SNIPER TRAINING

Introduction
What is a sniper, what are his tasks? By David Reed
A sniper is an expert rifleman trained in the techniques of the individual soldier and assigned the mission of sniping. A sniper needs many skills. He must be physically and mentally hard, a crack shot, and must be able to -       

Estimate ranges. Search areas. Locate and identify sounds. Use cover, concealment, and camouflage. Use maps, sketches, aerial photos, and the compass. Recognize enemy personnel quickly. Move without detection. Endure long periods of waiting.

Your Mission as a Sniper Your mission as a sniper is to shoot key enemy personnel -- leaders, gunners of crew served or automatic weapons, communications specialists and radio operators, observers, and enemy snipers. In the absence of these priority targets, fire on any targets of opportunity. You must also collect information for your intelligence officer.

Employment of Snipers Plans must be made to properly locate sniper teams. Other troops in the area must avoid these areas. The use of snipers must be incorporated into the tactical plans of the unit commander.

Your Equipment

You should carry only mission essential equipment. Besides your weapon, you may need binoculars or spotting scope, watch, map, compass, and camouflage clothing. Much has been written about sniper weapon systems. The best caliber is not necessarily the flattest shooting, longest-range cartridge. You have limits in the amount of ammunition that you can carry, because of space and weight considerations. Re-supply is an issue to consider. Field reloading equipment will allow you to make your own ammunition when you need it. But reloading has its disadvantages. It takes time, and the extra equipment is heavy. Equipment used by sport shooters is out of the question. Such equipment is designed for use on a bench. You must be able to load using a volume, not weight, of powder. You must use tools designed to be portable and accurate. You must also practice until you are sure you can make reliable, consistent ammunition. Other sources of resupply are cartridges in standard use by other weapon systems, including the enemies own. Every rifle has a distinctive sound. If you choose a rifle that sounds different than those used by others in your area of operations, you will call attention to yourself. If you choose a system that your enemy uses, you must be careful to let others in your unit know the area in which you will be. Failure to do so could result in friendly fire, and "friendly fire" never is when you are on the receiving end. Your mission will dictate the equipment you carry. Most sniper teams employ rifles that are designed for the types of missions that they will be assigned. If resupply is not an issue, and you will not be in the area long, a .300 Winchester Magnum makes a very good choice. It is expensive to shoot and load and heavy in bulk. .308 Winchester (7.62x51mm NATO) is a popular choice because the ammunition is plentiful, recoil is light, and more ammunition can be carried. Other systems are employed in special circumstances. A good spotting scope is essential. Yes, there are laser range finders that are very good for long range shooting. But one must never take them for granted; good range estimation is something you must be able to do without mechanical or optical aids. Finally, you will need tools for the observation and scouting aspects of sniping. You should carry the following: camera, tape recorder, pencil, and notebook for recording intelligence, a map of the area, compass, camouflage paint, and weapon cleaning supplies.

What It Takes to Be a Good Sniper
By David Reed
Basically, it takes three things to be a good sniper, and a wicked shot is the least of them. Discipline and cunning are the important qualities. Snipers do not (usually) roam around looking for people to shoot. They do not shoot non-combatants, i.e. women and children, other unarmed persons, livestock, windshields, and houses, etc. The sniper is either alone, or with one to three other people, depending on the mission requirements. Taking shots at targets not worth shooting only increases the risks of being discovered, captured or killed. Discipline and patience are essential qualities to have when faced with a shoot or not to shoot decision. Ask yourself this -- Do you have a hot temper? Do you anger quickly? Anger causes the pulse to quicken, which we will discuss later, and may cause careless or irrational behavior, all of which are bad. Do you like to hunt? Do you like to hunt alone? Have you ever spent an entire week

alone? No television, no phone, no friends, no family, no nothing? Have you ever gone camping alone? In a remote area where you saw no one? How did it make you feel, what did you think about? What did you do while you were there? How many times did you masturbate? How often did you eat? Was there a difference in your mental state on the first day and the last? Snipers are not necessarily "loners." In fact, someone who has problems relating to other people may not make a good choice. Why is all of this important? A sniper may stalk a target for days to get a shot. He may never get it. Could you abandon the mission without shooting anything? The window of opportunity for a shot may last only 3 seconds. If you are daydreaming, fooling around, eating, or anything else you will not be successful. You should be studying the kill zone and waiting for your shot. This is why a spotter or second shooter is so desirable. It is very hard on the eyes to use binoculars or a spotting scope for more than 20 minutes at a time. You and your partner can take turns. You can't change positions while in your hide. You must remain still at all times to avoid detection. This sounds easy but it's not. Think of a small child who is just learning to fish. It's impossible for them to leave their line in the water for more than a minute or two without pulling it out to check it. If you have hunted deer you know how hard it is to hold still in a deer blind. It might be easier if you knew that your prey would shoot you if it saw you first. But it is very easy to relax when you think that no one can see you. What does the word "cunning" mean to you? To a sniper it is everything, and it affects everything he does. Cunning alone can make a sniper successful. A sniper must decide where to position himself, how to get there, how to leave, what to take with him, how to camouflage the hide, where to place alternate hides, and what to do if something bad happens. A sniper must be able think an entire shoot through from beginning to end and set it up in a manner which will produce results. Anyone who has watched enough television has seen a million wrong ways to do this. Snipers do not shoot from rooftops, open windows, or a prominent terrain feature. These are the places that will immediately draw attention and return fire. A rooftop can be a hard place to escape from too, as would a climbing stand used by deer hunters. Marksmanship is the final element. A sniper must be able to engage targets at as long a range as is possible under any circumstance. Distance equals escape time. Surprisingly, people who have never before fired a rifle can become excellent shots with proper training. Old habits are hard to break, and this applies to shooting methods as well. In order to develop adequate shooting skills an individual should be prepared to fire between 5,000 to 10,000 rounds of ammunition during long and arduous practice sessions. A good coach is essential. If you don't know how to read shot strings you will not know what you are doing wrong.

Special Operations Target Interdiction Course - Memorandum of Instruction

S.: AOOP-TP. To train selected personnel in the technical skills and operational procedures necessary to deliver precision rifle fire from concealed positions to selected targets in support of special operations forces. United States Army Special Operations Command. PURPOSE. Course emphasis it to provide the force with personnel who can achieve first-round hits from a cold barrel on these highvalue targets. b. (1) Must be currently assigned to or on orders to a Special Forces detachment of Ranger company. c.MEMORANDUM THRU: Commander. Special Operations Target Interdiction Course (SOTIC) 1. Class Size. ATTN. Course Length. 2. Army John F. Fort Bragg.24 students. 1st Special Warfare Training Group (Airborne). North Carolina 28307-5200 FOR: Commander. North carolina. (2) Optimum . To provide the United States Army Special Operations Command with the information necessary to prepare students for the SOTIC.24 students. North Carolina 28307-5200 SUBJECT: Memorandum of Instruction. Students must meet the following prerequisites.: AOOP. . or selected Department of Defense personnel. Students who fail to meet these prerequisites will be returned untrained to their parent unit. Prerequisites. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School. United States Army Special Operations Command. (1) Maximum . 2d Battalion. d. Purpose of the SOTIC. a. Additionally. (2) Must have a current periodic physical. Vision must be correctable to 20/20 in each eye. Fort Bragg. Students will be attached to Company D.8 students. The SOTIC is a six-week course conducted at Fort Bragg. currently Ranger-qualified or Special Forces-qualified. (3) Minimum . Fort Bragg. Students must have their medical records with them when they report for inprocessing. personnel will be able to correct for wind and determine the previous round's bullet trace to achieve second-round hits if necessary. North Carolina 28307-5200. U. General. ATTN.

Students reporting after the closing of inprocessing will not be permitted to start the course and will be returned to their parent unit. statements of non availability will be issued and students may billet off post. M16A1 Rifle and M16A2 Rifle Marksmanship. (4) Must have undergone a psychological evaluation (Minnesota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory) under the direction of a qualified psychologist within 12 months of the reporting date. 3. . Height and Weight Standards. Reporting.: AOJK-GP Fort Bragg. (7) Must currently be on jump status and be medically qualified to participate in airborne operations. Company D maintains a 24-hour guard post located in our compound (telephone DSN xxx-xxxx or commercial (910) xxx-xxxx). Students arriving after duty hours prior to the starting date should obtain lodging at Moon Hall (bachelor enlisted quarters [BEG]). which can be accessed 24 hours a day through the aforementioned guard post phone number. personnel reporting prior to the course starting date should secure any weapons in the company arms room. Temporary duty orders should reflect that rations and quarters are not available.(3) Must have in their possession a memorandum from their unit commander certifying that the student has scored expert with the M16A1/M16A2 rifle in accordance with FM 239. A copy of the evaluation must be presented on the course starting date. e. On-post BEQ reservations may be available if coordinated for at least 45 days prior to the course starting date. RATIONS AND QUARTERS. within 12 months of the reporting date. (5) Must have in their possession an original verification of their security clearance (copies unacceptable). Students will report to Company D at Building O-3550 prior to 1700 on the course report date or telephone DSN xxx-xxxx/xxxx or commercial (910) xxx-xxxx/xxxx during duty hours. dated no earlier than 30 days prior to the course starting date. it is recommended that off-post parent units provide a rental car for their students attending the course. (6) Must meet the Army height and weight standards as prescribed in AR 600-9. Personnel who report on the class starting date without an approved waiver will be returned untrained to their parent unit. Requests for waivers must be addressed to -Commander 1st Special Warfare Training Group (Airborne) ATTN. If the BEQ is unavailable. July 1989. Additionally. NC 28307-5200 Waivers must be approved prior to the class starting date. As a result. It is the responsibility of the student to file an accurate travel voucher upon his return to his parent unit.

o. Privately owned weapons are not authorized on MacRidge Triangle Compound. Rain suit. Camp/survival saw. c. One set of the seasonal physical training (PT) uniform. g. Suspenders. if required. One pair of old sterile fatigues or one set of coveralls for preparation of a ghillie suit. g. Flashlight/penlight with batteries and lenses. one light green. j. Rucksack. i. Any student found under the influence of such items will be removed from training immediately and returned to his parent unit for appropriate actions. The use of alcohol or illegal drugs is strictly forbidden during the SOTIC. h. Field jacket. Air items: H-harness. hook pile tape lowering line. Civilian clothing and toilet articles. UNIFORMS AND EQUIPMENT. b. a. e. These items will not be brought to the training site. d. Sewing kit. to include two 1-quart canteens with cup and covers and a first-aid pouch with field dressing. f. e. The SOTIC is a high-risk course. Parent unit PT uniform is acceptable. Black gloves with inserts. Len static compass. . Two pads of paper and two mechanical pencils. OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT. Each student should bring the following uniforms and equipment. Three sets of the seasonal duty uniform with a battle dress uniform (BDU) cap and jungle boots or black boots. f. Two sweat shirts. Light combat equipment. c. Two pairs of jungle boots or combat boots (Gortex boots may be worn only in the field).4. Two padlocks. Sewing awl. k. d. Pruning shears. Poncho and poncho liner. r. Identification card and dog tags. one sand. Hearing protection: Earplugs or earmuffs. Student loaner systems are available. and one brown. 6. n. Local commanders should screen all attendees to ensure they meet the prerequisites for course attendance. Any weapons bought while attending the SOTIC will not be stored in the Company D arms room. and jump helmet (Kevlar). b. q. Students are encouraged to attend this course with their unit-assigned M24 sniper system. u. t. Waterproof bag. complete. Two pairs of prescription eyeglasses. p. WEAPONS. modified 18-inch attaching straps. 5. PHYSICAL CONDITION. Students must be in top physical condition and must not be under any medication that may affect their reflexes or their judgment. m. l. 7. Personal camouflage sticks/paints: one tan. Entrenching tool. as desired. s. a.

Students can be contacted at Fort Bragg by mail: Full Name SSN. It does not matter whether there is wind or not. uphill or downhill. 10. The company operations center may be reached at DSN xxxxxxx/xxxx or commercial (910) xxx-xxxx/xxxx. SEIM COL. I however.I want to know that I can make that shot. I want to know that I can make that shot at any range within the effective range of the rifle. NC 28307-5200 NOTE: Mail should not be sent to the above address after the fifth training week. b. humid. with relative certainty. 2d Bn. If I cannot make it then I will not take it. a. that I cannot. have strived over many years to develop my skills to the point that I am better than that. and personnel actions are completed prior to the course starting date.. SF Chief of Staff Marksmanship Basic Rifle Marksmanship By David Reed Introduction If you can hit what you normally shoot at. RICHARD R. COORDINATING INSTRUCTIONS. Whether the wind is 5kts or 20kts. There are approximately 19 days of field duty with a 36-hour final field training exercise. that may be good enough for you. medical. c. Class Name and Number Co D. Students should bring adequate monies for incidentals. nor the direction from which it comes. . No routine medical appointments will be allowed during the course. or dry -. POINT OF CONTACT. raining. or. administrative. STUDENT MAILING ADDRESS.8. 1st SWTG(A) Fort Bragg. 9. Students must ensure that all dental.

academic within the effective range of a medium size high velocity rifle -. This is because your muscles are starting to fatigue. This is not a forum for arguments about which cartridge is best. There are many things that influence accuracy and I am going to include all that come to mind. Your pulse rises when you work out or become excited. but you can slow it. a target at 900 meters. I created this material for those who want to learn to shoot well. or organize the thoughts better. bullet placement is far more important than caliber when your shot must achieve an effect. You can find that garbage in any number of gun magazines at your local drugstore or news stand. shoulders. One final note. This is not really evident through a 9X hunting scope. not only is your pulse moving the rifle but it's probably hard to see clearly because your breathing is moving it even more! If you have a less than optimum grip and hold on the rifle. This was a guy who never shot his rifle except to check his scope at the beginning of deer season. Mag.This site is going to focus on rifle marksmanship at a level above and beyond that used for clay pit plinking. or connected to parts that are touching. Think about the time you missed that deer and blamed it . and when they fatigue they begin to tremble. Change your body position slightly. while you are studying these phenomena. Our heartbeat causes our body to move. reformat.Read it. Chest. It will not allow you to stalk dangerous game with a . If you fall in this category please do two (2) things before you send flames:  Talk to anyone who has graduated from the XVIIIth Airborne Corps Sniper School at Fort Bragg North Carolina (or other similar service school)  Pick up any copy of the NRA's American Rifleman that highlights the annual pilgrimage to Camp Perry -. and the pattern the cross hairs follows changes as well. arms. My philosophy is that some cartridges are better than others for certain situations or targets. but it does make the question of 30-06 or 7mm Rem. This can be seen through a very hi-power scope. Body Physiology This section delves into the human body and the factors that must be considered before one sits down behind a rifle. This is a new site and I appreciate all germane comments. The cross hairs bump along the target as our heart beats. just think about it and use common sense. However. Remember that these things are touching. Now If you try this experiment you will find something else out real quick. hands. you will notice that it starts getting worse. rainy weather.about 900 meters. waxing moon. wild boar rifle. and as a gathering place for those who do shoot well. let alone hit. our rifle. Your respiration increases in the same way. and fingers all move when our heart beats. I will allow others to contribute their own material. or which makes the ultimate dense brush. neck. I will not belabor this point. I had an acquaintance once respond with incredulity that I would have the audacity to suggest that anyone could see. Stop breathing and the lack of oxygen to those muscles will cause them to tremble even more! You cannot make your heart stop.22. If you have a question I will try to clear up my text.

 Control yourself.  Think of nothing -. When you have found it. the shooter is so overwhelmed by the experience that they cannot even remember pulling the trigger while the gun was still pointing up in the air! Many people suffer from increased pulse and respiration when they sight game. You must be able to do this without your movement being seen. in. flat position. Was it really the rifle? Was it you? Buck fever is an extreme case. Breathe normally. If the target is close just open your mouth wide. load. Your body must lie in a relaxed. Conditioning is important. If it's buck fever. You are looking for the combination that will allow the least vibration. If you are using muscles to hold your position you will shake. Point your toes out so your feet lay sideways. Try to smell the target. Gravity will do this for you if you keep your forearm vertical. I have pictures in an army field manual for the prone shooting position that I will add when I get them scanned. It . you can control this too. and where the rifle is resting in relation to your nose. flat against the ground. Try every variation you can think of with your rifle in your shoulder. This is easier when you are prone.on your rifle. This will reduce the maximum range that clean shots are possible. When you angle your arms you are using muscles to hold them still. your breathing will be silent. and the flexibility needed to work the action on your rifle. Remember how each part feels in that position. Start with your feet and think about the position of all body parts. You must take advantage of bone structure when supporting the rifle. Practice assuming this position until you have it down pat. Straight up and down. If they are not here. What part of the rifle is close to your nose? I will explain this when I discuss sight alignment. When shooting you do not want to take your eyes off your target to reload or work the action. use these tips as guides. but it no matter what your condition is. take a mental snapshot of each part of your body and it's position. look at your hands . you will get this shot only once Fatigue Yes.Clear your mind -. scope or whatever. Keep forearm vertical under the forearm of the rifle. What to do about it?     Relax! Feel the targets presence. Find the position you could hold for hours without tiring. Think about it -. out. you are in trouble.Think only of what you must do. arms elbows. if you do not have good form you will shake. working up to your fingers. steady breaths.how did you feel when you saw that buck? What were you experiencing when you raised your rifle and took aim? Chances are that the experience was quite different from the feeling you got when you were sighting in that rifle at the range.

behind. For those of you unfamiliar with these. When the leaf sight blurs out of focus. and the target. The distance from your eye to the rear sight can change and this must be avoided. Notice that when your eye is not in position that areas of the scope view are black. Eventually it will become second nature. or to the side of you. Sight Alignment and Sight Picture When shooting a rifle without a scope. you will lose a great deal of the field of view. You will focus on a problem and the solution. There are four things in this equation -.your shooting eye. If you are a hunter and you must use this process from a blind or tree stand. You will have to align the front sight post in the center of the rear sight aperture using your "peripheral" vision. It is very hard to focus on the front sight post with leaf sights. If you shoot infrequently you may want to write this down so you will remember it if you forget. note the relationship between your nose and the stock or action of the rifle. You hunters can do as I did.may help to sequence the movements necessary to assume this position and number them. I took the principles I learned about shooting at long ranges and applied them where the situation warranted.22 rifle. In dim light. you will find yourself chasing a fleeting image through the scope. Each time you aim. you'll lose it when it's bright too. but in dim light this problem is not readily apparent. Leaf sights work well out to 100 yds. it is important to align the front and rear sights perfectly and consistently. In dim light the correct view is also very dark. . I will try to stay away from hunting situations. If you don't know where your eye should be without "looking" through the scope to find it. The relationship between your eye and the rear sight is important. the front sight. Once you find the right position for your eye. the peep sight is far superior. The target will be fuzzy too. But for serious target work. Yes. The position the hunter must shoot from depends on the situation. When using a scope it is also important to note the relationship between the gun and your nose. That is because you should always focus on the front sight post. This will give you something to think about when the time comes. Peep sights are the best sights for a rifle. not freak out because you finally have that 8 point in front of you! For the rest of you. it is very hard to tell whether the front post is centered in the rear sight groove. The distance between the sights does not change. The only part of the front sight that is visible through leaf sights is the very top. the rear sight. they will take some getting used too. Practice assuming the position by the numbers. if your eye is not perfectly positioned. use the same principles. The are adequate for hunting purposes on a . This will help you get your sight picture consistent. Hopefully you will be able to see that the rear sight in each example (graphic missing) is fuzzy looking. What you do will be different from every tree you hunt and for every game animal that walks out in front. The peep sight system is better because it allows you to get a better picture of sight alignment. put your nose in the same place.

Trigger Squeeze Look at your finger. You must time this rise and fall so that the target is sighted at that "place". Once you realize that the kick is not that bad. powerful. You will begin to associate the noise with the recoil. What do you think the muzzle will do? If you are right-handed.a big unpleasant event. pulling like this will exert a sideways pressure on the trigger. the muzzle will move to the right because you are pushing the portion of the rifle behind your forearm to the left. Since you can only hold it a second. When squeezing the trigger be conscious of this. . hard kicking rifle and not wear hearing protection. and in your mind they will be one and the same -. or to start breathing in again. you will never be able to shoot well. and the trigger squeeze to coincide with that "place". the sight alignment & picture. Notice that at no point on your finger. Isolating recoil and noise is very important when trying to overcome a flinch. and squeezing. It's easy! That is the place in your breath cycle you want to take your shot. The biggest mistake a shooter can make is to start off with a loud. Let it out. The movement of your finger is to the side and back. You want to put the very end of your finger on the trigger. While exhaling. Now simulate trigger pull and watch your finger. Notice that when you inhale the muzzle of the rifle drops. stop breathing for a second or two. breathing.  Now try it again. Not only can you damage your hearing.Breathing If you don't breath you will shake. notice that there is a point during exhale where you do not feel it necessary to to continue exhaling. Do not use the tip by the nail. bend it to a hook shape like you would when pulling a trigger. There is a correct way to breath when shooting. The place on your finger that moves the the LEAST to the side is the very tip. When your chest expands your shoulder rises. and try your best to eliminate all lateral pressure. This time when you get to that "place". two at most. you will be able to focus on sight picture. The shot should come as a surprise every time. but the noise will be most unpleasant. If you anticipate. It rises again when you exhale. your forearm that supports the rifle does not move so the muzzle drops. No matter where you touch the trigger. you must time the rise and fall of the rifle. does your finger move straight back. Try this exercise -   Take a breathe. but the soft part between the tip and the first joint. When you pull the trigger you must apply steadily increasing pressure until the gun fires. and flinch. and it certainly will not hurt you.

The LOS is perfectly straight. These topics will be discussed in greater detail in the section titled "Exterior Ballistics". or wear cheapies. The sights on a rifle are on top of the rifle.300 Win. Once a bullet has flown 60% of it's maximum range. Shooting Fundamentals Summary     Solid. the longer it is exposed to gravity. The bullet will steadily drop until it crosses the LOS again. Bullshit. or so. bullet is BELOW LOS. it crosses the bullet path twice. The point at which the two paths cross the first time is referred to as "battle sight zero" in the US Army. It covers the first 30% of it's maximum range very quickly. the drag effect is quite high. all 140 lbs. and the bullet is always dropping. between 25 and 250 meters the rifle will shoot high. The laws of physics do not work differently for these people or their guns. Bullet drops more and crosses the LOS. Accordingly.300 Winchester Magnum. After this the bullet is below LOS again.A . For now I'll only discuss a few fundamentals. I'll include a picture when I can get it scanned. If any of you have one scanned feel free to donate it!    Between sights and the first intersection. LOS crosses BP. It is something you will have to get used to. you may have problems with a big rifle. In fact. If the rear sight post is raised then the LOS will cross the bullet path. the effect of gravity is very small during this period. The longer a bullet flies. Many gun writers recommend that people of slight build stick to lighter weapons for this reason. I have been to the range and heard people talking about how their [insert bullet here] climbs for the first 50 yds. they will also be zeroed at 250 meters (where the two cross again). then the only way the two paths will ever intersect is if the LOS is adjusted to cross the BP at some point. That is exactly what we do. This means that out to 25 meters the rifle will shoot low. killed most of his 93 confirmed people with a 30-06. As the bullet slows the proportional effects of drag and gravity swap places. kicks hard. and gravity is causing the bullet to drop very fast. If an M16's sight's are adjusted until they are "zeroed" at 25 meters. and the farther it will drop. comfortable body position Breathe Sight Picture Squeeze Bullet Flight Ballistics will be covered in detail in a section devoted to the subject. and won the 1965 Wimbledon Cup with a . Carlos Hathcock. If they are straight. drag is very small. Mag. of him. But if you think you are too tough to wear hearing protectors. size has little to do with it. They just don't understand the relationship between the line of sight (LOS) and the bullet path (BP). The moment a bullet leaves the barrel it begins to fall. Bullets do not drop at a constant rate. and after 250m the rifle will shoot low again. In proportion. This is what people are referring to when the say that their "bullet climbs after so many feet". Their sights are pointed down at an angle like everyone else's. . When a bullet leaves the barrel it is moving very fast. after first intersection bullet is ABOVE LOS. As soon as a bullet leaves the barrel it is a prisoner of gravity and drag.

