a stride. Be patient. Especially from an unseen foe (you) who seemed to operate with impunity. they may come running back past you breaking contact en route to a rally point. By always tasking this info as a Priority or Other Information Requirement and asking . the rubber band on the front of the stick should be located over where the next set of prints will be. displaced vegetation or soil. There is plenty of sign to look for rather than just the prints. Again. it could really piss them off. When he halts does the sign indicate that they establish security behind good cover and concealment? Do they leave trash? (a good item for intelligence). you have a tremendous advantage. so don't stick around very long. track someone down and engage from 100 meters out. Better. You can tell a lot about the enemy from his sign. Wait for the best opportunity and feel good that if they don't know you are behind them. if at all possible. A tracking stick can be useful to stay with an enemy element which. get another element to get in front of them and others to their flanks to set up ambushes in favorable terrain. look for the print. and the prints point you in the direction of travel. Good opportunity to maximize confusion and break a unit's moral. snipers don't rush in. This should allow you to put the bottom of the stick over the end of a print and have the rubber band end at the toe. Do they dogleg their route? Do they cross or skirt danger areas? All this is great intelligence even if you do nothing more than pass it on. showing the exact size of the print. I say this because I know that I am an amateur tracker and understand the risks involved. Now point the stick towards the next set of prints and slide a rubber band over the base of the heel of next print. or the terrain is not leaving a clearly seen set of tracks. due to its small size. On the other hand. don't attempt to track them down and hit them. It should look something like this: | PRINT#1 | (length of stride) | PRINT#2 | 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 H R R T E B B O E A A E L N N D D Before moving up from the base print to examine the subsequent set of tracks.Also. scrapes or marks on trees higher up and so on. In this manner when you put your stick over a base print.

the snow line is not reached until an altitude of about 5. Near the Equator in the Andes for example. Arctic Arctic summer temperature can rise to 18C (65F) except on glaciers and frozen seas.000ft). Note: When in the Arctic or Antarctic. Greenland." but one may need cold weather skills at very high altitudes everywhere. Reed This section is entitled "Arctic Survival. At the southern tip of South America there is permanent snow at only a few hundred meters (1. Arctic Survival Written by Roger Perron and David R. winter winds reach hurricane force and can whip snow 30m (100ft) into the air giving the impression of a blizzard even when it is not snowing. Antarctica is covered with a sheet of ice. In Eastern Siberia -69C (-94F) has been recorded at Verkhotansk.long winter and short summer -the day varying from complete darkness in midwinter to 24 hours daylight at midsummer. Scandinavia & Russia. Arctic conditions penetrate deep into the northern territories of Alaska. it becomes an integral part of their mindset and even the most novice sniper will learn from his experience one mission at a time.000 meters (18.000 ft). there are only 2 seasons. but fall in winter to as low as -56C (-81F) & are NEVER above freezing point. Canada.them during debrief about it. Iceland. In the arctic the Pole is capped by deep ice floating on the sea and all the land north of the timberline is frozen. Antarctic winds of 177km (110mph) have been recorded and in the autumn. Antarctica Temperatures in the Antarctic are even lower than in the Arctic. but the nearer the poles the lower the snow line will be. In the northern forests summer temperatures can reach 37C (100F) but altitude pushes winter temperatures even lower than in the Arctic. .

regardless of superficial feelings of comfort. High altitudes give the same conditions. For only 3-5 months of the year is the ground thawed sufficiently for water to reach the roots of the trees & plants that especially flourish along the great rivers that flow to the Arctic Ocean. Speeds over 64kmph (40mph) don't appear to make a great difference. the ground remains permanently frozen & vegetation is stunted. When recovering from an emergency cold situation.Tundra South of the Polar Cap. A sigh is used by our body to exhale completely once we have neglected to do so under stress. Very cold air brought too rapidly into the lungs will chill your whole body. deep. don't venture out into an extreme cold too soon. Wind Chill Accompanied by low temperatures. There is a wealth of game. sable. Exhale completely and slowly to build 50% more resistance to the cold. as well as smaller creatures and many birds. bear. squirrel. . In Russia where it is known as Taiga. Most of us breathe only half way. elk. lynx. Under extreme conditions it may even damage the lung tissue & cause Internal Hemorrhage. the forest penetrates up to 1650km and north of the Arctic Circle along some Siberian rivers. An attentive control on your respiration and especially of your timing contributes to your stress control in any moments of tension or stress. Snow melts in summer but roots cannot penetrate the hard earth. A 32km per hour (20mph) wind will bring the temperature of -14C (5F) down to -34C (-30F) and one at 64kmph (40mph) would make it -42C or (-34F) with even greater drops at lower temperatures. Once you have been thoroughly chilled (without any injury whatever) it takes "several hours" of warmth & rest to return your body to normal. winds have a chilling effect much greater than the thermometer indicates. Northern Coniferous Forest Between the arctic tundra and the main temperate lands is a forest zone up to 1300 km.

The actual target would be inside the perimeter and this would account for the 400 to 600 meter shot. and grass) from their original locations. remain concealed and engage the target undetected. camouflage may be artificial or natural. of camouflage. These requirements test the sniper's ability not only to move stealthily. and science. Cover is the protection of the sniper from small arms fire. leaves. to be man made. and egress the area without detection. outline change. The enemy may know where the sniper is located but can not hit the sniper with small arms fire. under scrutiny. thus he must now leave the area without detection while the enemy is fully alert and has an attitude problem. grass and shadows. This demonstrates the sniper’s ability to move to within 200 meters of an Observation Post. Camouflage is those measures the sniper takes to conceal himself and his equipment from enemy observation. does not mean the sniper is undetected and when under cover the sniper can not complete his mission. which is man made and is used for the purpose of concealing through color. The sniper must come out of cover to “see” the target and engage and once out the enemy now has the capability of detecting and engaging the sniper. . Concealment can be natural or artificial protection from enemy observation. Or he can move natural materials (bushes. concealment. The ratio of natural to artificial would be approximately 60 – 70 percent natural to 30 to 40 percent artificial. you will be observed due to target indicators. The sniper can also create artificial concealment from materials such as burlap and camouflage nets. one with a walker within 3 meters. As with concealment. or texture. The sniper must consider the effects of the change of seasons. such as a tank. and camouflage. Natural camouflage is vegetation or materials that are native to the given area. weather. Once that occurs. Definitions The sniper must first understand the difference in the terms cover. and create areas that work with his artificial camouflage. Man made substances will always appear. Remember that the sniper’s mission is not suicide.Camouflage and Concealment Introduction The success of the sniper’s mission depends heavily upon the ability of the sniper to approach. Artificial camouflage is any material or substance. The surroundings may provide natural concealment. while protection from small arms fire. Cover can be natural such as a hiding place behind a rock or it can be manmade. Cover. The accepted standard is to move within 200 meters of a trained observer. fire two shots. which needs no change prior to use such as bushes. This means that the sniper must rely on concealment. which would be placed from 150 to 200 meters from the perimeter. The sniper will always augment his appearance by using natural camouflage. The secret to camouflage is to never draw the attention of the enemy and create a reason for the enemy to “inspect with close scrutiny” your position. and light on the concealment provided by both natural and artificial materials. but his skill in the art.

exactly where you are. Target indicators are grouped into the four areas or senses of olfactory. This indicator will cause the enemy to look at the area harder and will probably result in your capture. This is enough to ruin your whole day if he comes after you with dogs and a concerted effort to kill. When cutting branches or material for your site or fire lane always cut in a manner that the enemy would not bump into the sharp cut edges. This lowers the odor factor somewhat. weapons-cleaning solvents. in the process of building your hide site you may leave tactile indicators a distance from your hide site and this would indicate that you are in the area. The sniper team should also eat the same food as the enemy prior to infiltration and for the duration of the assignment. only that you are in the area. Olfactory is what you do. lotions. Each target indicator must be further examined to look at some very specific causes. The sniper team should use the same materials as the enemy for weapons cleaning while on a mission. etc. which reveal the position of the sniper. insect repellents. under normal circumstances. soaps. whether it is a hasty or deliberate hide site. However. and visual. The indicators include cooking. knowledge of target indicators are vital is his quest NOT to be a target himself. auditory. Snipers should carry food that does not require cooking and the food should be of low moisture content. The sniper trains to seek and engage targets. Visual is what you do or fail to do that allows the enemy to see you or indications that you are present. Target indicators: Tactile ( Touch ) The tactile target indicator is an indicator that you would usually leave at your final firing point. Always check and maintain your hide or FFP site to prevent edges from being exposed. Target indicators: Olfactory ( Smell ) The olfactory target indicator will not show the enemy. The sniper team must learn to negate most of these odors or match them to the surrounding area. but does not negate the odor of food. smoking. Use of tobacco products should not be permitted on a mission. Cut branches from hide construction or partial clearing of a fire lane. A sniper must know and understand target indicators to not only move undetected. tactile. Usually the tactile indicator would be of a very close nature to you and this would in itself be a major problem. deodorants. litter. that allows the enemy to smell your presence. This means cut below the ground surface or directly against the parent tree or shrub. but also to detect enemy movement. equipment left outside the hide. etc. latrines. We will begin with the Tactile Target Indicator.Target indicators Target indicators are anything that a sniper does or fails to do that could result in being detected. Tactile is what you do or fail to do that allows the enemy to touch an object that gives away your presence. Use of booby traps and warning devices near your FFP is usually counter productive. This will change . trip wires or warning devices would be examples of these types of indicators. Closer to your site would be poorly concealed hide edges. or fail to do. Auditory is what you do or fail to do that allows the enemy to hear your presence.

The sniper must take these factors into consideration when planning his site and matching his camouflage.the body’s chemical balance to closer that of the enemy and aid in masking your different body odor. Remember that animals are bare footed and if you wouldn’t step on it barefooted then don’t step on it now while traveling. such as oak leaves presented in pine trees. Most objects can be recognized instantly by their shape. always pay attention to what you are stepping on. A visual indicator. This will arouse the observer’s curiosity and cause him to investigate the area more thoroughly. At a distance the outline of objects can be recognized well before the details of makeup can be determined. will not be dismissed. Stop and listen to the surrounding sounds. metal on metal. These various factors include the following list. and probably the direction to you. Essentially your survival requires you to smell as the enemy. Some low-level noise may be dismissed as natural. Experience teaches people to associate an object with its shape or outline. the auditory will give away your presence to the enemy. dispersion (with multiple teams) and terrain patterns. unlike the others. The human body. Target indicators: Visual: Siting The first factor is siting. so as not to attract attention. All other factors usually arise from the siting factor. This is simply something which does not belong in the immediate surroundings. Target indicators: Auditory ( Hear ) The auditory target indicator is a bigger factor during hours of darkness and periods of fog or light mist. equipment rattling or talking causes sound. Always pay attention to what you are moving into and avoid areas that give indications of being inhabited by birds or small animals. These factors are described as “Why Things Are Seen”. and are what the sniper must guard against. however. All of the proper techniques of noise discipline can be adhered to and then destroyed by the sudden noise of panicked animals. Also remember that if an area appears to be the perfect location for a sniper hide or final firing position. Target indicators: Visual ( See ) The visual target indicators are comprised of various factors that can be individual in nature but usually are overlapping. Always move with minimum change in those sounds. Movement. When traveling. and the equipment a soldier carries are easily identified unless the . as will unnatural rustling of foliage or digging. talking. This becomes obvious and is readily detectable. Siting is usually dependent upon the mission. head and shoulder area especially. Dark green colors present in a field of light green. Just as the olfactory indicator. will tell the enemy exactly where you are located and thus are the main ingredient of camouflage. Target indicators: Visual: Shape Shape is the next factor of why things are seen. A siting error would be a natural camouflage in the wrong area. then the enemy knows that as well as you do and will probably have greater observation on the area and may have it pre-registered for indirect fire. but not your exact location. especially when it contrasts with the background. do not forget them or the normal lack of sounds. Mounds caused from hide construction on a flat field. equipment sounds. In addition to sound created is the sudden lack of sound caused by the sudden hush of insect buzzing.

outline has been altered. The sniper must always be aware of his location in relation to an area of light and try to avoid casting a shadow upon himself. take time to attach it vertically. The sniper must be aware that a pattern can not overcome a texture. If an object has a surface. and not let it “fall as it may”. Any smooth. Care must be taken not to change the natural shape of a shadow. as it grows. then it becomes conspicuous. or worst of all the sky. Contrast will be extreme between the two areas and in this exaggerated contrast the observer's eye cannot adjust to both areas simultaneously. as in grass. The sniper should be aware that most things in nature do grow vertically and NOT horizontally. flat background such as water. Any shine will attract the observer's attention. an area with an uneven background helps the sniper. which can create a recognizable shape. shadows will look especially dark. This shadow will create a shape that is unnatural and attract the attention of an observer. It is easy for the sniper to expose himself as a shadow against a lighted background of sunlight. In sunlight an object or a man will cast a shadow which can give away his presence. by casting a shadow on yourself you will create a silhouette. Remember that nature never places objects in a regular . When attaching grass to the ghillie suit. which contrasts with its surroundings. or all of a sniper and/or his equipment. as it is more difficult to detect the silhouette of an object. will cause an object to become well defined in shape. Remember. Another factor is the texture of the object to its background. Target indicators: Visual: Surface Surface factors include shine and texture. This can be used to the sniper's advantage as the light will be flat in the shadowed area. or optical devices can be seen over a mile away from the source. Several factors aggravate the situation for the sniper and they are the clear-cut outline of parts. The shape factor is usually a result of other factors indicated below. The sniper must remember that only man-made objects have geometric shapes. watches. Target indicators: Visual: Silhouette The silhouette factor will cause shape and can be the result of shadow. Uniforms with patterns will not match the texture of terrain. Target indicators: Visual: Spacing Spacing is a factor that usually does not effect the sniper as it does larger units unless multiple teams are used for a sniper ambush. however. If the overall texture is vertical. Where light is excessively bright. Target indicators: Visual: Shadow Shadow is a double-edged sword for the sniper. However. a field. The sniper must make this match with natural camouflage. Again. that any object silhouetted against a contrasting background is conspicuous. Mother Nature is very random in the formation of most things and as such geometric shapes do not occur in nature on a large scale. however it is usually the result of skylining. An extremely smooth object becomes shiny and the reflections from a belt buckle. however do not become careless while in deep shadows. and the sniper introduces horizontal to the mix then the sniper will become noticeable. Objects with a smooth surface will reflect light and become more obvious than an object with a rough surface that casts shadows on itself.

Always keep something between yourself and the observer when you do have to move. taped or otherwise covered before the mission. etc. movement will give a position away. Where spacing does seem to effect the sniper is when the sniper riflescope lens is on the same height as the observation scope lens. Color is also the biggest cause of siting problems. he may diminish or reduce his overall signal. Only man places objects in rows and equally spaces those objects. such as the bush you brushed up against. the birds that suddenly flew. A stationary object may be impossible to see. use the eyes as much as possible with minimal head movement. but a quick or jerky movement WILL be seen. by eliminating the cause rather than masking it. it is best to use paper that is of a subdued color such as buff. Movement that attracts the observer is jerky movement. a slow moving object difficult to detect. For some reason this is more noticeable then when there is a difference in height between the two. dirt or mud. or the small animal that ran in panic at your presence. The enemy observer may believe that something is wrong with an area and observe that area closely.equally spaced pattern. Black is not a natural color and just does not belong. but is the most common reason for the sniper to reveal his position. Color alone will usually not identify the object but is often an aid in locating the sniper. should be dulled. When observing. Eating utensils. which would be one real big target indicator. Always consider each move and keep that movement to a minimum. sheaths. This is especially true when the color is not natural for that area. Don't rub polish or oil onto boots. weapons. Target indicators: Visual: Movement Movement is the final factor and is the “Proof” the enemy needs that you are there. Even when all other indicators are absent. Target indicators are inherent in the being and physical presence of the sniper. Do not fall into the "army trap" of regularly spacing objects for beautiful uniformity. The underside of leaves is lighter than the surface and the sniper will cause a problem if he does not take care when attaching leaves to his ghillie suit. The sniper does not want to be a Roman Candle. This creates a visual and perhaps olfactory target indicator. Be aware that paint can become a fire hazard. and make his job easier. cleaning equipment. However. Once the sniper moves. Do not only think in terms of your movement. don't clip bright writing instruments where they can be seen. Target indicators: Visual: Color Color is a major problem for the sniper. Always avoid the use of any point of color that could attract the eye. the enemy has all the “Proof” he needs to summon the hounds of war upon you. but in terms of movement in your surrounding area. The greater the contrasting color the more visible the object becomes. The sheen or gloss of new equipment or older cotton material should be dulled with paint. Examples would be removing bright metal watches and jewelry. and items of personal hygiene. This final reason why things are seen will seldom reveal the identity of an object. it is best to use a small pad bound in a subdued binder. Just because you can’t see. Nature changes color on a regular basis and the sniper must match it as close as possible. Also. glasses' rims. does not mean the enemy can’t see your head movement. When rising your head up to observe always be aware that there is 6 inches minimum of head before your eyes are exposed. etc. This is only possible through the use of natural camouflage. . or rapid movement. If the sniper must write.

This is the technique the sniper will use most of the time and that the sniper must perfect. It will also effect the sequence and timing of camouflage maintenance. The sniper must keep that in mind at all times! The sniper can use hiding while in movement to his objective. right it. This is the reason for ghillie suits. dressing and behaving as the local populace. The sniper does want to keep something between him and the enemy as much as possible. As a sniper you must find out what the weather patterns will be for the duration of the mission and plan accordingly. Camouflage construction has three different techniques. Changes from damp cool to snow will cause a complete change in camouflage requirements. Discipline is doing what is necessary to construct your camouflage and maintain that camouflage. Always check your partner and have him check you so as to maintain your level of camouflage. The sniper uses one technique primarily. If the natural becomes twisted or falls over. Forget the factors and you will become another statistic. In some theaters of operations. The ghillie suit DOES NOT DISGUISE! Blending is achieved by skillfully matching personal camouflage with the surrounding area. Likely weather conditions for the duration of the mission must be taken into account. .Remember and always keep the reasons why things are seen in your mind as you move into position and you can defeat the enemy’s observation. Once the sniper can see the enemy then the enemy can see the sniper as well. or during long overland movements. Observe the area as you move through it and change out your natural to what is in your area as the natural changes. Hiding means completely concealing the body from observation by lying or moving behind or in an object or thick vegetation. not dramatic patterns. The sniper must understand that disguising is a very difficult technique and is usually not worth the effort. A more elaborate plan. sitting. The rain will cause fabrics to become darker as they become wetter. such as simply adopting native dress and moving during hours of limited visibility so as to fool observers. The sniper can not use hiding when he is in position because if the enemy can’t see the sniper then the sniper can not see the enemy. The ghillie suit DOES NOT HIDE! Deception through disguising. If the natural becomes wilted then change that out. Deceiving is a technique used to trick the enemy into false conclusions about the location or identity of the sniper. requiring more practice and familiarity with the area. they blend the sniper in with the terrain and do not hide him nor make him appear as if he is a tree or bush. would include walking. Camouflage construction consists of hiding. since this could affect the quantity and type of camouflage used. Camouflage The two major factors in camouflage are camouflage discipline and camouflage construction. deception may include the use of disguises. Just as a heavy rain after a light snow will require changes. Remember that heat will dry out natural camouflage faster than damp weather. disguising and blending. Blending is generally best achieved with bland colors. to a point where the sniper is part of the background.

This will aid in preventing those nasty surprises. That being horizontal textures and patterns in a predominately vertical world. the resulting natural dye can be applied. or talk to friendly indigenous personnel. and movement.Terrain patterns vary during the mission. at the objective may be different than that along the route to and from the objective. except a screw up now is even worse in nature than the grass. Is it to be applied to the skin or to the uniform? What are the dangers of parasites in the area and what is the make up of the ground materials? These will effect decisions on the materials that you will use for camouflage and where you will apply them. While this is not a problem in a war zone. BAD SNIPER! Another problem that the sniper must be aware of is that grass is made up of two colors and the sniper must present the correct color to the target area or an observer will see a color error in the area. Camouflage materials: Natural Natural camouflage for the skin could cause problems for the sniper later in the mission. As with grass there is a . it could adversely impact the chances of a date the night after using this technique in a permissive environment. natural (preferred) and artificial. or mission backdrop. The sniper should also be aware of any caustic sap that may be in some grasses and make a sound judgment on its use. The sniper must also consider where the material is to be applied. Due to this. Camouflage materials There are two basic materials that can be used for camouflage. All of the same cautions are used as to the semi-permanence of the dyes and the caustic nature of some leaves (poison ivy jumps to mind here!). and again the leaves would not go on the skin but the dye can be used. This would be an emergency use item only. The terrain. leaves can be used as a natural camouflage for both skin and uniform. The problem with grass is the tendency to apply the grass in long pieces when short is better. Long grass on your uniform does two things. Grass used on the clothing is a must when moving through an area that is grassy. The sniper must look at the leaves the same as he did the grass as to which side is shown. Camouflage materials: Natural: Grass The first natural camouflage to discuss is the use of grass as a camouflage for the skin and clothing. This means that the skin that is dyed would have to be sloughed off for the dye to disappear and this would result in blotching. Read after action reports from any previous missions going into the area. The second problem with long sections of grass is that is lays over when attached to your uniform thus creating a texture problem. Camouflage materials: Natural: Leaves As with grass. The “top” or upper side of the leaf is darker and shinier in color than the lower or “bottom” side of the leaf. Again the sniper must go to the S3 and receive as much information on the area that the mission will be in as is possible. one it sticks above the rest of the grass as you move through it and especially when you have to observe through the top portion of grass (remember never look over anything if it can be avoided). The resulting dye caused by grass is semipermanent in nature. the sniper must be aware of the problems in the use of certain natural skin camouflage materials. While grass itself can not be applied to the skin.

Camouflage materials: Natural: Dyes Both grass and leaves are natural dyes and so is any other by-product of live organisms. Soap and other stone from this family work well. There are three sticks. I must warn you of the danger of color to your scheme of camouflage. This will cause the observer to watch the area and that will be your down fall. sand and light green. most sand stone make wonderful rock paint and will cut you like a razor! A self-renewing dye is the male facial hair and a beard will tone down the face and change the shape as well. Rubbing two rocks together and adding water makes rock paint. if the wrong stones are selected. Mud can also be from an area that is sufficiently alkaline as to cause skin burning after a short period of time. and mud. when moving through your area. as necessary. rock paint. The reason being. Light Green. White. Remember that some type of natural camouflage. Camouflage materials: Artificial While natural camouflage is preferred. and Sand. You must balance out the sanitary hazards of a facial wound and infections caused by facial hair in a combat situation. artificial will be used as the base for the sniper’s uniform (Ghillie Suit etc. bacteria. Points of color catch the light and will attract the observer as soon as they move. This burn would not be felt until it is too late and the resulting reaction could cause a mission failure. The sniper can use insect repellant to soften the sticks and this would be a definite advantage to .) and will make up the most of the sniper’s skin camouflage. Think about a patch of Oak leaves in a pine forest and you will get the idea! Add the fact that the light side is turned out and you have a compromised sniper. Any of these can be used on the skin or on the uniform as long as the dangers are taken into consideration. DO NOT use points of color as in flowers. animal blood. You must understand these shortcomings and balance your needs with the dangers. This is a basic part of camouflage discipline. the loam and white stick with the light green and sand stick will give the sniper all of the colors available. understand that rock is basically a silicon-based object. Hmmm. Those colors are Loam. that there are but four colors available in the military sticks. but can be used in an emergency when nothing else is available. There are a number of items now available for camouflaging the skin. Even if you are in a flower garden. should ALWAYS be integrated into the camouflage design of the sniper's uniform. In short match the leaf and change the leaves. With the mud would be classified regular dirt and sand. Use of the military sticks are a simple matter of rubbing on and rubbing off your skin in one action. As can be seen.dark and light side and this difference is even more pronounced than with grass. The first and most obvious is the military standard camouflage sticks. Some of the other items would be bark from trees. The three sticks consist of loam and light green. with one word of caution. beware of wilting. coffee and tea (at various strengths). however the sniper only needs to concern himself with two. such as foliage. some saps. This only works with certain “soft” stones and will come off with sweat. and loam and white. Less apparent is the mud that contains parasites. However. and other life threatening organisms. You must know your area before using mud. The next problem that snipers seem to have is not noticing when they move from a three lobed leaf area to a single lobed leaf area. and the possible balance with mission failure. Never use flowers or any other colorful item as a camouflage. Examples of potentially dangerous dyes would of course include the blood and would appear as obvious. All have definite problems. glass is silicon isn’t it? Could this mean that you are rubbing small slivers of glass into the skin? Yes.