(See section on rifle tuning where I discuss harmonics. Speer. it is my favorite. Nosler. If we compare several bullets all fired at the same muzzle velocity. A hollow point bullet is designed to expand rapidly. Bullet weight has a lot to do with it. the BC of the bullet determines its trajectory. the better it bucks the wind. The potential of the standard bullet can be calculated very precisely. and the BC governs the amount of drag. I have many books and manuals but Sierra's is by far the best. This is because drag is the strongest force acting on the bullet. This factor is known as the Ballistic Coefficient. For a given bullet fired at a known muzzle velocity. My . on to exterior ballistics . I think I paid around $34. If you do not have this manual then I urge you to get it. it is easier to compare the ballistics potential of the bullet in question to one standard bullet.) Try them all and decide for yourself. . the flatter it shoots. It simple terms the BC of a bullet is a measure of it's efficiency. The drop at any range is nearly proportional to the square of the time of flight. It is clear that a bullet with a . I've tried many bullets and can't honestly say that any brand is better than any other for my purposes. All reloading manuals contain extensive disclaimers and Sierra's is no exception. The drag deceleration of another bullet can be compared to this standard to produce a factor for calculating deceleration. It would take days to convert all of their data to HTML and it would be full of errors. and keep you from buying their book! These pages should not be considered a worthwhile substitute for their manual. They do good work and I encourage you to support them by buying their manual. I have favorite bullets for each rifle that I own. The effect of the BC enters mainly through the time of flight.300 Win.95 US for it and as I mentioned. drops everything I shoot with it.     Ballistic Coefficient Altitude and Humidity Uphill/Downhill Shooting Wind Effects Ballistic Coefficient Rather than try to calculate ballistics for every bullet made.300 that is not a disadvantage! And now. and Hornady also have good references. When the manufacturer recommends a bullet for a particular purpose don't try to read to much between the lines. When I need data. It might surprise you to know that one of my guns shoots 180gr round nose bullets better than any other bullet I've tried! Don't be to quick to assume that a match grade bullet will fly better than others in any particular rifle. and the better it retains its velocity as it travels downrange. I am providing this information because I have not found it elsewhere on the Web.Advanced Marksmanship By David Reed Most of the data and discussions which follows is taken directly or paraphrased from the Sierra Rifle Reloading Manual 3rd Edition. . then the higher the BC of any bullet. piss them off. but if you are shooting whitetail with a . I usually compare all of them.

because drag slows a bullet down. that your round will shoot flatter. Altitude & Humidity Drag depends on the density of air and on the speed of sound. Time of flight also depends on muzzle velocity (MV). . The values are: Altitude: sea level Pressure: 29. carrying more energy. It should be evident that between 600 and 1000 yards. the heavier bullet will be flatter than the lighter bullet. you should also compare the final velocity and energy at the range in question. What may surprise you is that a bullet will shoot flatter in humid air than it will in dry air. and final velocity when choosing a bullet. The most dramatic effect on bullet performance is a change in altitude provided that the temperature increase is not that great. A large heavy bullet typically has a high BC (Inertial). It is the best ballistics program that I know of. but don't wear blinders. However the difference is pretty small and probably not worth figuring out. Look for the higher BC. Time of flight is affected by drag. and go to the mountains and it's not that much colder. you will see a difference in trajectory. The air is less dense. You should try to prepare a table which shows how your rifle will shoot over a reasonable range of altitudes. energy. These depend on temperature.shorter time of flight will drop less than one with a longer time of flight. but this is pretty much out of the effective range of the rifle. larger BC means less drop. Once you commit to memory the altitude effect. Humidity: 78% You may think that if you develop a load at lower elevations and then go to the mountains on a hunt. and barometric pressure. Therefore the BC increases when we go from dry to more humid air. If you would like one for Windows. Since the drag gets less as BC gets larger. but you cannot get the MV very high on a heavy bullet. however it will probably be colder. The very best way is actually test your rifle under conditions that are close. You'll find a freeware/shareware version to download on my home page. you will be close enough to make accurate shots.53 inches of mercury (Hg) Temperature: 59 degrees F. If you sight your rifle in on a cold day. The best way to calculate the difference is to use a ballistics program. So a high BC bullet may drop more than a lighter bullet fired much faster. Sierra uses standard factors in their ballistics tables. humidity. For a comparison to be fair. I highly recommend JBM's On Target! Ballistics software. Consider MV. thus offsetting the difference. the heavier bullet is actually moving faster and of course. That is because the molecular weight of water is less than the molecular weight of dry air. We should also note that after 1000 yds. The author is very knowledgeable and his program is based on solid physics.

the air and ground begins to warm. when the sun comes up. When on the water. It changes all the way to the target. convection currents form cause air to move uphill. then veer back to the left 5 degrees.sea heat differential effect also occurs. the wind will be 7mph for 3 min. 1:48. Usually the wind clocks or veers. If we discount HTW. then try JBM's online ballistics calculator! Just use your "back" button on your web browser to return. Over a period of 10 minutes lets say. the reverse occurs. If you know what the drop (d) is for your bullet at any given range. Shooters cannot see ripples in the water. Think about a 600 yd shot downhill at 40 degrees -. We will ignore head & tail winds (HTW) in this discussion. This is known as an offshore breeze and occurs midmorning. With a 2-4mph breeze the grass will move and you will see the eddies of air moving the ground. Vertical deflection of bullets is very slight. If the shimmer is straight up. Mirage's move with the wind just like grass does. and 10:00. You must understand wind effects to shoot well. The western slope of a hill will have stronger currents than the eastern slope. But the rifle will appear to shoot high. Thus we only need to remember wind adjustments for 1. In fact it shoots high by almost the same amount whether you are shooting up or down. you can use the following table to calculate the amount your bullet will shoot high. If you would like to know what it is right now. Anywhere you are shooting. In the evening. Warm air rises over the ground and is replaced by cooler air over the water. there is less than 2mph wind. As the ground cools in late afternoon. A shooter must study these winds as they swirl along the ground. They look like areas of the water that have ripples. then it will reappear from the new direction. If you are near the water. After the sun has gone down is when the onshore breeze gets stronger.2. You will have to find the right place to hold. Fields are excellent places to read the wind because . at most a few inches at long ranges with 20+ winds. There is no substitute for practice. During the day. for this component. As the ground warms. the land . 8:00. 6:00 is on the back of the head. but as we'll see. In the morning. Wind Effects This is a big one. To be exact. then clock 5 degrees to the right for 5 minutes. Check your tables or ballistics program for your rifle.Instead of a 50" correction we are talking about a 40" correction. Aviators know this too. the wind4:00the target will always be different than the wind where you are shooting from. Frequently there will be a brief lull in the wind.. then the wind effect of a 2:00 wind is the same as a 4:00. Formulas abound for this. especially as range increases.Shooting Uphill/Downhill Bullet drop does not change very much when shooting uphill/downhill. each made up by an almost infinite number of microsystems. The mirage will lean away from the wind up until about 20mph when it disappears almost completely. in inches. It may be 2mph where you are. Therefore you must adjust your hold or change your scope when taking shots at high angle. Those of you who are sailors know that wind is constantly shifting. although not as strong. 12:00 is straight in the face. they must look for other signs. etc. On big grassy fields you can see this too. you could calculate wind using 2:15. exact calculations are of little use. 7mph halfway down range (from a slightly different direction). For our purposes we will refer to wind direction using the clock method. and 5mph at the target (from a slightly different direction). and 3:00. Watch trees and grass. you are in the doldrums where nothing much is happening (minus the presence of a system). late morning through afternoon. When shooting across flat ground you can see the shimmer of the heat rising off the ground. the opposite occurs. you can see "wind lines". or adjust your sights slightly. The wind swirls across the earth in large systems.

but you'll know how much. The windward side of the field will not have as much air as the leeward because the trees are blocking it. Now that you understand a bit about reading wind. you'll have to adjust. 15-20mph and the trees are swaying and the grass is in constant motion. 1/2 and "almost all of it". then it will move about 18" with winds at 1. all other things being equal. figure windage for lulls and strong winds both.you can see the air currents. 10-14mph and the thicker limbs are moving and the grass is being pushed strongly during the stronger gusts. The leaves will also shimmer and and small limbs will move. You only need to remember wind effects for your bullet at each range where wind is an issue. Look at a ballistics table for your bullet and use these factors to determine crosswind. Be aware that trees block the wind on fields. If you have time. 59mph and the grass starts to lean pretty well.7. . Only with practice will you become good at this. For target shooters. Now look downrange and average it all out. The grids are 1/2 inch. (Or use JBM's) If your bullet moves 36" inches at some range with a 3 or 9 wind.5. Then remember two other numbers -. those who can read wind well will always outshoot those who can't.50% and 90%. and shoot. (Pronounced "looward"). Recall that I said we would only consider winds from 1. Use this target below to establish zero's on your tactical rifles out to 200 yards. come up with your number. always giving more credence to wind that is closer to the target (where the bullet is moving slower). As you look across the field you will be able to see the stronger air moving at the center and leeward sides. You must average these effects. If you can't get your shot off in a lull. Smaller limbs on the trees are moving constantly and thicker limbs barely move. 2. and 3. you can see why complex calculations are fruitless. or 11. Wind has a dramatic effect on long range shots.

Date: ______________ Caliber: ______________ Rifle: ______________ Bullet: ______________ Powder: __________Grs: _____ Case: ______________ Primer: ______________ Conditions: .

and ultimately to the ground. They explain that. In order to achieve a solid prone position that allows the shooter to maintain the proper bone support and muscular relaxation. True enough. To achieve this halfminute hold. up or down . It is interesting to note that there are widely differing ideas about this perfect prone position amongst top scoring shooters. Hanenkrat say the prone position should provide a sight picture that is motionless and that an experienced shooter should easily be able to hold a scoped rifle on the inside of a single . Rather. it is necessary to learn and employ what the U. the body would collapse into a heap. One could also visualize a mannequin with a rifle glued in place. Bone support and muscular relaxation provide a system in which the weight of the rifle is transferred from bone to bone. In comparison. It is very important to understand this concept. no shooter would lower the point of impact by pressing down on the rifle while trying to slowly pull the trigger. therefore. If one were standing on a street corner and decided to unconditionally relax every muscle. muscular relaxation.22 caliber bullet hole at 50 meters is less than a half-minute of angle.22 caliber bullet hole at 50 meters. Is that not also exactly what the prone position can do? Bill Pullum and Frank T. The only possible way to get the rifle on target would be to move the mannequin and. sling and handstop. and variations that violate the three elements of a good position must be avoided. this is not the least bit strange. The basic principles can be thought of in several logical groups. Position of the Left Elbow . without being interrupted by any special muscular effort. however. Nevertheless. However. is something routinely performed without any special effort. within reasonable bounds. the basics are not to be overlooked. right or left. Using the bench rest example again. it is necessary to learn the basic principles of the position. after all. and the head and neck. The prone shooter. The mannequin's natural point of aim is what it is. according to Pullum and Hanenkrat. A . the rifle. the legs and spine. The discussion begins with the left arm. The third component is a natural point of aim. the 10-ring on a UIT target is one full minute and the 10ring on the 600yard NRA Highpower Rifle target is about two minutes.just like the bench rest. specialized variations based on physical size and other factors are to be expected. the right arm and hand. Standing.The Prone Position We Don't Need No Stinkin' Sandbags 16 February 2001 By JD Hicks * The object of a bench rest is to provide a stable and repeatable platform for executing a string of shots. hand. the front rest or rear bag would be adjusted in preparation for making the shot.S. that standing can be done while remaining fully relaxed. then. and natural point of aim. must learn to similarly adjust their point of aim. It is easy to agree. Army Sniper Training Manual calls the three elements of a good position: bone support. This is exactly the sort of relaxation that is required in the prone position. These groups are the left arm and hand.

A sling that stretches will allow the position to creep and become increasingly difficult to maintain without extra muscular effort. This is not necessarily the case when using a "match rifle. A "high" position is one in which the left hand and indeed the entire position is high off the ground relative to what would be the lowest possible legal position. The sling should be placed either high or low on the arm.World-class prone shooter Ernest Vande Zande says the most common error prone shooters make is developing a position where the left elbow is not extended far enough forward. but not in the middle. The Hand Stop / Sling Swivel On the "service rifle. Moving the left elbow farther out to lower the position or closer to the body to lift the position is a mistake. The sling must transmit the rifle's weight to the bone in the upper left arm. conversely. The sling can also slip down the upper arm if it is not adjusted snugly and held in place with some type of keeper. Position and Configuration of the Sling The sling running from the upper left arm to a point on the rifle near the left hand forms a triangle with the upper left arm and left forearm. This can likewise degrade the position or cut off the flow of blood. A good starting point for an adjustable hand . therefore. The use." the sling swivel is fixed and the shooter's prone position must be built around that fact. thus removing the need for the muscles in the left arm to hold this weight. ring or strap on the top of the left arm expressly for this purpose. The left elbow is the single foundation point of the entire position." A match rifle may provide an adjustable hand stop that allows the position to be adjusted to any number of possible configurations. The placement of the left elbow should not be the enabling factor for building a "high" or "low" prone position. A wider sling is less likely to cut off the blood flow as it spreads the weight of the system over a larger area of the upper arm. A heavy button sewn to the sleeve just below the sling will work just as well. It should then pass flatly under the wrist and back of the hand to the connection point on the rifle. The length of the sling and. Everything else is adjusted and oriented around this point. and. Pullum and Hanenkrat remind shooters to remove their wristwatch. a "low" prone position usually works best with the sling lower on the arm. "High" and "low" prone positions are just what they sound like. The sling should be made of a material that does not stretch and is as wide as the rules allow. The sling should extend from the upper arm in a straight line on the inside of the left wrist. It is certain that any extra bulk from a watchband or heavy jacket seam will become a distraction under continued pressure from the sling. A "high" prone position usually works best with the sling higher on the arm. Most shooting jackets have some type of hook. The brachial artery can become compressed between the sling and the bone when the sling is placed in the middle of the upper arm. utility and merit of cuff-type slings are left to the reader to discover. It may also be necessary to adjust the cuff of the shooting jacket and/or the shooting glove under the sling at this point. The left elbow should be fully extended and set just to the left of the rifle. the height of the position are governed to a great extent by this fixed point.

can control the effect of breathing. These adjustments should not be initially tinkered with in order to achieve some desired higher or lower position. a simple black line marked with a "P" for prone can be employed. A home video camera can be most illuminating in this particular exercise. The position of the hand stop and length of the sling will govern the shape of the supporting triangle discussed earlier and raise or lower the position. The left leg should be parallel to the spine with the toe of the left foot pointed in towards the position. The point needs to be made that the position of any single element of the prone position affects all others. Using a hand stop that hurts like the devil just because Lonnes Wigger uses that type will only help Lonnes . as any bending will cause extra muscles to be used and set up a springing motion that affects recoil. It is an interesting experiment to set oneself in position and then observe the position of the right shoulder and chest as the right leg is swung through the entire possible range. This notwithstanding. one will .stop is to arrange it so that the distance from the rifle butt to the trigger is the same as the distance between the hand stop and the trigger. a piece of tape or any other suitable mark may be substituted. Ultimately. When using multiple rifles. Index numbers are found stamped in many commercially available slings. It is also important not to grasp the rifle with the fingers of the left hand.start one now. The individual shooter is invited to experiment with the right leg through the entire range of motion. record the length of the sling. Any force exerted by the left hand will change recoil from shot to shot and thus the bullet's impact on the target. and the position of the hand stop. Just as the trigger releases the supporting fingers relax and the rifle springs back to the true natural point of aim. Rather. to use a juvenile example. Try several.not that he actually needs any help. The angle of the right leg controls the relationship of the right shoulder to the center of the position and by moving the chest up and down. use the same type of hand stop on all of them. Once a stable position is established. The arm bone is connected to the shoulder bone. The Legs and Spine The position should be oriented so that the spine is straight and relaxed. as well as allowing general analysis of the position. One may also unconsciously "finger" the rifle the last little bit onto the target when aligning the sights. This will result in shots that look and feel clean but are off call. As an extra note: If a journal is not currently being maintained . if possible. The Left Hand The left hand and wrist must be kept straight. then proceed to experiment with caution. Finally choose the one that is the most comfortable for the longest period of time. the position of the sling on the upper arm. Many rifles equipped with an adjustable hand stop are similarly indexed. If after some experience with a particular position one is convinced that higher or lower might be better. The right leg should be brought up to about a 450 angle with the lower part parallel with the left leg and the toe of the right foot pointing out and away from the position. a stable position should be sought and then simply labeled as high or low. If this is not the case. There are as many different types of hand stops as there are hands.

" This makes it impossible to pull the trigger straight back or in a fashion that does not disturb the sights.determine the position of the right leg that is most stable and results in the least disturbance of the front sight from pulse beat. The placement of the right elbow must be governed by the position of the rifle.including the trigger guard . While in the prone position with an empty chamber and un-cocked rifle. Special care should be taken to guarantee that the right elbow does not slide around. "dragging wood." To achieve this. The Right Hand The grip of the right hand should be just strong enough to hold it in place on the rifle. the less likely it will be for the rifle to slide around and require constant adjustment. and further states that touching any part of the rifle . the shooter must grip the rifle with the right hand first and then plant the right elbow. Next. One might also extend this exercise using the correct technique to discover the best possible grip and hand position. A sheet of course grit sand Ppaper or emory paper should be in your shooter's equipment box. The fingers should be firm but not tight. No extra muscular effort should be used to pull or push the position into place.even at a slight angle will disturb the sights. The United States Army Sniper Training Manual explains that one will close the whole hand while pulling the trigger if the grip is not firm enough. "Move the rifle around your head. Notice the wild movement of the front sight. The Right Elbow In Full Metal Jacket. a symptom of this is a group of shots strung out horizontally. A simple exercise will clearly show this action. "Move the elbow to the rifle. The United States Army Sniper Training Manual agrees with Master Sergeant Owens. sight on an appropriate and safe target. As needed. try the same exercise while concentrating on not allowing the front sight to move. The Right Shoulder The butt plate should be placed close to the neck and have as much contact with the shoulder as possible. pull the trigger and close the grip on the rifle snugly as one action. Owens instructs shooters that the position of the right hand must be such that the trigger finger is able to move without touching the rifle stock. With the right hand intentionally loose. not the rifle to the elbow. To imitate the drill instructor. According to Master Sergeant Owens. This will be one that allows the trigger to be pulled straight back without disturbing the sights. It is also important to allow the right arm to relax normally when planting the elbow. a stern faced drill instructor growls. Master Sergeant James R. The larger the contact area is between the shoulder and the butt plate. Difficult? Probably impossible. It will also be . the surface of the elbow pad or shooting mat can be roughed up to improve friction. This action of closing the hand along with pulling the trigger will move the rifle off target as the shot is being fired. The finger touching or brushing on the stock during trigger pull is called. not your head around the rifle!" Exactly the same thing applies to the right elbow.

Recall that the position of the hand stop and length of the sling should be used to adjust the height of the position and front sight. The position and relative size of the front sight as seen through the rear sight should appear exactly the same every time the head is positioned on the cheek piece. If you aim three inches off center (a parallel error). In an article published in InSights. Keeping journal entries for how much the sight physically moves when adjusted from one yard-line to the next is key. Pushing the envelope of legal is begging for a challenge. If during the first shot the head is being held up off of the rifle in order to align the sights and then during the next shot the head is pressed down firmly. The pressure on the butt plate should be equal to the pressure on the hand stop. and resulting different recoil. the height of the butt plate can be adjusted to help improve the amount of shoulder contact and pressure. This pressure should be adjusted by adjusting the length of the stock rather than the position of the hand stop or length of the sling. Sight Alignment vs. in the prone position. The Head Position Generally. A visit from a match official in the middle of a string of shots can be pretty distracting. It should be understood that the physics of recoil include the weight of the head on the rifle. says that seeing your sights the same way every time will keep you from making sight alignment errors. Joseph Roberts. With this in mind. There is an explanation of sight alignment verses sight picture in the appendix. insufficient pressure on the butt plate is the main cause of most weaknesses in the prone position. should allow the shooter to look through the sights without obstruction from the bridge of the nose or eyebrows. It is the duty of every shooter to know and understand the rules. the cheek piece should also be moved one-quarter inch. the recoil will be different. Ernest Vande Zande says that it is also important to move the cheek piece up and down with the rear sight. Stay within the rules Recall any position must pass the test of remaining legal under the rules. If a match rifle is being used. The reason for this is that sight alignment is angular while sight picture is parallel. A rifle supported by the very top or bottom of the butt plate is free to swing on the pivot point created by the small contact area. the cheek piece will be set such that the top of it is in line with the axis of the bore. A proper head position. your shot will . the cheek piece should be adjusted to allow the head to rest in a natural position without straining the neck or shoulder muscles. will cause the shots to be strung out across the target. The upper body and right shoulder should be as close to the ground as possible. in addition to being natural and relaxed. This changing cheek pressure. If the rear sight moves one-quarter inch to move from 300 to 500 yards for example. The position of the shooter's head can be quickly referenced using the sight picture.easier to keep a consistent cant angle if the butt plate has a large contact area. According to the Small Arms Marksmanship Manual of the Bureau of Naval Personnel. Sight Picture: Sight alignment error has a far greater effect on where a shot hits the target than does sight picture. Appendix: A. Jr.

October 1951: (a. B. by Walt Kuleck From FM 23-5. C. the spotting scope can be just as fatiguing on the eyes as the sight picture. The use of the Model of 1907 sling. He suggests in his September 1970 American Rifleman article. If you misalign by three minutes (an angular measurement) a 600-yard shot will be three minutes (approximately 18 inches) off.be three inches off at all ranges. that the same color filter be used on the spotting scope as is currently being used for the rear sight. As the heart pumps blood through the vascular system.) Place the rifle butt on your right hip and cradle the rifle on the inside of your right forearm. The Spotting Scope: According to N. Kalinichenko. Canting the Rifle: Each one-degree of cant results in a 1/4 minute change in impact. Figure 1 . D. the pressure in that system changes and causes blood vessels to expand and contract with this change in pressure. Pulse Beat: Pulse beat is the motion of the position generated by the beating of the heart. sights to the right (Figure 1). How the Soviets View Aiming Problems. The use of a spirit level on a Match Rifle can prevent canting or maintain a constant intentional cant.

Do not roll it up between the keepers as this will stretch them. the adjustment of the loop sling in the kneeling. above the biceps (Figure 2. locking it in place (Figure 3. Insert your left arm through the loop until the loop is high on the upper arm. pull the upper keeper down tight against the upper hook. left hand on the outside strap. then unhook the lower hook and rehook it down near the butt swivel (Figure 1. using both hands.) The loop to be placed on your arm is formed by that part of the long strap between the D-ring and the lower keeper. (b. Figure 2 Straighten out the sling so that it lies flat. To shorten or lengthen the sling to conform with your body and arms. Figure 3 This tightens the loop on your arm. note 2).Both of your hands are now free to adjust the sling. and sitting positions is about two holes shorter than that for the prone position. rotate the sling through the upper swivel. note 1). Now. moving the lower keeper and upper hook downward to your arm (Figure 3. Push the lower keeper up (Figure 2. note 8). make the adjustment by moving the upper hook. Loosen the sling. the loop now formed is the loop for your left arm (Figure 2. squatting. note 7). then give it a half turn to the left (Figure 2. Now. For the average sling adjustment. right hand on the inside. . unhook the upper hook and engage it four to six holes from the end of the long strap (Figure 1. to keep the loop from slipping.) For the average soldier. (c. note 4). The feed end of the sling is left hanging downward. note 5). note 6). note 3).

the loop should be above the biceps. place your left hand so that the rifle lies in the center of the V formed by your thumb and first finger. note 10). (g.) Be sure the sling is doing its share of the work in giving your rifle full support.) After the sling has been adusted on the upper arm. In general. A properly adujsted sling means a steady rifle (Figure 5). note 9) and the sling lies flat against the back of the left hand (Figure 4.) Some leeway in the position of the loop on the arm is permitted. Figure 4 (e. . The tendency of most men is to use a sling adjustment which is too long (loose). It is important that daylight be visible between the sling and the crook of the arm formed at the elbow.(d. (f. experience has shown that many men get good results with the sling somewhat lower.) Before taking your position. grasp the rifle so that the hand is against the stock ferrule swivel (Figure 4. however.

1) is placed on your rifle as shown in figure 2. Visual Training. circa 1915 In contrast. Based on Musketry Regulations" (1915). Elementary Training. I suspect the Germans were too. at least in 1915. Army way. In no case is the sling used for support whilst shooting from any of the positions. from FM 23-5.S.303 and . .Figure 5: A Properly Adjusted Sling! Simple. here is the U. October 1951: The Gun Sling M1907 (leather) (fig. isn't it? How to attach the Model of 1907 Sling to the Rifle by Walt Kuleck The US sling is singularly adapted to steadying one's aim in position shooting. I have in front of me as I type this the "Imperial Army Series (Based on Official Manuals): Musketry (. Fire Discipline.22 Cartridges). Range Practices and Field Practices. British (non) use of the sling for position shooting. Judging Distance. So the Brits were in the dark about the use of the sling as an aid to marksmanship. It's a carrying strap that just hangs there.