This pattern is used when in heavily wooded areas and leafy vegetation is scarce. This will produce the desired earth tones that match nature much better than the artificial colors of man. Camouflage sticks or face paints are used to cover ALL exposed areas of skin. then camouflage. a neutral gray color is good for overall blending with the surroundings. Artificial materials. If they are too small. The sniper will then need to shred the burlap into usable pieces. You must be aware of some materials that have a natural shine such as nylon products. Always apply camouflage in pairs. There are various types of cloth or materials that can be used while keeping in mind METT-T. The parts of the face that form shadows should be lightened and the parts that shine should be darkened. If the sniper remembers that burlap only looks like burlap and nothing else. may be used to augment. always look at the colors around you before applying and avoid the trap of going WAY too dark. Stage makeup is another possibility for the sniper and can be used in an emergency or when the coloration is required. than he will remember to go light. as with the BDU uniform. such as face (including ears). and continuously re-check your partner and yourself. There are three types of camouflage pattern used by the sniper. The sniper should remember that at distance most small patterns are lost in the shuffle and the eye takes in the dominant color. hands and the back of the neck. The most obvious material that is overused is burlap for the Ghillie suit. By cutting the burlap into 12 inch . Combination is the last and is used when moving through changing terrain. this is used when the area is thick with leafy vegetation. Striping. It is normally the best all-around pattern. or improve. An example would be dark (not black) spray-paint splotches on OG 107 material. such as paint. Remember the rules that if it may be exposed. but again what would the olfactory target indicator be and would it be a hazard to the sniper in itself? The Hunter’s Specialties camouflage makeup and grease is an advantage in ease of use and color selection. Camouflage materials: Artificial: Burlap Buy the burlap in yard measurements as sold at cloth stores. Using the burlap to break up the outline of the sniper’s body and not build a new outline of the giant. The "blotches" should be large and irregular. This is the point of artificial. The sniper must also be aware that paints can play a role in “flame on” when the sniper is wearing these materials next to an open flame. This will permit the sniper to use all of the burlap and have little pieces floating into everything. the first type. thus forming a sort of "negative" of the normal appearance of the face. Camouflage materials: Artificial: Why? The main purpose of the artificial materials is the need to break up the OUTLINE of the sniper and deny the observer a SHAPE that he can see and recognize. Woolybooger Ghillie Monster! The sniper would also do well to remember that the burlap sold in most stores and placed in the Ghillie Suit Kit for the military. The sniper would be better suited to acquire the natural color burlap and soak it in various strengths of tea and coffee. However. is produced in colors not normally found in nature. except possibly nuclear wastelands. also called splotching. hulking.the skin. Blotching is the next technique. is accomplished through use of regular or irregular stripes. then at a distance the effect is lost. This is a common problem and it is aggravated in the field by the tendency of the sniper to cast a shadow upon himself while in position. the camouflage protection of already good cloth or materials. to break up the outline and allow the sniper to BLEND in with his surroundings.

to 16 inch squares, the sniper may now shred the burlap into individual strands and group them into a shape that is similar to grass. The sniper can also remove 1 1/2 to 2 inches from opposing sides and then cut the squares into 1 to 1 1/2 inch wide strips. This allows the burlap, shredded from the ends, to be used and the sniper can then use the strips, folded over, as additional eye confusion as is found at the base of grass clumps. The burlap can be tied into the netting of the suit or headdress using various techniques, and the sniper does want to use various tying techniques. This also adds to the randomness and confusion that is evident in nature. Along with the burlap, the sniper can add pieces of hemp rope, hessian cloth, or any cloth that the sniper has found to blend in his area of operations. The sniper must always be on the lookout for these materials to improve his camouflage while in base camp or home base. It is always fun to watch little old ladies eyeing you as you move through the cloth section “feeling” the different clothes and checking both sides for color. Camouflage materials: Artificial: Base Uniform Another thing that the sniper must keep an open mind to is the base uniform that he will use for camouflage. This base uniform can be a standard issue military uniform, a military uniform of the country that the sniper is operating in, civilian camouflage uniforms, Civilian clothing (true urban camouflage). Onto this “base uniform” would be attached the Ghillie net, Ghillie hat, or a full Ghillie Suit would be used. The sniper must remember that the Ghillie Suit is not designed for general wear and that it indicates that you are a sniper. This is not a good thing around sniper conscience enemies. Also, camouflage netting, mosquito netting, IR netting, etc can be added to or used in conjunction with the Ghillie suit. In many circumstances, the Ghillie net or hat would be sufficient for the sniper. The Ghillie Net would be the net attached temporarily to the uniform and removed when not needed. It would have the same burlap garnish and space for the natural camouflage to be placed on the net. The net could be set up so as to have a hood that would rest over the sniper’s head, arms, hands, weapon receiver and scope. This would cover the sniper while in position and would be tucked inside the shirt during movement. The Ghillie hat would be a boonie style hat with the brim stiffener cut off the wide brim. The net would be sewed over the top of the hat and have sufficient netting to cover part of the back and over the arms, hands, weapon receiver and scope. Again the net would have the burlap tied in and sufficient space for natural camouflage to be tied to the net. Camouflage materials: Artificial: Drag Bags Other equipment to be considered is drag bags for the weapons and equipment. Do not attempt to move into a final position during daylight wearing a rucksack or LBE. A rucksack and LBE will become a moving lump that can not be camouflaged. The sniper must remember that the drag bag is maintained under control at ALL times. The drag bag can become more of a hindrance than help in many circumstances. Drag bags constructed of stiff materials protect the weapon better and give a distinct signature due to that very stiffness. An example is the use of the 1950 weapons container for airborne infiltration also used as the drag bag with minor modification. It is very successful, but is also a tremendous signature. Soft bags do not seem to hang on the nearest item and “wait a minute” vines do not seem to leap 6 to 7 feet just to snag them as they do with the stiff bags. However, the soft bag does not protect as the stiff one does. Generally the compromise of the scope/receiver cover in conjunction with muzzle guard works the best. Protects the scope, receiver, and muzzle while leaving little to snag. Last word on drag bags, they ARE NOT for dragging!!!! The bag is to protect the weapon, especially the muzzle

and scope, during the last portion of a stalk. This is when all of the sniper’s attention is focused on his movement and small bad things can happen to the weapon. I have seen students dragging their weapon while walking, high crawling, and hands and knees movement. Allowing the weapon to drag on its own is foolhardy in the extreme. Always control the weapon; it can become, at a minimum, a giant hand waving to say, “here I am, shoot my stupid arse”! Camouflage materials: Artificial: Optics The next problem for the sniper is all the glass that he is about to expose to the enemy. This is in the form of the riflescope, binoculars, and spotting scope as a minimum, with the addition of laser range finders, monocular, etc. a possibility. The sniper must reduce the glare and signature “cat's eye” of these optics without degrading their performance. This is actually easier than it first appears, since the real danger areas are the time when there is sufficient light to cause reflection and the black hole effect of the optics. When this is the case then the size of the objective lens can be drastically reduced without greatly effecting the optics. Only the center portion of the objective lens is used to observe through. The rest of the objective lens gathers light, and reflects it. By reducing the size of the objective and giving it an irregular shape the sniper reduces the possibility of compromise. The sniper does not want to permanently reduce the size, so a removable mask is the best way to go. The mask should be cut in an irregular patterned opening so as not to create a smaller, though just as defined, signature of optics. The sniper must also remember to maintain his observation scope just above the rifle scope, this prevents the spacing problem created by two circles at even height (binos). Another problem is the circle of the muzzle. This must also be reduced as a signature. The easiest way is through the use of burlap and placing it over the front top half of the muzzle. The initial, precursory column of air, muzzle blast, will move the burlap out of the way and the bullet will not touch the burlap. After the shot the burlap will fall back into place and recover the muzzle front until the next shot. Be aware that with each subsequent shot the burlap will shred and become less effective as a piece of camouflage. The weapon itself can be painted and the barrel can have some burlap placed around it as long as the stock is not also trapped in with the barrel. If this occurs then the barrel harmonics will be seriously harmed and accuracy will be destroyed. The rest of the weapon will be hidden from view by the sniper’s body and his veil while in position. The best assurance of floated barrel is to always carry a strap of cloth under the barrel back at the recoil lug. Upon movement into the FFP and prior to the shot the cloth should be pulled the entire length of the forestock channel to insure that the barrel is floated. This prevents al of the garbage, grass, spiders and mites from residing in that area after the stalk. It also allows the sniper to know that his burlap has not wrapped up onto the stock and barrel, messing with the harmonics. Camouflage materials: Artificial: Ghillie suit The sniper constructs the Ghillie suit for himself. This allows the sniper to construct what he is comfortable with. There is no right way to do a ghillie suit, only guidelines. It may be as elaborate or as simple as the sniper requires. There are some guidelines that the sniper needs to follow. The base uniform can be the uniform the sniper is wearing or a dedicated uniform only for the ghillie suit. The base uniform should be a bland color of a light material and easily ventilated. Pockets on the front of the uniform can be removed, sewn shut, or not used during a stalk. Padding can be sewn into the knees and elbows of the uniform or worn under the uniform for the stalk. Heavy canvas can be sewn onto the front of the uniform to facilitate crawling or it

can be omitted. Remember that this heavy material can cause a heat problem in hot climates. The netting can be sewn onto the base uniform or tacked onto the uniform with dark safety pins just prior to the stalk. Be careful with one-piece base uniforms due to ventilating problems. The shirt of the base uniform will hold most of the netting with garnish. Care must be taken not to overload the net with garnish or you will create a new outline of the giant ghillie woollybooger. Leave spaces for natural, as this is what will blend the suit into the terrain. If the shirt is dedicated then the sniper may wish to sew the pockets shut or remove them. Laying on an object in a breast pocket is an old form of sniper torture. It is possible to read the date on a dime left in your pocket for an extended time. Place the pockets you removed from the front on the shirtsleeves and on the back of the shirt sew a pocket, made from an old sleeve that is accessible to your partner. This pocket will carry his partner’s equipment while his partner will carry his equipment needed at the FFP. This prevents the snipers from “diggin” around for equipment at the wrong time. On the cuffs of the sleeves, sew loops that will go over the thumb, or middle finger. This prevents the sleeves from sliding up as you crawl. Also sew in a crotch belt that will hold down the shirt while you crawl. The sniper will also want to ventilate the shirt by cutting a 6 inch by 18 inch hole across the back and sewing a small weave net into that area for ventilation. This net would not have any garnish tied to it, however the net placed over the top of the whole shirt back would. If the shirt is not dedicated then remove all items from the shirt pockets prior to the stalk. Once the shirt is modified for “Ghillie use only” with canvas, padding, extra pockets, garnish, etc., the sniper has a very big piece of cloth on his hands. A thought on the canvas issue is that if you need that canvas and padding for crawling, then maybe you need more time spent on route selection and less time on ghillie suit construction. The pants are constructed the same as the shirt in regards to pockets, canvas, netting etc. Sew in loops on the cuffs of the pants to tie into the boots so as to keep the pants legs down. Put on your shirt prior to sewing on the netting, this will prevent you from doubling the garnish and creating the “fat butt” look that really stands out on a stalk. I recommend that you do not extend the netting much below the mid calf area as this can create some problems in movement in the walking mode as your netting, garnish, etc decides to play tangle foot with you. It can be annoying and dangerous on the stalk when vegetation begins to wave about to indicate your presence. Boots should be scuffed and browned up. Burlap threads may be glued to the boots, especially along the black soles. The black soles in any case must be subdued, as they do not fit in with nature. Sewn canvas, shoe goo and dirt, of just plain old paint may also be used on the boots as well as any other part of the ghillie suit. Again be aware of the possibility of a flame on situation. Also be aware that while shoe goo is great for many of the projects, it shines like a mirror in many circumstances, thus you must observe and modify while in construction, and this is also an on going project with the entire suit. Gloves should be used during the stalk to protect the hands from hazards. They may be full gloves or fingerless gloves and should be removed for the shot. The gloves should be light colored and garnish may be attached or glued to the backsides. Remember that your trigger finger is important and that fingerless gloves do not protect the fingers! Another thought is that many go to the tactical section of their friendly neighborhood sniper store to buy stuff. This is cool for the store but remember that many of the items are really modified from another cheaper item, and that you can modify them as well.

No matter the quantity of water you may have. The Apache traveled from one water hole to another without carrying water. and the life of the sniper. When your mouth feels dry you can keep a small pebble in it to suck on. and they soon felt much better. the desert. wait for the target. Stalking even short distances will result in dehydration. but enroute to and from the objective. On icebergs there are always depressions filled with fresh water. . and employ a wide variety of techniques and imagination with the utmost care. Do not spit. Breathe through your nose to keep moisture from escaping through your breath. or treat it chemically. Drink your water. Try not to work hard enough to perspire. Reed Whether you are in the tropics. Not only on the objective. To saturate your system drink as much as you can hold and urinate. The greatest shot in the world is useless as a sniper if he cannot reach the objective undetected. Ignorance or failure to apply the principles of camouflage may cost the mission. This was discovered when the men often complained of constant fatigue. you must remain faithful to every principle of camouflage and concealment. The soldiers stationed there had no thirst because of the cold climate and drank little. Points to remember regarding water. small or big. His thirst is often slaked before the water budget is balanced again. you may need upwards of a gallon or more a day to replace losses. They were URGED to drink a certain amount of water every meal. Dehydration Written by David R. as a result their bodies suffered from progressive dehydration. and then engage the target unnoticed. Even in cold weather you need over a liter (2 pints) a day. American doctors made this observation in the last few years at various bases in the Arctic and Antarctic. or the Arctic.      The last point is critical.Conclusion As a sniper you must remain undetected during the entire mission. The average man does not drink enough water. drink whenever you are thirsty. Boil all water no matter where you find it. It Takes 50% more heat to melt snow than to melt ice. its consumption and dehydration:  In warm weather. Rationing water will not help you. Repeat the process several times and you will have as much water as your system can hold. In order to accomplish this. Rationing will not help.

Concealment Concealment is what keeps you from being seen. collapsing the structure on top of you. Wooden frame housing or single layer cinder blocks or bricks will not stop direct rifle fire or close range pistol fire. From the time we are first born we know what a face is. rivers. You must get out before heavy weapons are brought to bear. Personal camouflage is essential at all times. It is not necessarily cover. You should use anything available to provide cover. Mortar or artillery is a different matter. when an enemy machine gunner is whittling away at that 18". If all of the bushes have been cut down and piled up in one spot your hide will be too obvious. A machine gun will tear them to pieces. use dirt. or dig a position through the floor and into the ground. or anything else you can find. logs. face. These will devastate the building. It may or may not be wise to expend a lot of effort on overhead cover when none is available naturally. You must be very careful to avoid detection. and the structure is strong enough. it won't seem like much. Cover Cover is the protection the site affords from fire.Fieldcraft By David Reed You must first select an area for your kill zone. Roads. timbers. You must select a primary and at least one alternate hide. This goes for almost any position you choose. The more time spent in the area digging and cutting the more you will be exposed to enemy detection and fire. If the building is raised. the building itself will provide overhead cover from RPG's or thrown grenades. The idea is to get the hell out of there before that happens. Gather materials distant from your hide if you need them. Use whatever is available. A bush will hide you. and fields all offer good visibility. You will base your decision on the probability that the target will appear in this area during the period of time you are there. If you do not have sandbags. Do not cut bushes from the area of your hide. By the time a person is 4 years old they can see facial patterns in clouds and . bricks. but it will not stop a bullet. The area you select should make success likely. and choose the best cover available that fills other essential requirements. You can also do this by wearing materials that obscure the outline of your body. break up your outline and blend in. hands. However. 18" of dirt will protect you from direct light weapons fire. If your hide is inside a building you may use sandbags as a barricade inside the house. otherwise they will know that "someone" has been there gathering camouflage for a position. or the time to fill them. etc. You must achieve two things. Gather carefully so that people traveling through the area will not see the cuttings. bridges. This will be next to impossible if the structure is on a concrete slab. You break up your outline by creating shadows where they should not be and highlighting places that should be in shadow. It is the first thing newborns sees when their eyes open.

If height is necessary. strategically located cars (windshields). From the front so it will look like a roof in a state of disrepair. Strategically located branches will help. Whatever you do. use very short branches. This usually means keeping the muzzle well back of whatever you are shooting out of. It also helps to disguise the hole as "just another hole in that 'ole building over there".their closet at night! It is the one feature that is most recognizable to anyone. then augment it as necessary. NEVER stick the barrel of the rifle out of the window. It is impossible to shoot near or after darkness without your muzzle flash being seen. You don't want a perfect reversal because it will still look like a face! When using vegetation for camouflage. Dislodge a few other shingles at different heights and NOT equally spaced to achieve an effect like that of the multiple wall holes described above. If the enemy is fired upon. he will return fire to these features first.45 degrees to the targets' eyes. If there is light colored earth. Better yet. In a house type structure. do not select the most prominent terrain feature for your hide. Choose vegetation that blends in to the area you are hiding in. This will provide the enemy more choices when he is trying to decide where the fire is coming from. The sun can be used as camouflage during certain times of the day. Cut a hole in the roof and dislodge the shingles. make a few more holes in the wall to shoot from. If the building is somewhat dilapidated. If you must use the roof. white paint. position yourself by a chimney or other protrusion so that you are not silhouetted against the sky or background. Any high powered rifle puts out a tremendous muzzle flash. Selecting a hide in a built up area (towns. cities. anything on the horizon under the sun is difficult to see. Try to select a place for your hide that provides natural concealment. The concept of a silhouette is important. NEVER shoot from windows unless you have too. then position yourself against the back wall of the room. When the sun is to your back and at an angle of 15 . Always consider what you will look like against the background. the glare can work in your favor depending on the location of the sun. windows. Make the hole large enough to see the kill zone from a spot four feet or more back from the wall. Close to the window you can be seen from a much wider angle than you can if you are well back into the room. Be careful to position yourself in a way that minimizes the angle at which the flash can be seen. get below ground in a position under a raised floor structure. but run areas together across your face on a diagonal. Make use of the supports or stairs as cover/concealment. 90mm . etc. If you are using a weapon with a back blast area (LAW. even if it is in your eyes! Careful analysis of site placement and timing is necessary for this to work. in a wood frame house.) requires some additional work. go into the attic area and build a platform or stand which will elevate you. When applying camouflage stick or civilian creams use the dark tones on raised facial features and the light tones on recessed (reverse shadows). do not climb up on the roof unless necessary. Long branches and grasses move in an exaggerated fashion when you make slight movements. is to cut a hole through the wall eight inches above floor level. If you must. See the section below titled "Look of your hide" for more on this subject. What is better. You should try to blend in. These areas will always be scrutinized.

Tracking Tips                What has the weather been like recently? When did the sun rise? Was there a dew fall? Look towards the sun when studying tracks. You must always be aware of where you step. people who step down near the middle will step again out side of the section. The depth of the tracks and length of the stride can indicate the weight of the load carried and the physical strength of the person who made them. Add them up and you will . Short stride -. Remember different armies may have different tread designs. and breeze. a few people may make two tracks. Every boy scout knows the "walking backwards" trick. sort of a wobble or stagger to them.don't leave any! A good woodsman leaves nothing behind. RPG. Count the tracks close to one edge. drag their feet. A few words on sign -. Count the tracks near the middle. In addition to the sign you will leave when passing through. leaves. Long stride. If the ground is shaded until 11:00 a. By measuring a three foot section of trail. On really soft ground. an estimate can be made of the size of the party who made the tracks. and counting the number of tracks within it. and shaded. When it's very humid. (when the sun rises over the surrounding trees). the direction that brush or twigs have been broken in will indicate the direction of travel. including footprints. you will see the shadows better. and when tracks can't be seen. If tracks show toes hitting first. The direction of travel is pretty obvious. Wind will blow debris into the track and increase the drying rate around the edges. the edges of a track will not begin to crumble for at least eight hours. etc. sunlight. etc. It is impossible to walk backwards and put the heel of your foot down first.m. Footprints in soft ground will begin to deteriorate around the edges within 2 hours depending on the humidity. those who step down at the very edge will probably step again near the other edge.) make sure that you are not in an enclosed area or the blast may incapacitate you! Route of Ingress This is the route you will take to get to your hide. Tie the burlap around your foot gear. A good tracker can tell when you were there. Tired people will 'meander'. I have used burlap to obscure my tracks. this route should not take you through your own kill zone.Recoilless. If the wind is very calm and has been since the previous evening then little affect from wind will be evident. break more brush. toes hitting hard.was the person tip-toeing or trying to walk backwards. then look at the stride. then the sunlight will not begin to affect tracks until then. each of these is a person. it will be apparent that a lone "someone" has walked through this area. each of these is a person. the ground moist. People carrying a load will take shorter steps than those without. In a three foot piece of trail. etc. Burlap will keep your prints unrecognizable. In rural areas. backwards tracks will look unnatural. someone else may also think that this is a good spot to shoot!. dirt thrown forwards and back means the person was running. Pick a route where the ground is firm and covered by grass.

You must be able to get up and get out quickly without being detected. Smells After you have spent a few weeks in the out of doors. and in a manner that no one will cross your trail while you are there. robbed of sunlight. open containers of food. A defense attorney will tell his client not to drink the night before the client has to take the stand under cross examination. candy wrappers. are all indicators of age. Route of Egress This is your escape route. Leaves should be dark underneath in the same way. The opposing attorney can sense when they are on a subject that makes you nervous. or c-rats. where there are no usually smells of habitation. Women tend to walk more pigeon toed than men. and clear of mind. (body language as well but this isn't about trial prep). all have odd smells to a person who does not use them. maggot growth. and wind. The detergent used to wash clothes. After a while the sap will harden. as it dries it will become sticky from sap secretions (depending on the variety/species). clever. The feces of a person can be examined to determine diet. all tell a story. your nose will become more sensitive to foreign odors. . If your trail was picked up. deodorant. etc. Cigarette butts. and spirit. Leaves that have lain on the ground for a few days will have discolored grass underneath. but they can smell you as far as 20? yards. a bar of soap. This will help you conceal your odor. You want to be able to approach your hide unseen. You must NEVER use the same route out that you used to go in. Leave these items home when you are on patrol. Always assume that he is smart. Consider rain. No they still can't smell as well as most animals. Never assume your enemy is stupid. A small green branch will be moist for 24 hours. Don't be fooled by tracks made at different times on a often traveled trail.. dew.         have a close approximation of the size of the patrol. Discipline can be judged by debris dropped by along the way. tribal conditions can smell much better than people who are bombarded by odors 24 hours a day. decay. rational. When the trail goes over hard ground look carefully at small pebbles. body. This applies to anything laying on the ground. The wetness. Your body secrets different odors depending on what you eat and drink. Not strong. The moisture evident in the scar left when a branch breaks can indicate how long ago that branch was broken. The best solution is to eat nothing but indigenous foods for at least 48 hours prior to your mission. The pebble will be dark on one side where it was in the hole. chewing tobacco. etc. then the leaf has fallen very recently. cunning. sunlight. LURP's. etc. People who spend their lives in the outdoors are very attuned to these things and can tell a lot about the person who left the sign. settling. but enough for them to know you are around. If the dark side is damp then you know that the pebble was dislodged recently. change your feces and urine also. The feces of a person who lives on beans and rice will smell different from the feces of a person who eats hamburgers. People who live in remote. When dislodged there will be a small depression in the ground (the hole they were in). You are better off eating only indigenous foods when out on patrol. A pile of feces is a gold mine of information to a tracker. the grass underneath will die. Paper will yellow and fade at a certain rate depending on sunlight and rain. Your enemy's will too. if not. pizzas.

When thinking this through. That was the first time I qualified. connected to your brain. as the Army refers to it -. NOTE -.what will you do? NEVER use a "likely" spot.Many people have duplicated the conditions of the JFK assassination and proven that a good rifleman could make the same shots. There is no record of the many times I shot "expert" or of my "advanced marksmanship training" . Whoever made that statement was just full of crap. consider that you are alone. Lee Harvey Oswald made a pretty good choice when he picked that building. View or look of the site from the kill zone. Many conspiracy theorists point to some statement by an "expert" who claimed that nobody could fire an old Mannlicher-Carcano that fast. Change your route often enough so that no one can review your course over a period of time and predict where you are going. The sight picture becomes a part of you. You MUST NOT GET CAUGHT. You hit the ground. So what? The only record on my DD 214 regarding shooting skill was the "Marksman" score I shot in basic training. you will not have time to circle and study your trail. Always assume that you are being followed.hehehe! A real sniper shoots his best under pressure or when he's shooting with a purpose. Never travel in a straight line or a predictable zig zag.someone could be following it or lying in ambush for your return. The top shooter was left-handed -. this is a good thing to do.just like Oswald! Others point to the fact that Oswald was only an average marksman while in the Marines. END NOTE Security Ideally you will have at least two people watching your rear while you are in your hide. You must avoid contact at all costs. These men must be capable woodsmen. Top it off with about thirty closed windows in the building and one open window on the fifth floor. and there is no way you are going to miss. Remember discipline? No matter how tempted you may be. I did it with an abused basic training issue M16. Practically everyone who entered the match did just as well as Oswald and several did better. To your right you notice a slight rise in the ground with two large trees. moving target. The same thing happens -. do NOT hazard confrontations without thinking about the consequences. If you have not. Envision a similar scenario in a town. where are you looking? Where are you going to shoot first? More than likely. with low houses and buildings except one six story job right up the street. Two or three years ago at a shooting match in Ohio (?) the organizers recreated this scenario with a tower. Suddenly blood and brains fly out of the head of the man in front of you as you hear the CRACCCKKKK of a bullet. Consider this -. and an old Mannlicher-Carcano with a cheap scope. you and everyone with you will pour a large volume of fire at that rise and those two are walking through a relatively flat landscape with low to medium height bushes and a few small trees. you do not have the firepower to fight the enemy. They may take point and/or pull rear security while you are enroute to/from your hide. . If you have fired your rifle. They will cover you while you concentrate on the mission.

Litter tells a story and is indicative of the discipline/professionalism of the person in question. Freeze. decreasing the range until I'm looking at the area close to my hide. A spider hole is excellent cover and concealment. You must select people who complement your efforts and can perform with a high degree of professionalism. It is better to use signals for all communication. notepad. I begin from the left edge of the area at maximum range and slowly sweep to the right and then back. rifle. sleep. It must be positioned on . air personnel will only spot you if there is a heat differential or if you move. It is easy to walk closely to someone in the woods without them hearing you. and pencil are the only things you need to have ready. Careful notes should be kept referencing all sign that you cross and everything that you see or hear. When an aircraft is involved you must be very quick to do this before they can spot your movement. This is especially true when a wind is blowing or it is raining. You must not talk unless it is necessary and then only in a whisper.Actions at the Objective (Other miscellaneous stuff) People who have their "shit together" do not litter. After all ranges have been determined. If it is night then they can use infrared equipment that will detect your body heat. During daylight the worst thing you can do is move. They will look in all the likely spots. try to pick a place that will provide an early warning of someone's approach. I use a pattern because it gives me something to do and it keeps me from missing an area. makes a loud noise. masturbate. go back and calculate any scope adjustments necessary for each range. eat. thick vines. As the primary shooter. Determine the right combination of minimum scope adjustment and hold for each range. don't move. After I prepare my range card and I'm satisfied with my position I begin a methodical search of the area. When selecting your hide. A spotting scope. Usually people will go around obstacles it because it is easier. Everything not in use must be packed and ready to run with at all times. Dry leaves that crunch. This equipment can be hand held or mounted on a vehicle or aircraft. Do not scatter your equipment about. If your target is a valuable leader it is possible security forces will sweep the area before he travels through it. or is talking to someone. Check the range to each and note it. It is very easy to become complacent and assume that there is no one close to you. I have been in many situations where people suddenly appeared very close to me. DO NOT neglect the zone close to your hide. You should then check your coordinates by using resection with your compass and map. If you must eat in your hide make sure that you do not leave litter on the ground. You will need something to protect you from this and a good hole will do the trick. logs. Humans do not have super hearing. If they suspect you are there you are in trouble. or other obstacles that someone would have to cross. Remember this. you have the responsibility of the mission in your hands. You must have a lid covered with dirt and camouflage to pull over you when the security forces pass by. A good shrub with intact root ball works well. You naturally assume that if there was someone there you would see them. or otherwise screw-off while at the objective. That is only true if the person approaching stumbles. When you set up your position you will make a preliminary scan of the area to make certain you have not been seen. Every terrain feature in or near the kill zone should be noted. wait until the aircraft passes.

you want them to kick up and breathe the pepper. then circle around to surprise you. sprinkle some behind you every so often. A nearby stream will wash the dirt away. but depending on the diameter of the reed. or hiding in fear of your life. They won't come diddy bopping down the trail following tracks. What would happen in the movie if the "hunted" spotted the object. The worst time to discover this is when someone is standing 4 feet away and looking for you! Have you ever tried to breathe through a straw? You don't have to be under the water to test it. One trick I've seen with several variations is this -. right into a trap. Also. They "wind" you. whether you cover them with leaves or not. A note about dogs: Sprinkle cayenne powder around the area in a circle around your hide. if you dig into the side of a small rise. As they run. they will determine the most likely spots for your hide. They dream it up and make it work on screen. Isolated piles of dirt look suspicious. That will put them out of action long enough to put some distance between you and them. this will keep away animals. Keep it simple. leaving sign. Smart soldiers will follow tracks. Nose up. picks up. as in the case where sign looks too obvious or planted.To set a trap. Hounds don't have to sniff the ground where you walked unless the trail is several hours old. This bush will die and must be replaced. Another one is where the hunted hides under the water and breathes through a reed. he stops. Dig the hole deep enough so that you don't have to bend to hide. Not just where you walk but on the bushes to the right and left of your path. Don't waste time with diabolic schemes. the hunter leaves a small interesting object or clue that the hunted spots.high ground to provide good visibility. and surprised the hunter from behind? People who write movie scripts do not have a secret source advising them on these things. A Word of Warning You've seen all sorts of clever tricks used in movies and on TV that provide some devious trap or ruse that leads someone to their death. walked past out of sight. ANY sign you leave WILL be used to track you down and kill you. Otherwise the tube fills up with your exhaled breath and you try to breathe the same air over and over again. A good trail dog can follow a trail over 24 hours old! . it better not be more than 6" long. then stopped and looked for the hiding place the hunter was using. looks around. you may be able to disguise the dirt as part of the rise. Then you won't have to tromp around the area of your hide. Pick a variety (if there is one) which is naturally dry looking. If you must run. Leave a step that will raise you up to shooting level. You will have to experiment with the vegetation in the area to determine which plant looks live the longest. You must hide the dirt from the hole. then proceeds in the desired direction. Preserving the root ball will help keep the plant fresh. Use common sense instead. acted as if he didn't see it. This can work. but they might send out security elements to their right and left flanks just in case you double back to ambush them. but be careful not to leave tracks or fresh dirt near the bank. Don't leave it in a pile nearby. they run towards your scent that is in the air and clinging to things you came close to. If they suspect an ambush.

TEMPLE FIRE: This hearth consists of a raised platform. You can sharpen with other things but unless your blade is extremely dull. more so than the gun. USMC. It was a lesson I never forgot -. Choose a site that is sheltered. moss and dry grass from a circle at least 2m (6 feet) across & scrape everything away until you have a surface of bare earth. the fire MUST be built on a platform. If land is swampy or the snow deep a raised platform is needed. All equipment should be tied to you using "dummy cords". He suffered while I stayed warm. Light the fire on top of this. Clear away leaves. you'll only make it worse.Fire Building Written by Roger Perron and David R. Reed Have your match container attached to YOU AND WATERTIGHT.) THE FIREPLACE: It needs to be prepared carefully. Their heat. but well sharpened and a good one.both for practical and leadership reasons. My squad leader gave me his and told me never to let it happen again. built of green timber. Light a candle and coat the match head completely with wax. especially during high winds. You cannot afford to lose or misplace anything in a survival or combat situation. On my first winter exercise in the army I lost one of my gloves. Make this from a layer of green logs covered with a layer of earth or a layer of stones. Use them to support cooking utensils. dig a trench and light your fire in it. Don't glob it on too thick and make sure you get some on the wood too. Also remember this. The hunting knife comes next. and sharpen quickly with less than ideal abrasive surfaces. are less brittle than stainless steel. The blades on these knives have a high tensile strength. Also good for windy conditions: encircle your fire with rocks to retain heat and conserve fuel. when working in the dark you must always know where everything is. IN WINDY CONDITIONS: If there are particularly strong winds. Across them place a layer of green logs and cover this with several inches of earth. Women's nail polish will also work well. as well as that from the fire will keep things warm and you can use . or Air Force Survival knife. If the ground is wet or covered with snow. A pole across upper forks on diagonally opposite uprights can support cooking pots. (Sniper Note: In my opinion you can't beat a good K-Bar. next in line is a good machete or those new all purpose shovels. A sharpening stone to go with the knife is very important. known as a temple fire. (Sniper Note: To make waterproof matches use strike-anywhere kitchen matches. bow and arrow. So that even a dummy can't lose it. twigs.) An axe is the most important tool in the bush. Do not light a fire at the base of a tree or a stump. Four uprights support crosspieces in their forks.

the slow match should be hung from a branch and exposed to air currents.the rocks themselves as bed warmer. SLOW MATCH: You will discover that some of the soft inner barks teased and spun into cord will smolder slowly when lighted. Select fire area. It is used as a means of preserving fire and also as a mean of carrying it from place to place. If carried otherwise the saltpeter will become damp with moisture from the air. collect a bundle of dry tinder. toss on any stray whittling. light the mass and then go through the usual procedure of adding progressively larger firewood. This is called: Slow Match. Tinder is highly combustible substance in which a spark can be blown into flame and innumerable materials of this sort can be found. A slow match is a length of rope or cord that hangs smoldering to give fire when wanted. When one end is put in fire or against a glowing coal it will take hold of the spark. Most of the silky soft fiber barks are ideal. LIGHTING FIRE FROM COAL: To light a fire from coal. Tinder impregnated with a solution of saltpeter and later dried MUST be carried in an airtight container. Now whirl the ball round and round at arms' length or if there is a strong wind blowing. One is easily made by shaving a straight-grained stick of dry split softwood with single knife strokes until one end is a mass of wooden curls. turn into grenades. It's worth while to discover which plants whose barks have this property. A slow match is a safe way when having no match or fire-lighting material to preserve the vital spark for further use after you have doused your fire and left camp for an hour or 2. Gather adequate supply of fuel first. etc. loosening it in your hand. protected from rain and snow. out of the wind. Although in terms of initial effort they are often more bother than a handful of dry twigs. It can be made by making a length of cord or thin rope from 1/4" 1/2" in diameter. Secure fuel and build a fire before darkness. These few last puffs will convert the smoldering mass to flame thus fire from coal at last. Slate and shale have air pockets that when heated. from suitable barks or palm fibers. The ball will start to smoke as the tinder catches. so that fire can be fed immediately as it grows. with them. put the coal & tinder in it. (Sniper Note: Make a "pine cone" looking thing with a knife and piece of wood. Another trick is to attach a pierced can to a 4 foot rope. softly tease a large piece and place the coal in the center. smoldering slowly. Lengths of cord made from such a bark can be used to maintain a "coal" for a length of time and so save your precious matches. hold the ball in the air.) The usual procedure is to bunch no less than 3 such fuzz-sticks so that the flames will be able to eat into the shavings. When there is a dense flow of smoke. they are fairly dependable.) FUZZ STICKS: Many bushmen start all fires. . indoors and out. fold the rest of the tinder over the coal and with the tinder ball held very loosely between the widespread fingers. For such a use. the smaller the slivers the easier they will be to light. and carried in special containers such as tinderboxes. blow into the ball. (Sniper Note: A very good fire starter is a ball of dryer lint soaked with candle wax. allowing the wind to blow between the fingers. & let it swirl till it smokes & flames.

lichens. Spruce. you can also use the fluff of the so-called cotton grass. The best kindling consists of small dry twigs and the softer woods are preferable because they flare up quickly. KINDLING: It is the wood used to raise the flames from the tinder so that larger and less combustible materials can be burned. Use your fire to dry damp wood. Beech or Oak for instance burns well. ) MAKE SURE that you do get one stack ready also you will need 4 mores for your signals -. then send some people to collect other useful items for the shelter. Have lots of slower burning wood ready when you get the fire going. Midges. Bark of some cedars is also good. the heavier the wood the more heat it will give. that of the cattails and the downy heads of such flower as mature Goldenrod. Remember that damp wood is sometimes advantageous -producing smoke to keep off flies. dead evergreen needles. A handful of very dry pine needles often works. so is a dry wood that has dry rotted and can be rubbed to a powder. Hemlock. Always cut an ample supply of firewood. I add this note because those who have little experience will usually gather to little firewood. The worst spark-makers are Cedar. dry moss. frontiersmen of the Wild West used buffalo chips for their fires. dry hay are among the can be pulverized for tinder. If you are conservative you can stretch this considerably. ANIMAL DROPPINGS: These make excellent fuel. give off great heat and last for a long time as hot coals. Good tinder needs only a spark to ignite it. they keep a fire going through the night. You do not want to discover this at 10:00 at night when you have 8 hours to go until daylight. even bird nests. Pine. When first stranded. (Sniper Note: In cold weather it is not unusual to burn a cord of wood a day to stay warm. Chestnut and Willow. Those that contain resins burn readily and make fire lighting a snap. If it looks like there is plenty. SOFTWOODS: Tend to burn too fast and give off sparks. Mixing green & dry wood makes a long lasting fire. Tinder is any kind of material that takes the minimum of heat to make it catch in fire. HARD WOODS: Hickory. Dry the droppings thoroughly for a good smokeless fire. As a general rule. moss & leaves. and Mosquitoes. You can mix them with grass.Birch bark can be detached in the thinnest of layers and these shredded to make tinder. everyone in your party should devote an hour to gathering firewood. 3 days is best provision. Piece of your shirt or pants. resinous softwoods like lighter knot burn very fast. which is especially useful at night. Gather a lot more than you think you will need. Alder. you never know when you will get a spell of rain or snow. A cord is a heaping full size pickup truck load. .Should one pile refuse to light the extra one will do it. The drawbacks of softwoods are that they tend to produce sparks and burn very fast. this applies to both dead and green woods. Dry fuzz from pussy willows is a well-known tinder.

or if tins are used. Mix petrol with sand and burn it in a container as a stove. JP-4 (Jet fuel) can be used too. (Sniper Note: Shales can also explode when heated!) OILS: If you have had a mechanical failure and crashed or broken down with fuels intact you can burn petroleum. you can set it alight in a few seconds. Some sands also contain oil . In very cold areas drain oil from an engine sump before it freeze. or dig a hole and make a fire pit. One end of this pipe is over the center of the plate and the other end is a foot or so higher than the plate.they burn with a thick oily smoke that makes a good signal fire and also gives off a good heat.looking black and fibrous. antifreeze. Peat needs good ventilation when burning. High octane AvGas is pretty dangerous stuff. The same goes for insect repellent. you must be very careful with it. COAL: Coal is sometimes found on the surface . The rate of flow can be governed by cutting a channel in corks that plug the bottles holding the oil and water. upholstery. . Soak less combustible materials in oil before trying to make them burn. Tires. hydraulic fluid and other combustible liquids. (Sniper Note: Liquid fuels like gas or a mixture of gas and oil when soaked in a sand pot make a very hot. It is soft and springy underfoot and may be exposed on the edges of rocky outcrops -. Light a fire beneath this plate to make it really hot and while it is heating up arrange a pipe or narrow trough about 2 or 3 feet long. rubber seals & much of any wreckage can be burned. long burning fire. It is easily cut with a knife.there are large deposits in the Northern Tundra. If you have no container drain it on to the ground to use later in its solid state. ) Do not set a light directly to liquid fuels but make a wick and let that provide the flame.PEAT: Peat is often found on well-drained moors. Anti-freeze is an excellent primer for igniting heavier engine oils. Stacked with plenty of air the peat dries rapidly and is soon ready to burn. The proportion of flow is 2 or 3 drops of water to one drop of oil. Even insect repellent is inflammable. It also makes an excellent campfire where strong flame and light are required. When the water and the oil fall onto the hot plate it burns with a hot white flame of very great heat. Ice fisherman use a coffee can with a roll of toilet paper soaked in kerosene (fuel oil) to do the same thing. WATER & OIL FIRE: About the easiest method is to place a steel or iron plate on a couple of stones a foot above ground level. Burn oil by mixing in petrol or antifreeze. pierce holes in the bottom of the tins & use a plug to control the flow. Into this top end of the pipe arrange by means of a funnel and trough water and sump oil or any oil to be fed down the pipe to the hot plate. SHALES: Shales are often rich in oil and burn readily. With a little Potassium Permanganate from your survival kit. This type of fire is excellent for an incinerator when great heat is required to burn out rubbish.

Sometimes it is the only available fuel in Polar Regions. Shield tinder from the wind. Yet the synthetic flint used in a cigarette lighter is a considerable improvement on natural flint. Their fire making sets. FIRE BY AIR COMPRESSION: In parts of South East Asia people make fire using this ingenious method of suddenly compressing air in a cylinder and thereby concentrating the heat in the air to a point when the heat is sufficient to ignite tinder. can produce sufficient heat to ignite your tinder. The piston is placed in the cylinder and the flattened end opposite the piston head struck a smart blow with the palm of the hand. A small piece of tinder is inserted into a cavity in the lower end of the piston. Hold under the water and the *Perpex will shrink on the flints and hold them securely). Blow on it gently as it begins to glow. from perspiration & outer wetness. 2001 BC-AD: Flint and stone were the common methods before matches were invented and not great skill is needed for their use. or damp. Paper matches are no good in bush for they easily get wet. The sun shining through broken bottles on dry leaves or pastures causes accidental fires. Frequently the jar of the blow will shake the tinder loose. Start flame with tinder or a candle. Unless it is surplus. A couple of pieces of synthetic flint pressed into a small piece of Perpex make an excellent emergency fire lighting unit.saving matches. frequently a cylinder of bone or hollow bamboo with a bone or wooden piston.ANIMAL FAT: These can also be used with a wick n a suitably ventilated tin to make a stove. MAGNESIUM STONE: Among the top best to start a fire even after being hidden 3 days in icy mud. If it is struck vigorously with a piece of steel hot sparks fly off which will ignite dry tinder. Use only a little fat at first. (Heat the Perpex and press the flints in while it's hot. Many things in turn can then be lit from it -. Whenever you strike a match light a candle. but seal blubber spoils rapidly and makes good fuel. then place a network of bones cover it to support the fat or blubber. Only the smallest amount is burned & even a small candle will last a long time. Place it in the wigwam of kindling to start a fire and remove it as soon as the flame spreads. Your survival kit magnifying glass or a telescope or camera lens will serve instead. Focus sun's rays to form the tiniest brightest spot of light. so a spark remover is used with the set to pull out the glowing tinder if it lodges in the cylinder. FLINT AND STEEL: Flint is a stone found in many parts of the world. A necessity to be included in your survival kit. focused through a lens. Bones can add bulk when fat is being burned as a fire. Strong direct sunlight. Keep it steady. Compression of air with concentration of the heat it carries produces a small glowing coal in the tinder placed in the recess of the piston head. driving suddenly down the cylinder. FLINT. The dimensions are roughly as follows: . burning fat means sacrificing food value.

HAND DRILL METHOD This variation of the fire bow is particularly useful with very dry tinder.about 1/4" wide by 1/4" to 5/16" deep. The socket.  HOW TO MAKE FIRE BY USING A SAW MOVEMENT: You take 2 sticks of wood and you rub them vigorously against one another in a sawing movement. The stick that you use as the "saw" is a split bamboo or any soft wood type. Place a mass of tinder under the cane and between the cane and the tinder mass pass a thong or lash which you will slide quickly against the cane in a sawing movement. Instead of using a bow to spin the spindle. You will need a bow. if experienced! Fires have been made throughout the world long ago from glowing embers obtained by the combined use of bow. This method is often used in jungle.  Cylinder: 4" to 6" long outside diameter 3/4" to 1". just use your hands. Roll the spindle between the palms of the hands. Maintain this slit open using a small wedge (stone or wood). often found near water. The friction is done over a mass of good tinder. The other wood stick must be very dry. inside diameter about 1/2". THONG METHOD: Use a piece of cane about 60 cm long and a dry stick. can be easily grasped knot of wood with a small dimple cut into it. Recess at the lower end of the piston . Although the technique is simple. running them down with each burst of spinning to press the spindle into the depression in the baseboard. . Piston: 4" to 6" long of which the shaft is 3" to 5". It can be a smooth stone with a slight depression worn in one side. drill and fire board. and then lay it on a stone. you will need a socket with which to hold the drill against a hollow in the fireboard. By moving back and forth and so rotating the drill in the fireboard. The piston shaft end is smooth and about 1" to 1 1/2" in diameter for striking with the palm of the hand. SOCKET The use of the socket is to hold the drill in place while the latter is being turned. with a thong long enough to loop around the dry stick that is to serve as a drill. Make a small slit in one of the cane's end. you cause so much friction that a spark starts glowing in tinder gathered to catch it. diameter to nicely fit the cylinder. considerable diligence and effort is required. The spark you blow into flame with which the campfire is lighted. Meanwhile retain the board or cane with your foot. which for this purpose is held in one hand. piston length 3/4" to 1". OBTAINING FIRE WITH A BOW AND DRILL: This method will take 10 minutes.

Linden. Elm. This slot or undercut " V" that is usually made wider and deeper at the bottom. It should be at least 1/8" into the hole itself. The top end MUST be as smoothly rounded as possible so as to incur a minimum of friction. they MUST be shifted back to the top to the top with as little delay in rotation as possible. Cotton-Wood. blow gently to ignite the tinder around it. Yucca. thus fitting it. Then cut a notch from the edge of the fireboard through to the side of this cup. Cypress. The board can be about 1" thick and about 3 to 4" wide. and long enough to be held under the foot. Basswood. THE BOW: The bow string from a shoe lace to a twisted length of rawhide etc. Balsam Fir. When they slip too low. (Hand drill method) The hands maintaining as much downward pressure as possible are rubbed back and forth over the drill so as to spin it as strongly and as swiftly as possible. Cut a straight groove in a soft wood baseboard and then plow the tip of hardwood shaft up and down it. FIRE BOARD: The size of the fireboard that may be split out of a dry branch can be a matter of convenience. The drill and the fireboard are both often made of a single one of the above woods but not ALWAYS the case. This first produces tinder & then eventually ignites it. NOTE: To use a fire set. Red Cedar. and twisted so that the drill finally is on the outer side of the thong & with that portion of the thong nearest the handle of the bow on the upper side of the drill. the drill is put under the thong. Putting a pinch of sand in the spindle hole increases the friction and speeds the heating of the tinder. is tied at both ends so as to leave enough slack to allow its being twisted once around the drill. (Generous bundle of tinder under "V" cut!). This is . by turning the drill with the bow as later described. A cavity below the spindle dimple with a passage between the two will allow embers to fall into your tinder. A longer drill. FIRE PLOW: This method of ignition also works by friction. Enlarge this hole. When not sure of type of wood see below: PUNK. WHAT WOOD TO USE: Among the North American woods favored for making fire by friction are: Poplar. Tamarack. will permit the hot black powder that is produced by the drilling to fall as quickly as possible into tinder massed at the bottom of the notch. Willow. Using a knife or a sharp stone. The method is however not as effective as bow and socket. & the end of the drill at the same time. start a hole about 3/4" from the edge of the board. The lower end for maximum of friction MUST be blunt. * The DRILL: The drill should be a straight & well-seasoned stick from 1/4 to 3/4" in diameter & some 12 to 15" long.When the friction makes the spindle tip glow red. perhaps one nearly a yard in length is sometimes rotated between the palms rather than by a bow. White Cedar.

The volume of smoke will increase and a few quick puffs will make it burst into flame. The hole through the handle takes the long end of the thong. LIGHTING THE FIRE & PUNK: Hot black powder (punk) will begin to ground out into the tinder. if you do not know for certain that the woods you are using are suitable for fire lighting. when you start twirling the drill by sawing back and forth with the bow. which is grasped in the left hand. never stopping the swift even action. you can be sure you have a coal. also the full length of the stroke can't be obtained. Battery sparks can be used to ignite tinder. The drill is set in the cavity prepared in the fireboard. If you are right handed. but not enough to slow it. If you see a blue thread of smoke continuing to rise. When the drill is smoking freely & that you have the Punk grinding out easily so that the V cut is full of it. This testing of the "punk" IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT. Lift the fill cleanly and quickly from the foot piece. first having been made ready to ignite. The punk which will produce a glowing coal MUST feel slightly gritty when gently rubbed between the fingers and then with more pressure it should rub gradually to a silky smoothness as soft as face powder. Now start drawing the bow smoothly back and forth in sweeps as long as the string will conveniently permit. Fold the tinder completely over the foot piece & continue blowing into the mass. The bow is held in the right hand with the little and third fingers outside the thong so that by squeezing these 2 fingers the tension of the thing can be increased. If you have any to cartridges to spare. Keep on drilling. Press down more firmly on the drill. Maybe you have dropped a few grains of sand into the cup to increase friction. . it will cross over itself & cut in a few strokes. the quicker you will be able to blow it into a flame. Fold some of the tinder over lightly and blow gently into the "V" cut. If the thong is on the wrong way on the drill. Tinder MUST be carried in a waterproof bag. When the hole starts to smoke. holds the drill in position. which is then wound round the handle in a series of half hitches. Take the bow in the right hand. You can grip the socket more steadily you will find if you will keep your left wrist against your left shin and hug the left leg with that arm. put extra pressure on the socket at the same time give 20 to 30 faster strokes with the bow.important. A socket of shell or smooth grained stone with a hole in it is less liable to burn than a socket of wood. for the heartier a spark you can start glowing there. Pressure from the socket. you kneel on your right knee and place the left foot as solidly as possible on the fireboard. looping the string over the drill. The end of the thong at the tip of the bow has a thumb knot tied on the topside. By examining the "punk" you can learn if the wood used is suitable for fire making. empty the powder out of one or two to start your tinder. The tinder is bedded under the slot in the fireboard. Press down on the drill. you will see it glowing red. This hole in the handle enables you to adjust the tension of the thong with greater accuracy. work the bow even faster. Only a light pressure is put on the socket. ADD ON NOTES: There are other refinements that are worth knowing: The boring or burning of a hole for the thong at the tip and also through the handle of the bow. USING BOW AND DRILL: The campfire.

Other items can be used to focus the sun's rays: Watch crystals: o o o Hold the crystals from 2 watches or pocket compass of about the same size back to back. use the magnifier over the date to concentrate suns rays. The following mixtures can all be ignited by grinding them between rock or putting them under the friction point in any of the types of fire drill already described. and can be used to make explosives -. Sulfuric acid is found in car batteries (Sniper note: Boil car battery acid in a bottle until it gives off white fumes. avoiding contact with any metal objects.) DROP OF WATER: Make a small hole in any paper sheet. (Sniper Note: If you have enough. (Sniper Note: If the watch is a Rolex or look alike. Try crushing one & see if it works. Fill the space between with water. POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE & SUGAR: Mixed 9/1 is less sensitive and temperature is a critical factor in how long it takes to ignite. the white tips of kitchen matches contain plenty.) Potassium Chlorate: Is found in some throat tablets. their contents may be listed on the pack. Mix them carefully.Handle with care!) FIRE WITHOUT SMOKE & WITHOUT FLAME: (FLAMELESS FIRE) . All are susceptible to dampness and MUST be kept dry. This will concentrate the acid enough to be used in pyrotechnics. spit in this hole or put a clear water drop that you present to the sun rays as a magnifying glass FIRE LIGHTING WITH CHEMICALS: A survivor's pack is not likely to include a complete chemistry set but there are some very common chemicals that if they are available. can be used to produce combustion. The addition of Glycerin will also produce ignition. Directing this makeshift enlarging lens so as to converge the rays of the sun in a point sharp enough to start tinder glowing. POTASSIUM CHLORATE & SUGAR: In a mixture of 3/1 by volume is a fierce burning incendiary that can also be ignited by dripping a few drops of Sulfuric Acid on to the mixture.

with a much higher degree of explosive power. Think about that figure for a second. Fire Support Planning In Support Of Scout/Sniper Operations 14 December 2000 By Jeff Waters Sniper Mission: The Sniper's mission is to "Engage targets with long range precision fire and/or fire support assets and to gather and report timely and accurate information". Almost half.Smoke is the result of incomplete combustion thus by feeding the fire with small dry twigs which catch fire almost instantly the size of them about 1/8" thick there will be no tell tale blue smoke haze. 45% of all casualties resulted from indirect fire (taken from the US Army NCO Academy Instructor's Guide). or the Copperhead anti-tank round. Fat from your cooking is poured on top of the earth and when the wick is lit the lamp burns with a clear flame. The earth should come to about an inch from the top of the tin. COMMON MISTAKES IN FIRE MAKING: In building a campfire is to make pigsty construction with heavy logs on the outside and then pack the inside with light brushwood. And that was with WWII technology. Mines) that can plant a minefield between you and an enemy force in minutes. packed tight at the bottom. Such a fire is rarely a success. SLUSH LAMP: Made by filling and old tin or small hollow piece of branch with clay earth. Scatterable. Today's artillery reaches farther. The light inside wood burns out in a quick blaze of glory but the heavy outer logs lack sufficient heat to get them properly alight and also having only small points of contact with each other at the corners do not burn well nor do such fires give out a good radiation of heat. The amount of light can be controlled by the size of the wick. Not to mention the development of rounds like FASCAM (Family. Fire Support Results: During WWII. . faster. Into this a twig is pushed a piece of old cotton rag or very finely teased bark fiber is wound round the twig to serve as a wick.

When they are ready to move. or FSO. or to help a sniper team that has struck a target and is being pursued by a large force. let's say that the team's insertion is to depart the base camp with a friendly patrol. By using smoke. Again. Since fire support is generally the only form of friendly help nearby. TRPs should be established to coincide with as many natural checkpoints along the route of movement as possible.Fire support is used when. and signals that it is time for the guns to shift to the next TRP. TRPs should cover known/suspected enemy locations. and patrol bases. and how to call it in when the time comes. and it should be noted during the map reconnaissance whether the terrain near the checkpoint is in dead space where commo will be difficult. look. Since the smoke will probably reduce the patrol's ability to observe the enemy location and the impact of rounds. the fire may have to be adjusted by a member of the FFU. If so. Insertion. they still have the option to adjust fire onto the enemy location and switch to high explosive. but they have protected themselves and the Friendly Forward Unit (FFU) from any chance of friendly fire. it is crucial for the team to thoroughly understand how to plan for its use. smell). you can begin to coordinate with the unit's Fire Support Officer. you want to have Target Reference Points (TRPs) established to cover your patrol during insertion. and the team's location cannot be compromised by such a short transmission. Planning & Coordinating Fire Support for a Sniper Mission: In general terms. they call in a code word that lets their HQ know that they have completed their insertion. For example. This contingency should be part of the coordinated plans made prior to departure. you can call it in by codeword and have the FSO adjust the guns to the next TRP on that leg. A TRP is established to screen the patrol if it makes contact during departure. due to wind or distance. Movement to the OBJ. After establishing the TRPs and determining what type of rounds you want on each target. Since the smoke can be used to verify impact points. by planning TRPs to cover each leg of the movement between checkpoints. Sending a single-word code does not violate COMSEC. The idea is that as you reach each checkpoint. 1. listen. and any patrol bases you might have. lets them know the patrol's general location. withdrawal route. danger areas. it is not realistic to rely on a rifle shot. at the objective. It also serves as a radio check. Insertion is complete when the patrol has reached the first rally point away from the insertion point and has completed a SLLS halt (stop. During the movement. rally points. 1. extraction point. call it in on the last bit . either. the simple act of calling in a code word keeps higher up advised of your location and fire support readily on call. they not only immediately gain protection from enemy observation. movement to the objective.

The rest of the class is allowed to stand by to watch and learn.S. they are more likely to move away from the impact zone rather than through it to pursue you. are hard to schedule. And not surprisingly. "Immediate Suppression on AA10. If you are dressed in a heavy ghille suit. good luck getting away in a hurry without leaving a giant trail. The best way to train at the squad level is to start by reviewing the different types of missions. you should consider changing you route since you won't be able to use fire support if needed. a sniper team engaging enemy LP/Ops or patrols departing the enemy's perimeter can use fire support to suppress the main camp. the communications procedures. and how to adjust. Additionally. If you don't think you can make commo at a danger area based on terrain. 1. Instead of wasting a lot of time at the lecture board. If you take a shot or two at a platoon-size element and they begin to pursue you. they don't work well. If it's between you and the enemy. At the Objective. Army has some highly sophisticated and expensive training aids for use in fire support training. . This buys you valuable time for your getaway.of the leg where you have line-of-sight with the unit or plan a jump-off point where you can make commo. the team can use fire support assets to keep a unit pinned while it picks off a person or two and moves to an alternate location. then it's nice to have a TRP between you and them where you can simply call in something like. Another idea. This is obviously a critical time. The first few soldiers invariably screw it up and are sent to the back of the line to do it again. You act as the FSO and they radio in their request (for some reason. you can take the troops to a sandtable marked with numbered strings for gridlines and give them a radio. which might be sending out a reaction force. Patrol bases and Rally Points are covered also. you will probably have some very pissed off people coming after you immediately. the U." as you run for your life. and can use the "Polar" method of control rather than the "Shift from a Known Point" method. Training: As usual. based on the organization and doctrine of the enemy is to have the guns standing by for counter-battery fire if the enemy decides to guess at your position and blast away with an artillery strike of their own. For example. and are not that realistic. An assistant instructor uses a pointer with a cotton ball taped on it to designate the impact point of the round and the sniper adjusts accordingly. One thing our stalking exercises don't teach is that after you take your shot. along with the basics of danger close distances. using real radios works much better than without).