With the right hand. grasp the inside strap of the sling near the trigger housing with the left hand. Thread the feed end of the long strap through the upper keeper as shown in figure 3. Figure 3: Attaching the M1907 Sling to the Rifle 2.Figure 1: Nomenclature and Arrangement of M1907 Sling Components Figure 2: The M1907 Sling on the Rifle 1. 4). The sling is now attached to the rifle. then place the upper hook in the third of fourth pair of holes near the feed end of the long strap. To tighten the sling (fig. grasp the sling between the hooks. . Engage the lower hook in the pair of holes below the upper hook.

start by getting an S-2 update on known/suspected enemy activity in your Area of Operations (AO). Simple. To loosen the sling for carrying purposes. isn't it? Applying Basic TrackingFor The Sniper 6 November 2000 By Jeff Waters Since the Army FM on Sniping covers tracking skills pretty well. Slide the lower keeper toward the muzzle until the feed end of the long strap has been passed. Figure 4: Tightening the M1907 Sling 3. This will help you analyze tracks you find although it shouldn't dominate your thinking. I am not a master tracker. but have found that using what little bit I know about it can help the unit a lot in terms of intelligence and help out my fellow Snipers by helping us hunt down our targets. First. Now force the inside strap toward the muzzle and at the same time pull the outside strap toward the butt of the rifle. 4. To hold the sling in a tight position. slide the lower keeper down from the feed end of the long strap and grasp the inside strap with the left hand. . force the upper keeper against the stock ferrule swivel and slide the lower keeper up until it has passed the feed end of the long strap. I will simply discuss integrating those skills into a mission.Now pull toward the butt with the left hand and push toward the muzzle with the right hand until the sling is tight.

but gather the following information. count the number of prints in a meter long box and divide by 2 persons : for a reasonable estimate Guestimate. are there marks high up indicating crew-served Load : weapons being carried and so on Age : How fresh are the tracks Note: there is probably a better format out there in the FM or elsewhere.When you find a set of tracks. The enemy has to have water. Make sure you have someone covering you and don't step out in the open. Are they headed towards a danger area where you can be waiting for them? Even if you don't pursue them. toes in/out etc Direction of Magnetic azimuth travel : Number of Box method. Call in the report then move away a safe distance from the site and after setting up security. I won't cover the stuff already written in the FM's that you can get online. set up patrol bases etc. . you can identify terrain in which someone is going to leave tracks in because the ground is soft. More useful information can be gathered even if significantly behind the enemy patrol by studying the sites in which they halt. Think about the intelligence you have and the situation and see if you can make a reasonable guess about where they are coming from and where they are going. Use your knowledge of the enemy's direction of travel. just like you do and they have to cross rivers/streams somewhere. you have gathered/reported a valuable piece of information which can be fitted into the bigger picture by the S-2. pull out your map. smell and watch your perimeter!). listen. situation. are their strides long or close together. to include their back azimuth. Again. You have learned something useful yourself. Some people call these traps. depth. When Scouting an area for the enemy. After being satisfied that the track makers are not in the immediate area carefully move forward for a look. Track Report: Type of prints : Boots? Tread pattern. tactics and terrain to try and help you estimate where they are headed. establish a SLLS halt. are the heels dug in deeper Speed : than the toes etc. How deep are the tracks etc. (that's stop. Each should be thoroughly and carefully studied and reported when discovered. be careful! We are not the only people in the world who set up rear security or double back on their trails. Where would you do it if you were leading an Infantry Patrol? Does the S-2 have any info on enemy routes or tactics that can help you? If you decide to follow the tracks. look. Plot the location and direction of the tracks.

Put the end of the stick at the base of the heel on a print and slide a rubber band up the stick where the print's toe is. they may come running back past you breaking contact en route to a rally point. snipers don't rush in. Wait for the best opportunity and feel good that if they don't know you are behind them. Good opportunity to maximize confusion and break a unit's moral. the rubber band on the front of the stick should be located over where the next set of prints will be. it could really piss them off. Better. but just this little bit of knowledge and making the teams practice it and report it on the radio and debriefs will develop them into much better snipers and provide a real benefit to the unit. You can tell a lot about the enemy from his sign. you have a tremendous advantage. if at all possible. It should look something like this: | PRINT#1 | (length of stride) | PRINT#2 | 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 H R R T E B B O E A A E L N N D D Before moving up from the base print to examine the subsequent set of tracks. Again. so don't stick around very long. Teams should always be debriefed on a terrain analysis of the AO and any signs of enemy activity. scrapes or marks on trees higher up and so on. look for the print. This should allow you to put the bottom of the stick over the end of a print and have the rubber band end at the toe. I say this because I know that I am an amateur tracker and understand the risks involved. By always tasking this info as a Priority or Other Information Requirement and asking . Who knows. get another element to get in front of them and others to their flanks to set up ambushes in favorable terrain. A tracking stick can be useful to stay with an enemy element which. or the terrain is not leaving a clearly seen set of tracks. don't attempt to track them down and hit them. Now point the stick towards the next set of prints and slide a rubber band over the base of the heel of next print. Do they dogleg their route? Do they cross or skirt danger areas? All this is great intelligence even if you do nothing more than pass it on. When he halts does the sign indicate that they establish security behind good cover and concealment? Do they leave trash? (a good item for intelligence). In this manner when you put your stick over a base print. and the prints point you in the direction of travel. I am far from a master tracker. On the other hand. showing the exact size of the print. Especially from an unseen foe (you) who seemed to operate with impunity. displaced vegetation or soil.Also. due to its small size. Hitting a leader who is trying to reorganize and consolidate a unit that has already fallen back can deal a strong psychological blow to the entire unit. Be patient. There is plenty of sign to look for rather than just the prints. track someone down and engage from 100 meters out. Cut a stick at least the length of a stride.

there are only 2 seasons. At the southern tip of South America there is permanent snow at only a few hundred meters (1. Canada. In the arctic the Pole is capped by deep ice floating on the sea and all the land north of the timberline is frozen. In Eastern Siberia -69C (-94F) has been recorded at Verkhotansk. In the northern forests summer temperatures can reach 37C (100F) but altitude pushes winter temperatures even lower than in the Arctic.000ft)." but one may need cold weather skills at very high altitudes everywhere. the snow line is not reached until an altitude of about 5. Reed This section is entitled "Arctic Survival. Scandinavia & Russia. Iceland.long winter and short summer -the day varying from complete darkness in midwinter to 24 hours daylight at midsummer. Arctic conditions penetrate deep into the northern territories of Alaska.them during debrief about it. but fall in winter to as low as -56C (-81F) & are NEVER above freezing point. Antarctica Temperatures in the Antarctic are even lower than in the Arctic. but the nearer the poles the lower the snow line will be.000 ft). Arctic Survival Written by Roger Perron and David R. it becomes an integral part of their mindset and even the most novice sniper will learn from his experience one mission at a time. Greenland. Note: When in the Arctic or Antarctic. Near the Equator in the Andes for example. Antarctica is covered with a sheet of ice. winter winds reach hurricane force and can whip snow 30m (100ft) into the air giving the impression of a blizzard even when it is not snowing. Antarctic winds of 177km (110mph) have been recorded and in the autumn.000 meters (18. . Arctic Arctic summer temperature can rise to 18C (65F) except on glaciers and frozen seas.

A 32km per hour (20mph) wind will bring the temperature of -14C (5F) down to -34C (-30F) and one at 64kmph (40mph) would make it -42C or (-34F) with even greater drops at lower temperatures. lynx. squirrel. Snow melts in summer but roots cannot penetrate the hard earth. deep. the forest penetrates up to 1650km and north of the Arctic Circle along some Siberian rivers. Very cold air brought too rapidly into the lungs will chill your whole body. Once you have been thoroughly chilled (without any injury whatever) it takes "several hours" of warmth & rest to return your body to normal. the ground remains permanently frozen & vegetation is stunted. Most of us breathe only half way. There is a wealth of game. don't venture out into an extreme cold too soon. Exhale completely and slowly to build 50% more resistance to the cold. When recovering from an emergency cold situation. Under extreme conditions it may even damage the lung tissue & cause Internal Hemorrhage. bear. For only 3-5 months of the year is the ground thawed sufficiently for water to reach the roots of the trees & plants that especially flourish along the great rivers that flow to the Arctic Ocean. regardless of superficial feelings of comfort. elk. In Russia where it is known as Taiga. Northern Coniferous Forest Between the arctic tundra and the main temperate lands is a forest zone up to 1300 km. High altitudes give the same conditions. . Speeds over 64kmph (40mph) don't appear to make a great difference. sable.Tundra South of the Polar Cap. Wind Chill Accompanied by low temperatures. A sigh is used by our body to exhale completely once we have neglected to do so under stress. winds have a chilling effect much greater than the thermometer indicates. as well as smaller creatures and many birds. An attentive control on your respiration and especially of your timing contributes to your stress control in any moments of tension or stress.

This demonstrates the sniper’s ability to move to within 200 meters of an Observation Post. Camouflage is those measures the sniper takes to conceal himself and his equipment from enemy observation. Once that occurs. Concealment can be natural or artificial protection from enemy observation. Cover is the protection of the sniper from small arms fire. The secret to camouflage is to never draw the attention of the enemy and create a reason for the enemy to “inspect with close scrutiny” your position. The actual target would be inside the perimeter and this would account for the 400 to 600 meter shot. and science. The sniper can also create artificial concealment from materials such as burlap and camouflage nets. remain concealed and engage the target undetected. This means that the sniper must rely on concealment. and create areas that work with his artificial camouflage. such as a tank.Camouflage and Concealment Introduction The success of the sniper’s mission depends heavily upon the ability of the sniper to approach. These requirements test the sniper's ability not only to move stealthily. Natural camouflage is vegetation or materials that are native to the given area. camouflage may be artificial or natural. outline change. you will be observed due to target indicators. Cover can be natural such as a hiding place behind a rock or it can be manmade. Man made substances will always appear. fire two shots. one with a walker within 3 meters. The ratio of natural to artificial would be approximately 60 – 70 percent natural to 30 to 40 percent artificial. The accepted standard is to move within 200 meters of a trained observer. leaves. Cover. The sniper must come out of cover to “see” the target and engage and once out the enemy now has the capability of detecting and engaging the sniper. and egress the area without detection. which needs no change prior to use such as bushes. The enemy may know where the sniper is located but can not hit the sniper with small arms fire. does not mean the sniper is undetected and when under cover the sniper can not complete his mission. which would be placed from 150 to 200 meters from the perimeter. or texture. weather. which is man made and is used for the purpose of concealing through color. and light on the concealment provided by both natural and artificial materials. but his skill in the art. The surroundings may provide natural concealment. Definitions The sniper must first understand the difference in the terms cover. The sniper will always augment his appearance by using natural camouflage. concealment. As with concealment. Or he can move natural materials (bushes. . under scrutiny. thus he must now leave the area without detection while the enemy is fully alert and has an attitude problem. grass and shadows. and camouflage. Artificial camouflage is any material or substance. while protection from small arms fire. The sniper must consider the effects of the change of seasons. Remember that the sniper’s mission is not suicide. and grass) from their original locations. to be man made. of camouflage.

Visual is what you do or fail to do that allows the enemy to see you or indications that you are present. exactly where you are. that allows the enemy to smell your presence. The indicators include cooking. insect repellents. but does not negate the odor of food. This lowers the odor factor somewhat.Target indicators Target indicators are anything that a sniper does or fails to do that could result in being detected. smoking. Target indicators: Olfactory ( Smell ) The olfactory target indicator will not show the enemy. soaps. Each target indicator must be further examined to look at some very specific causes. only that you are in the area. The sniper team should also eat the same food as the enemy prior to infiltration and for the duration of the assignment. A sniper must know and understand target indicators to not only move undetected. litter. Always check and maintain your hide or FFP site to prevent edges from being exposed. deodorants. The sniper team should use the same materials as the enemy for weapons cleaning while on a mission. lotions. This means cut below the ground surface or directly against the parent tree or shrub. trip wires or warning devices would be examples of these types of indicators. auditory. etc. or fail to do. Target indicators are grouped into the four areas or senses of olfactory. This is enough to ruin your whole day if he comes after you with dogs and a concerted effort to kill. This will change . Target indicators: Tactile ( Touch ) The tactile target indicator is an indicator that you would usually leave at your final firing point. However. When cutting branches or material for your site or fire lane always cut in a manner that the enemy would not bump into the sharp cut edges. Usually the tactile indicator would be of a very close nature to you and this would in itself be a major problem. Cut branches from hide construction or partial clearing of a fire lane. The sniper team must learn to negate most of these odors or match them to the surrounding area. We will begin with the Tactile Target Indicator. which reveal the position of the sniper. Closer to your site would be poorly concealed hide edges. etc. knowledge of target indicators are vital is his quest NOT to be a target himself. in the process of building your hide site you may leave tactile indicators a distance from your hide site and this would indicate that you are in the area. equipment left outside the hide. under normal circumstances. This indicator will cause the enemy to look at the area harder and will probably result in your capture. Snipers should carry food that does not require cooking and the food should be of low moisture content. tactile. Tactile is what you do or fail to do that allows the enemy to touch an object that gives away your presence. Use of tobacco products should not be permitted on a mission. Use of booby traps and warning devices near your FFP is usually counter productive. Auditory is what you do or fail to do that allows the enemy to hear your presence. whether it is a hasty or deliberate hide site. weapons-cleaning solvents. latrines. Olfactory is what you do. and visual. but also to detect enemy movement. The sniper trains to seek and engage targets.

Always pay attention to what you are moving into and avoid areas that give indications of being inhabited by birds or small animals. When traveling. This is simply something which does not belong in the immediate surroundings. talking. Stop and listen to the surrounding sounds. Target indicators: Visual: Siting The first factor is siting. The human body. Always move with minimum change in those sounds. Siting is usually dependent upon the mission. All of the proper techniques of noise discipline can be adhered to and then destroyed by the sudden noise of panicked animals. At a distance the outline of objects can be recognized well before the details of makeup can be determined. A siting error would be a natural camouflage in the wrong area. will tell the enemy exactly where you are located and thus are the main ingredient of camouflage. These factors are described as “Why Things Are Seen”. In addition to sound created is the sudden lack of sound caused by the sudden hush of insect buzzing. The sniper must take these factors into consideration when planning his site and matching his camouflage. but not your exact location. equipment sounds. These various factors include the following list. dispersion (with multiple teams) and terrain patterns. This becomes obvious and is readily detectable. All other factors usually arise from the siting factor. will not be dismissed. Mounds caused from hide construction on a flat field. and the equipment a soldier carries are easily identified unless the . Target indicators: Auditory ( Hear ) The auditory target indicator is a bigger factor during hours of darkness and periods of fog or light mist. the auditory will give away your presence to the enemy. and probably the direction to you. however. Remember that animals are bare footed and if you wouldn’t step on it barefooted then don’t step on it now while traveling.the body’s chemical balance to closer that of the enemy and aid in masking your different body odor. Most objects can be recognized instantly by their shape. metal on metal. such as oak leaves presented in pine trees. as will unnatural rustling of foliage or digging. Experience teaches people to associate an object with its shape or outline. unlike the others. Essentially your survival requires you to smell as the enemy. do not forget them or the normal lack of sounds. Target indicators: Visual: Shape Shape is the next factor of why things are seen. A visual indicator. especially when it contrasts with the background. Just as the olfactory indicator. then the enemy knows that as well as you do and will probably have greater observation on the area and may have it pre-registered for indirect fire. so as not to attract attention. head and shoulder area especially. and are what the sniper must guard against. Target indicators: Visual ( See ) The visual target indicators are comprised of various factors that can be individual in nature but usually are overlapping. This will arouse the observer’s curiosity and cause him to investigate the area more thoroughly. Movement. Dark green colors present in a field of light green. Some low-level noise may be dismissed as natural. equipment rattling or talking causes sound. Also remember that if an area appears to be the perfect location for a sniper hide or final firing position. always pay attention to what you are stepping on.

flat background such as water. and the sniper introduces horizontal to the mix then the sniper will become noticeable. The sniper must be aware that a pattern can not overcome a texture. or worst of all the sky. which contrasts with its surroundings. by casting a shadow on yourself you will create a silhouette. An extremely smooth object becomes shiny and the reflections from a belt buckle. and not let it “fall as it may”. Another factor is the texture of the object to its background. however. This can be used to the sniper's advantage as the light will be flat in the shadowed area. The sniper must always be aware of his location in relation to an area of light and try to avoid casting a shadow upon himself. or optical devices can be seen over a mile away from the source. Remember that nature never places objects in a regular . If an object has a surface. Target indicators: Visual: Surface Surface factors include shine and texture. The sniper must make this match with natural camouflage. take time to attach it vertically. however it is usually the result of skylining. Any smooth. Target indicators: Visual: Spacing Spacing is a factor that usually does not effect the sniper as it does larger units unless multiple teams are used for a sniper ambush. a field. This shadow will create a shape that is unnatural and attract the attention of an observer. will cause an object to become well defined in shape. watches. When attaching grass to the ghillie suit. The sniper must remember that only man-made objects have geometric shapes. In sunlight an object or a man will cast a shadow which can give away his presence. Several factors aggravate the situation for the sniper and they are the clear-cut outline of parts. Contrast will be extreme between the two areas and in this exaggerated contrast the observer's eye cannot adjust to both areas simultaneously. as in grass. however do not become careless while in deep shadows. an area with an uneven background helps the sniper. However.outline has been altered. as it is more difficult to detect the silhouette of an object. shadows will look especially dark. If the overall texture is vertical. or all of a sniper and/or his equipment. Any shine will attract the observer's attention. then it becomes conspicuous. Target indicators: Visual: Silhouette The silhouette factor will cause shape and can be the result of shadow. The sniper should be aware that most things in nature do grow vertically and NOT horizontally. Objects with a smooth surface will reflect light and become more obvious than an object with a rough surface that casts shadows on itself. Uniforms with patterns will not match the texture of terrain. The shape factor is usually a result of other factors indicated below. Mother Nature is very random in the formation of most things and as such geometric shapes do not occur in nature on a large scale. as it grows. Where light is excessively bright. Remember. Care must be taken not to change the natural shape of a shadow. that any object silhouetted against a contrasting background is conspicuous. Target indicators: Visual: Shadow Shadow is a double-edged sword for the sniper. which can create a recognizable shape. It is easy for the sniper to expose himself as a shadow against a lighted background of sunlight. Again.

it is best to use a small pad bound in a subdued binder. Always avoid the use of any point of color that could attract the eye. does not mean the enemy can’t see your head movement. This is only possible through the use of natural camouflage. he may diminish or reduce his overall signal. it is best to use paper that is of a subdued color such as buff. but in terms of movement in your surrounding area. Movement that attracts the observer is jerky movement. use the eyes as much as possible with minimal head movement. Color alone will usually not identify the object but is often an aid in locating the sniper. or the small animal that ran in panic at your presence. don't clip bright writing instruments where they can be seen. Target indicators: Visual: Color Color is a major problem for the sniper. a slow moving object difficult to detect. Always keep something between yourself and the observer when you do have to move. and items of personal hygiene. Be aware that paint can become a fire hazard. The enemy observer may believe that something is wrong with an area and observe that area closely. Color is also the biggest cause of siting problems. etc. . The sheen or gloss of new equipment or older cotton material should be dulled with paint. which would be one real big target indicator. Don't rub polish or oil onto boots. glasses' rims. Target indicators: Visual: Movement Movement is the final factor and is the “Proof” the enemy needs that you are there. However. taped or otherwise covered before the mission. This final reason why things are seen will seldom reveal the identity of an object. etc. Also. Black is not a natural color and just does not belong. such as the bush you brushed up against. movement will give a position away. Do not only think in terms of your movement. weapons. by eliminating the cause rather than masking it. This is especially true when the color is not natural for that area. The greater the contrasting color the more visible the object becomes. but a quick or jerky movement WILL be seen. Examples would be removing bright metal watches and jewelry. When rising your head up to observe always be aware that there is 6 inches minimum of head before your eyes are exposed. cleaning equipment. Once the sniper moves. Nature changes color on a regular basis and the sniper must match it as close as possible. The underside of leaves is lighter than the surface and the sniper will cause a problem if he does not take care when attaching leaves to his ghillie suit. Only man places objects in rows and equally spaces those objects. For some reason this is more noticeable then when there is a difference in height between the two. should be dulled. and make his job easier. Just because you can’t see. Where spacing does seem to effect the sniper is when the sniper riflescope lens is on the same height as the observation scope lens. Target indicators are inherent in the being and physical presence of the sniper. Always consider each move and keep that movement to a minimum. Even when all other indicators are absent. This creates a visual and perhaps olfactory target indicator. sheaths. Eating utensils. Do not fall into the "army trap" of regularly spacing objects for beautiful uniformity. The sniper does not want to be a Roman Candle. the birds that suddenly flew.equally spaced pattern. the enemy has all the “Proof” he needs to summon the hounds of war upon you. If the sniper must write. When observing. dirt or mud. but is the most common reason for the sniper to reveal his position. or rapid movement. A stationary object may be impossible to see.

deception may include the use of disguises. Deceiving is a technique used to trick the enemy into false conclusions about the location or identity of the sniper. requiring more practice and familiarity with the area. Likely weather conditions for the duration of the mission must be taken into account. Camouflage The two major factors in camouflage are camouflage discipline and camouflage construction. Camouflage construction consists of hiding. As a sniper you must find out what the weather patterns will be for the duration of the mission and plan accordingly. This is the reason for ghillie suits. . Discipline is doing what is necessary to construct your camouflage and maintain that camouflage. not dramatic patterns. The ghillie suit DOES NOT DISGUISE! Blending is achieved by skillfully matching personal camouflage with the surrounding area. The ghillie suit DOES NOT HIDE! Deception through disguising. The sniper uses one technique primarily. to a point where the sniper is part of the background. The sniper does want to keep something between him and the enemy as much as possible. It will also effect the sequence and timing of camouflage maintenance. they blend the sniper in with the terrain and do not hide him nor make him appear as if he is a tree or bush. If the natural becomes wilted then change that out. such as simply adopting native dress and moving during hours of limited visibility so as to fool observers. The sniper must understand that disguising is a very difficult technique and is usually not worth the effort. This is the technique the sniper will use most of the time and that the sniper must perfect. If the natural becomes twisted or falls over. Hiding means completely concealing the body from observation by lying or moving behind or in an object or thick vegetation. Camouflage construction has three different techniques. or during long overland movements. Remember that heat will dry out natural camouflage faster than damp weather. A more elaborate plan. right it. Always check your partner and have him check you so as to maintain your level of camouflage. Changes from damp cool to snow will cause a complete change in camouflage requirements. would include walking. The sniper must keep that in mind at all times! The sniper can use hiding while in movement to his objective. since this could affect the quantity and type of camouflage used. Blending is generally best achieved with bland colors. disguising and blending.Remember and always keep the reasons why things are seen in your mind as you move into position and you can defeat the enemy’s observation. dressing and behaving as the local populace. Forget the factors and you will become another statistic. Just as a heavy rain after a light snow will require changes. In some theaters of operations. Observe the area as you move through it and change out your natural to what is in your area as the natural changes. sitting. The sniper can not use hiding when he is in position because if the enemy can’t see the sniper then the sniper can not see the enemy. Once the sniper can see the enemy then the enemy can see the sniper as well. The rain will cause fabrics to become darker as they become wetter.

and again the leaves would not go on the skin but the dye can be used. except a screw up now is even worse in nature than the grass. or talk to friendly indigenous personnel. That being horizontal textures and patterns in a predominately vertical world. The “top” or upper side of the leaf is darker and shinier in color than the lower or “bottom” side of the leaf. it could adversely impact the chances of a date the night after using this technique in a permissive environment. While grass itself can not be applied to the skin. All of the same cautions are used as to the semi-permanence of the dyes and the caustic nature of some leaves (poison ivy jumps to mind here!). The terrain. The second problem with long sections of grass is that is lays over when attached to your uniform thus creating a texture problem. This would be an emergency use item only. Again the sniper must go to the S3 and receive as much information on the area that the mission will be in as is possible.Terrain patterns vary during the mission. the resulting natural dye can be applied. While this is not a problem in a war zone. Long grass on your uniform does two things. As with grass there is a . The problem with grass is the tendency to apply the grass in long pieces when short is better. Grass used on the clothing is a must when moving through an area that is grassy. The sniper should also be aware of any caustic sap that may be in some grasses and make a sound judgment on its use. or mission backdrop. Camouflage materials: Natural: Grass The first natural camouflage to discuss is the use of grass as a camouflage for the skin and clothing. the sniper must be aware of the problems in the use of certain natural skin camouflage materials. This will aid in preventing those nasty surprises. The resulting dye caused by grass is semipermanent in nature. The sniper must look at the leaves the same as he did the grass as to which side is shown. one it sticks above the rest of the grass as you move through it and especially when you have to observe through the top portion of grass (remember never look over anything if it can be avoided). and movement. Is it to be applied to the skin or to the uniform? What are the dangers of parasites in the area and what is the make up of the ground materials? These will effect decisions on the materials that you will use for camouflage and where you will apply them. leaves can be used as a natural camouflage for both skin and uniform. BAD SNIPER! Another problem that the sniper must be aware of is that grass is made up of two colors and the sniper must present the correct color to the target area or an observer will see a color error in the area. This means that the skin that is dyed would have to be sloughed off for the dye to disappear and this would result in blotching. Read after action reports from any previous missions going into the area. Camouflage materials: Natural: Leaves As with grass. Camouflage materials: Natural Natural camouflage for the skin could cause problems for the sniper later in the mission. Camouflage materials There are two basic materials that can be used for camouflage. The sniper must also consider where the material is to be applied. natural (preferred) and artificial. Due to this. at the objective may be different than that along the route to and from the objective.

coffee and tea (at various strengths). Camouflage materials: Natural: Dyes Both grass and leaves are natural dyes and so is any other by-product of live organisms. Camouflage materials: Artificial While natural camouflage is preferred. and Sand. This burn would not be felt until it is too late and the resulting reaction could cause a mission failure. beware of wilting. White. I must warn you of the danger of color to your scheme of camouflage. The reason being. All have definite problems. some saps. Soap and other stone from this family work well. such as foliage. You must balance out the sanitary hazards of a facial wound and infections caused by facial hair in a combat situation. and mud. There are three sticks. if the wrong stones are selected. Think about a patch of Oak leaves in a pine forest and you will get the idea! Add the fact that the light side is turned out and you have a compromised sniper. as necessary. Those colors are Loam. bacteria. The three sticks consist of loam and light green. Never use flowers or any other colorful item as a camouflage. As can be seen. that there are but four colors available in the military sticks. and the possible balance with mission failure. The first and most obvious is the military standard camouflage sticks. DO NOT use points of color as in flowers. The sniper can use insect repellant to soften the sticks and this would be a definite advantage to . Mud can also be from an area that is sufficiently alkaline as to cause skin burning after a short period of time. sand and light green. There are a number of items now available for camouflaging the skin. Rubbing two rocks together and adding water makes rock paint. This only works with certain “soft” stones and will come off with sweat. however the sniper only needs to concern himself with two. Points of color catch the light and will attract the observer as soon as they move. Light Green. and other life threatening organisms. animal blood. Use of the military sticks are a simple matter of rubbing on and rubbing off your skin in one action. but can be used in an emergency when nothing else is available.) and will make up the most of the sniper’s skin camouflage.dark and light side and this difference is even more pronounced than with grass. You must understand these shortcomings and balance your needs with the dangers. with one word of caution. rock paint. should ALWAYS be integrated into the camouflage design of the sniper's uniform. With the mud would be classified regular dirt and sand. artificial will be used as the base for the sniper’s uniform (Ghillie Suit etc. Any of these can be used on the skin or on the uniform as long as the dangers are taken into consideration. This is a basic part of camouflage discipline. This will cause the observer to watch the area and that will be your down fall. Less apparent is the mud that contains parasites. and loam and white. The next problem that snipers seem to have is not noticing when they move from a three lobed leaf area to a single lobed leaf area. Some of the other items would be bark from trees. You must know your area before using mud. understand that rock is basically a silicon-based object. glass is silicon isn’t it? Could this mean that you are rubbing small slivers of glass into the skin? Yes. Remember that some type of natural camouflage. when moving through your area. most sand stone make wonderful rock paint and will cut you like a razor! A self-renewing dye is the male facial hair and a beard will tone down the face and change the shape as well. Hmmm. Even if you are in a flower garden. the loam and white stick with the light green and sand stick will give the sniper all of the colors available. However. Examples of potentially dangerous dyes would of course include the blood and would appear as obvious. In short match the leaf and change the leaves.