The next step is to get them onto a live fire range and FO for the BN Mortars at least quarterly.for anyone. regardless of rank. beginning with a grid mission. Teams should make every effort to establish a good working relationship with the BN's FSO and mortar sections. All snipers must know these tasks by heart. which should be used to evaluate EVERY member of the section on Call for and Adjust Indirect Fire. then a shift. What more needs to be said? Ghillie Suits Constructing your own 1994 By Dave Reed Ghillie Suits make good camouflage when in one position. The sandtable is an excellent tool. almost everyone catches on and can pick up a radio and do the job. Conclusion: Employing fire support is an integral part of the sniper mission. fire support overlays. And as with any training . it's your ass out there and the unit is counting on you. not just snipers . both for his safety and his combat effectiveness. FS training should be part of a sniper section's Mission Essential Task List (METL) and require mandatory training on at least a quarterly basis. The mortar platoons generally enjoy having FO support. After they have a sound foundation in the basics. increasing the snipers understanding of range estimation. excellent training for a sniper. or if you must move through somewhat open areas. Make your . understanding the MIL Relation Formula used in determining shift. and the mil dot scale in his scope is excellent. Perfect practice makes perfect! Finally. Air Support should also be trained on. Further. training should take place on different methods of control.But. The sandtable should be used after teaching each mission. and finally a polar if time permits. and the fire support coordination. They will entangle when you try to go through dense brush.practice does not make perfect. after watching a few people do it correctly.

shoulders. If you saw the movie. like a rounded triangle will help. or short poncho. and allow lots of room for improvement. Or then again. and hangs down to your waste. Simple net for fixed positions 2. This will keep it from coming off. You can sew pieces of burlap to the netting in a haphazard fashion to increase it's effectiveness at short distances. Cutting it out in an irregular shape. A piece of camouflage netting will work well. You can gather it using thin nylon web strap. Go to a an army surplus store and look for a piece of camouflage netting. The tail of a shrimp net will last forever when treated. If you can't find a piece you can make a good one with a piece of fish net or shrimp net. very adaptable to fixed positions.Light weight. All shrimp nets are coated with the stuff and it's a dark green color. just leave enough strap to tie it in place. with one side of it long enough to cover down to your knees.Difficult to crawl in. Put the net over your head and arrange it so that you can see out. or move through brush. maybe you missed a lot. You will need to shape it so that you'll have a large hood with a lot of overhang to cover your face. you can make it look just like the ground you are laying on. All you need is a shroud. and adding it to the netting. Suit construction Your ghillie suit does not have to be elaborate to be effective. If you didn't see the movie. Now the very best one I can think of is the one Tom Berenger wore in that sappy movie -"Sniper". did you notice how it magically transformed itself to match the background behind him? Amazing huh! By taking camouflage from the surrounding vegetation. I had considered having one made putting it up for sale. like the magic rifle scopes! Simple Net Advantage . You want your netting to be durable so it should be made of twisted line and treated with an anti-rot coating. Disadvantage .personal camouflage net by selecting material that blends in with the vegetation you are operating in. You want to be able to adjust the shape of it so that it breaks the outline of your body. Your net should be flexible enough for you to adapt to each situation. . Don't worry about buckles. Keep it simple. I have received several requests for tips on Ghillie suit construction. I have seen some for sale in a magazine that made whoever wore it look like exactly what it should not -. Leave it longer in back so it will cover your upper legs. Here are a few pointers that you should consider. Two basic designs for ghillie suits: 1.a guy in a ghillie suit. rolls up into a small bundle. you didn't miss much. but it is time consuming and I'm not sure that anyone would buy it. The shrimp net must be cleaned very well and dried a couple of times to insure that it does not smell. that covers your head.

provides total coverage of all body parts. When I went to sniper school we did not have to make these. Cut strips as described above only make them any shape you want. Keep it short enough that you can run with it. This will help you remain comfortable while laying on wet ground for long periods of time. and loose burlap. Two straps at the neck will keep your "hood" in place and another at the waist will keep you from losing the suit when tangled. light. The skinny part in the middle is where you will tie the strip around a piece of the net. Snipers need an apron. When sewing strips of anything to your suit. a simple camo net scrounged from the battalion supply sufficed. The shortest should be about 5 -6" and the longest a side should be is about 9". Cut the burlap in strips that are shaped like bow ties. if you bunch them too tight you will look a guy wearing a funny suit. if you must cover open ground without being seen then it would be nice to have. On the pants sew to the waist. and leaves to the suit to match the terrain. color. A suitable apron can be made from a canvas shelter half. You use camouflage to breakup outlines. you can stick all manner of small branches. or a blanket at night. BDU method Advantages . you don't want to create new patterns that will look unnatural. and shape. . Alter the colors you use as you tie them onto the suit. and calves.It stays on at all times. It doubles as something to keep you dry in the rain. It will keep you warm and make it easier to slide along the ground. Two half hitches should tie the bow on to the net securely. DON'T make them all one length. Leave room between strips. With all of the holes. Police snipers and competition shooters can use elaborate shooting mats. If they have it. Don't make the sides of the bow tie the same length or width. upper back of legs. Sew the net to the BDU's at the shoulders and small of back. The simple net is easy to make. The next piece of the net solution is an apron. Don't make the knots too tight until you have a lot of pieces on and are satisfied with the look and arrangement. For the sewing use a good strong thread and needle. grasses. In place of an apron you will need to add canvas from a shelter half to the front of the shirt and pants down to the knees. This is the time consuming part. and can stretched overhead in a position and arranged in various manners to meet the situation. Sniper training in the military includes this skill by starting with BDU's and sewing camouflage to them.Go to an Army surplus store or to Wal-Mart's hunting department and get some camouflage colored burlap. Now you can sew the strips to the mesh. Disadvantages .It is hot and much larger will rolled up. The suit is bulky and hot. You may sew these strips to the BDUs or use some kind of net or mesh. get two or three different colors/textures.

You can not operate if you are unconscious. one becomes aware of them quickly and acts accordingly. heavy workloads. Whether you are a student at a firearms training facility. keeping hydrated should be paramount on your list of preventative care and health maintenance. assuming most people know what is needed to keep them effective on the job. dead. Lives may depend on your ability and clear thinking. It is easy to write at length about a new and exiting piece of equipment or a new training technique. This form of heat induced ailment can easily be avoided with a little forethought. heat exhaustion. Each produces physical symptoms that range from profuse sweating. delirium and collapse. There is not a soldier or hunter. high temperatures. This kind of minor damage can be easily assessed and treated or ignored depending on time constraints and an individual's ability to deal with pain. a police officer on the job or a troop in the field. Heat Stressin the TacticalEnvironment 8 July 1999 by Scott Powers Taking care of your body in a tactical or hunting environment can sometimes take a back seat to your immediate goals. It includes heat cramps. The main point is that because these wounds are physical in appearance or provide immediate pain. It is easily ignored until too late. even an open wound can be ignored depending on the severity of the situation and the injury. There is one form of physical damage that creeps up on you without a lot of fanfare. . Take one long strip and sew a few smaller strips to it. and will only be used to supplement your other camouflage in a fixed position. Heat Stress. heat stress seems like a good topic to broach for our readers. We seldom speak of heat stress here on Sniper Country and we apologize for not highlighting this less than glamorous topic. Camouflage for your weapon can be made in the same manner by wrapping the weapon with burlap. A sniper must be resourceful. Heat stress comes from many sources including. Make sure you can reach your adjustment knobs and there is nothing obstructing the scope. heat rash.If you need a suit that is light. Heat Stress can be one of a series of conditions where the body is under stress from overheating. the simple net will work well. a twisted ankle. You must cover all exposed body parts. but too often we ignore the physical end of the spectrum. lack of proper hydration and even the type of clothing being worn. and heat stroke. police officer or support person who has not put the mission before his or her bodily needs at least once in their career. dizziness. but once you have let the symptoms creep up on you without treatment. You must also wear gloves and of course your "camo" stick. you will be down for the count or worse. As the fourth of July weekend ends and my local area is coming out of a record high temperature spike. It can cripple you and place your mission at great risk of failure. Your ghillie suit will be a waste of time if you wear an exposed watch or ring. A bruised knee.

Caffeine is an obvious villain and one accepted as a daily starter. Make sure you take sufficient water along on the mission. you’d better be aware of the possibilities. Top off at every opportunity before and during the mission.Heat Stroke is insidious. so pack accordingly. sedatives. There are some precautions you can take to avoid becoming a victim. Make them drink water even if they do not want it. as does ALCOHOL. Diet pills? You bet. drink MORE than you think you need! Hydrate BEFORE the mission. . Some people are more prone to Heat Stress than others. a decrease in air movement and a lack of shade from direct radiant heat will all affect the potential for Heat Stress. Leave unessential items behind and take extra liquid. Younger individuals and those in excellent physical condition are less likely to experience stress. He may assume he is feeling a little slow or sluggish simply from the heat of his environment. When temperatures approach 90 degrees F you must be especially aware. They may not understand what is happening to them and only feel a little off their game. While the likelihood of a soldier in combat taking these seems slim. a police officer may have taking something listed above as a matter of course. Individuals with heart. move to the cover of a shaded area and drink water. Wear loose clothing to allow for better ventilation. but with profuse sweating he may feel sufficiently cooled by the evaporation of his precious fluids. The standard eight glasses a day will not cut it. If you know your partner has perceived problems with his or her weight. In a hot environment the body requires more water than typically needed to satisfy your thirst. If he is not taking active measures to replace these. at least not as quickly as other. Hydration and shade are the best and often only medicine in the field. The victim often overlooks the signs. When it is hot out of doors water is more important than food. Take adequate rest periods – in shade – if the mission allows. In other words. tranquilizers and CAFFEINATED drinks all accelerate the likely of heat stress. If not taken care of the victim will soon find it difficult to breathe and will lose consciousness. immediately get their attention and treat them. Learn to recognize the symptoms of Heat Stress. lung or kidney disease. Without meaning to be a chauvinist or starting a war of the sexes. While you might not think a team member is on any of the above. People do self-destructive things as a matter of course and if the mission is important. he will become confused or unable to concentrate. It takes time to acclimate to a hot environment and if an officer has not been spending much time out of doors in the summer heat he or she may find themselves on the back side of the power curve on their first call out in the heat wave. women often rely on these little items without informing their husbands OR partners on the job. make sure they are aware of the affects of dietary pills when the temperature rises. And STAY HYDRATED! Drink plenty of water. Left untended. In addition to temperature an increase in humidity. If you recognize the symptoms in a member of your team. Pace yourself if possible. less physically fit troops. Diet pills. You are more likely to experience heat stress when first exposed to a new environment or when your job is physically demanding. If heat signs occur in the field and you recognize them. you simply can not know. Drink as much as you can hold over a period of days if possible. diabetes and those on medications are more likely to experience heat stress issues. he will experience more sever symptoms such as fainting or complete collapse.

but as we know. Victims of Heat Stroke will die unless treated promptly. The body temperature will often soar to 106 degrees F and above. The skin will become hot and dry.The common forms of Heat Stress that you may experience if you do not take care are as follows:  Heat Stroke: Heat Stroke is the most serious health problem experienced by individuals in a hot environment. Heat Exhaustion: Heat Exhaustion results from the loss of fluid through sweating. Short of carrying a bottle of Gatorade into the field. nausea. In the worse cases a medic will use an intravenous saline solution for a quick response. just stay completely and properly hydrated to prevent this condition from affecting you. Until a medic can tend to the victim he or she should be moved to a cool area (shade if nothing else) and they should be doused in water. Convulsions or even a Coma. Severe cases resulting in vomiting or a loss of consciousness will require medical treatment outside the purview of this article. Their skin will become clammy and moist to the touch. Unlike Heat Stroke. A person forced to stand is far more prone (pun intended) to fainting than someone who is supine. Movement is usually all that is needed to avoid fainting. Fan them vigorously to increase the cooling effect. Troops in the field are at the greatest risk from Heat Stroke since they may not be in a position to be evacuated or may be low on water. Signs include. Loss of Consciousness. Delirium.once again a sports drink is the easiest method of replenishment for those outside a combat zone. Mental Confusion. Death is the ultimate end of this condition. Fainting: (Heat Syncope) Fainting is most common when an individual who is not acclimatized to a hot environment is required to stand or be still for a great length of time. mottled or even bluish. The victim should rest in as cool a place as possible and drink an electrolyte solution. Tired muscles -.those being worked the most at the time -. This is an obvious problem for someone manning a hide or observation post. The skin will often appear to be red. Police and civilians fare better as they are usually a dial of 911 or other emergency services away from help and can often be treated quite effectively onsite by their team mates. this    . This will restore the potassium. Relief may be found by drinking liquids that will replace the missing salts -. It is caused by a failure of the body’s internal mechanism to regulate your core temperature. They are caused when an individual drinks a large quantity of water but fails to replace the body’s salts. calcium and magnesium salts lost from sweating. Cramps may occur during or after the activity that prompted them. This happens when the individual fails to take in enough liquid or salt to compensate for his environment. Sweating will completely stop at this stage and the body can no longer rid itself of excess heat via surface evaporation. Again. the individual will still sweat but he or she will experience extreme weakness or fatigue. preventative measures go a long way to assuring you will not become a victim! Heat Cramps: Heat cramps are a painful spasm of the muscles. Their complexion pales or appears flush and their body temperature remains normal or slightly higher. Permanent injury will result in the brain and vital organs if heat stroke is not treated in a timely manner. or headaches. Treatment is fairly straightforward. giddiness.are the most susceptible to cramps.

Common sense and an awareness of the issues are usually all it takes for an individual to keep themselves in healthy order when in the field in hot weather. While you can certainly function with Heat Rash. this rash is the scourge of soldiers everywhere. It will inhibit sleep and that in turn will affect an individual's ability to think clearly. you will not be at your best and the mission may suffer. Every troop I have ever known has relished the few minutes of sleep he can steal in the field. Standing sweat will seemingly attack the skin and the rash quickly results. yelling to your enemy “here I am! Put me out of my misery!” Neither of these solutions will make you very popular with your platoon or team. Tight clothing like underwear briefs often exacerbate the problem. Information Gathering For The Scout/Sniper 23 August 2001 By Jeff Waters Introduction . It may not make you physically insane. When complicated by infection this rash can be so uncomfortable or debilitating that it becomes hard to perform your tasks.may not always be an option. Better known as prickly heat. Loose clothing may help. A little preventive maintenance is all it takes to avoid the worst symptoms of Heat Stress. Many troops go without their skivvies when in a tropical environment.  Heat Rash: Heat Rash oh wonderful Heat rash… I saved our favorite for last. trapping moisture and abrading the affected area. To a soldier often forced to go days without bathing this rash could be more than a little mind altering. most heat casualties are avoidable. especially for the military sniper. There is nothing more disconcerting or annoying than suffering through heat rash when at long last your platoon sergeant tells you to unload your gear and catch some shut eye.” Prickly heat will make damn sure you will not be well rested come the next watch. Skin powder and certain medications will provide relief if not always a cure. but it certainly has the ability to drive you to distraction! Sleep is a rare commodity when in the field. By that time you will have contemplated scraping the effected area with you knife. Prickly Heat will occur in a hot and especially humid environment where sweat is not easily removed from the surface of the skin via evaporation. Victims usually recover quickly once they have fallen prone and have lain down for a short period of time. He usually follows this statement up with “you're on watch in two hours. Keeping your skin dry is often problematic but it is the only way to prevent this rash. It is better to be a hound about the issue than simply ignore it or say. so it is best to just avoid this thing altogether. In summery. “it can not happen to me. standing up. keep aware and watch your buddy. Try to keep you chest and joint areas dry.” Keep hydrated. or worse.

and Satellite or Aerial Photography. but the S/S team will definitely be one of them.The mission of the Scout/Sniper is to shoot high value targets with his rifle or fire support assets and to gather and report timely and accurate information. he can't determine when or where that crucial moment will be. A good sniper may decide not to engage a low value target that would give his position away so that he can wait for a better one. Typical examples of PIR include: o o o o o Where is the enemy focusing his strength? Are the threat forces using area X as a supply route? What is the enemy strength and disposition at location X? Does the enemy have any NBC (Nuclear. Electronic Intercepts." The Intelligence Cycle consists of 4 parts (the civilians use 5. Without good information. The team gathers and reports information to based on the PIR and reports in by radio or in person during debriefs. Intelligence Cycle In order to understand your role in the information gathering process. The S/S is the eyes. The first part of understanding this is learning the "Intelligence Cycle. the military keeps it simple). the Intel and Ops officers formulate their collection efforts. which are explained below. it's helpful to start with an overview of the big picture and where you fit into it. and trigger finger of the Commander. Captured Documents. . even if that takes a couple of days. We will discuss the specifics a bit later in the document. and a smart CDR doesn't show his hand until the crucial moment. a. ears. Biological & Chemical) equipment and. He always has the opportunity to gather and report information of high value to his unit. Collection: Once the PIR have been established. They will use several assets to obtain this information. what posture are they in? Where is the enemy Command Post located? b. Direction: The Commander directs his Intelligence Staff (S2) to establish Priority Information Requirements (PIR) so that he can effectively plan his tactics and strategy. Other common sources of battlefield information are POWs. A sniper must be patient and may not always have a good target to shoot. if so.

it has to be disseminated in a timely fashion in order to help people in planning and executing operations. As everyone knows. Standard PIR The PIR are generally collected in the same manner with little variation. and must be trained on observation and reporting skills as well as how to avoid detection. the end product is called intelligence. This information is the end product of the Intelligence Cycle. A common example of this dissemination is when you receive or read the Situation Paragraph of the Operations Order. There is a major difference between a marksman and a sniper. and information must go through the cycle again. and location of Insertion Route followed Terrain Info re: route Sign of enemy (TRACK REPORT) Contact with enemy is sequence (SALUTE REPORT) Map Corrections Review Actions on the OBJ . Method. Communications skills are a must. When this analysis is complete. In order to guide you on how to go about collection. report accurately as if lives depend on it-because they do. the situation can change with little or no notice. however the cycle is continuous and never stops. Dissemination: Now that all this information has been gathered and analyzed. but it goes something like this:          ID of self and patrol Brief review of Situation in AO Time.c. This is why units are selective about who they take. The information is then examined and matched against other pieces of information the Intel section has to corroborate it and tie it into the big picture. Date. otherwise the information cannot be passed on. Shooting is about 15% of the sniper's job. Accuracy of Reporting It is important to understand that tactical and strategic decisions will rest upon the information that is provided. The S/S has special equipment available that is not common to all troops. it is best to start by reviewing the standard NATO Debriefing Forms contained in the Ranger Handbook and countless other publications. Analysis What the S/S team gives to the S2 is information. In other words. This is off the top of my head. d.

Reporting Formats Troop Sightings:       Size (#s seen. etc) Location (6 digit grid and terrain feature) Uniform (distinctive patches. which is a bad idea-KISS) Equipment (Weapons. date. Equipment The equipment the sniper will need and which is generally issued is:     Note taking/Sketching materials Binoculars Spotting Scope Camera (available from the S2. NBC gear. should be waterproofed and cammo'ed. you should get one. Photos. sketches. headgear.) Activity (moving south. mixed with civilian clothes. Night Vision. location. but not uncommon. digging in. etc) Time (local time and date unless your unit is on ZULU. and have flash disabled)  Radio and Codebooks Down and dirty that's all that's needed . Terrain. sketches and summarize all findings related to PIR) Exfil route and info Time. Obsevations. etc. turned in to S2 or representative Another excellent format to study as a guide on what you can gather to help out your buddies is the S2 Update format. etc. in a pocket-sized format. Anything besides equip common to all) Terrain Analysis:      Observation and Fields of Fire Avenues of Approach Key Terrain Obstacles Cover and Concealment Track Report:  Tread Pattern & Trash (Sketch and record/Consider bringing back) . and is the best publication since the New Testament. If you are a grunt of any kind.      Summarize results at FFP (Contact Rpts. do not guess that it's a squad.and the camera is not common. and method of extraction Condition of Patrol and equipment Suggestions All activity logs. The Ranger Handbook has all this information in it. epaulets.

Reporting it any time after now will be too late. (Actually. Work with the S2. "Fields of fire from location X extend to the NE. covering the entire objective with grazing fire. Study Order of Battle. Practice Recon Patrols and Link Up Patrols frequently. You can't really grasp what to look for if you don't know what is going on or what its going to be used for.) Kit (Heavy load indicated by deep impression etc?) Speed/Staining (Heels dug in deep with long strides?/Blood trails. Make observations specific. Establish permanent relations between the sniper teams and the units they support. etc. You can learn from a marksman. There's nothing worse that being evaluated by someone who doesn't know what he is talking about. "good fields of fire" means little to nothing.) Request evaluations from COMPETENT SNIPERS. A team should always support A company if possible. The effectiveness is highly increased due to SOP's that are developed and chances of fratricide reduced. and even MI units. i. particularly when he realizes how much help you will be to him. . even if it means stooping to the level of working with MP's.) Note: Also See Tracking Article Dissemination for the S/S     Secure or encrypted by radio Link up and Debrief (done near the Objective) Dead drop for written notes Re-Entry and Debrief (done at the base camp) Training Tips             Observation Exercises are conducted with realistic objects you would find on the battlefield rather than rolls of tape and other garbage. Study tactics at the company level. Train with the MTU. but they do not know the realities of sniping.     Route of march (Azimuth) Age and Approximate number (Sides caved in or sharp?/Use box method) Crew Served Weapons? (scuffs on trees at shoulder lvl etc. Train with other sniper units. Immediate Use Information Sometimes you will find information that is of immediate use. Always incorporate thorough Debriefs into FTX's and encourage the unit staff to attend once the men are trained up. Some discretion comes into play here and the S/S must be able to make good calls on the value of the information based on his PIR and Mission of supported unit.e. as much as possible. SF units will generally always help. The S2 will be happy to help you. but limited with 150 meters of dead space beginning at the 200 meter line. MP's may well generate good urban snipers in the future. but realize that they are generally excellent marksmen and not snipers." says a whole lot more. Practice link ups with the units you support so you develop SOP's.

how they work. Unit Integrity Earlier we discussed the importance of keeping the same teams assigned to the same companies in the BN or supported unit. By doing this. Knowing that your chain of command is behind you (as long as you are a good team) is another Combat Multiplier. The S2 and unit did not know that this unit was in the area and your mission was to observe a radio relay site for a possible raid. What should you do? There's no way to say that only one answer is correct. morale. most of those guys didn't last long. one that can easily get you into a lot of trouble. and a genuine concern for the well-being of the other unit. You have to be able to think on your feet if something renders portions of the plan ineffective while maintaining balance with the orders you are given. he can make the decision knowing that if it's consistent with the way they have trained with this unit. For example. The information. By maintaining Unit Integrity the S/S will have a much better idea about what he is expected to do than a team who has never supported the unit at all. You can't make commo with the unit. If he does not enjoy this backing. esprit de corp.This is why Operations Orders include a paragraph called Commander's Intent. . that the unit's Commander will be with him. may well be far more important that picking off a couple of people and slinking away. but for the most part you should get to a spot where you can report the unit. It fosters-over time and hard training-trust. and develop SOPs. This is one of those intangible combat multipliers that I believe have eroded over the last 10 years in light of political correctness. but it does more than that. With the pressures of live missions and the particular stresses associated with working forward of the friendly unit in a small team with a bolt rifle. Even in the military. Sniper Traits & Values Essential for the Mission Lots of people say they want to be snipers. Unit Integrity makes a unit stick together in a bar fight and on the job. Unit Integrity allows the units to stay together and learn how each other work. in this case. If you engage it prior to passing the information. Thankfully. Deviating from your assigned mission is a big decision. especially with a three sentence situation briefing. his effectiveness and contribution to the unit will be reduced due to fear of exercising initiative-and initiative is a crucial trait to have in a S/S. the S/S doesn't need much more to worry about. they can get to know each other. And. there were those who thought it was more about some kind of fashion show and posing than anything else. you only hurt your chances of getting the message out. if he spots a company-sized element heading toward a crucial objective. but they have no idea what one really is or does.

the support (at least in spirit. In time. There is only one guy to watch your back the way units are currently organized (a mistake in my opinion: I think there should be 3).Being a sniper is not about a glorification of self." In order to effectively report information. Though you may not shoot on every mission. The only room for speculation in your reports is under the heading of "Recommendations. The reporting formats regarding Troop Sightings. it is critical that the information be accurate and objective. if not in material) will be there. Among other things. To be good at it. These relationships multiply everybody's effectiveness many times and improve morale and esprit de corp. . you should work with the S2 and study topics such as Order of Battle and Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield in order to become a bigger asset to your unit. Self-reliance is one of the biggest traits needed. A sniper has to be of above-average intelligence and be a thinker. snipers are selected for their initiative and flexibility-and this is an opportunity to exercise it and learn from it. This is not necessarily a negative thing. etc. It is about what you can contribute to your unit in a risky job. Terrain Analysis. you will report information back to the supported unit. you must know what is relevant and what is not. you need to be the type that sincerely cares about your unit and your fellow soldiers. In order to improve your knowledge beyond this. They will frequently receive little support from the parent unit. as with the entire program. and reliability. Ass kissers and posers need not apply. where Tactical and Strategic decisions will be based upon it. By maintaining a strong relationship with the S2 and supported units. Summary The secondary mission of the sniper is to gather and report timely and accurate information. Initiative and Coolness under Stress are the other big ones that come to mind. You must be able to have an extreme degree of trust in your sniper buddy in terms of ability. after units have seen proven and continuous results. depends on the snipers. The main point is that the value of the sniper section's information reporting. are the bare minimum a new sniper should know. SOP's and relationships based on professional trust and respect for competence will be created. This information is put into the Intelligence Cycle. You can't just receive a plan and stick to it. Therefore. values. You have to make your own and be flexible and able to understand and follow the CDR's Intent. They are nothing but a starting point. NATO Debriefs.

D. doesn't it?).Large. We have Planimetric maps. A map is a graphic representation of the earth's surface drawn to scale on a flat surface. Topographic (topo) maps are our friends (for the most part). Small. The USGS and most (not all) mil-topo maps are large scale which is given as a Representative Factor (RF) such . Not much use to us "sniper type individuals". piece of paper. B. No. A Folded. A graphic representation of the earth's surface (or a portion of the earth's surface) drawn to scale on a flat surface. Topographic or Photomaps. I hope.ALL OF THEM!! On a daily basis in your local AO (Area of Operation) or "da 'hood" to the "civvies". Rivers. warped. C.. OK. contour lines. where can you find and buy maps? A map is: A. Next are Photomaps.Maps An introduction 18 April 2000 By Will Adams ALLRIGHT!! LISTEN UP!!! Today's lesson is on MAPS: What is a map. Medium.Planimetric. marginal data and other information printed over the pictorial area. Maps are identified as .. shoved under the passenger seat with bits of partially decomposed pogue bait covering it. Something you can never find when you need it. symbols and colors. what type maps are there. large scale does NOT mean a larger area but more detail of a smaller area. but without confusion. but they do give horizontal distance and other information like the next rest area but that's about it. we have covered. woods. Correct choice today is "D". moving on rapidly. These maps show horizontal AND vertical positions and features. Remember this: You will see this again (sounds familiar. LISTEN UP AGAIN!!! You have 3 Scales in military topographic maps . Guess which one serves you best? Answer . what a map is and types of maps.. These are either single photographs or an assembly of aerial photographs of an area to make a composite picture with gridlines. Directions someone drew for you on a bar napkin while they were drunk. better known as "civilian roadmaps". which shows the shape of the terrain (ground for you "civvies") by the addition of contour lines. Now then. There are different types and scales but they all fall into one of these classifications. what do you need to look for on a map and finally. roads and hills are shown by lines.. you would use a Large Scale map.