The sniper should remember that at distance most small patterns are lost in the shuffle and the eye takes in the dominant color. always look at the colors around you before applying and avoid the trap of going WAY too dark. The sniper will then need to shred the burlap into usable pieces. such as paint. to break up the outline and allow the sniper to BLEND in with his surroundings. but again what would the olfactory target indicator be and would it be a hazard to the sniper in itself? The Hunter’s Specialties camouflage makeup and grease is an advantage in ease of use and color selection. However. Using the burlap to break up the outline of the sniper’s body and not build a new outline of the giant. An example would be dark (not black) spray-paint splotches on OG 107 material. a neutral gray color is good for overall blending with the surroundings. This will produce the desired earth tones that match nature much better than the artificial colors of man. then at a distance the effect is lost. Blotching is the next technique. Remember the rules that if it may be exposed. Artificial materials. This pattern is used when in heavily wooded areas and leafy vegetation is scarce. thus forming a sort of "negative" of the normal appearance of the face. then camouflage. Camouflage materials: Artificial: Burlap Buy the burlap in yard measurements as sold at cloth stores. or improve. also called splotching. This is the point of artificial. Stage makeup is another possibility for the sniper and can be used in an emergency or when the coloration is required. the first type. the camouflage protection of already good cloth or materials. may be used to augment. is produced in colors not normally found in nature. this is used when the area is thick with leafy vegetation. This will permit the sniper to use all of the burlap and have little pieces floating into everything. hands and the back of the neck. and continuously re-check your partner and yourself. Camouflage sticks or face paints are used to cover ALL exposed areas of skin. The parts of the face that form shadows should be lightened and the parts that shine should be darkened.the skin. It is normally the best all-around pattern. Camouflage materials: Artificial: Why? The main purpose of the artificial materials is the need to break up the OUTLINE of the sniper and deny the observer a SHAPE that he can see and recognize. There are three types of camouflage pattern used by the sniper. Always apply camouflage in pairs. hulking. is accomplished through use of regular or irregular stripes. Combination is the last and is used when moving through changing terrain. If they are too small. Striping. Woolybooger Ghillie Monster! The sniper would also do well to remember that the burlap sold in most stores and placed in the Ghillie Suit Kit for the military. such as face (including ears). The most obvious material that is overused is burlap for the Ghillie suit. as with the BDU uniform. than he will remember to go light. except possibly nuclear wastelands. There are various types of cloth or materials that can be used while keeping in mind METT-T. The sniper must also be aware that paints can play a role in “flame on” when the sniper is wearing these materials next to an open flame. This is a common problem and it is aggravated in the field by the tendency of the sniper to cast a shadow upon himself while in position. You must be aware of some materials that have a natural shine such as nylon products. By cutting the burlap into 12 inch . If the sniper remembers that burlap only looks like burlap and nothing else. The "blotches" should be large and irregular. The sniper would be better suited to acquire the natural color burlap and soak it in various strengths of tea and coffee.

to 16 inch squares, the sniper may now shred the burlap into individual strands and group them into a shape that is similar to grass. The sniper can also remove 1 1/2 to 2 inches from opposing sides and then cut the squares into 1 to 1 1/2 inch wide strips. This allows the burlap, shredded from the ends, to be used and the sniper can then use the strips, folded over, as additional eye confusion as is found at the base of grass clumps. The burlap can be tied into the netting of the suit or headdress using various techniques, and the sniper does want to use various tying techniques. This also adds to the randomness and confusion that is evident in nature. Along with the burlap, the sniper can add pieces of hemp rope, hessian cloth, or any cloth that the sniper has found to blend in his area of operations. The sniper must always be on the lookout for these materials to improve his camouflage while in base camp or home base. It is always fun to watch little old ladies eyeing you as you move through the cloth section “feeling” the different clothes and checking both sides for color. Camouflage materials: Artificial: Base Uniform Another thing that the sniper must keep an open mind to is the base uniform that he will use for camouflage. This base uniform can be a standard issue military uniform, a military uniform of the country that the sniper is operating in, civilian camouflage uniforms, Civilian clothing (true urban camouflage). Onto this “base uniform” would be attached the Ghillie net, Ghillie hat, or a full Ghillie Suit would be used. The sniper must remember that the Ghillie Suit is not designed for general wear and that it indicates that you are a sniper. This is not a good thing around sniper conscience enemies. Also, camouflage netting, mosquito netting, IR netting, etc can be added to or used in conjunction with the Ghillie suit. In many circumstances, the Ghillie net or hat would be sufficient for the sniper. The Ghillie Net would be the net attached temporarily to the uniform and removed when not needed. It would have the same burlap garnish and space for the natural camouflage to be placed on the net. The net could be set up so as to have a hood that would rest over the sniper’s head, arms, hands, weapon receiver and scope. This would cover the sniper while in position and would be tucked inside the shirt during movement. The Ghillie hat would be a boonie style hat with the brim stiffener cut off the wide brim. The net would be sewed over the top of the hat and have sufficient netting to cover part of the back and over the arms, hands, weapon receiver and scope. Again the net would have the burlap tied in and sufficient space for natural camouflage to be tied to the net. Camouflage materials: Artificial: Drag Bags Other equipment to be considered is drag bags for the weapons and equipment. Do not attempt to move into a final position during daylight wearing a rucksack or LBE. A rucksack and LBE will become a moving lump that can not be camouflaged. The sniper must remember that the drag bag is maintained under control at ALL times. The drag bag can become more of a hindrance than help in many circumstances. Drag bags constructed of stiff materials protect the weapon better and give a distinct signature due to that very stiffness. An example is the use of the 1950 weapons container for airborne infiltration also used as the drag bag with minor modification. It is very successful, but is also a tremendous signature. Soft bags do not seem to hang on the nearest item and “wait a minute” vines do not seem to leap 6 to 7 feet just to snag them as they do with the stiff bags. However, the soft bag does not protect as the stiff one does. Generally the compromise of the scope/receiver cover in conjunction with muzzle guard works the best. Protects the scope, receiver, and muzzle while leaving little to snag. Last word on drag bags, they ARE NOT for dragging!!!! The bag is to protect the weapon, especially the muzzle

and scope, during the last portion of a stalk. This is when all of the sniper’s attention is focused on his movement and small bad things can happen to the weapon. I have seen students dragging their weapon while walking, high crawling, and hands and knees movement. Allowing the weapon to drag on its own is foolhardy in the extreme. Always control the weapon; it can become, at a minimum, a giant hand waving to say, “here I am, shoot my stupid arse”! Camouflage materials: Artificial: Optics The next problem for the sniper is all the glass that he is about to expose to the enemy. This is in the form of the riflescope, binoculars, and spotting scope as a minimum, with the addition of laser range finders, monocular, etc. a possibility. The sniper must reduce the glare and signature “cat's eye” of these optics without degrading their performance. This is actually easier than it first appears, since the real danger areas are the time when there is sufficient light to cause reflection and the black hole effect of the optics. When this is the case then the size of the objective lens can be drastically reduced without greatly effecting the optics. Only the center portion of the objective lens is used to observe through. The rest of the objective lens gathers light, and reflects it. By reducing the size of the objective and giving it an irregular shape the sniper reduces the possibility of compromise. The sniper does not want to permanently reduce the size, so a removable mask is the best way to go. The mask should be cut in an irregular patterned opening so as not to create a smaller, though just as defined, signature of optics. The sniper must also remember to maintain his observation scope just above the rifle scope, this prevents the spacing problem created by two circles at even height (binos). Another problem is the circle of the muzzle. This must also be reduced as a signature. The easiest way is through the use of burlap and placing it over the front top half of the muzzle. The initial, precursory column of air, muzzle blast, will move the burlap out of the way and the bullet will not touch the burlap. After the shot the burlap will fall back into place and recover the muzzle front until the next shot. Be aware that with each subsequent shot the burlap will shred and become less effective as a piece of camouflage. The weapon itself can be painted and the barrel can have some burlap placed around it as long as the stock is not also trapped in with the barrel. If this occurs then the barrel harmonics will be seriously harmed and accuracy will be destroyed. The rest of the weapon will be hidden from view by the sniper’s body and his veil while in position. The best assurance of floated barrel is to always carry a strap of cloth under the barrel back at the recoil lug. Upon movement into the FFP and prior to the shot the cloth should be pulled the entire length of the forestock channel to insure that the barrel is floated. This prevents al of the garbage, grass, spiders and mites from residing in that area after the stalk. It also allows the sniper to know that his burlap has not wrapped up onto the stock and barrel, messing with the harmonics. Camouflage materials: Artificial: Ghillie suit The sniper constructs the Ghillie suit for himself. This allows the sniper to construct what he is comfortable with. There is no right way to do a ghillie suit, only guidelines. It may be as elaborate or as simple as the sniper requires. There are some guidelines that the sniper needs to follow. The base uniform can be the uniform the sniper is wearing or a dedicated uniform only for the ghillie suit. The base uniform should be a bland color of a light material and easily ventilated. Pockets on the front of the uniform can be removed, sewn shut, or not used during a stalk. Padding can be sewn into the knees and elbows of the uniform or worn under the uniform for the stalk. Heavy canvas can be sewn onto the front of the uniform to facilitate crawling or it

can be omitted. Remember that this heavy material can cause a heat problem in hot climates. The netting can be sewn onto the base uniform or tacked onto the uniform with dark safety pins just prior to the stalk. Be careful with one-piece base uniforms due to ventilating problems. The shirt of the base uniform will hold most of the netting with garnish. Care must be taken not to overload the net with garnish or you will create a new outline of the giant ghillie woollybooger. Leave spaces for natural, as this is what will blend the suit into the terrain. If the shirt is dedicated then the sniper may wish to sew the pockets shut or remove them. Laying on an object in a breast pocket is an old form of sniper torture. It is possible to read the date on a dime left in your pocket for an extended time. Place the pockets you removed from the front on the shirtsleeves and on the back of the shirt sew a pocket, made from an old sleeve that is accessible to your partner. This pocket will carry his partner’s equipment while his partner will carry his equipment needed at the FFP. This prevents the snipers from “diggin” around for equipment at the wrong time. On the cuffs of the sleeves, sew loops that will go over the thumb, or middle finger. This prevents the sleeves from sliding up as you crawl. Also sew in a crotch belt that will hold down the shirt while you crawl. The sniper will also want to ventilate the shirt by cutting a 6 inch by 18 inch hole across the back and sewing a small weave net into that area for ventilation. This net would not have any garnish tied to it, however the net placed over the top of the whole shirt back would. If the shirt is not dedicated then remove all items from the shirt pockets prior to the stalk. Once the shirt is modified for “Ghillie use only” with canvas, padding, extra pockets, garnish, etc., the sniper has a very big piece of cloth on his hands. A thought on the canvas issue is that if you need that canvas and padding for crawling, then maybe you need more time spent on route selection and less time on ghillie suit construction. The pants are constructed the same as the shirt in regards to pockets, canvas, netting etc. Sew in loops on the cuffs of the pants to tie into the boots so as to keep the pants legs down. Put on your shirt prior to sewing on the netting, this will prevent you from doubling the garnish and creating the “fat butt” look that really stands out on a stalk. I recommend that you do not extend the netting much below the mid calf area as this can create some problems in movement in the walking mode as your netting, garnish, etc decides to play tangle foot with you. It can be annoying and dangerous on the stalk when vegetation begins to wave about to indicate your presence. Boots should be scuffed and browned up. Burlap threads may be glued to the boots, especially along the black soles. The black soles in any case must be subdued, as they do not fit in with nature. Sewn canvas, shoe goo and dirt, of just plain old paint may also be used on the boots as well as any other part of the ghillie suit. Again be aware of the possibility of a flame on situation. Also be aware that while shoe goo is great for many of the projects, it shines like a mirror in many circumstances, thus you must observe and modify while in construction, and this is also an on going project with the entire suit. Gloves should be used during the stalk to protect the hands from hazards. They may be full gloves or fingerless gloves and should be removed for the shot. The gloves should be light colored and garnish may be attached or glued to the backsides. Remember that your trigger finger is important and that fingerless gloves do not protect the fingers! Another thought is that many go to the tactical section of their friendly neighborhood sniper store to buy stuff. This is cool for the store but remember that many of the items are really modified from another cheaper item, and that you can modify them as well.

. Dehydration Written by David R. Boil all water no matter where you find it. and the life of the sniper. Drink your water. and they soon felt much better. small or big. Ignorance or failure to apply the principles of camouflage may cost the mission. the desert.Conclusion As a sniper you must remain undetected during the entire mission. Try not to work hard enough to perspire. or treat it chemically. drink whenever you are thirsty. Do not spit. To saturate your system drink as much as you can hold and urinate. This was discovered when the men often complained of constant fatigue. American doctors made this observation in the last few years at various bases in the Arctic and Antarctic. you must remain faithful to every principle of camouflage and concealment. Rationing water will not help you. No matter the quantity of water you may have. Reed Whether you are in the tropics. His thirst is often slaked before the water budget is balanced again. Stalking even short distances will result in dehydration. Rationing will not help. The soldiers stationed there had no thirst because of the cold climate and drank little. The Apache traveled from one water hole to another without carrying water. Points to remember regarding water. Not only on the objective. and then engage the target unnoticed. its consumption and dehydration:  In warm weather. as a result their bodies suffered from progressive dehydration. Breathe through your nose to keep moisture from escaping through your breath. The greatest shot in the world is useless as a sniper if he cannot reach the objective undetected.      The last point is critical. The average man does not drink enough water. but enroute to and from the objective. It Takes 50% more heat to melt snow than to melt ice. On icebergs there are always depressions filled with fresh water. They were URGED to drink a certain amount of water every meal. Even in cold weather you need over a liter (2 pints) a day. wait for the target. or the Arctic. When your mouth feels dry you can keep a small pebble in it to suck on. you may need upwards of a gallon or more a day to replace losses. and employ a wide variety of techniques and imagination with the utmost care. Repeat the process several times and you will have as much water as your system can hold. In order to accomplish this.

face. use dirt. Concealment Concealment is what keeps you from being seen. and the structure is strong enough. 18" of dirt will protect you from direct light weapons fire. A bush will hide you. Gather carefully so that people traveling through the area will not see the cuttings. Do not cut bushes from the area of your hide. Mortar or artillery is a different matter. It is not necessarily cover. otherwise they will know that "someone" has been there gathering camouflage for a position. You must select a primary and at least one alternate hide. These will devastate the building. However. logs. Cover Cover is the protection the site affords from fire. You must achieve two things. when an enemy machine gunner is whittling away at that 18". break up your outline and blend in. hands. You can also do this by wearing materials that obscure the outline of your body. Roads. timbers. This goes for almost any position you choose. The area you select should make success likely. and choose the best cover available that fills other essential requirements. etc. rivers. It may or may not be wise to expend a lot of effort on overhead cover when none is available naturally. From the time we are first born we know what a face is. If the building is raised. You must get out before heavy weapons are brought to bear. Gather materials distant from your hide if you need them. You should use anything available to provide cover. A machine gun will tear them to pieces. If you do not have sandbags. You break up your outline by creating shadows where they should not be and highlighting places that should be in shadow. It is the first thing newborns sees when their eyes open. This will be next to impossible if the structure is on a concrete slab. collapsing the structure on top of you. Wooden frame housing or single layer cinder blocks or bricks will not stop direct rifle fire or close range pistol fire. Use whatever is available. it won't seem like much. or anything else you can find. The more time spent in the area digging and cutting the more you will be exposed to enemy detection and fire. the building itself will provide overhead cover from RPG's or thrown grenades. You must be very careful to avoid detection. If your hide is inside a building you may use sandbags as a barricade inside the house. and fields all offer good visibility. Personal camouflage is essential at all times. bridges. or dig a position through the floor and into the ground. bricks.Fieldcraft By David Reed You must first select an area for your kill zone. You will base your decision on the probability that the target will appear in this area during the period of time you are there. but it will not stop a bullet. The idea is to get the hell out of there before that happens. By the time a person is 4 years old they can see facial patterns in clouds and . If all of the bushes have been cut down and piled up in one spot your hide will be too obvious. or the time to fill them.

If you must use the roof. From the front so it will look like a roof in a state of disrepair. It is impossible to shoot near or after darkness without your muzzle flash being seen. Selecting a hide in a built up area (towns. Make use of the supports or stairs as cover/concealment. NEVER stick the barrel of the rifle out of the window. If you must. Cut a hole in the roof and dislodge the shingles. 90mm . Be careful to position yourself in a way that minimizes the angle at which the flash can be seen. Better yet. Whatever you do. white paint.) requires some additional work. You don't want a perfect reversal because it will still look like a face! When using vegetation for camouflage. make a few more holes in the wall to shoot from. go into the attic area and build a platform or stand which will elevate you. etc. do not climb up on the roof unless necessary. Always consider what you will look like against the background. If the building is somewhat dilapidated. Try to select a place for your hide that provides natural concealment. he will return fire to these features first. is to cut a hole through the wall eight inches above floor level. If you are using a weapon with a back blast area (LAW. NEVER shoot from windows unless you have too. then position yourself against the back wall of the room. See the section below titled "Look of your hide" for more on this subject.45 degrees to the targets' eyes. use very short branches. This usually means keeping the muzzle well back of whatever you are shooting out of. Dislodge a few other shingles at different heights and NOT equally spaced to achieve an effect like that of the multiple wall holes described above. If there is light colored earth. even if it is in your eyes! Careful analysis of site placement and timing is necessary for this to work. anything on the horizon under the sun is difficult to see. get below ground in a position under a raised floor structure.their closet at night! It is the one feature that is most recognizable to anyone. Choose vegetation that blends in to the area you are hiding in. position yourself by a chimney or other protrusion so that you are not silhouetted against the sky or background. In a house type structure. Any high powered rifle puts out a tremendous muzzle flash. If the enemy is fired upon. This will provide the enemy more choices when he is trying to decide where the fire is coming from. Long branches and grasses move in an exaggerated fashion when you make slight movements. What is better. If height is necessary. When applying camouflage stick or civilian creams use the dark tones on raised facial features and the light tones on recessed (reverse shadows). in a wood frame house. The sun can be used as camouflage during certain times of the day. You should try to blend in. Close to the window you can be seen from a much wider angle than you can if you are well back into the room. then augment it as necessary. Make the hole large enough to see the kill zone from a spot four feet or more back from the wall. These areas will always be scrutinized. but run areas together across your face on a diagonal. Strategically located branches will help. cities. windows. It also helps to disguise the hole as "just another hole in that 'ole building over there". the glare can work in your favor depending on the location of the sun. strategically located cars (windshields). When the sun is to your back and at an angle of 15 . The concept of a silhouette is important. do not select the most prominent terrain feature for your hide.

and counting the number of tracks within it. Count the tracks close to one edge. break more brush. People carrying a load will take shorter steps than those without. etc. drag their feet. Tired people will 'meander'. sort of a wobble or stagger to them.Recoilless. (when the sun rises over the surrounding trees). etc. sunlight. A good tracker can tell when you were there. those who step down at the very edge will probably step again near the other edge. dirt thrown forwards and back means the person was running. it will be apparent that a lone "someone" has walked through this area. RPG. a few people may make two tracks. and shaded.) make sure that you are not in an enclosed area or the blast may incapacitate you! Route of Ingress This is the route you will take to get to your hide. If the wind is very calm and has been since the previous evening then little affect from wind will be evident. backwards tracks will look unnatural. each of these is a person. I have used burlap to obscure my tracks. Pick a route where the ground is firm and covered by grass. Short stride -. and breeze. the ground moist. By measuring a three foot section of trail. this route should not take you through your own kill zone. If the ground is shaded until 11:00 a. It is impossible to walk backwards and put the heel of your foot down first. Wind will blow debris into the track and increase the drying rate around the edges. and when tracks can't be seen. people who step down near the middle will step again out side of the section. In rural areas. each of these is a person. then look at the stride. Burlap will keep your prints unrecognizable. someone else may also think that this is a good spot to shoot!. toes hitting hard. On really soft ground. the edges of a track will not begin to crumble for at least eight hours. you will see the shadows better. When it's very humid. Add them up and you will . Every boy scout knows the "walking backwards" trick. Long stride. In a three foot piece of trail. leaves. the direction that brush or twigs have been broken in will indicate the direction of travel. then the sunlight will not begin to affect tracks until then. A few words on sign -. In addition to the sign you will leave when passing through.was the person tip-toeing or trying to walk backwards. Tracking Tips                What has the weather been like recently? When did the sun rise? Was there a dew fall? Look towards the sun when studying tracks. The depth of the tracks and length of the stride can indicate the weight of the load carried and the physical strength of the person who made them. The direction of travel is pretty obvious. etc. Tie the burlap around your foot gear. Footprints in soft ground will begin to deteriorate around the edges within 2 hours depending on the humidity. Remember different armies may have different tread designs. If tracks show toes hitting first.don't leave any! A good woodsman leaves nothing behind.m. including footprints. Count the tracks near the middle. an estimate can be made of the size of the party who made the tracks. You must always be aware of where you step.

the grass underneath will die. change your feces and urine also.. A pile of feces is a gold mine of information to a tracker. and in a manner that no one will cross your trail while you are there. a bar of soap. You must NEVER use the same route out that you used to go in. The opposing attorney can sense when they are on a subject that makes you nervous. etc. all tell a story. The detergent used to wash clothes. if not. Leave these items home when you are on patrol. pizzas. Never assume your enemy is stupid. chewing tobacco. No they still can't smell as well as most animals. You want to be able to approach your hide unseen. The feces of a person who lives on beans and rice will smell different from the feces of a person who eats hamburgers. If the dark side is damp then you know that the pebble was dislodged recently. sunlight. etc. deodorant. Cigarette butts. LURP's. and spirit. but enough for them to know you are around. This will help you conceal your odor. cunning. tribal conditions can smell much better than people who are bombarded by odors 24 hours a day. rational. A defense attorney will tell his client not to drink the night before the client has to take the stand under cross examination. as it dries it will become sticky from sap secretions (depending on the variety/species). Your body secrets different odors depending on what you eat and drink.         have a close approximation of the size of the patrol. After a while the sap will harden. If your trail was picked up. The best solution is to eat nothing but indigenous foods for at least 48 hours prior to your mission. A small green branch will be moist for 24 hours. but they can smell you as far as 20? yards. Smells After you have spent a few weeks in the out of doors. When dislodged there will be a small depression in the ground (the hole they were in). are all indicators of age. Your enemy's will too. etc. Route of Egress This is your escape route. Not strong. Leaves should be dark underneath in the same way. where there are no usually smells of habitation. and clear of mind. When the trail goes over hard ground look carefully at small pebbles. then the leaf has fallen very recently. candy wrappers. all have odd smells to a person who does not use them. body. Discipline can be judged by debris dropped by along the way. Consider rain. The feces of a person can be examined to determine diet. settling. open containers of food. (body language as well but this isn't about trial prep). clever. . maggot growth. The wetness. robbed of sunlight. Paper will yellow and fade at a certain rate depending on sunlight and rain. decay. You are better off eating only indigenous foods when out on patrol. The moisture evident in the scar left when a branch breaks can indicate how long ago that branch was broken. People who live in remote. The pebble will be dark on one side where it was in the hole. Leaves that have lain on the ground for a few days will have discolored grass underneath. Always assume that he is smart. You must be able to get up and get out quickly without being detected. Women tend to walk more pigeon toed than men. your nose will become more sensitive to foreign odors. This applies to anything laying on the ground. People who spend their lives in the outdoors are very attuned to these things and can tell a lot about the person who left the sign. Don't be fooled by tracks made at different times on a often traveled trail. dew. and wind. or c-rats.