RED ..000. etc. Any technical details. e-mail me!! I am not going to discuss orthographic view. Let's clear the air on some stuff. Blue. PLEASE. lakes. swamps. Green and Red. even if it is not military) and USGS (United States Geological Survey) use 3 scales as mentioned earlier. Railroads.All features shown in blue have something to do with water. Things like shorelines. where the large scale maps (small area. canals. Now do you see what I mean about detail available? A large scale map covers a smaller area in more detail and that's what is going to be discussed now. and administrative needs of military field units. GREEN . either stated or not.This color is used to show Main Roads.Black. For the record military maps (referred from now on as topo. conic projection.000 (USGS calls these 7 1/2 minute maps) or 1:62. lots of area but very little detail. These show lots of detail and provide us with very useful information. DISMISSED ! ! ! . ALL maps have scale.500 has 1 inch on the map equals nearly 1 mile." Types of scale: small. medium scale maps are normally JOGs (Joint Operational Graphic).. Last is the Large Scale Map whose scale is 1:75.000.000 . Good enough!! Take a break and the next part will cover how to read a map.000 has a representation of 1 inch on the map equals 2.little detail) is used for general planning or strategic studies. Let's see. roads.500 (USGS 15-minute maps) where the 1:24. etc.000 square miles. airfields.000 to 100. Also what those colors mean on the map. just how tall is Storm Mountain? Anyone? BTW. we have covered what a map is "graphic representation of the earth's surface drawn to scale on a flat surface. BLUE .000 where 1 unit of measurement on the map equals 25. The Standard Small Scale Map is 1:1.All man-made or cultural features on a map. like. Oh yeah. in other words. a small scale map (remember.000 and larger.. A Contour Line is an imaginary line of equal elevation.000 of the same units on the ground.This color indicates any feature that is some type of vegetation such as. woods. For you militaria or trivia "studs". medium and large and we have learned that there are 5 basic colors . A Medium Scale Map is one in which the scale is between 1:75. technical.000 and 1:600.This is used to show elevation or relief by use of CONTOUR LINES. On a topo map there are FIVE (5) basic colors and they are: BLACK .000 feet and the 1:62.. Before someone in the military or with prior service starts to blast me about some stuff. built-up areas and special features. Brown. Depending on your needs you will probably work with large scale 1:24. orchards. lots of detail) are used for tactical. vineyards and grasslands. or making a terrain study at this 1:25. this is an overview. bridges. although slightly detailed about maps and map reading and where to purchase said items. large area . A series of contour lines will show the presence or absence of relief such as hills and valleys. a large scale topo covers an area roughly 49 to 70 SQUARE MILES!! A small scale map covers (again roughly) 73. BROWN .

give your location. Just didn't want anyone to think I was "blowing smoke".. Maps are read to the east from left to right and from the bottom up!! Because these lines measure distance eastward they are called "Eastings" and since you read the vertical lines from bottom to top and they measure distance northward. One good thing about that site is that it is geared toward an 8th grade reading level! ! ! No Lie! ! ! Go to the site and check it out. this might make things easier to understand. they are called "northings". A small scale map .360 1 inch on map DOES equal 1 mile on ground.. just an idea. TAKE A BREAK US Army Land Navigation and Map That is the "Source" for US Army Land Navigation and Map reading. figure out where you aren't if the person reading the map before you has "become disoriented". Let me make a comment/clarification on the last part. more on that later. like compasses etc. Every grid square comes from the two grid lines at the LOWER LEFT CORNER! ! ! Digest that for a minute or two and we will cover features next.. topographic symbols. This name is the "largest".500 which is nearly 1 mile on ground per 1 inch on paper while the ACTUAL scale 1:63. At the bottom of the map you will find more information and it is normally called a Legend. These squares are further numbered and from this you can find a location (point)... This Legend will have such information as scale distances. evenly spaced. 58 -|-----|-----|-----|-----|57 -|-----|-----|-----|-----|56 -|-----|-----|-----|-----|55 -|-----|-----|-----|-----|30 31 32 33 34 Using the above example. going horizontal and vertical. I'm going to repeat myself but bear with me. Always. I stated that USGS 15-minute maps are at a scale of 1:62.. best identified part of this map. You will also notice a group of lines. The squares of this grid help to locate "Points" quickly and accurately.. If you are using a military map it will have an alpha-numeric system of identification. and after studying the map long enough.. Also that site has "pretty pictures"!! hee hee hee This portion of the discussion has to do with where to acquire maps/waterproofing maps and other gear you might need. Earlier there was a description of what a map is and the different scales. At the top of the topo map will be a name.. Of course I could be "tabbed" to discuss the finer points. Remember. creating a grid.. READ RIGHT and UP! ! ! Always start in the lower left corner. road examples and etc. very simple reading. you will see that the 1st grid if read correctly would be 3055 and the northeastern most grid will be 3357.This portion of our discussion of maps will cover reading a map.

and you can still mark on it. especially when it comes to something so important. Kjellstrom. Check it out.. forgetting that your watch is not demagnetized!! You can buy a good quality compass for as low as $20 and get an almost "Top-ofthe-Line" for under $70. flexible. one of the easiest to understand is the US Army's Field Manual.. The site for that is the US Orienteering Federation. Several medium scale maps will make up one small scale map. As to learning more about maps an how to use them.. Being the prudent person I am I always carry a back-up. Cavalry Store.. makes it waterproof. You can also find maps in some malls where there is a map shop and really good outdoor specialty shops carry maps (especially for climbers and hikers). probably available at Amazon. Remember.. buy maps. Good sources for compasses are Cabela's.covers lots of ground but not a lot of detail... Now that that's said and How to Waterproof Maps One way is to use clear contact paper but that makes the map very difficult to write on and can be a real pain to do properly. FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS ! ! ! This stuff coats the paper. I am NOT EVEN going to talk about GPS. and for that matter have been known to have another stashed in my gear somewhere. Brigade Quartermaster and U. However.. no way!! I'll deal with the mundane run-of-the-mill compasses!! The military lensatic compass works and is simple in design. FM 21-26 Map Reading and Land Navigation. where do you locate. to me that is "the Source" for maps of the U. Then there is the tried and proven method of stuffing the map in a zip-lock baggie!! Its grease pencil friendly and marker friendly.. If you want to improve your skills with map and compass then take up the sport of Orienteering. a whole bunch of large scale maps cover a medium scale map. IMHO. If you prefer a civilian book that is excellent then chase down a copy of.. now the fun stuff. . Last but not least. Not perfect but it does work.. I am primarily concerned with topo maps but you can also go to Delorme Maps and Mapping Software or MapBlast!.S.. "Be Expert with Map & Compass" by B. OK.S. orienteering is a great way to hone your skills in cross-country movement. Online..unh unh. the back-ups were not military but either a "SILVA" brand or a "Brunton" model. I go to USGS National Mapping Information. or the type you can attach to your watch. Just remember that you get what you pay for!! It is your butt lost in the woods and its getting very miserable and all because you bought the "el cheapo" hang from the zipper.. There is a product called "Stormproof" available at most map shops and outdoor specialty stores that really works as the name states. Almost like a puzzle where little pieces combine to make a larger piece and those connect to make the puzzle whole! ! I realize that is very simplistic but I'm limited in being able to draw.

irresponsible wad of worms I can think of. Rather than give a lengthy narrative on all of this. practice moving into your ORP (Objective Rally Point)/Patrol Base at night. listening to portable radios. You go on patrol for a lot of reasons. They know that if the enemy does. This is the stupidest. not a movie. Small clandestine patrols avoid contact with the enemy. Point is not a job for some green kid because he's more expendable. and a lot of young lieutenants. noisy. powerful. In the movies these patrols put cherries on point because they know they are going to get hit. If you think you are doing anyone any good by running a unit in this manner you should be court martialled and tried for treason. Point is the most important job in the patrol. You should rehearse everything as best you can. Other things you see in movies that would get you slapped for trying on a patrol: . I don't doubt that with constant rotation of personnel. What do you do if you are discovered on the LZ upon insertion? If you will break your team into two elements for some reason. They want the enemy to try and mess with them. what are you going to do if one of the elements is discovered/captured/killed/ or for some reason doesn't return at the prearranged time? If you are walking along and are ambushed what are you going to do? Break the patrol down into phases and spend a lot of time discussing each phase with your people.Patrolling Fundamentals I Written by David R. most screwed up. Identify all areas of concern and plan for them. and heavily armed combat patrol on a mission to seek out and destroy the enemy doesn't give a darn whether they make noise or not. They do not have the firepower to engage. Your job is to give the enemy the best opportunity that you can to die for HIS country. If you can locate an area to rehearse in that has similar terrain. high on drugs. but you don't do it to kill off your own people. It will provide the instructions that everyone needs to do their job. It's not the other way around. It will begin with the boarding of the helicopters/trucks/aircraft/submarine and end with the debriefing. Much of these texts concern small clandestine patrols. and frequently operate beyond the range of rapid reinforcement. A large. and stumbling along through the jungle loaded down with comic books and all kinds of other crap there is VERY GOOD CHANCE you are going to get ambushed. I suppose if your patrol is undisciplined. You must include every conceivable contingency and allow time for training and rehearsals. Vietnam was a war. Reed The patrol order will be a briefing that includes all of the details and contingencies. Make sure each person knows what sector he will be responsible for and can set up in the dark without talking. they are going to kick some ass. why don't we discuss some specific techniques and then go over the phases of a patrol and discuss how these techniques are integrated into the mission. that some of the silly things you see in Vietnam-era War movies actually took place.

one mortar or artillery round can kill you all. Bug Juice. This is because the only way you could have gotten them would have been to sneak back and get them after the APL inspected you and your gear. Dropping anything on the ground. Wearing camouflage paint in some silly "war paint" design. headquarters. Rolling your sleeves up for any reason. While moving. Carrying your weapon on your shoulder. You should organize your little patrol into a point element. Movement formation should be such that the PL can control all of the patrol elements. If you are strung out to far. and stumbling) is to break contact with the man in front of him. and comic books) the punishment would be most severe. Not wearing camouflage at all times. the patrol leader will maneuver these teams against the enemy. People who are wont to break contact have no place on a patrol. These are two small strips of luminescent tape. tripping. playing cards. Phase of Patrol (Modified for our sample warning order)         Planning & Preparation Insertion Movement to the Objective Reconnaissance Setup our 'hides' and shoot people Movement to the LZ Extraction Debriefing Fundamental Concepts Movement When moving at night you will be very close to each other. or anything else. Sauntering along like you are on a nature hike. people are organized into 'maneuver elements' and each has a team leader. your patrol can be cut in half by an ambush. Remember that you must be able to control teams in a variety of emergency situations. Decorating the camouflage cover of your helmet with peace signs. Cigarettes. The worst sin a man can commit (along with coughing. . (This is only for our small sniping mission) Patrols are usually organized according to the mission. DON'T DO THIS. If you are too close to each other. playing cards. slogans. It should be noted that if I found you in possession of unauthorized items mentioned above (cigarettes. If the APL let you bring any of the items he would probably be relieved immediately and charged with dereliction of duty. making noise of any kind. In very dark places (like in a triple canopy jungle) you may have to hold onto the man in front of you. LSA. 'Ranger Eyes' are sewn onto the back of your cap. falling. Stumbling. or anything else stuck into the band. wearing it with the chinstrap unhooked and dangling. In battle. sneezing.         If the uniform include helmet. and rear security.

If you were taking a medic. broken branches. If your patrol is not large enough to rotate the point. the enemy knows where you are. They will load and fire like their lives depend on it. the medic would be part of the HQ element. Every man in your patrol must be able to call for fire. ambushes. and display leadership. you are dead in combat. . make sure that your point team is a good one. A patrol leader must be able to maneuver his men. they really earn their pay. The point team should not stray too far ahead. NOT to navigate. and pull rear security. The point team should not be in place for longer than one hour. If the point team does not keep an eye on the patrol. and enemy patrols. combat success is measured by the degree your unit can move. When they hear you under fire and the urgency in your voice. and with field artillery and air support. The point man walks in front and the slack man moves behind him about 20 meters depending on terrain and vegetation. if not you may have to use a dedicated point team. positions. and accurately. Assuming everyone can operate the radio with a high degree of competence it is OK to do this. It is difficult to concentrate for long periods of time in a high-pressure situation like point. The point team must be very alert for booby traps. The PL must be able to control their direction and see them at all times. 30 minutes is a better time period. and the patrol stops for any reason. In a small patrol you may want to alternate the position of RTO so that each man can have a respite from point. the point team will close up to the patrol. shoot. If you are in danger of being overrun you cannot waste time encoding. it is acceptable to talk in the clear. talk to HQ. The slack man must watch the point man in his peripheral vision. They must work together to provide constant 270 degree surveillance and check back to the patrol to get guidance on direction. and RTO (Radio Telephone Operator).Point Element While moving your patrol should have a point element. Part of your patrol order should cover fire missions. A good RTO must be able to encode and transmit messages fast. You will have to make the decision. fire support. or rocky terrain. The point team is the patrols primary defense against ambush. Their mission is to provide security. Remember this. For movement purposes the APL will be at the rear of the patrol. It really depends on how well each person can operate the radio. They will communicate by hand and arm signals. Once you are in contact with the enemy. they will break contact. This means it is no longer necessary to encrypt messages when time is of the essence. Without communication. Tired men have a habit of looking at the ground in front of them. or in dense vegetation. quickly. tracks. A point element is composed of a Point man and a slack man. it is important to have a competent radio operator at all times. etc. The "gun bunnies" love this stuff. or you have other reasons. all under a hail of bullets and other weapons. and communicate. It is also important to have an alert point team at all times. Headquarters Element Your HQ element will be the Patrol Leader (PL). At night. both within your patrol. They must be able to spot an ambush before the patrol gets within the kill zone. APL. the slack man 'takes up the slack' by looking to the left. When the point-man looks to the right. He will watch for litter. That way your point team will always be alert.

they will be more likely to wonder what the ruckus is about and wait for someone to tell them what to do. 'apt to'. Stagger this so that you alternate from right to left. You must consider these things and make your decisions. As you scan an area to your flank. The odds of a shoot-out at some point are likely and you want to survive it first. Familiarity is one thing and competence is another. even if they don't immediately recognize the source. MPs. This uncertainty can work in your favor. Everyone within earshot will have heard their own weapons being fired. river crossing. POW search and handling. If they don't hear strange weapons. so it is acceptable to perform other jobs during this phase of the patrol.308 you are compromised. demolitions. Remember that you don't want to fire your weapons. It should always be pointed wherever you are looking. The moment anyone fires an M16 or . The fact that the area is crawling with the enemy cannot be overlooked. You must hide and or run from anyone we meet if at all possible. . your weapon's muzzle follows. I'm saying that you are better off carrying the standard weapons everyone regularly carries. You will not be sniping during the movement phase. or in a serious firefight is quite another. If you can survive the fight with enemy weapons and you are sure of it. What will happen may be something else entirely. and outnumbered by virtually any enemy unit in the area. Would it make sense for everyone except snipers to carry enemy weapons? Could we get resupply if necessary? What are the chances of being re-supplied instead of extracted? Is everyone trained and competent with enemy weapons? Are sound suppressors available for the weapon you want to carry? Sound suppressors are essential pieces of equipment for all weapons. and so on all the way back through the patrol. How you will perform with the equipment when suddenly ambushed. the man behind him looks left.Sniping Element If you and the APL are snipers then you are also the sniping element. Since you will be behind enemy lines. Each man in the patrol has a sector to watch as you move. they will know their comrades are shooting at something. and then escape. you must not have an accidental discharge. If the troops guarding the rear area are not seasoned combat soldiers. pinned down. Weapons always follow your eyes. they may think someone is qualifying or practicing! Notice I'm using a lot of 'less likely'. One man looks right. 'odds are" 's. all must perform security and be ready to fire and maneuver in contact with the enemy. and resupply will be difficult if you are carrying non-standard items. then your odds of escape are somewhat enhanced. Dime store novels have commandos carrying all sorts of exotic weapons. It is no different from any other special purpose team. This danger can be minimized somewhat by using sound suppressors. there are no guarantees. snatch. or other green troops. Everyone will keep his finger on the selector switch. i. If everyone is competent with foreign weapons you may consider it. but won't know what.. All weapons must be kept on safe.e. They will know that certain weapons sounds don't sound like theirs.

You can repeat this moving one man to the rear of the patrol at a time until you have broken contact. quietly. You should work out a system of squelch breaks to communicate. After all. Immediate Action Drills Spotted by unarmed civilian If you can you should capture him and tie him up. If they are separated then they return to the last rally point. low-power radio. anything to keep his body from being discovered? Spotted by Armed soldier(s) Who Shoot The point team should immediately drop and return fire. The enemy can determine where you are transmitting from and they will fire upon your location. Rehearse this. Then everyone can run like hell to the last rally point. with a knife. tie him up.'s away. You should not use radios unless absolutely necessary. The patrol fires to cover the slack man's escape. each team should have a small. The textbooks will tell you to gag him. Can you trust him? Can you verify that he is a partisan? Anyone in fear of his life will tell you anything to get out of the situation. The basic indivisible unit is a 2-man buddy system. and force him to go with you. If you have the same kind of weapon he has kill him with it if you have to. can you make it look as someone else shot him? Like he shot himself? Can you bury him. You should never leave a man alone for any reason. everyone runs to the 9:00 direction for 300 meters and regroups. If you can't leave him tied up for whatever reason consider killing him.if he shoots try to kill him quietly. Now what will you do. If possible the slack man should lay down a base of suppressive fire while the point man runs or crawls back to the patrol. drown him. Another thing you won't be forgiven for -officially. The point man fires an entire magazine at full-auto and throws a grenade.All of your men should be able to qualify right & left handed with their weapons. Far Ambush Suddenly mortars fall on you or a heavy machine gun opens up from 600 yd. Spotted by armed soldier who doesn't shoot Kill him quickly and quietly -. When you separate for recon purposes. did anyone hear you? He will certainly be missed. he's a civilian and you are not supposed to kill him. The PL yells "9:00 300 meters!" or something. (Later) . You will not be forgiven for a tragedy befalling someone under your command when it could have been avoided.

Don't try to hide. You don't want everyone walking off to the left and leaving the right unguarded. If someone has been left asleep you will know and can get him up before you move out. He says "one" to the man in front of him who in turn says "two.Near Ambush You are suddenly ambushed. If that isn't possible the rally point before that one becomes the rendezvous. This must be rehearsed. By the time you have lived like this it becomes second nature. The instant the patrol stops everyone quietly moves a few feet out and forms a defensive perimeter. You will probably have a few picked out beforehand by looking at prominent terrain features on your map." so on and so forth back to the front of the patrol. Actions When Stopped Whenever you stop for any reason everyone must form a hasty perimeter. If you run you'll be shot down. no matter how much it pisses them off) these actions with your men prior to the patrol. When in formation everyone has a direction they will watch while stopped. The PL should tap his hat as the signal for the count. you point and say rally point. any place that provides cover will only be booby-trapped in a well-laid ambush. w/out hesitation for it to have any chance of working. As you pass big gnarled trees. not just the people behind you. Anyone not in the kill zone must immediately flank and assault the enemy position. If you have not had the benefit of this training then you must rehearse (and you should anyway. This can be a simple cigar shape. throwing grenades. the only thing you can do is assault their position. swinging you rifle like a club. Everyone must do it instantly. rocks. Rally Points Along your route you must select rally points while you walk. etc. If you have to run. Basically. Everyone in turn will tap his hat all the way back to the APL who is in the rear. You must never stand up unless you are moving. . don't ever forget it DON'T GET YOUR ASS AMBUSHED! Your point team must be a good one! Its job is to make sure there is no one hiding in ambush along your route. instinctive. In Ranger and LRP training these concepts are drilled into your head in a pressure cooker environment. Your only hope in a near ambush is to attack the enemy firing on full auto. etc. When you start out again get a head count. People who are very tired can fall asleep while stopped. the rendezvous place is always the last rally point. if you are caught in a near ambush you are dead meat! The best defense is this one. Make sure the point element gets the word. The slightest error brings almost violent reactions from the instructors.

they cannot hear you yell. Everyone must know radio frequencies without .take turns Sock changing -.take turns Water gathering -. When the right & left flank give you an all clear everyone runs across at once. Each man purifies his own water.If the course will be changing or the mission changes for any reason a frag order is issued.Reapply camouflage -. when everyone is firing.foot powder -. this is an addendum to the Patrol order. Command and Control Certain signals will mean certain things in an emergency. You need a signal to:           Stop Move forward Provide Covering Fire Form perimeter Head Count Rally Point Establish Patrol base Hasty Ambush Abandon the ORP Final Protective Fire At night.two men collect all canteens and carry them to the source.If you will be stopped for more than a few minutes you may follow this schedule of maintenance.       Weapons cleaning -.  Frag order -.depending on the danger present you may only want 1 in 3 men asleep at a time.Take turns -.Take turns Sleep . Do not send one man across at a time unless you are crossing a stream or river. Divide the time you will be stopped and allow each shift equal sleep time. Actions at Danger Areas Contingencies are:   What if the point man gets fired up? What if you are hit while crossing? Plan to have people separated as little as possible. If you are hit you don't want a danger area separating your men. A good way to signal is with different colored flares that everyone can see. If it is a road spread everyone out. Eating -.

Reed The Patrol Base A patrol base is any place you intend to occupy for more than umm. and suddenly they hear two of them hooting back and forth they are not going to think it's two owls. scratch. They do not call each other in the middle of the night. If the enemy has been in an area for several weeks without hearing an owl. They may bark. 4 hours? You'll be there a while anyway. or any number of things that can compromise your mission. When in position the PL can say rally point 1 is at 2:00 . Dogs Scout dogs have no place on a clandestine patrol. Tape the handset cord far enough down to insure a watertight seal.. Water Proofing Radios must be water proofed by wrapping with visqueen and taping. your enemy will be able to use these places to fire into your location and you cannot hit him with direct fire weapons. They are noisy. Don't even think about it... but how many owls do you hear? Are they native to the area? Owls stick to one area their entire lives. Whatever method you choose. Forget cowboy movie tricks. First put it in a sock to absorb condensation then wrap with plastic. It is usually a depression in the ground where a person could hide.writing them down. The handset is wrapped too. Leave enough slack in the plastic to operate the knobs. If you run the risk of capture you must reset the radio to a different frequency so that the enemy won't find the radio with the proper frequency already set for them. You should have an evacuation plan that includes at least two rendezvous locations that everyone knows. defecate everywhere. They must know how many clicks left or right to arrive at the right frequencies in the dark. Owls hoot. Patrolling Fundamentals II Written by David R. Unless your enemy is a bunch of idiots they will know your signals are not birds chirping. Forget birdcalls. If attacked. your enemy has probably seen a few westerns too. and may give away your position. If you have one near your house you will hear him every now and then. 300 meters and RP 2 is at 3:00 600 meters. Now if you have to run the PL can say 3:00 400 meters and everyone will know what direction that is. In a small patrol that . This is the direction everyone will run if a flare goes up to signal the evacuation of the patrol base. dead space is any place that you cannot shoot into from the patrol base. Most birds call in the early morning and evening. Any noise you male will be assumed a threat and fired upon. This is what you must plan for and do. If they are hot they can't help panting. make certain that everyone knows where 12:00 is.

They smell. it makes for a very deadly defense. Nonetheless it is important to have this down. deodorant. These will keep you from swinging your rifle too far to one side. throw grenades. This will give you the same smell that they have. the PL may decide to fire final protective fire as a last attempt at holding the position. When in a patrol base. and they are difficult for the enemy to use against you. you fire on full auto everything you can feed through your weapon. run a safe distance. and interlocking. each man will have an assigned sector. and a running password. must also be left behind. Remember that digging is noisy and leaves a lot of sign. Food You should eat only the food your enemy eats for 48 hours prior to the patrol. It is very important that everyone knows where the LP or ambush is located. break contact. If the patrol base is in danger of being overrun. Period.100 meters of the objective. Final Protective Fire usually means swinging your rifles all the way to one side and firing directly in front of the position to your side. Skoal. We will take everything with us. and resume the patrol in a manner that the enemy will be unable to find you again. This is the place where we would drop rucks on a raid mission. We will have passwords to exchange when we meet up after the recon mission. They have poor night vision. If you are compromised. Our little patrol will not really have an ORP. and if we parachute in. If you lack explosives for this. Another concept is Final Protective Fire. The whole concept is to avoid detection. If the LP has to high tail it back at a run they need something to yell when doing this so they won't be fired up. much less overrun. Smoking You can't take people who smoke. At night you must be very careful not to shoot the men in the position directly to your right and left. All men will have to pull security on the objective. You should press aiming stakes into the ground in front of your position. The APL should check all sectors of fire and insure they are safe. Digging in means digging fighting positions in the patrol base. I do not think that digging in is wise on a recon patrol. when they will be back. . A frag order is issued telling a team to go somewhere nearby and set up an ambush or something. bar soap. and when firing. sharp stakes can be used. and they certainly can't take tobacco with them. etc. I believe the system of interlocking fires now in use by the US Army was learned from the Vietnamese. we'll need one when we meet up on the DZ. With a system of interlocking fires. The enemy will know exactly how many people occupied the position. Our little patrol lacks the resources for this. You may now begin the maintenance schedule.Objective Rally Point is a special patrol base located within 50 . On a recon patrol we HOPE to take all precautions to keep from being found.has no mortars. Usually larger units will send out LP's at night (Listening Posts) or maybe an ambush patrol. [interlocking fire picture] ORP . You will also blow all claymores. you may want to booby trap the dead spaces.

Flashlights with (2) red lens filters. tree frogs. Knife. Poncho. Add little trees. Be as detailed and creative as time allows. It is good to let everyone participate in this by building it in stages.Use them to create diversions. passwords. Swiss seat and snaplink. etc. Camouflage stick. Lots of socks. Gloves. Compass. Build a Sand table. etc. Water purification tablets or filter. Tie the strings to small nails. with 2x4 sides. grenades. Birds. prior. Waterproof maps. These will help you get an overall 3D impression of the land you will be working on. Consider all types of explosives. Use your hands to sculpt the dirt to match the contour lines on your map. roads. Other Tips    Make a thorough. fences. Commo wire and garrot handles. Once you are on the ground. Make sure you add all major terrain features. frequencies. ghillie suit.  Avoid taking weapons that use different kinds of ammo. Signal Mirror. and spends five minutes listening to the sounds of the forest. etc. You will use this table to help you plan. Individual First Aid Kits. everyone sits down. buildings. prior to departure. cut-off bridges. and other weapons in your plan -. crickets. mines. wind. and clear of the LZ. and help you deliver the OPORD when it's finished. closes their eyes. This gets everyone involved and creates a lasting impression of the terrain in each team members mind. roads. Fill it with sand. Radio batteries. etc. call signs. Take string and stretch it across the box where the grid square lines are on your map and label them. Two canteens. Sand Table This is a sandbox about 6' square. streams. Secure all equipment with duct tape so that it will not squeak or rattle. Every person must bring:                   Weapons cleaning equipment. Tape weapon sling swivels. detailed terrain analysis of the country you will cover on your patrol. dirt. . Test everyone's knowledge of the mission.Drink Bring only water and do not drink alcohol for 48 hr. rocks.