You MUST NOT GET CAUGHT. They may take point and/or pull rear security while you are enroute to/from your hide. moving target. and an old Mannlicher-Carcano with a cheap scope. The same thing happens -. Always assume that you are being followed. Remember discipline? No matter how tempted you may be. you do not have the firepower to fight the enemy. Whoever made that statement was just full of crap. You must avoid contact at all costs. NOTE -. do NOT hazard confrontations without thinking about the consequences. connected to your brain. If you have not.you are walking through a relatively flat landscape with low to medium height bushes and a few small trees. you will not have time to circle and study your trail.Many people have duplicated the conditions of the JFK assassination and proven that a good rifleman could make the same shots. as the Army refers to it -. When thinking this through. Consider this -. To your right you notice a slight rise in the ground with two large trees. consider that you are alone. If you have fired your rifle.what will you do? NEVER use a "likely" spot. These men must be capable woodsmen. That was the first time I qualified.hehehe! A real sniper shoots his best under pressure or when he's shooting with a purpose. Envision a similar scenario in a town. There is no record of the many times I shot "expert" or of my "advanced marksmanship training" . Lee Harvey Oswald made a pretty good choice when he picked that building. and there is no way you are going to miss. Practically everyone who entered the match did just as well as Oswald and several did better. this is a good thing to do. with low houses and buildings except one six story job right up the street. Never travel in a straight line or a predictable zig zag. The top shooter was left-handed -. END NOTE Security Ideally you will have at least two people watching your rear while you are in your hide. Top it off with about thirty closed windows in the building and one open window on the fifth floor. you and everyone with you will pour a large volume of fire at that rise and those two trees. So what? The only record on my DD 214 regarding shooting skill was the "Marksman" score I shot in basic training. . View or look of the site from the kill zone. Many conspiracy theorists point to some statement by an "expert" who claimed that nobody could fire an old Mannlicher-Carcano that fast. They will cover you while you concentrate on the mission. Two or three years ago at a shooting match in Ohio (?) the organizers recreated this scenario with a tower.just like Oswald! Others point to the fact that Oswald was only an average marksman while in the Marines.someone could be following it or lying in ambush for your return. I did it with an abused basic training issue M16. where are you looking? Where are you going to shoot first? More than likely. You hit the ground. The sight picture becomes a part of you. Change your route often enough so that no one can review your course over a period of time and predict where you are going. Suddenly blood and brains fly out of the head of the man in front of you as you hear the CRACCCKKKK of a bullet.

If your target is a valuable leader it is possible security forces will sweep the area before he travels through it. thick vines. you have the responsibility of the mission in your hands. Everything not in use must be packed and ready to run with at all times. or other obstacles that someone would have to cross. You must not talk unless it is necessary and then only in a whisper. You will need something to protect you from this and a good hole will do the trick. You must select people who complement your efforts and can perform with a high degree of professionalism.Actions at the Objective (Other miscellaneous stuff) People who have their "shit together" do not litter. Usually people will go around obstacles it because it is easier. Dry leaves that crunch. Check the range to each and note it. After all ranges have been determined. or otherwise screw-off while at the objective. Do not scatter your equipment about. try to pick a place that will provide an early warning of someone's approach. During daylight the worst thing you can do is move. Freeze. That is only true if the person approaching stumbles. When you set up your position you will make a preliminary scan of the area to make certain you have not been seen. Remember this. wait until the aircraft passes. or is talking to someone. It is very easy to become complacent and assume that there is no one close to you. eat. They will look in all the likely spots. This equipment can be hand held or mounted on a vehicle or aircraft. When selecting your hide. and pencil are the only things you need to have ready. After I prepare my range card and I'm satisfied with my position I begin a methodical search of the area. I have been in many situations where people suddenly appeared very close to me. This is especially true when a wind is blowing or it is raining. Humans do not have super hearing. As the primary shooter. Determine the right combination of minimum scope adjustment and hold for each range. go back and calculate any scope adjustments necessary for each range. If they suspect you are there you are in trouble. makes a loud noise. I begin from the left edge of the area at maximum range and slowly sweep to the right and then back. I use a pattern because it gives me something to do and it keeps me from missing an area. logs. DO NOT neglect the zone close to your hide. Careful notes should be kept referencing all sign that you cross and everything that you see or hear. It must be positioned on . air personnel will only spot you if there is a heat differential or if you move. sleep. You must have a lid covered with dirt and camouflage to pull over you when the security forces pass by. masturbate. You should then check your coordinates by using resection with your compass and map. A spider hole is excellent cover and concealment. notepad. It is easy to walk closely to someone in the woods without them hearing you. If it is night then they can use infrared equipment that will detect your body heat. A spotting scope. You naturally assume that if there was someone there you would see them. When an aircraft is involved you must be very quick to do this before they can spot your movement. rifle. A good shrub with intact root ball works well. It is better to use signals for all communication. If you must eat in your hide make sure that you do not leave litter on the ground. Every terrain feature in or near the kill zone should be noted. decreasing the range until I'm looking at the area close to my hide. Litter tells a story and is indicative of the discipline/professionalism of the person in question. don't move.

but they might send out security elements to their right and left flanks just in case you double back to ambush them. A good trail dog can follow a trail over 24 hours old! . Hounds don't have to sniff the ground where you walked unless the trail is several hours old. they run towards your scent that is in the air and clinging to things you came close to. Also. Then you won't have to tromp around the area of your hide.high ground to provide good visibility. Isolated piles of dirt look suspicious. and surprised the hunter from behind? People who write movie scripts do not have a secret source advising them on these things. This can work. A nearby stream will wash the dirt away. The worst time to discover this is when someone is standing 4 feet away and looking for you! Have you ever tried to breathe through a straw? You don't have to be under the water to test it. the hunter leaves a small interesting object or clue that the hunted spots. If they suspect an ambush. you want them to kick up and breathe the pepper. They won't come diddy bopping down the trail following tracks. Pick a variety (if there is one) which is naturally dry looking. Don't waste time with diabolic schemes. whether you cover them with leaves or not. You must hide the dirt from the hole. picks up. you may be able to disguise the dirt as part of the rise. he stops. Smart soldiers will follow tracks. That will put them out of action long enough to put some distance between you and them. If you must run. Don't leave it in a pile nearby. A note about dogs: Sprinkle cayenne powder around the area in a circle around your hide. Keep it simple. Otherwise the tube fills up with your exhaled breath and you try to breathe the same air over and over again. if you dig into the side of a small rise. acted as if he didn't see it. sprinkle some behind you every so often. As they run. Preserving the root ball will help keep the plant fresh. ANY sign you leave WILL be used to track you down and kill you. leaving sign. as in the case where sign looks too obvious or planted. This bush will die and must be replaced. Another one is where the hunted hides under the water and breathes through a reed. Leave a step that will raise you up to shooting level. then proceeds in the desired direction. What would happen in the movie if the "hunted" spotted the object. Dig the hole deep enough so that you don't have to bend to hide. They dream it up and make it work on screen. this will keep away animals. right into a trap. then circle around to surprise you. walked past out of sight. but be careful not to leave tracks or fresh dirt near the bank. You will have to experiment with the vegetation in the area to determine which plant looks live the longest. or hiding in fear of your life. but depending on the diameter of the reed. they will determine the most likely spots for your hide. Use common sense instead. Nose up. then stopped and looked for the hiding place the hunter was using. A Word of Warning You've seen all sorts of clever tricks used in movies and on TV that provide some devious trap or ruse that leads someone to their death. looks around. it better not be more than 6" long. Not just where you walk but on the bushes to the right and left of your path.To set a trap. One trick I've seen with several variations is this -. They "wind" you.

My squad leader gave me his and told me never to let it happen again. TEMPLE FIRE: This hearth consists of a raised platform.both for practical and leadership reasons. more so than the gun. as well as that from the fire will keep things warm and you can use . (Sniper Note: In my opinion you can't beat a good K-Bar. Light the fire on top of this. (Sniper Note: To make waterproof matches use strike-anywhere kitchen matches. you'll only make it worse. next in line is a good machete or those new all purpose shovels. USMC. or Air Force Survival knife. Do not light a fire at the base of a tree or a stump. Make this from a layer of green logs covered with a layer of earth or a layer of stones. He suffered while I stayed warm. Their heat. Don't glob it on too thick and make sure you get some on the wood too. Clear away leaves. Also remember this. Light a candle and coat the match head completely with wax. Choose a site that is sheltered. So that even a dummy can't lose it. and sharpen quickly with less than ideal abrasive surfaces. Reed Have your match container attached to YOU AND WATERTIGHT. Four uprights support crosspieces in their forks. IN WINDY CONDITIONS: If there are particularly strong winds. are less brittle than stainless steel. A sharpening stone to go with the knife is very important. Women's nail polish will also work well. If land is swampy or the snow deep a raised platform is needed. Use them to support cooking utensils. when working in the dark you must always know where everything is. bow and arrow.Fire Building Written by Roger Perron and David R. You cannot afford to lose or misplace anything in a survival or combat situation. All equipment should be tied to you using "dummy cords". You can sharpen with other things but unless your blade is extremely dull. On my first winter exercise in the army I lost one of my gloves. built of green timber. dig a trench and light your fire in it. It was a lesson I never forgot -. A pole across upper forks on diagonally opposite uprights can support cooking pots. known as a temple fire. The hunting knife comes next. twigs. The blades on these knives have a high tensile strength. the fire MUST be built on a platform. especially during high winds. moss and dry grass from a circle at least 2m (6 feet) across & scrape everything away until you have a surface of bare earth. If the ground is wet or covered with snow. Across them place a layer of green logs and cover this with several inches of earth.) THE FIREPLACE: It needs to be prepared carefully. Also good for windy conditions: encircle your fire with rocks to retain heat and conserve fuel.) An axe is the most important tool in the bush. but well sharpened and a good one.

loosening it in your hand. LIGHTING FIRE FROM COAL: To light a fire from coal. When one end is put in fire or against a glowing coal it will take hold of the spark. Most of the silky soft fiber barks are ideal. hold the ball in the air. indoors and out. fold the rest of the tinder over the coal and with the tinder ball held very loosely between the widespread fingers. they are fairly dependable. allowing the wind to blow between the fingers. It's worth while to discover which plants whose barks have this property. Now whirl the ball round and round at arms' length or if there is a strong wind blowing. Tinder is highly combustible substance in which a spark can be blown into flame and innumerable materials of this sort can be found. from suitable barks or palm fibers. blow into the ball. Tinder impregnated with a solution of saltpeter and later dried MUST be carried in an airtight container. Select fire area. This is called: Slow Match. turn into grenades. the smaller the slivers the easier they will be to light. It is used as a means of preserving fire and also as a mean of carrying it from place to place. SLOW MATCH: You will discover that some of the soft inner barks teased and spun into cord will smolder slowly when lighted. toss on any stray whittling. Gather adequate supply of fuel first. the slow match should be hung from a branch and exposed to air currents. etc. Lengths of cord made from such a bark can be used to maintain a "coal" for a length of time and so save your precious matches. Secure fuel and build a fire before darkness.) FUZZ STICKS: Many bushmen start all fires. One is easily made by shaving a straight-grained stick of dry split softwood with single knife strokes until one end is a mass of wooden curls. The ball will start to smoke as the tinder catches. collect a bundle of dry tinder. so that fire can be fed immediately as it grows. For such a use.the rocks themselves as bed warmer. out of the wind. These few last puffs will convert the smoldering mass to flame thus fire from coal at last. Although in terms of initial effort they are often more bother than a handful of dry twigs. When there is a dense flow of smoke. Another trick is to attach a pierced can to a 4 foot rope. & let it swirl till it smokes & flames. softly tease a large piece and place the coal in the center. Slate and shale have air pockets that when heated. It can be made by making a length of cord or thin rope from 1/4" 1/2" in diameter. (Sniper Note: A very good fire starter is a ball of dryer lint soaked with candle wax. (Sniper Note: Make a "pine cone" looking thing with a knife and piece of wood. light the mass and then go through the usual procedure of adding progressively larger firewood. put the coal & tinder in it. with them. .) The usual procedure is to bunch no less than 3 such fuzz-sticks so that the flames will be able to eat into the shavings. A slow match is a safe way when having no match or fire-lighting material to preserve the vital spark for further use after you have doused your fire and left camp for an hour or 2. and carried in special containers such as tinderboxes. A slow match is a length of rope or cord that hangs smoldering to give fire when wanted. smoldering slowly. If carried otherwise the saltpeter will become damp with moisture from the air. protected from rain and snow.

moss & leaves. Have lots of slower burning wood ready when you get the fire going. A handful of very dry pine needles often works. ANIMAL DROPPINGS: These make excellent fuel. then send some people to collect other useful items for the shelter.Birch bark can be detached in the thinnest of layers and these shredded to make tinder. Spruce. Pine. this applies to both dead and green woods. You do not want to discover this at 10:00 at night when you have 8 hours to go until daylight. Good tinder needs only a spark to ignite it. lichens. Midges. You can mix them with grass. KINDLING: It is the wood used to raise the flames from the tinder so that larger and less combustible materials can be burned. When first stranded. Dry the droppings thoroughly for a good smokeless fire. dry moss. The worst spark-makers are Cedar. you can also use the fluff of the so-called cotton grass. which is especially useful at night. the heavier the wood the more heat it will give. dead evergreen needles. If you are conservative you can stretch this considerably. ) MAKE SURE that you do get one stack ready also you will need 4 mores for your signals -. (Sniper Note: In cold weather it is not unusual to burn a cord of wood a day to stay warm. everyone in your party should devote an hour to gathering firewood. Gather a lot more than you think you will need. . you never know when you will get a spell of rain or snow. give off great heat and last for a long time as hot coals. HARD WOODS: Hickory. Chestnut and Willow. SOFTWOODS: Tend to burn too fast and give off sparks. Beech or Oak for instance burns well. As a general rule. that of the cattails and the downy heads of such flower as mature Goldenrod. even bird nests. Tinder is any kind of material that takes the minimum of heat to make it catch in fire. Dry fuzz from pussy willows is a well-known tinder. I add this note because those who have little experience will usually gather to little firewood. Hemlock. Remember that damp wood is sometimes advantageous -producing smoke to keep off flies. dry hay are among the can be pulverized for tinder. they keep a fire going through the night. and Mosquitoes. resinous softwoods like lighter knot burn very fast. If it looks like there is plenty.Should one pile refuse to light the extra one will do it. The best kindling consists of small dry twigs and the softer woods are preferable because they flare up quickly. The drawbacks of softwoods are that they tend to produce sparks and burn very fast. Mixing green & dry wood makes a long lasting fire. Those that contain resins burn readily and make fire lighting a snap. frontiersmen of the Wild West used buffalo chips for their fires. Piece of your shirt or pants. A cord is a heaping full size pickup truck load. Alder. Use your fire to dry damp wood. Bark of some cedars is also good. 3 days is best provision. so is a dry wood that has dry rotted and can be rubbed to a powder. Always cut an ample supply of firewood.

you can set it alight in a few seconds. This type of fire is excellent for an incinerator when great heat is required to burn out rubbish. (Sniper Note: Shales can also explode when heated!) OILS: If you have had a mechanical failure and crashed or broken down with fuels intact you can burn petroleum. It also makes an excellent campfire where strong flame and light are required. you must be very careful with it. Light a fire beneath this plate to make it really hot and while it is heating up arrange a pipe or narrow trough about 2 or 3 feet long. High octane AvGas is pretty dangerous stuff. Tires. Even insect repellent is inflammable. It is soft and springy underfoot and may be exposed on the edges of rocky outcrops -. or dig a hole and make a fire pit.PEAT: Peat is often found on well-drained moors.they burn with a thick oily smoke that makes a good signal fire and also gives off a good heat. Peat needs good ventilation when burning. The same goes for insect repellent. Soak less combustible materials in oil before trying to make them burn. or if tins are used. long burning fire. Ice fisherman use a coffee can with a roll of toilet paper soaked in kerosene (fuel oil) to do the same thing. With a little Potassium Permanganate from your survival kit.there are large deposits in the Northern Tundra. . The proportion of flow is 2 or 3 drops of water to one drop of oil. Mix petrol with sand and burn it in a container as a stove. antifreeze. COAL: Coal is sometimes found on the surface . (Sniper Note: Liquid fuels like gas or a mixture of gas and oil when soaked in a sand pot make a very hot. hydraulic fluid and other combustible liquids.looking black and fibrous. Into this top end of the pipe arrange by means of a funnel and trough water and sump oil or any oil to be fed down the pipe to the hot plate. In very cold areas drain oil from an engine sump before it freeze. WATER & OIL FIRE: About the easiest method is to place a steel or iron plate on a couple of stones a foot above ground level. JP-4 (Jet fuel) can be used too. SHALES: Shales are often rich in oil and burn readily. One end of this pipe is over the center of the plate and the other end is a foot or so higher than the plate. Anti-freeze is an excellent primer for igniting heavier engine oils. Burn oil by mixing in petrol or antifreeze. rubber seals & much of any wreckage can be burned. Some sands also contain oil . If you have no container drain it on to the ground to use later in its solid state. Stacked with plenty of air the peat dries rapidly and is soon ready to burn. pierce holes in the bottom of the tins & use a plug to control the flow. When the water and the oil fall onto the hot plate it burns with a hot white flame of very great heat. The rate of flow can be governed by cutting a channel in corks that plug the bottles holding the oil and water. It is easily cut with a knife. ) Do not set a light directly to liquid fuels but make a wick and let that provide the flame. upholstery.

Frequently the jar of the blow will shake the tinder loose. The sun shining through broken bottles on dry leaves or pastures causes accidental fires. A necessity to be included in your survival kit. 2001 BC-AD: Flint and stone were the common methods before matches were invented and not great skill is needed for their use. (Heat the Perpex and press the flints in while it's hot. Bones can add bulk when fat is being burned as a fire. Place it in the wigwam of kindling to start a fire and remove it as soon as the flame spreads. MAGNESIUM STONE: Among the top best to start a fire even after being hidden 3 days in icy mud. Yet the synthetic flint used in a cigarette lighter is a considerable improvement on natural flint. focused through a lens. Unless it is surplus. Blow on it gently as it begins to glow. driving suddenly down the cylinder.saving matches. but seal blubber spoils rapidly and makes good fuel.ANIMAL FAT: These can also be used with a wick n a suitably ventilated tin to make a stove. Hold under the water and the *Perpex will shrink on the flints and hold them securely). can produce sufficient heat to ignite your tinder. Shield tinder from the wind. Keep it steady. FIRE BY AIR COMPRESSION: In parts of South East Asia people make fire using this ingenious method of suddenly compressing air in a cylinder and thereby concentrating the heat in the air to a point when the heat is sufficient to ignite tinder. Their fire making sets. Compression of air with concentration of the heat it carries produces a small glowing coal in the tinder placed in the recess of the piston head. Focus sun's rays to form the tiniest brightest spot of light. frequently a cylinder of bone or hollow bamboo with a bone or wooden piston. burning fat means sacrificing food value. Whenever you strike a match light a candle. FLINT. A couple of pieces of synthetic flint pressed into a small piece of Perpex make an excellent emergency fire lighting unit. Strong direct sunlight. The piston is placed in the cylinder and the flattened end opposite the piston head struck a smart blow with the palm of the hand. so a spark remover is used with the set to pull out the glowing tinder if it lodges in the cylinder. from perspiration & outer wetness. A small piece of tinder is inserted into a cavity in the lower end of the piston. If it is struck vigorously with a piece of steel hot sparks fly off which will ignite dry tinder. Use only a little fat at first. or damp. Sometimes it is the only available fuel in Polar Regions. Start flame with tinder or a candle. then place a network of bones cover it to support the fat or blubber. Paper matches are no good in bush for they easily get wet. Only the smallest amount is burned & even a small candle will last a long time. Many things in turn can then be lit from it -. Your survival kit magnifying glass or a telescope or camera lens will serve instead. FLINT AND STEEL: Flint is a stone found in many parts of the world. The dimensions are roughly as follows: .

often found near water. piston length 3/4" to 1". The other wood stick must be very dry.  Cylinder: 4" to 6" long outside diameter 3/4" to 1". Meanwhile retain the board or cane with your foot. SOCKET The use of the socket is to hold the drill in place while the latter is being turned. with a thong long enough to loop around the dry stick that is to serve as a drill. drill and fire board. Roll the spindle between the palms of the hands. Piston: 4" to 6" long of which the shaft is 3" to 5". The stick that you use as the "saw" is a split bamboo or any soft wood type. Although the technique is simple. diameter to nicely fit the cylinder. Maintain this slit open using a small wedge (stone or wood). By moving back and forth and so rotating the drill in the fireboard. if experienced! Fires have been made throughout the world long ago from glowing embers obtained by the combined use of bow. considerable diligence and effort is required.about 1/4" wide by 1/4" to 5/16" deep. inside diameter about 1/2". THONG METHOD: Use a piece of cane about 60 cm long and a dry stick. just use your hands. . Place a mass of tinder under the cane and between the cane and the tinder mass pass a thong or lash which you will slide quickly against the cane in a sawing movement. and then lay it on a stone. It can be a smooth stone with a slight depression worn in one side. This method is often used in jungle. Instead of using a bow to spin the spindle. HAND DRILL METHOD This variation of the fire bow is particularly useful with very dry tinder. You will need a bow. you cause so much friction that a spark starts glowing in tinder gathered to catch it. The piston shaft end is smooth and about 1" to 1 1/2" in diameter for striking with the palm of the hand. OBTAINING FIRE WITH A BOW AND DRILL: This method will take 10 minutes.  HOW TO MAKE FIRE BY USING A SAW MOVEMENT: You take 2 sticks of wood and you rub them vigorously against one another in a sawing movement. The friction is done over a mass of good tinder. you will need a socket with which to hold the drill against a hollow in the fireboard. running them down with each burst of spinning to press the spindle into the depression in the baseboard. Make a small slit in one of the cane's end. The socket. which for this purpose is held in one hand. The spark you blow into flame with which the campfire is lighted. can be easily grasped knot of wood with a small dimple cut into it. Recess at the lower end of the piston .

The top end MUST be as smoothly rounded as possible so as to incur a minimum of friction. This slot or undercut " V" that is usually made wider and deeper at the bottom. and long enough to be held under the foot. Tamarack. Using a knife or a sharp stone. A longer drill. This first produces tinder & then eventually ignites it. will permit the hot black powder that is produced by the drilling to fall as quickly as possible into tinder massed at the bottom of the notch. Linden. Red Cedar. and twisted so that the drill finally is on the outer side of the thong & with that portion of the thong nearest the handle of the bow on the upper side of the drill. perhaps one nearly a yard in length is sometimes rotated between the palms rather than by a bow. Elm. Then cut a notch from the edge of the fireboard through to the side of this cup. FIRE PLOW: This method of ignition also works by friction. A cavity below the spindle dimple with a passage between the two will allow embers to fall into your tinder. WHAT WOOD TO USE: Among the North American woods favored for making fire by friction are: Poplar. The board can be about 1" thick and about 3 to 4" wide. Cut a straight groove in a soft wood baseboard and then plow the tip of hardwood shaft up and down it. When they slip too low. the drill is put under the thong. Basswood. Putting a pinch of sand in the spindle hole increases the friction and speeds the heating of the tinder. THE BOW: The bow string from a shoe lace to a twisted length of rawhide etc. Yucca. White Cedar. Balsam Fir. is tied at both ends so as to leave enough slack to allow its being twisted once around the drill. The lower end for maximum of friction MUST be blunt. NOTE: To use a fire set. & the end of the drill at the same time. The drill and the fireboard are both often made of a single one of the above woods but not ALWAYS the case. by turning the drill with the bow as later described. start a hole about 3/4" from the edge of the board. When not sure of type of wood see below: PUNK. Cypress. Enlarge this hole. This is . * The DRILL: The drill should be a straight & well-seasoned stick from 1/4 to 3/4" in diameter & some 12 to 15" long. FIRE BOARD: The size of the fireboard that may be split out of a dry branch can be a matter of convenience. Willow. Cotton-Wood. they MUST be shifted back to the top to the top with as little delay in rotation as possible. The method is however not as effective as bow and socket. (Hand drill method) The hands maintaining as much downward pressure as possible are rubbed back and forth over the drill so as to spin it as strongly and as swiftly as possible. It should be at least 1/8" into the hole itself. (Generous bundle of tinder under "V" cut!). thus fitting it. blow gently to ignite the tinder around it.When the friction makes the spindle tip glow red.

also the full length of the stroke can't be obtained. never stopping the swift even action. empty the powder out of one or two to start your tinder. Press down on the drill. Lift the fill cleanly and quickly from the foot piece. when you start twirling the drill by sawing back and forth with the bow. the quicker you will be able to blow it into a flame. looping the string over the drill. The hole through the handle takes the long end of the thong. When the hole starts to smoke. This hole in the handle enables you to adjust the tension of the thong with greater accuracy. Keep on drilling. The drill is set in the cavity prepared in the fireboard. The end of the thong at the tip of the bow has a thumb knot tied on the topside. The punk which will produce a glowing coal MUST feel slightly gritty when gently rubbed between the fingers and then with more pressure it should rub gradually to a silky smoothness as soft as face powder. If the thong is on the wrong way on the drill. Maybe you have dropped a few grains of sand into the cup to increase friction. The bow is held in the right hand with the little and third fingers outside the thong so that by squeezing these 2 fingers the tension of the thing can be increased. you will see it glowing red. you can be sure you have a coal. for the heartier a spark you can start glowing there. The tinder is bedded under the slot in the fireboard. but not enough to slow it. This testing of the "punk" IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT. which is then wound round the handle in a series of half hitches. . ADD ON NOTES: There are other refinements that are worth knowing: The boring or burning of a hole for the thong at the tip and also through the handle of the bow. USING BOW AND DRILL: The campfire. Fold the tinder completely over the foot piece & continue blowing into the mass. Take the bow in the right hand. Battery sparks can be used to ignite tinder. you kneel on your right knee and place the left foot as solidly as possible on the fireboard. Pressure from the socket. Tinder MUST be carried in a waterproof bag. If you see a blue thread of smoke continuing to rise. A socket of shell or smooth grained stone with a hole in it is less liable to burn than a socket of wood. first having been made ready to ignite. When the drill is smoking freely & that you have the Punk grinding out easily so that the V cut is full of it. Only a light pressure is put on the socket. it will cross over itself & cut in a few strokes. The volume of smoke will increase and a few quick puffs will make it burst into flame. You can grip the socket more steadily you will find if you will keep your left wrist against your left shin and hug the left leg with that arm. put extra pressure on the socket at the same time give 20 to 30 faster strokes with the bow. which is grasped in the left hand. By examining the "punk" you can learn if the wood used is suitable for fire making. If you have any to cartridges to spare. Now start drawing the bow smoothly back and forth in sweeps as long as the string will conveniently permit. If you are right handed. work the bow even faster. if you do not know for certain that the woods you are using are suitable for fire lighting. Press down more firmly on the drill. LIGHTING THE FIRE & PUNK: Hot black powder (punk) will begin to ground out into the tinder.important. Fold some of the tinder over lightly and blow gently into the "V" cut. holds the drill in position.