Once across. or thick socks unless it will be sub-zero weather. Trackers may be called in to start tailing you from the danger area where you were seen. everyone gets to the edge of the danger area and upon a signal. When they are satisfied that it is safe. When stopped for long periods use poncho's to stay warm. When studying the terrain you will cross. fields. Patrolling Fundamentals III Written by David R. at danger areas. freeze at night. and the patrol moves out quickly. If you were spotted crossing. The few hours after a danger area crossing are hours spent being very careful. They will then pull far side security until the team is across. They should move along the edge for at least 50 meters looking for enemy positions. and there won't be any need for talking in the field. Extra clothes make a man hot while moving. roads. they will return to the danger area and signal. look for these and plan to go around them. Actions while stopped. First. If they spot danger. Streams. The point team will advise the PL of what they have found ahead. If you always do it the same way then you will not need to rehearse these as much. You must quickly get out of the area and be certain to leave little sign. SOP Standard Operating Procedures should be established for anything that you will do a lot of. Anything not inspected is probably neglected. When you come to a danger area that cannot be bypassed. changing courses to confuse trackers. etc. Next. the point team will recon the far side of the danger area to insure there is no danger waiting for the patrol. Long underwear or extra clothes will wear you out quickly. Do not allow men to wear two sets of clothing. As soon as they reach the far side they take up a position just like they always do when the patrol is stopped. it is easier to communicate them during a patrol order. By standardizing these things. there may be a fire mission on its way in. Next send the point team across. you should cross it in this manner. and occupying a patrol base are the first three you will want to standardize. send out security to the right and left. When they cross the right and left security must be ready to cover them. long underwear. they will return and advise the patrol leader. Reed Danger Areas A danger area is a place where the enemy can see you. Travel Light. . rivers. and clear areas are all places that the enemy may be watching. rushes across at once.Check EVERYTHING on each man in your patrol. They will take up a position where they can cover the patrol when everyone crosses. You should avoid danger areas where possible.

etc. good knives. If you can see markings on the vehicles use a telephoto lens to get good pictures. You must run to the helicopters as they are landing. etc. battalion. their frequencies. If you popped a yellow then the enemy is nearby trying to lure him in.. etc. Advise the pilot and the gunships can handle the bastards with the purple smoke. Make sure he arranges a slick with two gunners and at least two supporting gunships. If only one man makes it back he will do so with all of the intelligence. This will help you determine the difference between company. You want the pickup to be touch and go. All equipment should be photographed. You will move to the next LZ. antennas.) Escape & Evasion This is what you'll do if for some reason the helicopters can't pick you up at the LZ. Do not make up stories or lie about what you saw to make your efforts seem more important. You will need compasses. signal mirrors. Once the choppers are in-bound you will probably want to pop a smoke for identification. and the next. Make sure you coordinate this with the air liaison. Also photograph antennas and other equipment. Your team should have a good working knowledge of the enemy's radio equipment. You don't want to find out that is no covering fire after you are in the open and running to meet the helicopter. etc.Intel Collection Each recon team should take pictures of vehicle tracks. not after. so that Intelligence can determine the vehicle that made them. water purification tablets. Aircrews appreciate efficiency! Their gunners can provide covering fire while you run. Make sure that you know what friendly unit you will be attempting to contact. the distance between them. distant LZ in case your radio malfunctions. Other tricks . Intelligence can determine a lot from these pictures. Gunships will be able to attack your pursuers giving you time to board and take off. and a password. Frequency counters are small and can be used to determine the freq. It would be a shame to divert military assets and get people killed to strike a target that you have exaggerated the importance of. This is called disseminating information Helicopter extraction If helicopters are used you must let them know you are coming and let them know if you are being chased. (Not that there is much you can do about it. This equipment (Unless waterproof) should be protected in the same way radios are. with the helicopter never really coming to a stop. (Remember lots of batteries. You should arrange for experts to train your team in the use of photo equipment. film. When you rendezvous you will all compare notes and make sure that everyone knows everything that each other saw during recon. Have prearranged times to meet someone at a safe. east edge of LZ" if you popped a purple smoke at the east edge of the LZ you'll confirm.) If this fails you will have a long walk. The chopper pilot will see it and say "identify purple. or regiment HQ's. the enemy is transmitting on. and so on trying to make contact.

Those of you who have more recent experience are encouraged to criticize. If you have to drop rucksacks and haul ass you will have about 5 seconds after dropping the rucksack before it goes off. Any movement of a group of men is in essence a patrol. While trying to write the warning order and patrol order. I've not spent the time required to do a thorough job on this subject. Once men in a special operations unit become used to this it becomes second nature. (Depending on the immediacy of the situation of course). Guajardo. mission. Tired line soldiers are in the habit of dropping rucksacks every time they stop. Patrolling . Since I'm working by myself here. Each team (i. is to develop SOPs (Standard Operating Procedures). you will always enter a DC-9 in the same manner. Murphy's law usually results in death. you will not have to write the section for this common action over and over again. Good soldiers do not drop their rucksacks on a mission for any other reason. That was with the assistance of several others. when it rears its ugly head your men may die as a consequence. the leader must prepare a "frag" order. if ANYTHING happens or changes that was not allowed for in the original patrol order. Either one is just a detailed set of plans that communicates the situation.You can rig a white phosphorous grenade in the bottom of your rucksack with a wire leading up to your quick release on the harness. This allows your team to . To an individual soldier. something a leader does a lot of. SOP it and have your men rehearse this SOP during normal training exercises.The WarningOrder Written by David R. After you embark on your mission. If the situation requires you to modify the SOP so be it. Dropping a rucksack is a violation of noise discipline. By breaking up the problem we were able to create very detailed OPORDs. river crossing. A Patrol Order is just a more specific Operations Order. right in the face of your pursuers. The leader will use the same patrol order format to describe the change of plans. and rehearse for it. your assault team will have an SOP that they follow for this. A young PFC with a Ranger tab will know the instant you have missed something! An easy way to keep your sanity. Virtually all of what follows comes right off the top of my head.) would prepare its own "annex" to the main order. snatch. I do remember spending three or four days minimum preparing OPORDs (Operations Order). If you don't plan for a contingency. who taught my first patrolling class. This is very bad form. When developing a patrol order. demolitions. I realized just how long it had been! I'm sure I have left out some important information just because I can't remember everything.e. If you ALWAYS do something in a certain way. but in training you will always do it the same way. It is essential that a leader expend extraordinary effort and creativity when he plans a patrol. Tape it securely and open the pin on the grenade JUST A LITTLE. I hope I can remember most of what he taught me. and have to earn a living doing other things. I would like to get it on-line. therefore I'll go ahead with it as is. everything is a patrol. If for example. My thanks to Sgt. Reed It has been over fifteen years since I led a patrol. concept of operation. and speed communication. etc. and specific requirements to the men who will make up the operation. In combat.

I think terrorists should be given most anything they want (within reason). and when the hostages are safe kill every one of them.  Right behind them are two men armed with sub-sonic submachine guns. If the terrorists are determined and ready.spraying bullets over the passengers' heads and down the aisles. . Human nature will hopefully prevail here. before trying to detonate explosives. who are aggressive. from start to finish takes about three (3) seconds when rehearsed. and that person is killed. The things that you do in this business must be planned in excruciating detail if you want to be successful on a consistent basis.) It doesn't matter whether you are just going on a reconnaissance mission. Passengers will instinctively duck. two shots to the head for each. meaning that the terrorists will instinctively try to protect themselves first. They fire over the two point men's heads -. The first two men must instinctively count their shots and reload in a fluid. there is a very good chance of success. This whole drill. Most Lieutenants will give all pertinent info to their squad leaders.develop the speed needed to clear an aircraft of terrorists before the terrorists have time to react. make head shots. motivated. All NCO are not equal. there is no second place in a gunfight). (Sniper Note: I think the policy of non negotiation is foolish. or they are. the stage is set for tragedy. or sniping. and that is why they win engagements with the enemy. Their back up must be right behind them firing madly at anything that remotely represents a threat. One thing that I found lacking in line units was a lack of information sharing.45's and begin engaging specific targets. Special Operations units use only the cream of the crop. or destroy the country that gave them asylum. and very good shots! There is no time to reload with the slide locked back. If only one person knows how to signal the slicks for extraction. make them pay a heavy price for it. it is very important for everyone involved in the mission to understand what the mission is. The terrorists have only three seconds before your team is halfway down the aisle killing anything that stands or holds a weapon. anyone standing up or armed gets taken out. In order to assure mission success. (Meaning that you want to live. These jobs go to people. kidnapping. If the platoon sergeant doesn't make sure his NCO get the info to every man under their supervision. and have a much higher kill ratio per man. and lack leadership skills. Why we let international diplomacy considerations affect our decisions is beyond me. They must be able to run in a crouch. how does anyone else call in the extraction? I could go on and on with examples. Patrol Orders are the mechanism for getting everyone's program together. This takes a lot of practice. Some are dumb. incompetent. and therefore everyone else's job is to just follow them. If the other guys what to play this game with us. If this is done well. and all of the details. the first two guys are probably going to go down. Junior officers who have never been in combat are likely to take the attitude that only they understand all of the important stuff. and keep killing until the terrorists are dead. taking out terrorists. They way we did it was thus:  Man 1 & 2 enter with . It puts a lot of people at risk in hostage scenarios for no other reason than pride. very fast manner.

avoids detection at all costs. But they will also record and report everything they see or hear. I call them security men because that is their primary role. you should be able to run a compass course. That does not mean that they are deadbeats whose only job is accompany you and try to protect you.Navigation Skills If you don't know how to use map & compass. This does not make it impossible to read the map. The patrol must be tailored to suit the mission. you must be able to find prearranged rally points. You must be able to do this at night. or antitank weapons. as in an ambush. Reading is not enough. only harder. They must also have all of the information that time allows them to be given. Sniping Patrols The sniper goes out on patrol. or in climates that where physical changes occur faster than the map makers can keep up. Heavy rainfall areas and wind blown deserts are places that can change rapidly. Small patrols must avoid contact. Ideally. Some people have a real problem with this.Spies on the enemy. deception. Their mission is to engage the enemy. It is very important that everyone in the patrol unit know how to do this. . I think those folks do a lot of running on their courses and that is very good training. A spotter (another sniper) and one or two security men accompany him. It will provide additional firepower if you get in a jam. One or two leaders who know everything and a gaggle of soldiers who are just following the guy in front of them is an invitation to disaster. They will be masters of stealth. you have to practice. how to get there. or make contact when conditions are favorable. they just don't carry rifles with scopes. Terrain association is the next big issue. snipers operate as both. I would call it common sense. I mention these because on a patrol you have to know where you are going. When I say automatic weapon I'm referring to an M60 machine gun or maybe one of those new SAWs. This can be difficult in heavy vegetation. But that means many things to different people. combat or both. Types of Patrols    Combat -. To call yourself competent. mortars. Combination . only stopping long enough to steady the compass. I have never tried it but I think that orienteering would be a good way to learn these skills. your security team will be better than you are. You must be able to look at a topographical map and relate the elevation contour lines to the physical terrain that surrounds you. LZs (Landing Zones). etc. and then take off again.In a way.Engages the enemy Recon . you should learn. If bad things happen. They will know everything you know and more. recoilless rifles. Patrol A patrol is a detachment sent out to perform an assigned mission of reconnaissance. and camouflage. Snipers do not need machine guns. and how to get out. not an M16. You may want to take one automatic weapon.

and remain standing when everyone else drops. CIA. etc. If your patrol has attached people such as ASA (Army Security Agency). Assistant Patrol Leader (APL). FAC (Forward Air Controller). o Point team o Right. RTO (Radio Telephone Operator). and in the CP (Command Post) during halts and patrol bases. Instruct him to do whatever your man does. . left. As a patrol leader you should assign each special member of your patrol to another man. Patrol Leader (PL). and medic will usually be the HQ element. These folks are not usually trained in the art of clandestine patrolling and must be watched carefully to insure they don't screw up.Organization of Patrols Patrols are organized in to elements and teams. They are important to the mission or they wouldn't be there. step where they shouldn't. and run the direction he does.Provides early warning en route to/from and while on the objective. stop when he stops. If you make contact. Recon Patrol Organization (Modified for sniping mission)  Recon and Security Element . walk where he walks. they will not instinctively do the right thing.Engages the enemy at the objective  Headquarters . They are more apt to make noise.) o Special recon elements  Sniper Element -.Mentioned only because there will be some chain of command. close to the PL during movement. Teams are subdivisions of elements. Your men don't like these guys along because they usually have to baby-sit them. The men on the patrol must be told to respect and protect these guys. rear security o Special security (far side security on river crossings. or other special purpose people they will normally be in the headquarters element. Maintains surveillance. get down when he does.

A patrol leader who is indecisive. leadership. Some men fire more often than others do. The smaller your patrol is. When the formations closes up during conditions of limited visibility it will resemble a file formation. A patrol order is always preceded by a warning order. and information from other intelligence sources indicates that the enemy has established a headquarters area in Grid Square ZZ1044. In a fire fight the men in the patrol look to the leader for direction. The mission. In a fight. The enemy is using the road running east-west through the area to move . A good patrol leader leads by example. until the men have been fed and watered. and do as he has seen his leader do under fire. You cannot just move every one online because the enemy could flank you. Each element leader then controls up to five men under him. the patrol members will respond favorably and take the fight to the enemy when it's needed. or drink. and smoke of combat. and men. A good sniper with a self-loading rifle can hit 5 men in less than three seconds at 900 meters! A machine gun in the hands of a good gunner can hit everyone in the patrol two or three times. The patrol leader must always display unselfish courage so that when he does go down. Files are dangerous when visibility is good because a gun in enfilade position can fire down the patrol hitting everyone very quickly. This is a rule that should NEVER be violated. hides under fire. A good patrol member must always be ready to take command when the PL /APL is unable to do so (dead or wounded). states the mission. Warning Order The warning order is a statement issued by some higher authority that authorizes the patrol. fury. and fails to LEAD. This is an example warning order. and the required time frame. and insuring that each has a constant supply of ammo. in that order. inspiring the men. will cause the fighting effectiveness of his patrol to collapse. When you have more than this you will need to organize your patrol into multiple 'maneuver elements'. Amidst the roar. good leaders distinguish themselves by this type of conduct under pressure. always without exception. and audacity in the face of the enemy. Some leaders rise from the most unlikely places in the "ranks". If the PL inspires and motivates his men. must constantly redistribute ammo and give encouragement to his men. the easier it is to travel silently. by displaying courage. Patrol leaders never eat.This is a sample formation for seven men. It makes it easier for the PL to direct the fire of the gunners when he does not have to crawl around under fire trying to get his gunners in action. In this manner the PL can direct multiple elements by directly controlling the element leader. The APL doubles as rear security. One man can effectively control up to 5 other men directly. PFC Joe Rag Bag will step forward. Signal intelligence units. with the assistance of the APL. and sometimes courage. and control is greatly enhanced. or come around behind. This means crawling under fire from position to position. the patrol leader. Crew served weapons should be located near the PL in a formation (small patrol). If the enemy is hitting you on the right then your men on the right will expend ammo faster than those on the left will. recon satellites.

Well. The AO is crawling with [insert expletive here]'s.What will they do? Do they have the resources to mount a major search and destroy? . S2 Briefing Often this is done when the initial warning order is given. This is the most important part of the warning order. pick your spotter and three good LRP men. markings on vehicles Training .Individual. Equipment -. They'll have to be cool heads though. There will be a full S2 briefing in 1 hour at Battalion. All road junctions and trails are under enemy control and the entire area under surveillance. vehicles. air assets. I only set it apart because a bunch of officers aren't going to drop what they are doing to put on a "dog and pony" show for a sniper and supplies. In this example. you heard it. The area is 125 miles north and well beyond artillery support. On 22 November 1995 you will set your sniper team in the best position you can find. etc. You will be able to meet afterwards with the Air Liaison. heavy weapons.Are their combat forces in the area? Do military police. commanding officer. Pictures if they are available. mobility. You will need helicopter extraction standing by 24 hours a day throughout the operation. Anything that the briefer does not cover you must ask about. and get the hell out. Hopefully good weather will prevail. the last thing you want is to be compromised 120 miles behind enemy lines. etc.All elements including fire support. You'll find out all about that at the S2 briefing. political advisors. Strength/Size . You mission is to get in there and recon the area without being caught for a period of not less than 48 hours. There probably won't even be an officer at your briefing. For now. you will need a good 3-man security team just in case you get into trouble. You have one hour to get your team together. Don't assume it's because they don't know. XO. guard them? Expected reactions if you are discovered -. You will let your relay station know when you are on your way out. Since the AO is hot.Unit name/numbers. Enemy Forces       Identification .Are they well trained? Discipline . and that's just as well. If you piss them off with a lot of questions they'll let you know. They will launch your slicks to the LZ. The enemy has extensive signals intelligence capabilities and you can expect artillery or rocket fire within 2 minutes of any radio transmissions. Intelligence indicates that this is a Regimental HQ and the probability of at least Field grade officers is very high. You must find their HQ. kill as many officers or key personnel as you can.

infantry and vehicles -. . Sunrise and Sunset Moon Rise and set.Rain is the soldier's best friend -. It allows you to move silently and hide. Friendly Forces     Locations of all adjacent friendly units.Indigenous Personnel        Customs. Aerial photos can help with locating vegetation densities like forests. To identify and fix enemy resources you will need assistance from the photo interpretation guys. Heat will have an adverse effect. We will use this information to build our sand table. each member of your team should have his own map. Preferably everyone on your team should be able to speak the local language and should already have received some training on the religious and cultural customs of the population. extreme cold will drive undisciplined soldiers indoors or into sleeping bags when they should be alert and watchful Effect on terrain. It also keeps you from being spotted from the air. they can identify vehicles. It will make sentries sleepy. structures. Inter-unit call signs and passwords. life styles. Weather       All major weather systems. that you cannot see looking at a flat two-dimensional aerial photo. Moon Phase Before morning and early evening nautical twilight Maps and Aerial Photos If they are available. traditions.It will limit air support. You must never mark a map you will carry on your operation. dress. fields. but who counts on those guys anyway? Rain softens the sounds of your movement. It will make you consume more water. etc. Wide fluctuations in temperature can be expected in mountainous or desert terrain. positions. Frequencies to use on the days in question to contact them. By using stereoscopic lenses and overlays. CEOI codes.tracked and wheeled. You will need an extra set of maps with plastic laminates to mark on with grease pencils. These photos must be used to markup maps. Will we be there during a holiday? Do they work? Where? Farmers? Are they friendly? How has the enemy treated them? Do we have a contact in a partisan group we can use if necessary? Can they be trusted? Do they keep dogs? Do they have electrical power? Vehicles? We could write a book on this subject and we won't. etc. Forecast .

you'll have the time to work it out. That means we will move into our hide on during the night of the 20th.After the warning order you must find out what assets you will have to work with. Time 1700 1500 1400 1400 Equipment/Personnel All Personnel All All Snipers . make arrangements with the liaison officers to meet with you after you have worked out your patrol order. a fly over might be inadvisable.             Study the mission Plan use of time and prepare time table Study terrain and situation. 22 Nov. In the warning order given above. your chain of command has a good relationship with the rotor heads so you won't have a problem getting the priorities your people need. then meet with your liaison to give them all of the details. 22 Nov. weapons and equipment Issue Warning Order to your men Coordinate . Inspect. Lets back up from there. make our shots and air strike on the 22nd. Hopefully. move to the LZ and get out. Now you must prepare a plan for your patrol. Find out what you will have to work with first. Rehearse Execute the mission Example We are going to plan on being in position 1 day sooner than required so we can scope out the situation. You will give your own people the warning order all over again. and move to a better site if necessary. Use maps and aerial photos to find your insertion point.(Continuous throughout) Make reconnaissance if possible. Incorporate the air assets into your patrol order. You don't want the enemy to think you might know where he is. Do this early enough so that if they have a problem with something you want to do. It won't do you any good to plan for choppers or a fly over if none are available. 22 Nov. If air transport and TACAIR are available. Scope the site out on the 21st. with a few additions. if not use maps and photos Complete detailed plans Issue Patrol Order Supervise. prepare sand table Organize the patrol Select men. Sample Time Table Action Debriefing Extraction Call Choppers Make Shots Date 22 Nov.

16 Nov. 17 Nov. 20 Nov. 16 Nov.Asst. 20 Nov.On Objective Movement to Objective Disseminate Intelligence Sleep Split-up/Recon Sleep Movement to AO Parachute Jump Takeoff Board Aircraft Sleep/Eat Move to Airfield Final Inspection Draw Ammo Chow Sleep Night Rehearsals Chow Patrol Order Command/Control Chow Air Requirements Turned In Fire Support Overlays Extraction Class 21 Nov. Patrol Leader Patrol Leader Everyone Else . 16 Nov. 17 Nov. 16 Nov. 16 Nov.Platoon Leader to Conduct. Platoon Leader to Conduct. All but Platoon Leader All All All . 16 Nov. 17 Nov. 17 Nov. 0200 2000 1800 0600 0600 0100 2100 2030 1930 1830 1030 0930 0830 0700 0600 2200 1800 1700 1400 1200 1100 1000 0900 1000 All All All All All See Patrol Base Annex. 18 Nov. 17 Nov. 17 Nov. 16 Nov. 17 Nov. 17 Nov.Exercise All All . 18 Nov. 16 Nov. 17 Nov.Classroom All . 16 Nov. All All All All All All All . 20 Nov.

Danger Areas Class Fire Missions Class Chow Sleep Night Compass Class Chow Patrolling Chow Patrolling Inspection Chow Sleep Photo Intelligence Class Patrol Order Development Warning Order

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Everyone Else Everyone All All All: 1 MRE, LBE, Compass, Map, Note Book and Pencil. All All All All All All All All - S2 NCO Conducts Class All All

Well, we are back to the 12th and have a few days to work with. We should probably move everything back a day to allow more recon time, and another day to allow everyone one full day to sleep and eat. This patrol will take a toll on everyone. We want to be well rested and fed when we board the choppers. Our assholes will be so tight you couldn't drive a 10-penny nail up them with a sledgehammer. We will need the extra sleep and food. If things go bad we could wind up without a ride home and be forced to escape & evade the 120 miles back to friendly lines. We want a lot of good food in our system, vitamin supplements, high energy foods, foot powder and socks. Looking back over the timetable I can see that I have allowed too much time for some things and not enough for others. It is important that all personnel know what they are doing so that you can cover the basics quickly and use the rest of the time to develop the operations order. As we shall see, all of the details will be planned for and included in our OPORD.

Patrolling - Operations Order
Written by David R. Reed Now that we have an understanding of what we must be able to do, this is how I would plan our sample mission. I am tired of writing all of this so I'm going to make it brief. This is an acceptable outline to use for your operations order.

Operations Order Format



Enemy Forces  Location, size, strength  Capabilities, supply lines, communications, posture  Probable courses of action Indigenous People  Location, numbers, organizations  Capabilities, resources, communications, hositilies, civic groups  Languages spoken, religious, superstitions, other cultural aspects  Probable courses of action Friendly Forces  Mission of parent unit  Mission of supporting units (air, artillery, etc.)  Missions of other patrols, defensive positions you must cross Mission

Who, what, when, where (coordinates) Execution

o o o

Concept of the Operation - Overall plan Sub-unit missions - for elements, teams, individuals Coordinating Instructions  times of departure & return  Formations and order of movement  Route, primary and alternate  Passage of friendly front lines - out/in  Rally Points and actions at rally points  Actions on enemy contact  Actions at danger areas  Actions on objective  Fire Support (if not in it's own annex)  Rehearsals and inspections

 

Debriefings - time, place, uniform, format Annexes - mini OPORDs that cover specialty items

Service & Support

Supply Rations Uniforms & Equipment Arms & Ammunition Captured Material Transportation - may be annexed Medical Evacuation - may be annexed Personnel Prisoners of War Command & Signal
   

o o o o


Signal Frequencies & Call signs Pyrotechnics & Signals Challenge and password (sign/countersign) Code words Command  Commander/leader location  Chain of Command
   


Operations Order Summary
Look at the outline. It is a suggested format and that is all. You will issue your OPORD in any manner you choose. Make sure it is complete, well organized, and interesting. You should use sand tables, pictures, drawings and other instructional aids. Prepare a multiple choice and true/false quiz that tests each soldier on every point in the patrol order. Every one must be able to recite in detail call signs, passwords, locations, the mission, and everything that they would need to know to complete the mission if they were the sole survivor of a firefight, plane crash, etc. If everything goes wrong you will want each man to have the knowledge he needs to complete the mission and return home safely. Friendly lines cannot be safely crossed without adequate preparation and training. Soldiers in a defensive posture are apt to fire on anything they hear, see, or think they hear or see. The unit you will be passing through must know when you will be there and how you will contact them. Break the mission down to these specifics:
o o o o o o

How you will insert What you will do once you are on the ground How you will move to the objective What you will do when things happen along the route How you will occupy patrol bases/ORP What you will do once there

and roads will probably be watched. You will need a password to recognize each other in the dark. This may confuse any 'LZ watchers' into thinking you got out at another LZ.35-000 feet jump. create an annex for this part of the mission.000 feet. You will need a few minutes worth of oxygen for your free fall. When using slicks it may be advisable to make a couple of false insertions. There should be at least one alternate rally point. Insertion We will want to get as close as we can without our choppers being heard. Your annex will follow the same format as your patrol order. rivers. If we have to change. it will be in a very inaccessible place. appears to lead nowhere. Our route will follow the most difficult country we can find within reason. 000 . We need at least one alternate route. Use your imagination. When we make camp during the day.o How you will get out. and moves off. You will need enough to get down to 10. Say about 20. we'll try to move over to our other route. . If this can't be done we may want to consider an Airborne HALO insertion. We will pick the one we'll use when we get there. We don't want to tax ourselves foolishly (and make a lot of noise) but we sure can't go walking down a road or trail. you may want to consider some other scheme. chutes are hidden. If the enemy has strong AA capabilities. Once on the ground. everyone meets up. We will establish a winding route that if followed by a tracker. What air unit will you use? Aircraft? Where will you board? What flight path will be followed? Command & Signal will pertain to frequencies the aircraft use etc. This will lessen the chance of discovery by enemy patrols. For instance. This lessens the amount of time spent studying the map and everyone will know the route before hand. if you can think of another way to get there secretly then do that. the mission would be to make a covert parachute jump into the enemy's rear area at 2100 hours. except each category will pertain to the air movement only. You will need to complete the patrol order outline with everything you need to describe this part of the mission. Coastlines. If you choose to use aircraft. Everyone must know where to run once they are on the ground. Our route will depend on the terrain and vegetation. Contingencies are: o o o What happens if someone breaks a leg on the jump? What happens if you are fired up on the DZ or LZ? What happens if you are shot down and some of you survive? Movement to the Objective We will move only at night and observe during the day.

on rising ground that has no risk of flooding and is safe from rock falls or avalanches. move down and look for shelter on the Leeside. wait until it has burned out before attempting salvage. Add to its height. more liable to frost at night. Reed You will need to make fire and to choose the right type of fire construction. traversing even a short way along the contour may bring you out of the wind. which are often routes to watering places for animals.  Hillside terraces where the ground holds moisture. but make sure that any structure is stable & use a back-pack. Valley bottoms and deep hollows .  Spurs which lead down to water. High enough to AVOID mosquitoes using air draft. If movement down a slope seems risky. if you can. to repel wind. For a long-term camp you should find a secure site with convenient access to your major needs. it may provide a shelter or materials which one can be built. make use of any hollow in the ground. Close to drinking water supply yet not too close bugs. if you have one.  Look for somewhere sheltered from the wind. to increase the windshield before settling down on the leeward side. by stacking rocks or snow. Winter storms ALWAYS come from the West & North. Shelter opening facing east or rising sun position. Shelter is necessary to give shade. Other considerations for a long-term shelter:   Hilltops exposed to wind. Look for these when selecting your campsite:          Wind sheltered Offer wood for burning Away from swamp. Winter: Sheltered from wind as much as possible.ShelterConstruction Written by Roger Perron and David R. Sleep and adequate rest are essential and the time and the effort you put into making your shelter comfortable will make them easier to get. Seek Dry ground as much as possible. You may have to make do with any natural shelter that you can find for the night or until you can fully assess the situation. but if there is a fire or the threat of fuel tanks exploding. . rain & cold will be welcome. rain and to keep warmth.could be damp & especially when the sky is clear. If no cave or crevice is available to give shelter. If you are a victim of a plane crash or a vehicle that has let you down. In this case. dampness. virtually any protection from wind.

leaves.anything to keep you off the cold ground. Dig tunnel into snow if no other shelter is available. Sleep with your head elevated. ticks and other bugs like to camp too. Choose ground that is reasonably flat and free or rocks and insure that you have space to lay out signals and that you can be easily spotted by rescue parties. make a bed of something. wind. In deep snow. cold air sinks. You will get cold faster if you lay on the bare ground. head lower than feet can cause headaches. Also near sea where there are tidal changes. The following are essential for shelter:    Insulated bed Wind Blocker Small as can be squeezed into . Size will depend upon the number in the party. Check above your head for bees or hornets' nests and for dead wood in trees that could come crashing down in the next storm or high wind. for water collects there before flowing further downward. rising as much as 5m (17ft) in an hour! Even on plains keep out of old watercourses. and snow before Hypothermia sets in. be susceptible to frost and damp mist. Insulate floor of shelter as deeply as you can with brush. You must get out of the rain. In MOUNTAIN REGIONS streams can become torrents in minutes. however may lead you to be troubled by insects and the sound of running water can hide other noises that might indicate danger or the sound of search or rescue parties. Don't wait until it's dark. (Sniper Note: Camping next to water will keep animals that depend on the water for their survival from approaching. Tall grass is where the chiggers. Slides and avalanches are a danger. Use your imagination.conserves heat How long do you intend to remain at the location? Snow caves and natural holes are ideal if you are on the move and do not need a permanent structure. terraces across a slope will often be damper than the steeper ground above and below them. Make or find a shelter while there is light. Hot air rises. . Heavy rainstorms in nearby hills can easily send water rushing down them in flash floods with no warning. look for the high water mark. so valley bottoms will often pockets of cold air and in cold weather.) Near riverbanks. which attract lightning. and grass. Make more permanent shelter when permitted. Keep away from solitary trees. base of trees can provide shelter. Alpine meadows are fragile. Pitching camp too close to water. Use stick to keep air vent open. and in forest areas keep to the edges where you can see what is going on around you.  In areas that get plenty of rainfall. no matter how dry they are. conserve energy. improvise but keep shelter simple and small. Be careful about staying near steep slopes or cliffs. Camping there for a week may leave a visible scar for years. Be courteous to the natural habitants when near small ponds or in any area with a scarce water supply.

Lean branches densely against the cross bar to make the shelter. If you have tools to cut blocks of snow. Build a lean-to with whatever is available. Anchor a ground sheet or poncho along the top with another course of blocks. but be soft enough to allow a probe to be inserted evenly through it. At the other end downwind have a removable block as a door or dig an entrance. fill it with hot coals. use others to secure the bottom edge. Snow Construction A saw. Fires give off carbon monoxide. At very low temperatures snow will be solid. Mosquitoes seem to hate the smell of Basilic. Rest the snow bricks on each side of the ledge and lean them in against each other to form a roof. thick enough to provide good insulation. Snow trench -. Cut blocks about 45 X 50cm (18 X 20in) and 10-20cm (48in) thick. These will be an easy size to handle. Old trapper trick: Dig a rectangular hole. Use more snow blocks to close the sides. All you need is a cross bar between two supports. the cold air will collect in the entrance leaving warmer air in the sleeping place. Along the top of the sides of the trench. Heat up stones. If you have enough plastic groundsheet material. yet allow maximum penetration of the sun's rays. cover with anything you have. Drive a hole through the roof to . Block the windward end with another block or piled up snow. Those with equipment can cut blocks. Fill any gaps with snow. Snow or rock caves will be easily recognizable but not so obvious are the spaces left beneath the spreading boughs of conifers in the northern forests when the snow has already built up around them. and insert them in your sleeping bag. You need some kind of implement to cut into it or make blocks from it. cold air sinks. you can build a complete snow house or use it for walls around another shelter. cut a ledge about 15cm (6in) wide and the same deep. The ideal snow will bear a man's weight without much impression being made. Try digging under any tree with spreading branches on the Lee side. sleep on the center one and keep off the lower level which will trap the cold. knife. Put equipment below your sleeping bag so that you are not in direct contact with the snow beneath. wrap them well. Even soft snow can be built into a windbreak.Mark out an area the size of a sleeping bag including head support and cut out blocks the whole width of the trench. A medium-sized tree may have a space right around the trunk or a large one may have pockets in the snow beneath a branch. Snow Cave -. Then pile on branches and leaves/snow. fold it so that it doubles as groundsheet and a roof. A heavy grove of big evergreen itself affords considerable shelter. Dig down to a depth of at least 60cm (2ft). then cover up with earth and lay a blanket over it.Dig into a drift snow to make a comfortable shelter. It is most effective when built on a slight slope. Stack for walls. Make use of the fact that hot air rises and heavier. Create 3 levels inside: build a fire on the highest. From sudden shower you can keep dry by just lingering under a spruce or pine. There is usually sufficient small growth in such a forest to break off and angle in lean-to form against a protective log or trunk. shovel or machete is necessary to cut compacted snow into blocks.All shelters must be ventilated for evaporation.

but this block helps to keep the structure from collapsing. Angle the top edge slightly down towards the center. You will not be able to dig an entrance tunnel. you are overheating.unless the space is small enough to leave for ventilation. Cut an entrance way through the lower course of blocks or dig a tunnel beneath them. Leave an entrance space if on ice. Look for snow or convenient blocks of ice in the pushed up pressure ridge of the ice. Fill any other gaps with snow. Seal the top with a flat block. You could bend the tunnel or build a windbreak. Raise a central column of blocks in the center about 1- . The last few blocks in the center may need some support as you fit them into position. Shape out the entrance arch as you proceed.Spiral Method Lay the first course of blocks and then shape them to the required spiral. The central hole can be used as an entrance if you are too exhausted to complete the structure. Mark out a circle on the ground about 4m (13 1/2ft) in diameter and tramp it down to consolidate the floor as you proceed with the rest of the building. Stack one layer of blocks on another and. so that the igloo tapers in or becomes dome shaped. Build the main shelter first then dig out an entrance or build an entry tunnel which is big enough to crawl along. INSIDE THE IGLOO: Build a sleeping level higher than the floor or dig down when building to create a lower cold level that can be used for storage. Parachute Snow house This is a useful structure if stranded on sea ice where sufficient snow for an igloo for a larger party may be hard to find. Mark out a circle and build up a circular wall of snow blocks about 1m (4ft). as when laying bricks. Placing a piece of snow on the source can stop small drips in igloos. You do not have to overhang the blocks if you angle your initial spiral downwards and inwards. Smooth off all the inside to remove any drip-points. The final block must be cut to fit. Dig a lower area in the floor for cold air to sink into. center new blocks over the previous vertical joint. Make sure that the inside dome walls are well smoothed use the back of your mittens or mukluks to do this job not your hand. If the inner walls start to glaze with ice and drip. Build up more layers but place each only halfway over the lower tier. An igloo takes time to construct but centuries of use by the Eskimo demonstrate its efficiency. Make ventilation holes near the top and near the bottom but not on the side of the prevailing wind or so low that snow rapidly builds up and blocks it. This will allow any condensation to run down the wall instead of dripping off. Use a block of snow as a door and keep it loose fitting and on the inside. Igloo . Cutting the first course to an even spiral eases the whole process. Dripping comes from the inside heat.let out smoke and make another hole to unsure that you have adequate ventilation. Shape the top and bottom faces of subsequent courses to lean inwards. Smooth the inside surfaces to discourage melt drips and make a channel around the internal perimeter to keep them away from you and your equipment. so that it will not freeze up and jam.

Seal oil or caribou fat is used as fuel. giving a quiet pleasant light and warmth to the native home. but also from fresh fallen snow-as is the practice of the Nunamiut Eskimos in Alaska. You can burn lubricating oil in a fat lamp but the flame will smoke more readily and the wick will have to be trimmed more carefully to keep the flame below the smoking point. If you have fat to burn. the flame may follow down the wick causing further smoking.Mold Method According to the latest researches of the Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory in Alaska. Koolik for cooking Pots can be suspended from pegs driven firmly into the walls above the fat lamp koolik or the primus stove koolik. linen cloth or absorbent cotton for a wick and a slopping ramp to support it. After about an hour it hardens and the leaves and branches can be taken away. When the Eskimos of this tribe want to pitch camp. To avoid its melting into the snow shell and to keep it warm enough to render fat. Keep shovels and tools Inside the shelter. Another Igloo .1. all that is required is a piece of heavy cotton. it is supported on short sticks driven into the shelf. they pile up branches and bushes and cover them with skins or tarpaulins. IMPROVISED KOOLIK: (Invented by "AL" KOOLIK?) You can improvise a fat lamp out of any flat pan. It is carved from soapstone in the form of a shallow pen of 1/2 moon shape. such as a ration can. The straight edge of the lamp is veiled to support the wick made of Arctic cotton or moss. Drape the parachute over this and the wall securing it with a further row of blocks on top of the wall. The structure of this parachute roof makes it a snow trap. . Do not carry loose snow into the shelter. inside the shelter. Clear accumulated snow regularly. which could become a dangerous weight poised above your head. knock it off your boots and clothing before you enter. Anchor parachute cords with a block of ice or snow or cut a hole in the ice and pass the top through it to make a firm anchorage. If you want a small fire inside ensure there is adequate ventilation. not near the central column. Living in a snow house In bad weather MAKE SURE that you have a good supply of timber or liquid fuel. The Koolik has provided heat for comfort and cooking "even cookin-king" for thousands of years. The igloo is ready. Site the fire on the outer shelf where it will not affect the canopy. they can not only be built from solid block of polar snow pressed together. Properly tended it does not smoke or smell and it can be controlled to give more or less heat on demand. Mark the entrance clearly so that it is easily found.5m (3-5ft) higher than the wall. When the level of the oil drops. you may have to dig yourself out. That snow would melt inside and make a mess and more dampness. Then heap the loose snow on top (use snowshoes as a shovel).

Shelter Summary Shelters can be built from damn near anything. fat. Rather than building warm shelters (They had a multitude of supplies). When they thought a plane had spotted them (because they THOUGHT he wagged a wing) they ate all of the food they had left. the temperature will rise even further. Remember to drain oil from crankcases before it freezes solid. Cover the bottom of evergreen branches as well as the walls on the outside toward the tree. Body heat is derived from food intake. liver and every edible part. Exactly how you would do this I'm not sure. It's not central home heating but will prevent freezing to death. Burns blister. They must have ventilation. this seems the only explanation that in case of avalanche death is due more often to suffocation then exposure.A simple damper made of sheet metal will prevent this and will permit closer control of the flame. Remember that a little animal fat in lubricating oil makes a good improvement in the flame. water or wind. You MUST eat flesh. to ensure that you don't suffer from dietetic deficiencies. Fuel will burn slowly if the oxygen supply to the flame is restricted. drawing fluids from the body. Eat fat rather than burn them if the supply is low. . they remained in a section of wreckage with no insulation. Other Snow Shelters If you are stranded in forest in the winder and darkness comes simply dig a hole in the snow at the foot of a tree all around it. which you then cover up with snow. A diet of meat is good for you. remember this before you do something that could result in a burn. They should not leak. A few drops of aircraft fuel used with caution will aid in lighting the wick. Most of them died of exposure. so eat your entire ration and supplement with fish whenever possible. The explorer Stefenson lived for a full year on meat alone to prove this point. If there are several people in the hole. you would be far too successful and might find yourself in trouble. Shelters have walls and a roof. Instead of melting snow/ice they ate the snow cold. They had cushioned seats all around them and used them all for fire fuel rather than body/shelter insulation. Scientists from an Aeromedical laboratory have established that the temperature within such a shelter even without the bodily warmth of those occupying it can be 18F higher than the outside where storms may be raging at 36F below freezing point. To belabor the point by describing 100 shelters is not necessary. Remember FAT is ESSENTIAL in Arctic survival don't waist it. NEVER try to burn a volatile fuel in the koolik. just remember to try small first. I watched a madefor-TV movie about a team of athletes that crashed in the Andes. and leave yourself plenty of room to get out of the way. Hopefully this section has given you a few pointers.

I would leave for the country on Friday afternoons. When I was very young.k. there is a very good chance you will survive if you have a positive mental attitude. just in case I had trouble finding game. What you must realize is that without the proper mental attitude. Some of you may read this and think "yeah. Resistance. I will definitely cover the following subjects:    Arctic Jungle Desert Topics will include dealing with attitude. dehydration. I shot a few birds and snakes with my bow. practiced the techniques described. and survival is something that can be taught in books. I would take water proof matches. Tell yourself that you WILL get out of this. fishing with equipment I made. o. If you have done your homework. Cable TV was unheard of. I probably knew more at 13 than most people ever do. and the feeling that nobody knows where you are or cares will conspire to kill you. There was much I didn't know at the time. loneliness. My parents would usually drive out to the area I was staying in and give me a ride. society was full of unnecessary trappings that only made men soft and weak. rescue. feelings of abandonment. Evasion by Dave Reed Introduction I'm not sure how much I will include on resistance and escape. and spend the weekend making snares.Stars/Sun Camouflage . now get on to the good stuff". a liter of water. Caught a few fish . I have seen some survival books talk as though collecting water is easy. For me. despondency. exposure. Needless to say. and computers were magical talking 'entities' as seen on Star Trek and 2001. but I had read a lot of books. and hunting with my bow. Emergency rations were about the only things I ate all weekend.   Celestial Navigation . By sunday I was ready to return home. I was preparing myself for a life in the wilderness as a 'mountain man'. It was about a 18 mile trek. Fortunately my mom made sure I took along 'emergency rations'. I can tell you that there is nothing easy about any of this. catching game with snares is simple. Depression. I used primitive fire making methods and only used matches when I had to. ground sheet/blanket. the other topics will be of use for only a short period of time.Rural and populated areas Survival Attitude is everything.Survival. I had not yet discovered girls or beer.. You WILL persevere. Escape. my bow and some arrows. Maybe I will save these subjects until someone else offers to contribute the material. food gathering.

build a fire: Hopefully you will have matches or a lighter. etc. etc. Rescue and conserving fluids and body heat are the primary survival skills. sutures fro stitching wounds. (see below). can be used to focus the suns rays enough to start a fire. Thread stripped from a from seat cushion and wound together can be used to lash things together. the search party will not find you. The water is cooler than they are. After you have taken inventory. you will have to move to a safe location. bifocals. pick a place for your shelter. You must conserve these valuable items. Glass with imperfections. People die of hypothermia in warm water. If you cannot replace these losses you will die. Water. you should stay in the area where you became stranded if there is any chance of a search for you. Shiny glass. In extreme cold food is more important because your body converts food to heat. Perspiration causes water loss. Before you build your fire. You will die without water in one or two in the desert! Finding edible berries and plants are the last things you need to learn. Now gather combustible materials. You will also perspire. If you can survive long enough to get real hungry you are doing a good job.too. binoculars. make fishing nets. Cones from pine trees don't burn. calories that will be hard to replace. You need calories to generate body heat. etc. Exposure and Body Heat . or polished metal can be used to signal search aircraft. mirrors. But I learned something that many people do not realize. Evaporation from your eyes causes water loss. Taking Inventory First examine what you have to work with. You will have to balance these priorities and make decisions. You will burn calories while walking. Seat cushions from a vehicle are insulation. you can survive without food for up to 30 days. Bark doesn't either. subsequently the water absorbs body heat until their body can produce no more. DON'T waste matches trying to ignite them. Food is the last thing you will need. can you afford the water loss? If the enemy is searching for you. parasites.Arctic Time is running against you here. Generally. You can die of exposure in 72 degree weather! You will develop hypothermia when your body loses heat faster than you can produce it. This will increase your fluid loss and you will die even quicker. Shelter. Remember your priorities. It is a slow death. You must work quickly and conserve energy. To survive you must battle three things in this order:    Exposure Dehydration Food Gathering You can die in a few hours if you cannot retain body heat. Rescue. In moderate climates. Gather material in this order: . and food. If you try to walk out. Drink water with little microbes. and you will develop diarrhea. When you breath your breathe causes water loss.

Use lots of very small sticks and leave enough gaps between them for the flames to rise up through and ignite the upper layers.) Keep building your fire in stages. If you have nothing but plastic or something. As soon as you can. As your fire grows. DON'T throw the fire together haphazardly. Take more and and lay them perpendicular to first layer. DON'T wait too long to add the next size larger sticks. Hollow out a place to lie in the snow.Very small match stick thickness twigs. If not. If you have a small heat source you can place a vent through the roof to allow gas to escape. and start building your shelter. Bigger sticks . This is the fastest shelter I know of: Is there a snow bank nearby? Can you build a small one? You are going to dig a cave in the snow. You want as much between you and the cold ground as you can. Now add the bigger sticks to the top of the your neat little lean-to. To find dry sticks in the rain. You must ration your heat source. . Leave a small gap up close to the big branch to get your match under the pile. If you have a small slip of paper or lint from pockets. Small sticks a little bigger than the smallest. Drift wood will work if it's dry. and surrounding the little lean to on all sides. Take a medium size branch and lay it down. Now that you have your wood it's time to build your fire. Now add the larger sticks. dead dry roots pulled out of an embankment. (Not if they are green or soaked through. Take your time and do this right. If you need more fuel gather more. look under the overhang of an embankment. This will only waste fuel and increase the risk of the fire not lighting. You will lose more heat by being in contact with the cold ground than you will from the air. The air in your cave will warm and retain heat.half gallon. Keep moving up in size until you are collecting branches/small logs. If the wood is available you will need as much as you can gather in an hour. If you do this right you will only need one. Do not waste them. put it under the lean-to and ignite it. You want the opening to be away from the wind. Once your fire is going. If it's raining or windy cover yourself with something to protect your fire. even more of these. and parallel to the big branch. try to find evergreen tree limbs to line it with. DON'T let it go out. and a door. The heat generated from the rapidly burning small ones is needed to dry and ignite the larger ones. the center of a stump or dead tree (dug out with a knife). under-side of logs. melting snow will saturate your clothing and you will freeze. Every match you have is like gold. They must be dry. The cave has to be very small. using a teepee shape. Luxuries to add will be more insulation. If you have something to line the floor with it will be much warmer. You will need it more at night when the temperature drops. the heat will dry them if they are damp. Have at least a good double handful. at least a quart . put some bigger stuff on by laying them across the big branch on the ground.Twice the thickness of the ones before. seat cushions. Now build a tiny lean-to with the smallest sticks by leaning them up against the branch. For a snow shelter to be effective it must be below freezing. start adding more and more sticks to get the fire very hot. Some of these may be a little wet. You will need more of these. etc.

until it dissipates. Extra clothing can be stripped in to pieces of about 5" x 4' and used as wrapping for extra socks. The international distress signal is three (3) of anything or the letters SOS. You will freeze if you stay in a car or aircraft. your body heat will be trapped between your skin and the bag.A Ranger Pile is a shelter used by small parties who lack bulky camping equipment or who for tactical reasons. Keep the openings away from the wind. If it snows these will fill in. If a quantity of DRY pine needles.150 feet across . from the vehicle to line your shelter with. remove all of your clothes and lay on them. this can be used for insulation stuffing. as should wool. etc.000 feet. you can use it as a disinfectant. This is how small recon teams survive without carrying a lot of bullshit with them. If you are fortunate enough to have the materials to construct a lean-to. cross ways. build one similar to the way you built your fire. Don't build three fires because it wastes fuel. can be quietly collected. Do not drink alcohol of any kind. Another layer on top of them. carpet. you will have to use the shelter for clothing. If you have no clothes for the environment you find yourself in. Keep your shelter VERY small and use insulation. If you have tools and can remove the hood or trunk lid you can use these for a reflector to direct heat in one direction from a fire. If you have access to lots of branches or something that provides a good contrast to the white snow. insulation. This same concept can be used when you have the luxury of a sleeping bag. Sleeping bags are designed to hold in heat much better than clothes. If there is plenty of snow/ice you will have a good water supply if you have a fire and a container to melt it in. Otherwise your heat escapes through the thin material of your clothing. four or five lays very close together on two ponchos snapped together. This is your only chance to survive. Your X's should be 100 . You want to have the material that best holds in heat closest to your skin. leaves. It will work as insulation. floor mats. Use a reflector to direct the heat into your lean-to. Remaining ponchos are snapped together and pulled over the top and tucked in around the sides. First layer of men. must not risk fire or shelter construction. Scrape out three large circles in the snow by dragging something around. and stays between your clothes and the bag. lay them out to form 3 large X's. Clothing What do you have to work with? Thin material should be put closest to your body. Next layer lay's on top of the others. If it's strong enough. What looks big to you on the ground looks very small from an aircraft at 10. It only gets bad when one of the guys has gas! A vehicle will block the wind but the compartment is too big to retain body heat. Naked. Now that you have your fire and a shelter it is time to improve the odds of rescue. DO NOT EAT SNOW. When you get into a bag. Strip cushions. etc. and towards your fire. The russian army has always used wool strips for field socks. Just pile it on each layer before the next gets on. stuff your shirts and pants with it. If you have extra foam from seat cushions. It will thin your blood and increase your urine output. Always melt it and get it warm first. or to help start your signal fires if an aircraft approaches. It will lower your body temperature and bring on hypothermia.

Keep your main fire going so that you'll be able to take a torch to the other fires in a hurry. If the plane cannot land near you. he might report your location as being 20 miles away from where you actually are. You will need to stay warm at night. For this reason any movement should only be at night. dig a hole (or use support sticks) as wide as the plastic. refer to the arctic topic above. sheet of plastic. It must be loose enough to allow heat loss. and other animals. Exposure . as do the bodies of snakes. as does rubber. Place a container under the hole. and maybe a fox or two. In some areas of the north. Make a hole in the plastic at the center. which had better be pretty quick. (if there are enough rats to feed them). Large piles of pine needles smoke well. with no supplies. or rubber boots on the fire in a vain attempt to signal a distant plane. heavy. Near the sea you will be able to hunt seal. Suck every drop you can from them. Deserts can drop to near freezing over night. you could be there a while longer anyway. dry you out. Be careful about burning critical supplies however! I would not throw a poncho. If you are inland you will not have much opportunity to hunt for seals. They contain toxic amounts of Vitamin A. or oil.Desert Since there is nothing in the desert to hold in the heat. it is too arid and cold. the only thing you will find are lemmings. For shelter you must get out of the sun. and has to radio for help. or lacks a GPS or LORAN. When dew forms on the plastic it will roll down hill through the hole and it into your container. You may want to find a book named "White Dawn". Smoke will be quite visible from the air also. Have you ever wondered why arabic people wear those long. but avoid the poison glands in snakes (they are right behind the head in the neck). If the pilot is an idiot. Press down the center of the sheet or tie it to a tock to pull it down. If you wind up on the ice pack. It is an excellent work of fiction and provides many accurate details of how northern aboriginal peoples survive in their climate. If you have plastic or a poncho you can collect water at night in the desert. With bad weather it might take a rescue party several days to get you. The only two parts of animals in North America that cannot be eaten are the livers of the polar bear and bearded seal. it dissipates quickly after the sun goes down. You will have to stay warm long enough to get rescued. If you have the wood build three fires in the middle of each but don't light them. It chronicles the lives of three men who were lost in their small whaling boat in the arctic back in the 1800's. and heat it with animal fat. plastic. That far north and you won't find much snow. hot looking clothing on their heads and bodies? It is because moisture evaporation is your worst enemy in the desert. . it must be conserved. You will have to use common sense. Use your poncho during the day as shade.and 75 feet apart. dig a hole to get in and cover it. but if it's all you have you will have to drink it. lichens. Do not strip off your clothes. and kill you. Succulent plants like cactus also contain water. lizards. If you can. Stretch the plastic over the hole and weight down the edges with rocks. there is little I can tell you here that will save your life. Water is the most important thing to consider in the desert. Long term drinking of urine can make you sick. During the day the temperature will soar and fry your brain. Clothing helps keep in this moisture and slows evaporation. On the Ice pack you will have to build your shelter with ice.

Insects will eat you alive if you don't. To launch the dart a small tuft of fiber (like cotton) from the stem of a (????) tree branch is balled around the base of the dart. Hold your mouth under the vine and the water will flow out. Scrape the bore of the weapon into both halves. Blow guns are difficult to make. Try not ot let it run along the exposed outside of the vine though. I can't remember their names but I know what they look like. You know. move up the vine and cut it off about three feet up or sever it to release the suction. and other fruits are safe to eat if you wash them with sterile water first. Any untreated wound will fester within a few hours. the ones that Tarzan swings from? Cut one at a 45 degree angle. You must protect yourself by turning down sleeves. Bind the two back together with bark or vine strips. (This is harder than it sounds). Many species of tree frogs in the rain forests are highly toxic. try a little piece first and wait a couple of hours. During the rainy season. In a day or two a cut can become bad enough to cause gangrene. Water must be boiled well to kill parasites. They are recognized by there bright vivid colors. coconuts. bananas.Do not drink alcohol. The jungle is a garden of eden compared to the desert or the arctic. Mangoes. Take a limb and split it length-wise. Mud can be used to keep mosquitos off. Chinese Star Apples. The seeds of the Star apple are poisonous. These are very thick vines that hang down from large trees.Jungle Here. Exposure . When in doubt. but I'll tell you how for the hell of it. Keep doing this until you've tried enough . It must be perfect. With a little common sense anyone should be able to survive. grubs can be found in the center of (????) trees. If you are very careful not to touch them. heat and sunlight are your worst enemies. you can use their skin secretions for poisonous blow gun darts. The heat and humidity of the jungle makes for rapid bacteria growth. blousing your pants to keep insects out. Safe water can be found in water vines. Insects and water contamination are also major problems. Diffenbachia (or 'dumb cane') can be crushed and added to water to stun fish. Build a platform or hammock to get off of the ground when you sleep. Allow it to dry and polish the bore halves smooth. it will increase your urine output and aid in dehydration. that area will have tiny creepy crawlies. This water is safe to drink without boiling. If the leaf tastes mild it is probably OK to eat. The two sides must fit perfectly. Jungle streams are usually as deep as they are wide. Darts are made from any wood that can be sharpened. I don't know of any poisonous plants that don't taste extremely bitter and nasty. If nothing bad happens try twice as much and wait again. and wearing gloves and a hat.