Directing this makeshift enlarging lens so as to converge the rays of the sun in a point sharp enough to start tinder glowing.) Potassium Chlorate: Is found in some throat tablets. use the magnifier over the date to concentrate suns rays.Handle with care!) FIRE WITHOUT SMOKE & WITHOUT FLAME: (FLAMELESS FIRE) . All are susceptible to dampness and MUST be kept dry. Sulfuric acid is found in car batteries (Sniper note: Boil car battery acid in a bottle until it gives off white fumes. and can be used to make explosives -. Fill the space between with water. (Sniper Note: If you have enough. their contents may be listed on the pack. The following mixtures can all be ignited by grinding them between rock or putting them under the friction point in any of the types of fire drill already described. POTASSIUM CHLORATE & SUGAR: In a mixture of 3/1 by volume is a fierce burning incendiary that can also be ignited by dripping a few drops of Sulfuric Acid on to the mixture. the white tips of kitchen matches contain plenty. This will concentrate the acid enough to be used in pyrotechnics. (Sniper Note: If the watch is a Rolex or look alike. The addition of Glycerin will also produce ignition. avoiding contact with any metal objects. can be used to produce combustion. spit in this hole or put a clear water drop that you present to the sun rays as a magnifying glass FIRE LIGHTING WITH CHEMICALS: A survivor's pack is not likely to include a complete chemistry set but there are some very common chemicals that if they are available. Mix them carefully.) DROP OF WATER: Make a small hole in any paper sheet. Try crushing one & see if it works. POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE & SUGAR: Mixed 9/1 is less sensitive and temperature is a critical factor in how long it takes to ignite.Other items can be used to focus the sun's rays: Watch crystals: o o o Hold the crystals from 2 watches or pocket compass of about the same size back to back.

The light inside wood burns out in a quick blaze of glory but the heavy outer logs lack sufficient heat to get them properly alight and also having only small points of contact with each other at the corners do not burn well nor do such fires give out a good radiation of heat. Fire Support Results: During WWII. Mines) that can plant a minefield between you and an enemy force in minutes. faster. Fire Support Planning In Support Of Scout/Sniper Operations 14 December 2000 By Jeff Waters Sniper Mission: The Sniper's mission is to "Engage targets with long range precision fire and/or fire support assets and to gather and report timely and accurate information". Scatterable. Think about that figure for a second. or the Copperhead anti-tank round. Fat from your cooking is poured on top of the earth and when the wick is lit the lamp burns with a clear flame. . Today's artillery reaches farther. And that was with WWII technology. Such a fire is rarely a success. SLUSH LAMP: Made by filling and old tin or small hollow piece of branch with clay earth. Almost half. 45% of all casualties resulted from indirect fire (taken from the US Army NCO Academy Instructor's Guide). Into this a twig is pushed a piece of old cotton rag or very finely teased bark fiber is wound round the twig to serve as a wick. The amount of light can be controlled by the size of the wick.Smoke is the result of incomplete combustion thus by feeding the fire with small dry twigs which catch fire almost instantly the size of them about 1/8" thick there will be no tell tale blue smoke haze. packed tight at the bottom. Not to mention the development of rounds like FASCAM (Family. with a much higher degree of explosive power. The earth should come to about an inch from the top of the tin. COMMON MISTAKES IN FIRE MAKING: In building a campfire is to make pigsty construction with heavy logs on the outside and then pack the inside with light brushwood.

extraction point. withdrawal route. they not only immediately gain protection from enemy observation. it is crucial for the team to thoroughly understand how to plan for its use. and signals that it is time for the guns to shift to the next TRP. but they have protected themselves and the Friendly Forward Unit (FFU) from any chance of friendly fire. due to wind or distance. or to help a sniper team that has struck a target and is being pursued by a large force. Planning & Coordinating Fire Support for a Sniper Mission: In general terms. they still have the option to adjust fire onto the enemy location and switch to high explosive. you can begin to coordinate with the unit's Fire Support Officer. Movement to the OBJ. and the team's location cannot be compromised by such a short transmission. If so. it is not realistic to rely on a rifle shot. rally points. Again. It also serves as a radio check. Insertion is complete when the patrol has reached the first rally point away from the insertion point and has completed a SLLS halt (stop. smell). lets them know the patrol's general location. the simple act of calling in a code word keeps higher up advised of your location and fire support readily on call. For example. TRPs should be established to coincide with as many natural checkpoints along the route of movement as possible. the fire may have to be adjusted by a member of the FFU. listen. 1. When they are ready to move.Fire support is used when. look. The idea is that as you reach each checkpoint. or FSO. by planning TRPs to cover each leg of the movement between checkpoints. Sending a single-word code does not violate COMSEC. Since the smoke can be used to verify impact points. This contingency should be part of the coordinated plans made prior to departure. you can call it in by codeword and have the FSO adjust the guns to the next TRP on that leg. Since the smoke will probably reduce the patrol's ability to observe the enemy location and the impact of rounds. After establishing the TRPs and determining what type of rounds you want on each target. By using smoke. danger areas. they call in a code word that lets their HQ know that they have completed their insertion. Since fire support is generally the only form of friendly help nearby. TRPs should cover known/suspected enemy locations. During the movement. Insertion. at the objective. either. and how to call it in when the time comes. and patrol bases. call it in on the last bit . movement to the objective. 1. A TRP is established to screen the patrol if it makes contact during departure. and any patrol bases you might have. let's say that the team's insertion is to depart the base camp with a friendly patrol. and it should be noted during the map reconnaissance whether the terrain near the checkpoint is in dead space where commo will be difficult. you want to have Target Reference Points (TRPs) established to cover your patrol during insertion.

If you take a shot or two at a platoon-size element and they begin to pursue you. you will probably have some very pissed off people coming after you immediately. 1.of the leg where you have line-of-sight with the unit or plan a jump-off point where you can make commo. the team can use fire support assets to keep a unit pinned while it picks off a person or two and moves to an alternate location. good luck getting away in a hurry without leaving a giant trail. If it's between you and the enemy. You act as the FSO and they radio in their request (for some reason. are hard to schedule. using real radios works much better than without). This buys you valuable time for your getaway. the communications procedures. . then it's nice to have a TRP between you and them where you can simply call in something like. One thing our stalking exercises don't teach is that after you take your shot. For example. they are more likely to move away from the impact zone rather than through it to pursue you. a sniper team engaging enemy LP/Ops or patrols departing the enemy's perimeter can use fire support to suppress the main camp." as you run for your life. And not surprisingly. and can use the "Polar" method of control rather than the "Shift from a Known Point" method. Instead of wasting a lot of time at the lecture board. the U. The rest of the class is allowed to stand by to watch and learn. An assistant instructor uses a pointer with a cotton ball taped on it to designate the impact point of the round and the sniper adjusts accordingly. Patrol bases and Rally Points are covered also. you can take the troops to a sandtable marked with numbered strings for gridlines and give them a radio. based on the organization and doctrine of the enemy is to have the guns standing by for counter-battery fire if the enemy decides to guess at your position and blast away with an artillery strike of their own. The first few soldiers invariably screw it up and are sent to the back of the line to do it again. At the Objective. Additionally. and are not that realistic. This is obviously a critical time. they don't work well. along with the basics of danger close distances.S. Another idea. The best way to train at the squad level is to start by reviewing the different types of missions. Army has some highly sophisticated and expensive training aids for use in fire support training. Training: As usual. If you don't think you can make commo at a danger area based on terrain. and how to adjust. you should consider changing you route since you won't be able to use fire support if needed. If you are dressed in a heavy ghille suit. "Immediate Suppression on AA10. which might be sending out a reaction force.

The mortar platoons generally enjoy having FO support. and the fire support coordination. What more needs to be said? Ghillie Suits Constructing your own 1994 By Dave Reed Ghillie Suits make good camouflage when in one position. All snipers must know these tasks by heart. and the mil dot scale in his scope is excellent. After they have a sound foundation in the basics. Conclusion: Employing fire support is an integral part of the sniper mission. training should take place on different methods of control. or if you must move through somewhat open areas. increasing the snipers understanding of range estimation. which should be used to evaluate EVERY member of the section on Call for and Adjust Indirect Fire. Perfect practice makes perfect! Finally.practice does not make perfect. both for his safety and his combat effectiveness. understanding the MIL Relation Formula used in determining shift.But. almost everyone catches on and can pick up a radio and do the job. excellent training for a sniper. Air Support should also be trained on. then a shift. and finally a polar if time permits. Teams should make every effort to establish a good working relationship with the BN's FSO and mortar sections. after watching a few people do it correctly. The sandtable should be used after teaching each mission. They will entangle when you try to go through dense brush. beginning with a grid mission. fire support overlays. Make your . And as with any training . regardless of rank. The next step is to get them onto a live fire range and FO for the BN Mortars at least quarterly. The sandtable is an excellent tool. FS training should be part of a sniper section's Mission Essential Task List (METL) and require mandatory training on at least a quarterly basis. not just snipers .for anyone. it's your ass out there and the unit is counting on you. Further.

a guy in a ghillie suit. Your net should be flexible enough for you to adapt to each situation. Simple net for fixed positions 2. you didn't miss much. Here are a few pointers that you should consider. but it is time consuming and I'm not sure that anyone would buy it. maybe you missed a lot. and adding it to the netting. Two basic designs for ghillie suits: 1. Put the net over your head and arrange it so that you can see out. Disadvantage . that covers your head. You can gather it using thin nylon web strap. did you notice how it magically transformed itself to match the background behind him? Amazing huh! By taking camouflage from the surrounding vegetation. Don't worry about buckles. All you need is a shroud. A piece of camouflage netting will work well. I have received several requests for tips on Ghillie suit construction. and allow lots of room for improvement. The shrimp net must be cleaned very well and dried a couple of times to insure that it does not smell. You will need to shape it so that you'll have a large hood with a lot of overhang to cover your face. shoulders. Or then again. Cutting it out in an irregular shape. Go to a an army surplus store and look for a piece of camouflage netting. . You can sew pieces of burlap to the netting in a haphazard fashion to increase it's effectiveness at short distances. like the magic rifle scopes! Simple Net Advantage . I had considered having one made putting it up for sale. rolls up into a small bundle.personal camouflage net by selecting material that blends in with the vegetation you are operating in. Now the very best one I can think of is the one Tom Berenger wore in that sappy movie -"Sniper".Difficult to crawl in. You want your netting to be durable so it should be made of twisted line and treated with an anti-rot coating. I have seen some for sale in a magazine that made whoever wore it look like exactly what it should not -. Suit construction Your ghillie suit does not have to be elaborate to be effective. or move through brush. If you didn't see the movie. All shrimp nets are coated with the stuff and it's a dark green color. If you saw the movie. Leave it longer in back so it will cover your upper legs. Keep it simple. You want to be able to adjust the shape of it so that it breaks the outline of your body. The tail of a shrimp net will last forever when treated. If you can't find a piece you can make a good one with a piece of fish net or shrimp net. This will keep it from coming off. or short poncho. very adaptable to fixed positions. just leave enough strap to tie it in place. you can make it look just like the ground you are laying on. and hangs down to your waste. like a rounded triangle will help.Light weight. with one side of it long enough to cover down to your knees.

Two straps at the neck will keep your "hood" in place and another at the waist will keep you from losing the suit when tangled. grasses. and calves.It stays on at all times. and shape. When sewing strips of anything to your suit. Don't make the sides of the bow tie the same length or width. This is the time consuming part. you can stick all manner of small branches. If they have it. get two or three different colors/textures. Cut the burlap in strips that are shaped like bow ties. color. Now you can sew the strips to the mesh. and can stretched overhead in a position and arranged in various manners to meet the situation. . The skinny part in the middle is where you will tie the strip around a piece of the net. For the sewing use a good strong thread and needle. Disadvantages . Snipers need an apron. and loose burlap. DON'T make them all one length. The shortest should be about 5 -6" and the longest a side should be is about 9". The simple net is easy to make. provides total coverage of all body parts. The next piece of the net solution is an apron. The suit is bulky and hot. Cut strips as described above only make them any shape you want. Alter the colors you use as you tie them onto the suit.Go to an Army surplus store or to Wal-Mart's hunting department and get some camouflage colored burlap. Leave room between strips. Two half hitches should tie the bow on to the net securely. You may sew these strips to the BDUs or use some kind of net or mesh. It doubles as something to keep you dry in the rain. Don't make the knots too tight until you have a lot of pieces on and are satisfied with the look and arrangement. if you bunch them too tight you will look a guy wearing a funny suit. This will help you remain comfortable while laying on wet ground for long periods of time. It will keep you warm and make it easier to slide along the ground. or a blanket at night. light. if you must cover open ground without being seen then it would be nice to have. and leaves to the suit to match the terrain. Sniper training in the military includes this skill by starting with BDU's and sewing camouflage to them. With all of the holes. a simple camo net scrounged from the battalion supply sufficed. You use camouflage to breakup outlines. upper back of legs. On the pants sew to the waist. you don't want to create new patterns that will look unnatural. Sew the net to the BDU's at the shoulders and small of back.It is hot and much larger will rolled up. Keep it short enough that you can run with it. Police snipers and competition shooters can use elaborate shooting mats. A suitable apron can be made from a canvas shelter half. When I went to sniper school we did not have to make these. BDU method Advantages . In place of an apron you will need to add canvas from a shelter half to the front of the shirt and pants down to the knees.

A bruised knee. a police officer on the job or a troop in the field. a twisted ankle. There is one form of physical damage that creeps up on you without a lot of fanfare. assuming most people know what is needed to keep them effective on the job. heat rash. This form of heat induced ailment can easily be avoided with a little forethought. the simple net will work well. heavy workloads. It is easy to write at length about a new and exiting piece of equipment or a new training technique. You must also wear gloves and of course your "camo" stick. Heat stress comes from many sources including. but once you have let the symptoms creep up on you without treatment. heat exhaustion. It is easily ignored until too late. It includes heat cramps. Take one long strip and sew a few smaller strips to it. A sniper must be resourceful. dizziness. you will be down for the count or worse. Heat Stress can be one of a series of conditions where the body is under stress from overheating. Lives may depend on your ability and clear thinking. one becomes aware of them quickly and acts accordingly. but too often we ignore the physical end of the spectrum. Make sure you can reach your adjustment knobs and there is nothing obstructing the scope. It can cripple you and place your mission at great risk of failure. You can not operate if you are unconscious. Whether you are a student at a firearms training facility. and will only be used to supplement your other camouflage in a fixed position. You must cover all exposed body parts. . There is not a soldier or hunter. keeping hydrated should be paramount on your list of preventative care and health maintenance. The main point is that because these wounds are physical in appearance or provide immediate pain. lack of proper hydration and even the type of clothing being worn. delirium and collapse. Heat Stressin the TacticalEnvironment 8 July 1999 by Scott Powers Taking care of your body in a tactical or hunting environment can sometimes take a back seat to your immediate goals. Heat Stress. police officer or support person who has not put the mission before his or her bodily needs at least once in their career. even an open wound can be ignored depending on the severity of the situation and the injury. heat stress seems like a good topic to broach for our readers. Your ghillie suit will be a waste of time if you wear an exposed watch or ring. We seldom speak of heat stress here on Sniper Country and we apologize for not highlighting this less than glamorous topic. Camouflage for your weapon can be made in the same manner by wrapping the weapon with burlap. Each produces physical symptoms that range from profuse sweating. dead.If you need a suit that is light. This kind of minor damage can be easily assessed and treated or ignored depending on time constraints and an individual's ability to deal with pain. high temperatures. As the fourth of July weekend ends and my local area is coming out of a record high temperature spike. and heat stroke.

women often rely on these little items without informing their husbands OR partners on the job. When it is hot out of doors water is more important than food. Drink as much as you can hold over a period of days if possible. If not taken care of the victim will soon find it difficult to breathe and will lose consciousness. People do self-destructive things as a matter of course and if the mission is important. . Pace yourself if possible. sedatives. If he is not taking active measures to replace these. make sure they are aware of the affects of dietary pills when the temperature rises. While you might not think a team member is on any of the above. While the likelihood of a soldier in combat taking these seems slim. In addition to temperature an increase in humidity. Wear loose clothing to allow for better ventilation. If heat signs occur in the field and you recognize them. Make them drink water even if they do not want it. move to the cover of a shaded area and drink water. tranquilizers and CAFFEINATED drinks all accelerate the likely of heat stress. as does ALCOHOL. You are more likely to experience heat stress when first exposed to a new environment or when your job is physically demanding. When temperatures approach 90 degrees F you must be especially aware. less physically fit troops. you’d better be aware of the possibilities. And STAY HYDRATED! Drink plenty of water. Make sure you take sufficient water along on the mission. If you recognize the symptoms in a member of your team. In a hot environment the body requires more water than typically needed to satisfy your thirst. at least not as quickly as other. Leave unessential items behind and take extra liquid. Take adequate rest periods – in shade – if the mission allows. It takes time to acclimate to a hot environment and if an officer has not been spending much time out of doors in the summer heat he or she may find themselves on the back side of the power curve on their first call out in the heat wave.Heat Stroke is insidious. a police officer may have taking something listed above as a matter of course. Without meaning to be a chauvinist or starting a war of the sexes. immediately get their attention and treat them. If you know your partner has perceived problems with his or her weight. Caffeine is an obvious villain and one accepted as a daily starter. He may assume he is feeling a little slow or sluggish simply from the heat of his environment. Top off at every opportunity before and during the mission. drink MORE than you think you need! Hydrate BEFORE the mission. a decrease in air movement and a lack of shade from direct radiant heat will all affect the potential for Heat Stress. The victim often overlooks the signs. you simply can not know. They may not understand what is happening to them and only feel a little off their game. Younger individuals and those in excellent physical condition are less likely to experience stress. Learn to recognize the symptoms of Heat Stress. Some people are more prone to Heat Stress than others. lung or kidney disease. but with profuse sweating he may feel sufficiently cooled by the evaporation of his precious fluids. Individuals with heart. In other words. Left untended. Diet pills. The standard eight glasses a day will not cut it. so pack accordingly. There are some precautions you can take to avoid becoming a victim. diabetes and those on medications are more likely to experience heat stress issues. he will experience more sever symptoms such as fainting or complete collapse. he will become confused or unable to concentrate. Diet pills? You bet. Hydration and shade are the best and often only medicine in the field.

Unlike Heat Stroke. or headaches. Cramps may occur during or after the activity that prompted them. Delirium. The body temperature will often soar to 106 degrees F and above. Sweating will completely stop at this stage and the body can no longer rid itself of excess heat via surface evaporation. Heat Exhaustion: Heat Exhaustion results from the loss of fluid through sweating. Death is the ultimate end of this condition. The skin will become hot and dry. Relief may be found by drinking liquids that will replace the missing salts -. giddiness.are the most susceptible to cramps. calcium and magnesium salts lost from sweating.once again a sports drink is the easiest method of replenishment for those outside a combat zone. Signs include. Short of carrying a bottle of Gatorade into the field. this    . Fan them vigorously to increase the cooling effect. Again.those being worked the most at the time -.The common forms of Heat Stress that you may experience if you do not take care are as follows:  Heat Stroke: Heat Stroke is the most serious health problem experienced by individuals in a hot environment. This will restore the potassium. Fainting: (Heat Syncope) Fainting is most common when an individual who is not acclimatized to a hot environment is required to stand or be still for a great length of time. Until a medic can tend to the victim he or she should be moved to a cool area (shade if nothing else) and they should be doused in water. preventative measures go a long way to assuring you will not become a victim! Heat Cramps: Heat cramps are a painful spasm of the muscles. mottled or even bluish. The victim should rest in as cool a place as possible and drink an electrolyte solution. Their skin will become clammy and moist to the touch. This happens when the individual fails to take in enough liquid or salt to compensate for his environment. Treatment is fairly straightforward. Severe cases resulting in vomiting or a loss of consciousness will require medical treatment outside the purview of this article. A person forced to stand is far more prone (pun intended) to fainting than someone who is supine. Convulsions or even a Coma. nausea. the individual will still sweat but he or she will experience extreme weakness or fatigue. Tired muscles -. In the worse cases a medic will use an intravenous saline solution for a quick response. This is an obvious problem for someone manning a hide or observation post. It is caused by a failure of the body’s internal mechanism to regulate your core temperature. Permanent injury will result in the brain and vital organs if heat stroke is not treated in a timely manner. but as we know. Victims of Heat Stroke will die unless treated promptly. Movement is usually all that is needed to avoid fainting. Loss of Consciousness. Police and civilians fare better as they are usually a dial of 911 or other emergency services away from help and can often be treated quite effectively onsite by their team mates. Troops in the field are at the greatest risk from Heat Stroke since they may not be in a position to be evacuated or may be low on water. Their complexion pales or appears flush and their body temperature remains normal or slightly higher. They are caused when an individual drinks a large quantity of water but fails to replace the body’s salts. just stay completely and properly hydrated to prevent this condition from affecting you. The skin will often appear to be red. Mental Confusion.

When complicated by infection this rash can be so uncomfortable or debilitating that it becomes hard to perform your tasks.” Keep hydrated. Standing sweat will seemingly attack the skin and the rash quickly results. standing up. but it certainly has the ability to drive you to distraction! Sleep is a rare commodity when in the field. trapping moisture and abrading the affected area. Keeping your skin dry is often problematic but it is the only way to prevent this rash. especially for the military sniper. While you can certainly function with Heat Rash. most heat casualties are avoidable. It will inhibit sleep and that in turn will affect an individual's ability to think clearly. In summery. A little preventive maintenance is all it takes to avoid the worst symptoms of Heat Stress. yelling to your enemy “here I am! Put me out of my misery!” Neither of these solutions will make you very popular with your platoon or team. “it can not happen to me. keep aware and watch your buddy. By that time you will have contemplated scraping the effected area with you knife. Victims usually recover quickly once they have fallen prone and have lain down for a short period of time.” Prickly heat will make damn sure you will not be well rested come the next watch. you will not be at your best and the mission may suffer. Information Gathering For The Scout/Sniper 23 August 2001 By Jeff Waters Introduction .  Heat Rash: Heat Rash oh wonderful Heat rash… I saved our favorite for last. Better known as prickly heat. or worse. Prickly Heat will occur in a hot and especially humid environment where sweat is not easily removed from the surface of the skin via evaporation. He usually follows this statement up with “you're on watch in two hours. Every troop I have ever known has relished the few minutes of sleep he can steal in the field. this rash is the scourge of soldiers everywhere. Loose clothing may help. so it is best to just avoid this thing altogether. It may not make you physically insane. There is nothing more disconcerting or annoying than suffering through heat rash when at long last your platoon sergeant tells you to unload your gear and catch some shut eye. Tight clothing like underwear briefs often exacerbate the problem. Skin powder and certain medications will provide relief if not always a cure. To a soldier often forced to go days without bathing this rash could be more than a little mind altering. Common sense and an awareness of the issues are usually all it takes for an individual to keep themselves in healthy order when in the field in hot weather. It is better to be a hound about the issue than simply ignore it or say.may not always be an option. Many troops go without their skivvies when in a tropical environment. Try to keep you chest and joint areas dry.

We will discuss the specifics a bit later in the document. the military keeps it simple). even if that takes a couple of days. A good sniper may decide not to engage a low value target that would give his position away so that he can wait for a better one. Captured Documents. Without good information. . A sniper must be patient and may not always have a good target to shoot." The Intelligence Cycle consists of 4 parts (the civilians use 5. Other common sources of battlefield information are POWs. but the S/S team will definitely be one of them. ears. and a smart CDR doesn't show his hand until the crucial moment. what posture are they in? Where is the enemy Command Post located? b. Typical examples of PIR include: o o o o o Where is the enemy focusing his strength? Are the threat forces using area X as a supply route? What is the enemy strength and disposition at location X? Does the enemy have any NBC (Nuclear. He always has the opportunity to gather and report information of high value to his unit. Biological & Chemical) equipment and. Collection: Once the PIR have been established. it's helpful to start with an overview of the big picture and where you fit into it. which are explained below. The team gathers and reports information to based on the PIR and reports in by radio or in person during debriefs. a. he can't determine when or where that crucial moment will be. and Satellite or Aerial Photography. Electronic Intercepts. Intelligence Cycle In order to understand your role in the information gathering process.The mission of the Scout/Sniper is to shoot high value targets with his rifle or fire support assets and to gather and report timely and accurate information. and trigger finger of the Commander. The first part of understanding this is learning the "Intelligence Cycle. The S/S is the eyes. if so. They will use several assets to obtain this information. Direction: The Commander directs his Intelligence Staff (S2) to establish Priority Information Requirements (PIR) so that he can effectively plan his tactics and strategy. the Intel and Ops officers formulate their collection efforts.

and location of Insertion Route followed Terrain Info re: route Sign of enemy (TRACK REPORT) Contact with enemy is sequence (SALUTE REPORT) Map Corrections Review Actions on the OBJ . As everyone knows. Standard PIR The PIR are generally collected in the same manner with little variation. and must be trained on observation and reporting skills as well as how to avoid detection. This information is the end product of the Intelligence Cycle. In order to guide you on how to go about collection. however the cycle is continuous and never stops. The information is then examined and matched against other pieces of information the Intel section has to corroborate it and tie it into the big picture. There is a major difference between a marksman and a sniper. Shooting is about 15% of the sniper's job. d. Method. Analysis What the S/S team gives to the S2 is information. Dissemination: Now that all this information has been gathered and analyzed. When this analysis is complete. A common example of this dissemination is when you receive or read the Situation Paragraph of the Operations Order.c. Accuracy of Reporting It is important to understand that tactical and strategic decisions will rest upon the information that is provided. the end product is called intelligence. This is off the top of my head. report accurately as if lives depend on it-because they do. and information must go through the cycle again. but it goes something like this:          ID of self and patrol Brief review of Situation in AO Time. This is why units are selective about who they take. it is best to start by reviewing the standard NATO Debriefing Forms contained in the Ranger Handbook and countless other publications. the situation can change with little or no notice. In other words. The S/S has special equipment available that is not common to all troops. Communications skills are a must. Date. it has to be disseminated in a timely fashion in order to help people in planning and executing operations. otherwise the information cannot be passed on.

and the camera is not common. Anything besides equip common to all) Terrain Analysis:      Observation and Fields of Fire Avenues of Approach Key Terrain Obstacles Cover and Concealment Track Report:  Tread Pattern & Trash (Sketch and record/Consider bringing back) . date. and have flash disabled)  Radio and Codebooks Down and dirty that's all that's needed . sketches and summarize all findings related to PIR) Exfil route and info Time. and method of extraction Condition of Patrol and equipment Suggestions All activity logs. Night Vision. NBC gear. digging in. etc. The Ranger Handbook has all this information in it. epaulets. If you are a grunt of any kind. which is a bad idea-KISS) Equipment (Weapons. Obsevations. location. should be waterproofed and cammo'ed. but not uncommon. do not guess that it's a squad. turned in to S2 or representative Another excellent format to study as a guide on what you can gather to help out your buddies is the S2 Update format. etc) Location (6 digit grid and terrain feature) Uniform (distinctive patches. mixed with civilian clothes. in a pocket-sized format.      Summarize results at FFP (Contact Rpts. Terrain. and is the best publication since the New Testament. etc. you should get one.) Activity (moving south. sketches. headgear. Equipment The equipment the sniper will need and which is generally issued is:     Note taking/Sketching materials Binoculars Spotting Scope Camera (available from the S2. etc) Time (local time and date unless your unit is on ZULU. Photos. Reporting Formats Troop Sightings:       Size (#s seen.

Always incorporate thorough Debriefs into FTX's and encourage the unit staff to attend once the men are trained up. . MP's may well generate good urban snipers in the future. Study tactics at the company level. (Actually. You can learn from a marksman. SF units will generally always help. and even MI units. A team should always support A company if possible. etc. as much as possible. Work with the S2.) Note: Also See Tracking Article Dissemination for the S/S     Secure or encrypted by radio Link up and Debrief (done near the Objective) Dead drop for written notes Re-Entry and Debrief (done at the base camp) Training Tips             Observation Exercises are conducted with realistic objects you would find on the battlefield rather than rolls of tape and other garbage. There's nothing worse that being evaluated by someone who doesn't know what he is talking about.) Request evaluations from COMPETENT SNIPERS. Train with other sniper units." says a whole lot more. Make observations specific. Establish permanent relations between the sniper teams and the units they support. Reporting it any time after now will be too late. Practice Recon Patrols and Link Up Patrols frequently. The S2 will be happy to help you. You can't really grasp what to look for if you don't know what is going on or what its going to be used for. Train with the MTU. particularly when he realizes how much help you will be to him. Immediate Use Information Sometimes you will find information that is of immediate use. but they do not know the realities of sniping. covering the entire objective with grazing fire. i. Study Order of Battle.) Kit (Heavy load indicated by deep impression etc?) Speed/Staining (Heels dug in deep with long strides?/Blood trails. but limited with 150 meters of dead space beginning at the 200 meter line. Practice link ups with the units you support so you develop SOP's. The effectiveness is highly increased due to SOP's that are developed and chances of fratricide reduced. even if it means stooping to the level of working with MP's. Some discretion comes into play here and the S/S must be able to make good calls on the value of the information based on his PIR and Mission of supported unit. but realize that they are generally excellent marksmen and not snipers. "good fields of fire" means little to nothing.     Route of march (Azimuth) Age and Approximate number (Sides caved in or sharp?/Use box method) Crew Served Weapons? (scuffs on trees at shoulder lvl etc. "Fields of fire from location X extend to the NE.e.

This is why Operations Orders include a paragraph called Commander's Intent. You can't make commo with the unit. you only hurt your chances of getting the message out. but they have no idea what one really is or does. With the pressures of live missions and the particular stresses associated with working forward of the friendly unit in a small team with a bolt rifle. one that can easily get you into a lot of trouble. What should you do? There's no way to say that only one answer is correct. It fosters-over time and hard training-trust. The S2 and unit did not know that this unit was in the area and your mission was to observe a radio relay site for a possible raid. morale. Unit Integrity Earlier we discussed the importance of keeping the same teams assigned to the same companies in the BN or supported unit. that the unit's Commander will be with him. Even in the military. may well be far more important that picking off a couple of people and slinking away. he can make the decision knowing that if it's consistent with the way they have trained with this unit. Thankfully. but it does more than that. Unit Integrity allows the units to stay together and learn how each other work. there were those who thought it was more about some kind of fashion show and posing than anything else. but for the most part you should get to a spot where you can report the unit. and develop SOPs. the S/S doesn't need much more to worry about. . how they work. his effectiveness and contribution to the unit will be reduced due to fear of exercising initiative-and initiative is a crucial trait to have in a S/S. Deviating from your assigned mission is a big decision. By doing this. You have to be able to think on your feet if something renders portions of the plan ineffective while maintaining balance with the orders you are given. For example. And. most of those guys didn't last long. Unit Integrity makes a unit stick together in a bar fight and on the job. in this case. especially with a three sentence situation briefing. if he spots a company-sized element heading toward a crucial objective. esprit de corp. they can get to know each other. By maintaining Unit Integrity the S/S will have a much better idea about what he is expected to do than a team who has never supported the unit at all. If you engage it prior to passing the information. Sniper Traits & Values Essential for the Mission Lots of people say they want to be snipers. The information. This is one of those intangible combat multipliers that I believe have eroded over the last 10 years in light of political correctness. Knowing that your chain of command is behind you (as long as you are a good team) is another Combat Multiplier. If he does not enjoy this backing. and a genuine concern for the well-being of the other unit.

The main point is that the value of the sniper section's information reporting. are the bare minimum a new sniper should know. To be good at it. SOP's and relationships based on professional trust and respect for competence will be created. and reliability. Terrain Analysis. etc. depends on the snipers. It is about what you can contribute to your unit in a risky job. A sniper has to be of above-average intelligence and be a thinker. Though you may not shoot on every mission. NATO Debriefs. Ass kissers and posers need not apply. They are nothing but a starting point. These relationships multiply everybody's effectiveness many times and improve morale and esprit de corp. where Tactical and Strategic decisions will be based upon it. you will report information back to the supported unit. You have to make your own and be flexible and able to understand and follow the CDR's Intent. as with the entire program. You can't just receive a plan and stick to it. In time. In order to improve your knowledge beyond this. There is only one guy to watch your back the way units are currently organized (a mistake in my opinion: I think there should be 3). after units have seen proven and continuous results. By maintaining a strong relationship with the S2 and supported units. if not in material) will be there. Therefore. This information is put into the Intelligence Cycle. you must know what is relevant and what is not. The only room for speculation in your reports is under the heading of "Recommendations." In order to effectively report information. snipers are selected for their initiative and flexibility-and this is an opportunity to exercise it and learn from it. This is not necessarily a negative thing. . the support (at least in spirit. Summary The secondary mission of the sniper is to gather and report timely and accurate information. Self-reliance is one of the biggest traits needed. you should work with the S2 and study topics such as Order of Battle and Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield in order to become a bigger asset to your unit. Initiative and Coolness under Stress are the other big ones that come to mind.Being a sniper is not about a glorification of self. it is critical that the information be accurate and objective. They will frequently receive little support from the parent unit. you need to be the type that sincerely cares about your unit and your fellow soldiers. Among other things. The reporting formats regarding Troop Sightings. You must be able to have an extreme degree of trust in your sniper buddy in terms of ability. values.

Large. large scale does NOT mean a larger area but more detail of a smaller area. which shows the shape of the terrain (ground for you "civvies") by the addition of contour lines. what a map is and types of maps. We have Planimetric maps. No. piece of paper. A graphic representation of the earth's surface (or a portion of the earth's surface) drawn to scale on a flat surface. Topographic or Photomaps. doesn't it?). marginal data and other information printed over the pictorial area. There are different types and scales but they all fall into one of these classifications. but they do give horizontal distance and other information like the next rest area but that's about it... These maps show horizontal AND vertical positions and features. woods. Not much use to us "sniper type individuals". Correct choice today is "D". Something you can never find when you need it. These are either single photographs or an assembly of aerial photographs of an area to make a composite picture with gridlines.ALL OF THEM!! On a daily basis in your local AO (Area of Operation) or "da 'hood" to the "civvies". symbols and colors. what type maps are there. Medium. shoved under the passenger seat with bits of partially decomposed pogue bait covering it. Guess which one serves you best? Answer . Next are Photomaps. OK.Maps An introduction 18 April 2000 By Will Adams ALLRIGHT!! LISTEN UP!!! Today's lesson is on MAPS: What is a map..Planimetric. Now then. Rivers. The USGS and most (not all) mil-topo maps are large scale which is given as a Representative Factor (RF) such . roads and hills are shown by lines. A map is a graphic representation of the earth's surface drawn to scale on a flat surface. contour lines.. C. better known as "civilian roadmaps". you would use a Large Scale map. warped. Maps are identified as . Remember this: You will see this again (sounds familiar. Topographic (topo) maps are our friends (for the most part). I hope. Small. but without confusion. B. D. where can you find and buy maps? A map is: A. we have covered. A Folded. moving on rapidly. what do you need to look for on a map and finally. LISTEN UP AGAIN!!! You have 3 Scales in military topographic maps . Directions someone drew for you on a bar napkin while they were drunk.

All features shown in blue have something to do with water. either stated or not.000 square miles. a small scale map (remember. although slightly detailed about maps and map reading and where to purchase said items. Let's see. we have covered what a map is "graphic representation of the earth's surface drawn to scale on a flat surface. Depending on your needs you will probably work with large scale 1:24. PLEASE.All man-made or cultural features on a map. RED .This color is used to show Main Roads. technical. On a topo map there are FIVE (5) basic colors and they are: BLACK . Things like shorelines. woods.Black. etc.000 where 1 unit of measurement on the map equals 25. etc.000 of the same units on the ground. These show lots of detail and provide us with very useful information. Also what those colors mean on the map.little detail) is used for general planning or strategic studies. For you militaria or trivia "studs". Brown. just how tall is Storm Mountain? Anyone? BTW. built-up areas and special features. roads.000 and 1:600.000. ALL maps have scale.000 . Let's clear the air on some stuff. in other words. A Medium Scale Map is one in which the scale is between 1:75. or making a terrain study at this time. bridges. A series of contour lines will show the presence or absence of relief such as hills and valleys.This is used to show elevation or relief by use of CONTOUR LINES. Good enough!! Take a break and the next part will cover how to read a map. Now do you see what I mean about detail available? A large scale map covers a smaller area in more detail and that's what is going to be discussed now. and administrative needs of military field units. lots of detail) are used for tactical. medium and large and we have learned that there are 5 basic colors . canals. conic projection. A Contour Line is an imaginary line of equal elevation. even if it is not military) and USGS (United States Geological Survey) use 3 scales as mentioned earlier. e-mail me!! I am not going to discuss orthographic view.. DISMISSED ! ! ! . orchards. airfields. a large scale topo covers an area roughly 49 to 70 SQUARE MILES!! A small scale map covers (again roughly) 73. like.500 has 1 inch on the map equals nearly 1 mile. The Standard Small Scale Map is 1:1. Green and Red. swamps. medium scale maps are normally JOGs (Joint Operational Graphic). GREEN . Before someone in the military or with prior service starts to blast me about some stuff.000 has a representation of 1 inch on the map equals 2. large area . this is an overview.000 and larger. lakes.. BROWN . BLUE . where the large scale maps (small area.This color indicates any feature that is some type of vegetation such as.500 (USGS 15-minute maps) where the 1:24.. Last is the Large Scale Map whose scale is 1:75. For the record military maps (referred from now on as topo. Railroads.000 (USGS calls these 7 1/2 minute maps) or 1:62. Oh yeah. vineyards and grasslands.000 feet and the 1:62.000 to 100." Types of scale: small. lots of area but very little detail. Blue..000. Any technical details.as 1:25.

360 1 inch on map DOES equal 1 mile on ground. This name is the "largest". These squares are further numbered and from this you can find a location (point). I stated that USGS 15-minute maps are at a scale of 1:62. figure out where you aren't if the person reading the map before you has "become disoriented". Of course I could be "tabbed" to discuss the finer points. READ RIGHT and UP! ! ! Always start in the lower left corner. just an idea. At the bottom of the map you will find more information and it is normally called a Legend. One good thing about that site is that it is geared toward an 8th grade reading level! ! ! No Lie! ! ! Go to the site and check it out. This Legend will have such information as scale distances.. I'm going to repeat myself but bear with me. road examples and etc.. they are called "northings". you will see that the 1st grid if read correctly would be 3055 and the northeastern most grid will be 3357. If you are using a military map it will have an alpha-numeric system of identification. Also that site has "pretty pictures"!! hee hee hee This portion of the discussion has to do with where to acquire maps/waterproofing maps and other gear you might need.. The squares of this grid help to locate "Points" quickly and accurately. very simple reading. this might make things easier to understand. 58 -|-----|-----|-----|-----|57 -|-----|-----|-----|-----|56 -|-----|-----|-----|-----|55 -|-----|-----|-----|-----|30 31 32 33 34 Using the above example. evenly spaced. topographic symbols.. At the top of the topo map will be a name. Remember. TAKE A BREAK US Army Land Navigation and Map That is the "Source" for US Army Land Navigation and Map reading. A small scale map .500 which is nearly 1 mile on ground per 1 inch on paper while the ACTUAL scale 1:63.. best identified part of this map. more on that later.. Always. give your location. going horizontal and vertical. like compasses etc.. Earlier there was a description of what a map is and the different scales. Just didn't want anyone to think I was "blowing smoke"..This portion of our discussion of maps will cover reading a map. and after studying the map long enough. creating a grid.. Every grid square comes from the two grid lines at the LOWER LEFT CORNER! ! ! Digest that for a minute or two and we will cover features next. Maps are read to the east from left to right and from the bottom up!! Because these lines measure distance eastward they are called "Eastings" and since you read the vertical lines from bottom to top and they measure distance northward. You will also notice a group of lines. Let me make a comment/clarification on the last part..

makes it waterproof. probably available at Amazon. Several medium scale maps will make up one small scale map. How to Waterproof Maps One way is to use clear contact paper but that makes the map very difficult to write on and can be a real pain to do properly. Brigade Quartermaster and U. "Be Expert with Map & Compass" by B.. Being the prudent person I am I always carry a back-up.unh unh. especially when it comes to something so important. a whole bunch of large scale maps cover a medium scale map.. Not perfect but it does work. Last but not least. As to learning more about maps an how to use them.. I go to USGS National Mapping Information. FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS ! ! ! This stuff coats the paper. I am primarily concerned with topo maps but you can also go to Delorme Maps and Mapping Software or MapBlast!. the back-ups were not military but either a "SILVA" brand or a "Brunton" model. Just remember that you get what you pay for!! It is your butt lost in the woods and its getting very miserable and all because you bought the "el cheapo" hang from the zipper. Now that that's said and done.. or the type you can attach to your watch. flexible.com. Then there is the tried and proven method of stuffing the map in a zip-lock baggie!! Its grease pencil friendly and marker friendly. If you want to improve your skills with map and compass then take up the sport of Orienteering.. where do you locate.. Remember. Good sources for compasses are Cabela's. orienteering is a great way to hone your skills in cross-country movement. Check it out.. You can also find maps in some malls where there is a map shop and really good outdoor specialty shops carry maps (especially for climbers and hikers). I am NOT EVEN going to talk about GPS. and for that matter have been known to have another stashed in my gear somewhere. to me that is "the Source" for maps of the U. FM 21-26 Map Reading and Land Navigation. There is a product called "Stormproof" available at most map shops and outdoor specialty stores that really works as the name states. forgetting that your watch is not demagnetized!! You can buy a good quality compass for as low as $20 and get an almost "Top-ofthe-Line" for under $70. The site for that is the US Orienteering Federation.S. If you prefer a civilian book that is excellent then chase down a copy of. and you can still mark on it.. OK. However. Online. buy maps.... ... Kjellstrom. Almost like a puzzle where little pieces combine to make a larger piece and those connect to make the puzzle whole! ! I realize that is very simplistic but I'm limited in being able to draw. Cavalry Store. no way!! I'll deal with the mundane run-of-the-mill compasses!! The military lensatic compass works and is simple in design.. one of the easiest to understand is the US Army's Field Manual. IMHO.covers lots of ground but not a lot of detail..S. now the fun stuff.

They do not have the firepower to engage. Rather than give a lengthy narrative on all of this. It will begin with the boarding of the helicopters/trucks/aircraft/submarine and end with the debriefing. high on drugs.Patrolling Fundamentals I Written by David R. Identify all areas of concern and plan for them. most screwed up. You go on patrol for a lot of reasons. noisy. and a lot of young lieutenants. Make sure each person knows what sector he will be responsible for and can set up in the dark without talking. They want the enemy to try and mess with them. why don't we discuss some specific techniques and then go over the phases of a patrol and discuss how these techniques are integrated into the mission. what are you going to do if one of the elements is discovered/captured/killed/ or for some reason doesn't return at the prearranged time? If you are walking along and are ambushed what are you going to do? Break the patrol down into phases and spend a lot of time discussing each phase with your people. but you don't do it to kill off your own people. What do you do if you are discovered on the LZ upon insertion? If you will break your team into two elements for some reason. Much of these texts concern small clandestine patrols. You should rehearse everything as best you can. In the movies these patrols put cherries on point because they know they are going to get hit. they are going to kick some ass. Small clandestine patrols avoid contact with the enemy. and heavily armed combat patrol on a mission to seek out and destroy the enemy doesn't give a darn whether they make noise or not. not a movie. If you can locate an area to rehearse in that has similar terrain. They know that if the enemy does. powerful. It's not the other way around. This is the stupidest. practice moving into your ORP (Objective Rally Point)/Patrol Base at night. Point is the most important job in the patrol. Point is not a job for some green kid because he's more expendable. Reed The patrol order will be a briefing that includes all of the details and contingencies. I don't doubt that with constant rotation of personnel. A large. I suppose if your patrol is undisciplined. listening to portable radios. If you think you are doing anyone any good by running a unit in this manner you should be court martialled and tried for treason. Other things you see in movies that would get you slapped for trying on a patrol: . and stumbling along through the jungle loaded down with comic books and all kinds of other crap there is VERY GOOD CHANCE you are going to get ambushed. irresponsible wad of worms I can think of. and frequently operate beyond the range of rapid reinforcement. You must include every conceivable contingency and allow time for training and rehearsals. It will provide the instructions that everyone needs to do their job. Vietnam was a war. Your job is to give the enemy the best opportunity that you can to die for HIS country. that some of the silly things you see in Vietnam-era War movies actually took place.

DON'T DO THIS. or anything else stuck into the band. If you are strung out to far. This is because the only way you could have gotten them would have been to sneak back and get them after the APL inspected you and your gear. tripping. making noise of any kind. 'Ranger Eyes' are sewn onto the back of your cap. In very dark places (like in a triple canopy jungle) you may have to hold onto the man in front of you. LSA. Rolling your sleeves up for any reason. Remember that you must be able to control teams in a variety of emergency situations. your patrol can be cut in half by an ambush. Not wearing camouflage at all times. If the APL let you bring any of the items he would probably be relieved immediately and charged with dereliction of duty. and rear security. . Dropping anything on the ground. Carrying your weapon on your shoulder. headquarters. Wearing camouflage paint in some silly "war paint" design. playing cards. It should be noted that if I found you in possession of unauthorized items mentioned above (cigarettes. and comic books) the punishment would be most severe. sneezing. While moving. one mortar or artillery round can kill you all. If you are too close to each other. These are two small strips of luminescent tape. In battle. People who are wont to break contact have no place on a patrol. or anything else. (This is only for our small sniping mission) Patrols are usually organized according to the mission. and stumbling) is to break contact with the man in front of him. playing cards. Phase of Patrol (Modified for our sample warning order)         Planning & Preparation Insertion Movement to the Objective Reconnaissance Setup our 'hides' and shoot people Movement to the LZ Extraction Debriefing Fundamental Concepts Movement When moving at night you will be very close to each other. Decorating the camouflage cover of your helmet with peace signs. people are organized into 'maneuver elements' and each has a team leader. The worst sin a man can commit (along with coughing. Cigarettes. wearing it with the chinstrap unhooked and dangling. Stumbling. Sauntering along like you are on a nature hike. the patrol leader will maneuver these teams against the enemy.         If the uniform include helmet. Bug Juice. slogans. You should organize your little patrol into a point element. Movement formation should be such that the PL can control all of the patrol elements. falling.

APL. positions. all under a hail of bullets and other weapons. and enemy patrols. if not you may have to use a dedicated point team. Part of your patrol order should cover fire missions. you are dead in combat. fire support. and the patrol stops for any reason. quickly. He will watch for litter. they really earn their pay. make sure that your point team is a good one. etc. the point team will close up to the patrol. A point element is composed of a Point man and a slack man. The "gun bunnies" love this stuff. If the point team does not keep an eye on the patrol. it is acceptable to talk in the clear. combat success is measured by the degree your unit can move. it is important to have a competent radio operator at all times. Tired men have a habit of looking at the ground in front of them. The slack man must watch the point man in his peripheral vision. and with field artillery and air support. Every man in your patrol must be able to call for fire. and RTO (Radio Telephone Operator). broken branches. or you have other reasons. ambushes. If your patrol is not large enough to rotate the point. A patrol leader must be able to maneuver his men. The point team should not be in place for longer than one hour. the medic would be part of the HQ element. They will load and fire like their lives depend on it. and pull rear security. NOT to navigate. That way your point team will always be alert. . shoot. Remember this. the enemy knows where you are. When they hear you under fire and the urgency in your voice. The point man walks in front and the slack man moves behind him about 20 meters depending on terrain and vegetation. Their mission is to provide security. Assuming everyone can operate the radio with a high degree of competence it is OK to do this. For movement purposes the APL will be at the rear of the patrol. Once you are in contact with the enemy.Point Element While moving your patrol should have a point element. It is difficult to concentrate for long periods of time in a high-pressure situation like point. If you were taking a medic. or in dense vegetation. Without communication. both within your patrol. This means it is no longer necessary to encrypt messages when time is of the essence. It is also important to have an alert point team at all times. You will have to make the decision. 30 minutes is a better time period. talk to HQ. When the point-man looks to the right. They will communicate by hand and arm signals. If you are in danger of being overrun you cannot waste time encoding. In a small patrol you may want to alternate the position of RTO so that each man can have a respite from point. At night. A good RTO must be able to encode and transmit messages fast. they will break contact. They must work together to provide constant 270 degree surveillance and check back to the patrol to get guidance on direction. and display leadership. and accurately. Headquarters Element Your HQ element will be the Patrol Leader (PL). The point team should not stray too far ahead. It really depends on how well each person can operate the radio. and communicate. The point team is the patrols primary defense against ambush. tracks. They must be able to spot an ambush before the patrol gets within the kill zone. or rocky terrain. the slack man 'takes up the slack' by looking to the left. The point team must be very alert for booby traps. The PL must be able to control their direction and see them at all times.