Pictures in books never look like the actual plant. If you are still OK then it's probably safe to eat. harden the participants to the realities associated with sniper operations. Mussack Whether in a military or police context. equipment and skills to the right place at the right time. There are exceptions to this rule. Often. sometimes loses its utility after a few days in the field." . Generally.Fight Like You Train 26 May 2000 By Kevin R. Individuals familiar with the rigors of the field generally distill their individual kits to the bare essentials with few if any "nice to have" items included. Sniper operations FTXs benefit an organization in a number of ways:  Leaders have the opportunity to exercising their skills and accumulate experience.  FTXs. equipment is continuously tested and evaluated. if it crawls. Focusing on individual training neglects the need to train the leaders. This distillation process gave rise to the phrase. Field Training Exercises (FTXs) that closely simulate actual sniper missions should occupy at least as much training time as that dedicated to sustaining individual skills. Once the participant takes exhaustion. Additionally. Over time the participants will become accustomed to the miseries common to life in the field. Once the snipers have achieved the necessary proficiency in their individual tasks. training in the sniper community focuses on those individual tasks critical to the mission such as sniper marksmanship while neglecting some critical collective tasks. "Travel light. successful sniper operations require the delivery of people. walks. sniper operations training must be conducted. most notably among berries. leaders who have experience with sniper FTXs develop an appreciation for the capabilities and limitations of the snipers they command and will be more likely to utilize them properly in combat. This delivery can only occur successfully if all the people involved are adequately trained.  During FTXs. Some berries don't taste too bad but are poisonous. You should educate yourself before going to a new area. Sniper Field TrainingExercises Train Like You Fight .to have made you sick. which closely simulate combat operations by allowing the fewest administrative exceptions. freeze at night. which seems to make sense in garrison or on the firing range. or slithers on it's belly it is safe to eat. discomfort and stress for granted he would be better able to focus on the mission. An item of equipment. Lessons learned can be applied in subsequent FTXs and integrated into the unit's Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) thereby enhancing the operational readiness of the unit.

Train to standard. Ensure everyone involved knows what the standard is. Special Forces Handbook ISBN 0-87364-704-1. Practicing the integration of numerous individual tasks into a larger combined task is the principle benefit of an FTX. Do not compromise or shortcut the process. construct and use field expedient antennae.  When FTXs last several days and nights the participants are afforded the opportunity to practice a logistical routine.  While afield the sniper team must perform seamlessly many of the techniques taught separately in the classroom. How the team conducts their sleep cycles. The requirement that the sniper team maintain radio contact will present opportunities to solve problems related to radio communications not found in the classroom. As an aid in the planning and conduct of sniper FTXs. Sniper Training ST 21-75-2.The equipment configuration and packing list must be documented in the units' SOP and made uniform. These practices must be standardized and documented in the unit's SOP so that members of different teams can be rotated with minimum adaptation required. the most current versions of the following references may be useful: FM23-10. by Maj. The transportation of the radio and secure equipment along with spare batteries influences the selection of load bearing equipment and the prioritization of essential items. Competent evaluators should be attached to each sniper team for at least part of the entire duration of the exercise so that the team's performance can be observed and evaluated. He quietly observes and . water replenishment activities. supported with a notional enemy situation and a detailed operations order. The FTX should be conducted as much like a combat operation as possible. The keys to a productive sniper FTX are:     Detailed Planning Complete Preparation Uncompromising Execution Detailed After Action Review (AAR) An FTX should simulate an actual sniper mission. encrypt and decrypt messages. The purpose of an FTX is to train the participants in the right way to conduct an operation. Due to the nature of sniper operations the activity is hard to observe and measure. John L.  Maintaining communications during FTXs provides ample opportunity to practice with the equipment. The Ultimate Sniper. use proper radio procedure and to act as part of a radio net. Special Forces Operational Techniques ST31-180. eating and field hygiene should be practiced to the point of habit. During an FTX the evaluator keeps a physical distance from the team except as required for evaluation purposes. Ranger Handbook FM 31-20. Plaster Evaluators are a critical element in the success of a sniper FTX.

live fire is considered a treat and will help to motivate and reward the troops. These live fire portions of each exercise should present realistic challenges to the snipers. Sometimes coordinating with units in nearby training areas can pay off in this respect. Whenever possible integrate live fire into the FTX. However during periods of testing the evaluator will not coach or advise. The evaluator may. In the beginning the exercises should be kept simple and straightforward with a minimum number of distractions. Each FTX should focus on developing some particular collective task. Eventually groups of sniper teams should be able to conduct complex sniper missions such as "Wolfpacking" and Mutually Supported Retrogrades. unglamorous infantry work with very little "high speed" activity. As the proficiency of the teams improve the complexity of the missions should be increased so to always present a challenge. Exploit every opportunity to create interesting but plausible live fire adjuncts to the exercise. Properly planned and executed these exercises will test the men. Particularly with snipers. The amount of training value drawn from any FTX will be proportional to the amount of planning and preparation done beforehand and the enthusiasm with which it is executed. Coordination with an artillery unit firing illumination missions might allow for night sniper firing under that same illumination thereby reducing training costs while adding a new dimension to the sniper FTX. His role is to observe and record the team's actions during the exercise. as his judgement directs. the equipment. act as a coach or advisor to the sniper team when an opportunity to instruct presents itself. the leaders and the SOP. Every FTX offers a lesson to be learned. The evaluator is not a spy. These exercises are mostly hard. FTXs for sniper operations are not fun. Additionally. . the evaluator acts as a coordinator for administrative and safety issues related to the exercise. Those activities corrected on the spot that do not reoccur are not recorded as negative observations by the evaluator during an FTX.records the actions of the sniper team throughout the exercise so that the technical and tactical proficiency of the team can be assessed.

I used the following tasks to focus the scenario.g. pride and teamwork in both the snipers and chain of command. sat back and watched. but when they "oversaw" the FTX.Sniper FTX Summary 6 November 2000 By Jeff Waters Introduction Tasks Trained Critique Introduction The following is a summary of a standard FTX scenario I used for internal and external evaluations. Covertly train the officer core and chain of command on sniper employment (they were never receptive to receiving formal training from an NCO." Tasks Trained: Invariably. you can re-use them a lot. 5. Learn what strengths and weaknesses are present in team proficiency 3. Allow the teams an opportunity to run a mission from beginning to end with no interruptions so they get a clear idea of the big picture. Of course you should use varying missions.. METL (Mission Essential Task List) etc. e.       ALERT Conduct Troop Leading Procedures Conduct Insertion Move Tactically Occupy an FFP (final firing position) Perform Surveillance . but I found that when you get a few scenarios drawn up. Document and record the teams' performance according to the FM. 6. they came out with a much better understanding of sniper employment and capabilities) 4. Build confidence. Provide a real "Gut Check. simply by changing the terrain on which they are executed. 2. Gain a clear understanding of whether a team is ready for combat. My goals in planning an FTX were as follows: 1. or by changing the Situation briefing. 7.

everyone must be able to plan missions. the team was given a thorough Situation and Mission briefing after being placed in isolation (a secure environment). I would act as the unit's FSO (Fire support officer). and the principal was to use whatever method was common to the area and would not arouse attention. Examples are did they put black electrical tape over the muzzle of the rifle. Conduct Troop Leading Procedures: The squad leader. either writing paragraphs 4 and 5 (service and support and command and signal). and did they check their optics and so on. The Ranger Handbook has a good coordination checklist for this task. Conduct Insertion: I always tried to use a wide variety of techniques. Helicopters are NOT a great way for a team to go in due to OPSEC. Coordinating with the above was graded. obviously there are several sub-tasks that are evaluated under each heading. or acting squad leader. CESO (Commo officer) and S-2 (Intel officer) for the leader's coordinations. since in such a small unit. Every effort was made to produce an excellent briefing based on a realistic future threat. particularly those unique to the sniper's equipment. In the planning phase. did they check their data books and note taking material. .     Gather/Report Intelligence Engage a Target Evade and Escape Conduct Extraction Debrief That's the plan in a nutshell. all team members were evaluated regardless of rank. The MEDEVAC and COMMO plans were also closely scrutinized due to the nature of the mission. since it is part of the Sniper's Mission and generally the only form of friend help nearby. The beginning part was conducted at the squad level. with the individual teams breaking off either before or just after insertion. would give a Warning Order and Operations Order. it went something like this: ALERT: Based on current events. Additional attention was given to the Fire Support Plan. In more detail. The leader must do the execution paragraph himself. making the sand tables or prepping gear. OPSEC was a graded task here as well as throughout as well as Pre-Combat checks. Every man in the squad would be heavily involved in the planning.

Although helicopters are sometimes the only practical way, we used long foot movements, cliff assaults or rappels, waterborne techniques, civilian vehicles such as vans or a military blazer which was painted dull black with tinted windows (this was an authorized vehicle, I am not suggesting you paint your units vehicle like that for the obvious reasons), skis, and whatever else seemed reasonable. A good sniper works his mind and doesn't restrict his thinking to solely what's in the manual. Neither does he march off into fantasyland. Using Departure of the FFU (Friendly Forward Unit) is an excellent task to incorporate here. I again would act as the FFU CDR for the purposes of coordinating the departure, which was graded.

Move Tactically:
This never just started with a stalk. It always included a long movement at night to get everyone sleep deprived and physically tired. Remember what I said about covertly training the officers or other leadership? I always found that lots of staff pogues would leap at the chance to "evaluate the snipers." It was always a moral boost for the men to watch them suffer through the nastiest, longest, hardest route we could find. In this manner, we scared off a lot of straphanging wannabe pogues. On the more positive side, we liked to have the S-2 come along, since the snipers should have a strong relationship with him due to their mission. Navigation, stealth, noise, light, litter and camo discipline, counter-tracking SOP's and route selection were all evaluated here, in addition to the basic movement techniques. Uniform for this should generally NOT be a ghillie suit. They would always be expected to avoid patrols and danger areas. They should also use OPSKEDS (code words) to report their progress and to alert the FSO and chain of command as to their location at pre-designated checkpoints. A good FSO will have his guns shift to the next TRP covering the current portion of the team's route upon receiving the code word (that's easy to plan, since you call in a code word at designated check points during your route anyway) as long as this was planned and coordinated. This is crucial upon approaching/occupying the FFP. At this point, the mortar maggots need to be on their toes. Normally, they would occupy a Patrol Base and be evaluated on this also. They should obviously stay off of key terrain and natural lines of drift. The final part of the movement would be a stalk into their FFP. This would be on a live fire range that had OPFOR (opposing force) personal watching for them. Prior to the stalk, the evaluator would move away from the snipers and onto the objective, which was located on the firing range. This was a learning point for a lot of snipers who have the 'abominable snow man' type ghillie. By that, I mean a huge suit with burlap a foot thick. That type of suit is not practical for

a number of reasons. It takes up too much space in a rucksack, is too hot, snags on everything leaving a trail if you have to run away and slowing you down. Neither does it leave much space to garnish the suit with natural camo. A light suit with a well done boonie cap and veil is much more important. The cap is light, small and covers the most important parts of the sniper, his head and shoulders. That is the part of your body, which is normally exposed.

Occupying the FFP:
A lot of this evaluation is simply whether they are observed or not by the OPFOR. However, the FFP's should be walked by the evaluators AFTER the contact is completed and the OPFOR are pursuing the teams and examined for the standard stuff; natural cover and concealment, field of fire and ESCAPE ROUTES! One of the most often overlooked training points in fieldcraft is that after you complete a stalk and take your shot, you better have a damn good way to get the hell out of there via multiple routes. Its easy to throw a rock at a beehive, but remember, they are going to be pissed and chase you (Remember what I said about the "Abominable' ghillie suit here).

Perform Surveillance:
First, let me explain what I had on the objective. There was a mock signal, missile or other enemy site with the OPFOR bearing foreign uniforms and weapons. They were given optics to attempt to locate the snipers but were never given the times or locations where they would be on the objective. Scatted around the mock site is one Iron Maiden per sniper team at ranges varying from 600900 meters. I put old DX'd uniforms over the targets and the effect is very good particularly in the morning/evening. (Or BMNT and EENT for the really devoted). The priority information requirements are SALUTE and OACOK (observation and fields of fire, avenues of approach, cover/concealment, obstacles and key terrain) as well as any other specifics tasked such as good support and assault positions for a follow on assault etc. After a few hours of observation, and 15 minutes prior to hit time, I would call off the OPFOR. After gaining 100% accountability, I would give a code word to the teams and they would chamber a live round. The mission leader would then conduct a simultaneous fire mission on all the targets and begin withdrawing. All teams will call in a code word confirming their weapons are clear and the OPFOR will pursue. Due to safety factors, and the mission, the teams will not fire on the OPFOR.

Evade and Escape:
This reinforces the crucial event of getting out of the objective area, which is so often not covered at all. It concerns me greatly that our doctrine does not incorporate this as an integral part of each stalk.

It is also fair play for the teams to employ booby traps near their FFP's or along their escape routes to slow down their pursuers. In real life, a claymore mine with time fuse is an excellent tool to break contact or simply disorient them from your actual position and add to the confusion. You can remove the fuses from grenades and insert a cap with time fuse and tape a coat hanger hook around them to leave them hanging in trees behind you also. White phosphorous will always screen your withdrawal if you are under pressure and slow people down. Don't try these at home unless you're qualified to do it. The leader should be evaluated as to his plan for breaking contact after initiating. He should anticipate the enemy's moves according to their tactics and doctrine and have countermeasures ready. There should also be a target reference point with indirect fire on standby at the objective. Basic concepts like never withdrawing straight towards your actual objective should be observed, as well as counter-tracking and ambush techniques such as doubling back on your path and overwatching your trail once the teams are reasonably clear of the objective. This is also an overlooked part of training. The danger here is that people hit the target successfully and think its all over. We often mistakenly reinforce this by stopping the evaluation right after actions on the objective and doing the AAR right there. The fact is that after showing his hand, the sniper is in a dangerous situation, and we should really focus on ensuring that they are trained well in dealing with this time. Reaction forces from the OPFOR should pursue and a plan for dealing with the team as a POW included if they are captured. If they are captured, they do not pass the evaluation, regardless of the shooting. This is for their own good.

Extraction is like insertion, in that as many different ways that can be used should be incorporated. There are good tools for a sniper team like the STABO rig or SPIES that are ideally suited to them. It should not be a cakewalk. They should come to expect the worst and prepare for problems in every evaluation/stx. It's not to screw with them, just to prepare them. Having the helicopters fly away as they come running out to load them is a good check on the leadership and discipline of the teams. Does the leader immediately resort to an alternate plan? Or does the discipline of the team erode and bad attitudes flare. Remember that sleep/chow deprivation should be factored into the evaluation. On the other hand, they can also be evaluated on how they deal with the helicopters, i.e., did they issue an inbound advisory and so on. Did they maintain good security, stealth etc., or did it erode.

Immediately upon return, the teams are given a short amount of time to prepare for a debriefing. There should be a room or site in the field set up with a map for them to use and they

a. After selecting the location. until they are asked their opinions.. aerial photographs. the sniper team locates the target area and then determines the best location for a tentative position by using one or more of the following sources of information: topographic maps. The S-2 and commander or his representative should be present and ask questions after the presentation is finished.should conduct the debriefing according to the standard NATO format. If that's the case. There is an entire list of tasks listed in the ARTEP manual for Scout/Snipers by the way. map corrections etc. The sketches. visual reconnaissance before the mission. and information gained from units operating in the area. Critique: This should take place right after the debrief. The sniper team ensures the position provides an optimum balance between the following considerations: . It is best for the evaluators to meet before the critique in order to avoid contradicting opinions in front of the men and the unit commander should be briefed on the results as soon as possible. The underlying principal of the evaluation and closing comment should be based on the question "Is this team ready for combat?" It never hurts to have a couple of cold beers waiting on them after a job well done and a pat on the back by the evaluation team and unit commander. will be turned in at the beginning to the S-2. The best way to conduct the debriefing is with the team leader talking through the mission from insertion to extraction according to the format. The evaluators should focus on the accuracy of the information and quality. detailing information on the terrain. Upon receiving a mission. Sniper Positions Selecting the location for a position is one of the most important tasks a sniper team accomplishes during the mission planning phase of an operation. on the way in to the objective as well as the information gathered at the objective. they should stand down so they can be alert for the evaluation. The teams should never speculate or state anything but the facts. the team also determines how it will move into the area to locate and occupy the Final Firing Position (FFP). unless the teams are too tired to stay awake. logs etc.

d. Considerations for site selection are — • Can the team place the designated surveillance target(s) under continuous and effective observation and within the range of surveillance devices to be used? • Will the surveillance site have to move if weather and light conditions change? • Does the area provide concealment and entrance and exit routes? • Are there dominant or unusual terrain features nearby? • Is the area wet. b. The team chooses a location that not only allows the team to be effective but also must appear to the enemy to be the least likely place for a team position.   Under logs in a deadfall area. Concealment from enemy observation. Tunnels bored from one side of a knoll to the other. or is the area prone to flooding? • Is the area a place the enemy would want to occupy? • Is the site silhouetted against the skyline or a contrasting back-ground? • Are there roads or trails nearby? • Are there other natural lines of movement nearby (gullies. A sniper team must remember that a position that appears to be in an ideal location may also appear that way to the enemy. Covered routes into and out of the position. A natural or man-made obstacle between the position and the target area. (way too time and energy consuming)  Swamps. the team avoids choosing locations that are.  Inside rubble piles.     On a point or crest of prominent terrain features.     Maximum fields of fire and observation of the target area. is there adequate drainage. The selection of the hide site and surveillance site(s) is METT-T dependent. unless it is required. Therefore. The sniper team must use its imagination and ingenuity in choosing a good location for the given mission.  Deep shadows. or streams. At bends or ends of roads. trails. c. Close to isolated objects. any terrain easy for foot movement)? • Could the team be easily trapped in the site? . draws. In populated areas. Located no closer than 300 meters from the target area.

axes. . especially during the mission planning phase. wall. Loopholes must be camouflaged by foliage or other material that blends with or is natural to the surroundings. (b) Time required for construction. It is vital that the natural appearance of the ground remains unaltered and camouflage blends with the surroundings. Conducts a detailed search of the target area. (b) Personnel needed for construction. stream. The team plans for the use of any extra equipment needed for construction (bow saws. fence.• Are there any obstacles to prevent vehicle movement nearby (roadside ditch. river)? • Are there any inhabited areas in the prevailing downwind area. and latrine calls. b. a. Starts construction of the firing position. Coordination is made if the position requires more personnel to build it or a security element to secure the area during construction. d. •Are there any suitable communication sites nearby? • Is the site(s) in the normal line of vision of enemy personnel in the area? • Is there a source of water in the area? (1)When the sniper team arrives at the firing position. if required. (2) Time: (a) Amount of time to be occupied. and so forth). the team constructs a position that provides more survivability. c. Establishes a system of observing eating resting. If the sniper team’s mission requires it to be in position for a long time. (4) Loopholes. This allows the team to operate more effectively for a longer time. The time required to build a position must be considered. it. picks. (5) Approaches. The construction of loopholes requires care and practice to ensure they afford adequate fields of fire. (3) Personnel and equipment: (a) Equipment needed for construction. Organizes equipment so that it is easily accessible.

a. A position may have more than two sets of loopholes if needed to cover large areas. The semi-permanent hide is used mostly in defensive situations. the rifle barrels may also be inside. The sniper team normally has several places to choose. Semi-permanent Hide. the team need only prepare loopholes by moving small amounts of vegetation or by simply backing a few feet away from the vegetation that is already there to conceal the weapon’s muzzle blast. or immediately assumes a position. Depending on the room available to construct the position. This position requires extensive work and extra tools. A hasty position is used when the sniper team is in a position for a short time and cannot construct a position due to the location of the enemy. These loopholes should have a large diameter (10 to 14 inches) in the interior of the position and taper down to a smaller diameter (4 to 8 inches) on the outside of the position. The belly hide is similar to the expedient position. As soon as a suitable position is found. Soil dug from this position can be placed in sandbags and used for building firing platforms. This requires no construction The sniper team uses what is available for cover and concealment. POSITIONS IN URBAN TERRAIN Positions in urban terrain are quite different than positions in the field. Loopholes that are not in use should be covered from the inside with a piece of canvas or suitable material. or any available object that provides overhead protection and a concealed entrance and exit. These can range from inside attics to street-level positions in .Hasty Position. This will help conceal all but the rifle barrel. b. The darkened area inside this position allows the team to move freely. Expedient Position. Occupation time: 12 to 48 hours. When a sniper team is required to remain in position for a longer time than the hasty position can provide. This allows some freedom of movement. but it still allows him to fire and observe effectively. This position can be dugout under a tree. it allows sniper teams to remain in place for extended periods or to be relieved in place by other sniper teams. It can be occupied in a short time. The expedient position lowers the sniper’s silhouette as low to the ground as possible. Like the belly hide. this position can be constructed by tunneling through a knoll or under natural objects already in place. Construction time: 4 to 6 hours. This position requires additional equipment and personnel to construct. but it has overhead cover that not only protects the team from the effects of indirect fires but also allows more freedom of movement. It should be constructed during darkness and be completed before dawn. This is completely concealed. The entrance/exit to the position must be covered to prevent light from entering and highlighting the loopholes. However. Loopholes are the only part of the position that can be detected. a rock. This position is constructed by digging a hole in the ground just large enough for the team and its equipment. Belly Hide. They allow for the smallest exposure possible. It should not be constructed near the enemy. All equipment is inside the position except the rifle barrels. The team must remember to cover the entrance/exit door so outside light does not silhouette the team inside the position or give the position away. an expedient position should be constructed. yet they still allow the sniper and observer to view the target area.

however. the team must make sure all other windows are also barricaded. remove curtains. and a sniper team can stop an enemy’s advance through its area of responsibility. the team makes sure the target area can be observed. Common sense and imagination are the sniper team’s only limitation in the construction of urban hide positions. This type of terrain is ideal for a sniper. The team must not fire continually from one position. however. canvas. Screens (common screening material) are important since they allow the sniper teams maximum observation and deny observation by the enemy.) When constructing other positions. Loopholes are difficult to construct. Room hide position. It must stay in the shadows while moving. To avoid. When constructing an urban position. they can make a hole through a wall to connect the rooms and fire from inside one room. the sniper team uses an existing room and fires through a window or loophole. Weapon support may be achieved through the use of existing furniture-that is. Dummy loopholes also confuse the enemy. These buildings normally have shingled roofs. crawl space hide. Shooting through loopholes in barricaded windows is preferred. observing. It should always back away from the hole as far as possible to hide the muzzle flash and to scatter the sound of the weapon when it fires. In a room hide position. c. Rafter hide position. The sniper team constructs a rafter hide position in the attic of an Aframe-type building. carpet. When selecting a position. Carpet or furniture placed over escape holes or replaced ceiling tiles will conceal them until needed. Sniper team positions should never be used by any personnel other than a sniper team. Firing from inside the attic around a chimney or other structure helps prevent enemy observation and fire. and a screen. and rafter hide. teams must notice both front and back window positions. Crawl space hide position. The snipers may be located in a different room than the loophole. they must make sure there are other shingles missing from the roof so the firing position loophole is not obvious. silhouetting. they can open windows or remove panes of glass. Building loopholes in other windows also provides more positions to engage targets. (1) The sniper team should not locate the position against contrasting background or in prominent buildings that automatically draw attention. The team removes the shingles and cuts out loopholes in the roof. . however. teams can randomly remove panes in other windows so the position is not obvious. Escape routes can be holes knocked into the floor or ceiling. and engaging targets. Urban hide positions that can be used are the room hide. Positions in attics are also effective. The team constructs and occupies one of these positions or a variation thereof. The sniper team builds a crawl space hide position in the space between floors in multistory buildings. the team should make them different shapes (not perfect squares or circles).basements. a. but a damaged building helps considerably. they may need to use a backdrop such as a darkcolored blanket. When building loopholes. Sniper teams use the technique best suited for the urban hide position. (2) The team must never fire close to a loophole. They must not. b. (More than one position should be constructed if time and situation permit. desks or tables. the sniper team must be aware of the outside appearance of the structure. Remember.

The team considers the following options: (a) Break or open several windows throughout the position before occupation. do not remove those in the position. tack. do not clean it for better viewing. however. Drilled holes (hand drill). however. Loose or removed tiles. (c) If strong winds blow the curtains open. It presents minimal dead space but provides the team more protection since passersby cannot easily spot it. (b) If curtains are prevalent in the area.(1) The second floor of a building is usually the best location for the position. a window is the best viewing aperture/loophole.     Battle damage. (b) Remove or replace panes of glass with plastic. may have to be changed (if the situation permits) from dark to light colors at BMNT/EENT due to sunlight or lack of sunlight into the position. Skylights. . (3) Firing through glass should be avoided since more than one shot may be required. shingles. Battle damage to gables and or roof. (e) When area routine indicates open curtains. follow suit. (2) Normally. (6) The sniper makes sure the bullet clears the loophole. The muzzle must be far enough from the loophole to ensure the bullet’s path is not in line with the bottom of the loophole. or slates. ensure effective coverage of the assigned target area. Lace or net-type curtains can be seen through from the inside. This can be done during the reconnaissance phase of the operation. or weight them. (a) If the window is dirty. Loose boards/derelict houses. (5) Positions can also beset up in attics or between the ceiling and roof. Set up well away from the loophole. (4) Other loopholes/viewing apertures are nearly unlimited. avoid drawing attention to the area. but they are difficult to see through from the outside. Brick removal. usually netting. (7) Front drops.     Gable ends close to the eaves (shadow adding to concealment). staple. (d) Firing a round through a curtain has little effect on accuracy however. ensure the muzzle is far enough away to avoid muzzle blast.

(11) The type of uniform or camouflage to be worn by the team will be dictated by the situation. uniforms should include angular-line patterns. preset explosive charge situated on a wall or floor for access into adjoining rooms. red [brick]. or wood). (c) When necessary. (10) Always plan an escape route that leads to the objective rally point. therefore. the BDU and required equipment are worn. and area of operation. how they are employed. or a small. Normally. or stucco. white [marble]. depending on the situation/location of the position site. (9) If sandbags are required. . The following applies: (a) Most often. they can be filled and carried inside of rucksacks or can be filled in the basement. black [granite]. most woodland-patterned BDUs can be worn inside out as they are a gray or green-gray color underneath. clay. Regardless of area color. or the outside. the team will not be able to leave from the same point at which it gained access. partitions can be made by hanging blankets or nets to separate the operating area from the rest/administrative area. buildings. (b) Urban-camouflaged uniforms can be made or purchased. anchored ropes to climb down buildings. a separate escape point may be required in emergency situations. Urban areas vary in color (mostly gray [cinder block].(8) If the site is not multi-roomed. the team meets the security element at the ORP. When forced to vacate the position. (f) Tradesmen’s or construction worker’s uniforms and accessories can be used. The team must consider windows (other than the viewing apertures). (d) Soft-soled shoes or boots are the preferred footwear in the urban environment. (e) Civilian clothing can be worn (native/host country populace).

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