. Would it make sense for everyone except snipers to carry enemy weapons? Could we get resupply if necessary? What are the chances of being re-supplied instead of extracted? Is everyone trained and competent with enemy weapons? Are sound suppressors available for the weapon you want to carry? Sound suppressors are essential pieces of equipment for all weapons. all must perform security and be ready to fire and maneuver in contact with the enemy. One man looks right. Everyone will keep his finger on the selector switch. and resupply will be difficult if you are carrying non-standard items. If they don't hear strange weapons. Each man in the patrol has a sector to watch as you move. so it is acceptable to perform other jobs during this phase of the patrol. It should always be pointed wherever you are looking. Stagger this so that you alternate from right to left. If everyone is competent with foreign weapons you may consider it. They will know that certain weapons sounds don't sound like theirs. they may think someone is qualifying or practicing! Notice I'm using a lot of 'less likely'. POW search and handling. . there are no guarantees. your weapon's muzzle follows. demolitions. All weapons must be kept on safe. The fact that the area is crawling with the enemy cannot be overlooked. If the troops guarding the rear area are not seasoned combat soldiers. or in a serious firefight is quite another. they will know their comrades are shooting at something. The moment anyone fires an M16 or . It is no different from any other special purpose team. Since you will be behind enemy lines. If you can survive the fight with enemy weapons and you are sure of it. This danger can be minimized somewhat by using sound suppressors. This uncertainty can work in your favor.Sniping Element If you and the APL are snipers then you are also the sniping element. or other green troops. I'm saying that you are better off carrying the standard weapons everyone regularly carries. and outnumbered by virtually any enemy unit in the area. and so on all the way back through the patrol. Familiarity is one thing and competence is another. i. the man behind him looks left. even if they don't immediately recognize the source.e. You must hide and or run from anyone we meet if at all possible. they will be more likely to wonder what the ruckus is about and wait for someone to tell them what to do. and then escape. What will happen may be something else entirely. The odds of a shoot-out at some point are likely and you want to survive it first. MPs. Weapons always follow your eyes. How you will perform with the equipment when suddenly ambushed. 'odds are" 's. As you scan an area to your flank. you must not have an accidental discharge. You must consider these things and make your decisions. 'apt to'. snatch. but won't know what. You will not be sniping during the movement phase. Remember that you don't want to fire your weapons. then your odds of escape are somewhat enhanced.308 you are compromised. river crossing. Everyone within earshot will have heard their own weapons being fired. pinned down. Dime store novels have commandos carrying all sorts of exotic weapons.

Another thing you won't be forgiven for -officially. The point man fires an entire magazine at full-auto and throws a grenade. can you make it look as someone else shot him? Like he shot himself? Can you bury him. quietly. drown him. Rehearse this. You will not be forgiven for a tragedy befalling someone under your command when it could have been avoided. When you separate for recon purposes.if he shoots try to kill him quietly. You should never leave a man alone for any reason.'s away. (Later) . Then everyone can run like hell to the last rally point. The PL yells "9:00 300 meters!" or something. You should work out a system of squelch breaks to communicate. Can you trust him? Can you verify that he is a partisan? Anyone in fear of his life will tell you anything to get out of the situation. The patrol fires to cover the slack man's escape. with a knife. low-power radio. each team should have a small. Now what will you do. Far Ambush Suddenly mortars fall on you or a heavy machine gun opens up from 600 yd. did anyone hear you? He will certainly be missed. You should not use radios unless absolutely necessary. The enemy can determine where you are transmitting from and they will fire upon your location. The textbooks will tell you to gag him. he's a civilian and you are not supposed to kill him. anything to keep his body from being discovered? Spotted by Armed soldier(s) Who Shoot The point team should immediately drop and return fire. everyone runs to the 9:00 direction for 300 meters and regroups. If you have the same kind of weapon he has kill him with it if you have to. If they are separated then they return to the last rally point. Spotted by armed soldier who doesn't shoot Kill him quickly and quietly -. If possible the slack man should lay down a base of suppressive fire while the point man runs or crawls back to the patrol. If you can't leave him tied up for whatever reason consider killing him. The basic indivisible unit is a 2-man buddy system. tie him up. You can repeat this moving one man to the rear of the patrol at a time until you have broken contact. After all. and force him to go with you. Immediate Action Drills Spotted by unarmed civilian If you can you should capture him and tie him up.All of your men should be able to qualify right & left handed with their weapons.

Actions When Stopped Whenever you stop for any reason everyone must form a hasty perimeter. Rally Points Along your route you must select rally points while you walk.Near Ambush You are suddenly ambushed. rocks. Don't try to hide. If someone has been left asleep you will know and can get him up before you move out. Your only hope in a near ambush is to attack the enemy firing on full auto. This must be rehearsed. This can be a simple cigar shape. People who are very tired can fall asleep while stopped. The instant the patrol stops everyone quietly moves a few feet out and forms a defensive perimeter. When in formation everyone has a direction they will watch while stopped. You must never stand up unless you are moving. swinging you rifle like a club. You don't want everyone walking off to the left and leaving the right unguarded. If you have not had the benefit of this training then you must rehearse (and you should anyway. You will probably have a few picked out beforehand by looking at prominent terrain features on your map. throwing grenades. etc. if you are caught in a near ambush you are dead meat! The best defense is this one. If you have to run. don't ever forget it DON'T GET YOUR ASS AMBUSHED! Your point team must be a good one! Its job is to make sure there is no one hiding in ambush along your route. If you run you'll be shot down. . Anyone not in the kill zone must immediately flank and assault the enemy position." so on and so forth back to the front of the patrol. the rendezvous place is always the last rally point. He says "one" to the man in front of him who in turn says "two. Make sure the point element gets the word. Everyone must do it instantly. you point and say rally point. In Ranger and LRP training these concepts are drilled into your head in a pressure cooker environment. Basically. any place that provides cover will only be booby-trapped in a well-laid ambush. etc. As you pass big gnarled trees. not just the people behind you. Everyone in turn will tap his hat all the way back to the APL who is in the rear. the only thing you can do is assault their position. instinctive. When you start out again get a head count. w/out hesitation for it to have any chance of working. The slightest error brings almost violent reactions from the instructors. The PL should tap his hat as the signal for the count. no matter how much it pisses them off) these actions with your men prior to the patrol. By the time you have lived like this it becomes second nature. If that isn't possible the rally point before that one becomes the rendezvous.

Take turns Sleep .If the course will be changing or the mission changes for any reason a frag order is issued. Actions at Danger Areas Contingencies are:   What if the point man gets fired up? What if you are hit while crossing? Plan to have people separated as little as possible.take turns Sock changing -.       Weapons cleaning -.Reapply camouflage -. You need a signal to:           Stop Move forward Provide Covering Fire Form perimeter Head Count Rally Point Establish Patrol base Hasty Ambush Abandon the ORP Final Protective Fire At night. Everyone must know radio frequencies without . they cannot hear you yell. If you are hit you don't want a danger area separating your men.take turns Water gathering -. Each man purifies his own water.If you will be stopped for more than a few minutes you may follow this schedule of maintenance. Eating -. Do not send one man across at a time unless you are crossing a stream or river.depending on the danger present you may only want 1 in 3 men asleep at a time.Take turns -. this is an addendum to the Patrol order. When the right & left flank give you an all clear everyone runs across at once.foot powder -. A good way to signal is with different colored flares that everyone can see. when everyone is firing. If it is a road spread everyone out. Divide the time you will be stopped and allow each shift equal sleep time. Command and Control Certain signals will mean certain things in an emergency.  Frag order -.two men collect all canteens and carry them to the source.

Dogs Scout dogs have no place on a clandestine patrol. Any noise you male will be assumed a threat and fired upon. Water Proofing Radios must be water proofed by wrapping with visqueen and taping. Forget birdcalls. In a small patrol that . 4 hours? You'll be there a while anyway. If attacked. Owls hoot. It is usually a depression in the ground where a person could hide. Forget cowboy movie tricks. If the enemy has been in an area for several weeks without hearing an owl. Don't even think about it. If you run the risk of capture you must reset the radio to a different frequency so that the enemy won't find the radio with the proper frequency already set for them. When in position the PL can say rally point 1 is at 2:00 . or any number of things that can compromise your mission. They must know how many clicks left or right to arrive at the right frequencies in the dark. Now if you have to run the PL can say 3:00 400 meters and everyone will know what direction that is. They are noisy. scratch. your enemy has probably seen a few westerns too. 300 meters and RP 2 is at 3:00 600 meters. and suddenly they hear two of them hooting back and forth they are not going to think it's two owls. make certain that everyone knows where 12:00 is. You should have an evacuation plan that includes at least two rendezvous locations that everyone knows. but how many owls do you hear? Are they native to the area? Owls stick to one area their entire lives. Most birds call in the early morning and evening.. Patrolling Fundamentals II Written by David R. defecate everywhere. and may give away your position. This is what you must plan for and do.writing them down. Unless your enemy is a bunch of idiots they will know your signals are not birds chirping. First put it in a sock to absorb condensation then wrap with plastic. If they are hot they can't help panting. dead space is any place that you cannot shoot into from the patrol base. They do not call each other in the middle of the night. This is the direction everyone will run if a flare goes up to signal the evacuation of the patrol base. The handset is wrapped too. Whatever method you choose. Tape the handset cord far enough down to insure a watertight seal.. They may bark. Reed The Patrol Base A patrol base is any place you intend to occupy for more than umm.. Leave enough slack in the plastic to operate the knobs. If you have one near your house you will hear him every now and then. your enemy will be able to use these places to fire into your location and you cannot hit him with direct fire weapons.

we'll need one when we meet up on the DZ. Our little patrol will not really have an ORP. I believe the system of interlocking fires now in use by the US Army was learned from the Vietnamese. each man will have an assigned sector. when they will be back. If the patrol base is in danger of being overrun. the PL may decide to fire final protective fire as a last attempt at holding the position. [interlocking fire picture] ORP . bar soap. Nonetheless it is important to have this down. and when firing. They have poor night vision. Remember that digging is noisy and leaves a lot of sign. We will have passwords to exchange when we meet up after the recon mission. It is very important that everyone knows where the LP or ambush is located. sharp stakes can be used. The enemy will know exactly how many people occupied the position. and a running password. run a safe distance. you fire on full auto everything you can feed through your weapon. Digging in means digging fighting positions in the patrol base. This is the place where we would drop rucks on a raid mission. You may now begin the maintenance schedule. and resume the patrol in a manner that the enemy will be unable to find you again. Usually larger units will send out LP's at night (Listening Posts) or maybe an ambush patrol. much less overrun. All men will have to pull security on the objective. . throw grenades. This will give you the same smell that they have. Smoking You can't take people who smoke. Period. and interlocking. The APL should check all sectors of fire and insure they are safe. Skoal. The whole concept is to avoid detection.Objective Rally Point is a special patrol base located within 50 . break contact. They smell.has no mortars. On a recon patrol we HOPE to take all precautions to keep from being found. Final Protective Fire usually means swinging your rifles all the way to one side and firing directly in front of the position to your side. etc. A frag order is issued telling a team to go somewhere nearby and set up an ambush or something. and they certainly can't take tobacco with them. it makes for a very deadly defense. and they are difficult for the enemy to use against you. must also be left behind. Another concept is Final Protective Fire. When in a patrol base. and if we parachute in. If you lack explosives for this. I do not think that digging in is wise on a recon patrol. We will take everything with us. Our little patrol lacks the resources for this. deodorant. You should press aiming stakes into the ground in front of your position. If the LP has to high tail it back at a run they need something to yell when doing this so they won't be fired up. you may want to booby trap the dead spaces. You will also blow all claymores.100 meters of the objective. At night you must be very careful not to shoot the men in the position directly to your right and left. If you are compromised. Food You should eat only the food your enemy eats for 48 hours prior to the patrol. These will keep you from swinging your rifle too far to one side. With a system of interlocking fires.

grenades. buildings. Test everyone's knowledge of the mission. crickets. Once you are on the ground. Tape weapon sling swivels. Waterproof maps. passwords. wind. Take string and stretch it across the box where the grid square lines are on your map and label them. Commo wire and garrot handles. ghillie suit. Swiss seat and snaplink. . etc. Radio batteries. everyone sits down. Two canteens. Every person must bring:                   Weapons cleaning equipment. This gets everyone involved and creates a lasting impression of the terrain in each team members mind. Other Tips    Make a thorough. Consider all types of explosives. Add little trees. roads. Knife. Flashlights with (2) red lens filters. Camouflage stick. and help you deliver the OPORD when it's finished. It is good to let everyone participate in this by building it in stages. Gloves. prior to departure. Be as detailed and creative as time allows. tree frogs. mines. Tie the strings to small nails. dirt. etc. You will use this table to help you plan. Sand Table This is a sandbox about 6' square. and spends five minutes listening to the sounds of the forest.  Avoid taking weapons that use different kinds of ammo. Make sure you add all major terrain features. Lots of socks. prior. Compass. fences. These will help you get an overall 3D impression of the land you will be working on. Water purification tablets or filter. detailed terrain analysis of the country you will cover on your patrol. with 2x4 sides. Signal Mirror. etc.Use them to create diversions. Birds. and clear of the LZ. streams. Individual First Aid Kits. roads. cut-off bridges. Fill it with sand. Secure all equipment with duct tape so that it will not squeak or rattle. call signs.Drink Bring only water and do not drink alcohol for 48 hr. frequencies. Poncho. closes their eyes. rocks. etc. Build a Sand table. and other weapons in your plan -. Use your hands to sculpt the dirt to match the contour lines on your map.

When they cross the right and left security must be ready to cover them. it is easier to communicate them during a patrol order. there may be a fire mission on its way in. Trackers may be called in to start tailing you from the danger area where you were seen. When studying the terrain you will cross. changing courses to confuse trackers. By standardizing these things. they will return and advise the patrol leader. rivers. If you always do it the same way then you will not need to rehearse these as much. long underwear. and clear areas are all places that the enemy may be watching. or thick socks unless it will be sub-zero weather. Long underwear or extra clothes will wear you out quickly. . First. You should avoid danger areas where possible. fields. Streams. They will then pull far side security until the team is across. etc. Do not allow men to wear two sets of clothing. As soon as they reach the far side they take up a position just like they always do when the patrol is stopped. at danger areas. and the patrol moves out quickly. send out security to the right and left. Once across. When stopped for long periods use poncho's to stay warm. everyone gets to the edge of the danger area and upon a signal. Extra clothes make a man hot while moving. You must quickly get out of the area and be certain to leave little sign. Patrolling Fundamentals III Written by David R. look for these and plan to go around them. They will take up a position where they can cover the patrol when everyone crosses. The point team will advise the PL of what they have found ahead. roads. When you come to a danger area that cannot be bypassed. the point team will recon the far side of the danger area to insure there is no danger waiting for the patrol. Reed Danger Areas A danger area is a place where the enemy can see you.Check EVERYTHING on each man in your patrol. Travel Light. Actions while stopped. you should cross it in this manner. Anything not inspected is probably neglected. freeze at night. They should move along the edge for at least 50 meters looking for enemy positions. When they are satisfied that it is safe. If you were spotted crossing. The few hours after a danger area crossing are hours spent being very careful. they will return to the danger area and signal. Next send the point team across. Next. SOP Standard Operating Procedures should be established for anything that you will do a lot of. rushes across at once. and there won't be any need for talking in the field. If they spot danger. and occupying a patrol base are the first three you will want to standardize.

not after. signal mirrors. You must run to the helicopters as they are landing. water purification tablets. You don't want to find out that is no covering fire after you are in the open and running to meet the helicopter. etc. The chopper pilot will see it and say "identify purple. etc. Intelligence can determine a lot from these pictures. You want the pickup to be touch and go. battalion. It would be a shame to divert military assets and get people killed to strike a target that you have exaggerated the importance of. If you can see markings on the vehicles use a telephoto lens to get good pictures. If you popped a yellow then the enemy is nearby trying to lure him in. All equipment should be photographed.Intel Collection Each recon team should take pictures of vehicle tracks. the enemy is transmitting on. the distance between them. (Not that there is much you can do about it. You will need compasses. You will move to the next LZ. Make sure he arranges a slick with two gunners and at least two supporting gunships. Aircrews appreciate efficiency! Their gunners can provide covering fire while you run.) Escape & Evasion This is what you'll do if for some reason the helicopters can't pick you up at the LZ. and so on trying to make contact.. Make sure you coordinate this with the air liaison. Do not make up stories or lie about what you saw to make your efforts seem more important. their frequencies. Frequency counters are small and can be used to determine the freq. Make sure that you know what friendly unit you will be attempting to contact. (Remember lots of batteries. distant LZ in case your radio malfunctions. Your team should have a good working knowledge of the enemy's radio equipment. good knives. Other tricks . so that Intelligence can determine the vehicle that made them. film. You should arrange for experts to train your team in the use of photo equipment. and the next. Advise the pilot and the gunships can handle the bastards with the purple smoke.) If this fails you will have a long walk. and a password. etc. If only one man makes it back he will do so with all of the intelligence. Have prearranged times to meet someone at a safe. Once the choppers are in-bound you will probably want to pop a smoke for identification. antennas. etc. This equipment (Unless waterproof) should be protected in the same way radios are. This will help you determine the difference between company. This is called disseminating information Helicopter extraction If helicopters are used you must let them know you are coming and let them know if you are being chased. or regiment HQ's. with the helicopter never really coming to a stop. Also photograph antennas and other equipment. When you rendezvous you will all compare notes and make sure that everyone knows everything that each other saw during recon. Gunships will be able to attack your pursuers giving you time to board and take off. east edge of LZ" if you popped a purple smoke at the east edge of the LZ you'll confirm.

you will always enter a DC-9 in the same manner. (Depending on the immediacy of the situation of course). etc. everything is a patrol.e. your assault team will have an SOP that they follow for this. SOP it and have your men rehearse this SOP during normal training exercises. I would like to get it on-line. I do remember spending three or four days minimum preparing OPORDs (Operations Order).You can rig a white phosphorous grenade in the bottom of your rucksack with a wire leading up to your quick release on the harness. Dropping a rucksack is a violation of noise discipline. This allows your team to . who taught my first patrolling class. I've not spent the time required to do a thorough job on this subject. That was with the assistance of several others. Tape it securely and open the pin on the grenade JUST A LITTLE. To an individual soldier. Virtually all of what follows comes right off the top of my head. Since I'm working by myself here. Reed It has been over fifteen years since I led a patrol. If for example. Either one is just a detailed set of plans that communicates the situation. When developing a patrol order. I realized just how long it had been! I'm sure I have left out some important information just because I can't remember everything. Tired line soldiers are in the habit of dropping rucksacks every time they stop. Good soldiers do not drop their rucksacks on a mission for any other reason. In combat. mission. and specific requirements to the men who will make up the operation. This is very bad form. I hope I can remember most of what he taught me. river crossing. snatch. It is essential that a leader expend extraordinary effort and creativity when he plans a patrol. Any movement of a group of men is in essence a patrol. After you embark on your mission. While trying to write the warning order and patrol order. Each team (i. If the situation requires you to modify the SOP so be it. A young PFC with a Ranger tab will know the instant you have missed something! An easy way to keep your sanity. and rehearse for it. If you don't plan for a contingency. Those of you who have more recent experience are encouraged to criticize. Once men in a special operations unit become used to this it becomes second nature.) would prepare its own "annex" to the main order. and have to earn a living doing other things. demolitions. Patrolling . you will not have to write the section for this common action over and over again. My thanks to Sgt. but in training you will always do it the same way. if ANYTHING happens or changes that was not allowed for in the original patrol order. and speed communication. the leader must prepare a "frag" order. concept of operation. therefore I'll go ahead with it as is. If you ALWAYS do something in a certain way. when it rears its ugly head your men may die as a consequence. By breaking up the problem we were able to create very detailed OPORDs. The leader will use the same patrol order format to describe the change of plans. something a leader does a lot of. is to develop SOPs (Standard Operating Procedures). If you have to drop rucksacks and haul ass you will have about 5 seconds after dropping the rucksack before it goes off. Guajardo. right in the face of your pursuers. Murphy's law usually results in death.The WarningOrder Written by David R. A Patrol Order is just a more specific Operations Order.

the first two guys are probably going to go down. and that is why they win engagements with the enemy. In order to assure mission success. Patrol Orders are the mechanism for getting everyone's program together. They way we did it was thus:  Man 1 & 2 enter with . Why we let international diplomacy considerations affect our decisions is beyond me. who are aggressive. and when the hostages are safe kill every one of them. very fast manner. They must be able to run in a crouch. The first two men must instinctively count their shots and reload in a fluid. Human nature will hopefully prevail here. and that person is killed. and very good shots! There is no time to reload with the slide locked back. incompetent. If the other guys what to play this game with us. taking out terrorists. This takes a lot of practice. and therefore everyone else's job is to just follow them. One thing that I found lacking in line units was a lack of information sharing. two shots to the head for each. They fire over the two point men's heads -. meaning that the terrorists will instinctively try to protect themselves first. before trying to detonate explosives. These jobs go to people. and lack leadership skills. there is a very good chance of success. Passengers will instinctively duck. how does anyone else call in the extraction? I could go on and on with examples.  Right behind them are two men armed with sub-sonic submachine guns. Junior officers who have never been in combat are likely to take the attitude that only they understand all of the important stuff. This whole drill. It puts a lot of people at risk in hostage scenarios for no other reason than pride. Most Lieutenants will give all pertinent info to their squad leaders. or sniping. make head shots. make them pay a heavy price for it. from start to finish takes about three (3) seconds when rehearsed. Special Operations units use only the cream of the crop. If the terrorists are determined and ready. Their back up must be right behind them firing madly at anything that remotely represents a threat. it is very important for everyone involved in the mission to understand what the mission is. and have a much higher kill ratio per man. and keep killing until the terrorists are dead. or destroy the country that gave them asylum. there is no second place in a gunfight). motivated. (Meaning that you want to live. If this is done well. Some are dumb. All NCO are not equal. or they are. anyone standing up or armed gets taken out. The terrorists have only three seconds before your team is halfway down the aisle killing anything that stands or holds a weapon. If the platoon sergeant doesn't make sure his NCO get the info to every man under their supervision. the stage is set for tragedy. If only one person knows how to signal the slicks for extraction. kidnapping.) It doesn't matter whether you are just going on a reconnaissance mission.develop the speed needed to clear an aircraft of terrorists before the terrorists have time to react. I think terrorists should be given most anything they want (within reason). and all of the details. The things that you do in this business must be planned in excruciating detail if you want to be successful on a consistent basis. .spraying bullets over the passengers' heads and down the aisles.45's and begin engaging specific targets. (Sniper Note: I think the policy of non negotiation is foolish.

This does not make it impossible to read the map. It will provide additional firepower if you get in a jam. you should be able to run a compass course. Small patrols must avoid contact. Patrol A patrol is a detachment sent out to perform an assigned mission of reconnaissance. To call yourself competent. and camouflage. and then take off again. recoilless rifles. They will be masters of stealth. They must also have all of the information that time allows them to be given. avoids detection at all costs. only harder. The patrol must be tailored to suit the mission. One or two leaders who know everything and a gaggle of soldiers who are just following the guy in front of them is an invitation to disaster. or antitank weapons. I have never tried it but I think that orienteering would be a good way to learn these skills. But they will also record and report everything they see or hear. you must be able to find prearranged rally points. only stopping long enough to steady the compass. deception. I think those folks do a lot of running on their courses and that is very good training. If bad things happen. I would call it common sense. Reading is not enough.In a way. I call them security men because that is their primary role. You must be able to look at a topographical map and relate the elevation contour lines to the physical terrain that surrounds you. not an M16.Spies on the enemy.Engages the enemy Recon . or make contact when conditions are favorable. as in an ambush. combat or both. A spotter (another sniper) and one or two security men accompany him. This can be difficult in heavy vegetation. You must be able to do this at night. Terrain association is the next big issue. your security team will be better than you are. You may want to take one automatic weapon. It is very important that everyone in the patrol unit know how to do this. But that means many things to different people. Combination . . I mention these because on a patrol you have to know where you are going. That does not mean that they are deadbeats whose only job is accompany you and try to protect you. Their mission is to engage the enemy. When I say automatic weapon I'm referring to an M60 machine gun or maybe one of those new SAWs. snipers operate as both. Ideally. etc. mortars. or in climates that where physical changes occur faster than the map makers can keep up. They will know everything you know and more. Types of Patrols    Combat -. Snipers do not need machine guns. you should learn. Some people have a real problem with this. you have to practice.Navigation Skills If you don't know how to use map & compass. how to get there. they just don't carry rifles with scopes. and how to get out. LZs (Landing Zones). Heavy rainfall areas and wind blown deserts are places that can change rapidly. Sniping Patrols The sniper goes out on patrol.

Recon Patrol Organization (Modified for sniping mission)  Recon and Security Element . left. RTO (Radio Telephone Operator).Organization of Patrols Patrols are organized in to elements and teams. and in the CP (Command Post) during halts and patrol bases. walk where he walks. As a patrol leader you should assign each special member of your patrol to another man. These folks are not usually trained in the art of clandestine patrolling and must be watched carefully to insure they don't screw up. and medic will usually be the HQ element. Assistant Patrol Leader (APL). rear security o Special security (far side security on river crossings. get down when he does. Teams are subdivisions of elements. They are important to the mission or they wouldn't be there. o Point team o Right. etc. or other special purpose people they will normally be in the headquarters element. and remain standing when everyone else drops. Instruct him to do whatever your man does. and run the direction he does. step where they shouldn't. stop when he stops. CIA.Provides early warning en route to/from and while on the objective.Engages the enemy at the objective  Headquarters .) o Special recon elements  Sniper Element -. FAC (Forward Air Controller). they will not instinctively do the right thing. close to the PL during movement. They are more apt to make noise. If you make contact. If your patrol has attached people such as ASA (Army Security Agency).Mentioned only because there will be some chain of command. . Maintains surveillance. Patrol Leader (PL). Your men don't like these guys along because they usually have to baby-sit them. The men on the patrol must be told to respect and protect these guys.

A patrol leader who is indecisive. and fails to LEAD. The enemy is using the road running east-west through the area to move . or come around behind. The smaller your patrol is. inspiring the men. by displaying courage. until the men have been fed and watered. will cause the fighting effectiveness of his patrol to collapse. The mission. and smoke of combat. always without exception. The patrol leader must always display unselfish courage so that when he does go down. If the enemy is hitting you on the right then your men on the right will expend ammo faster than those on the left will. and the required time frame. The APL doubles as rear security. Patrol leaders never eat. leadership. If the PL inspires and motivates his men. Crew served weapons should be located near the PL in a formation (small patrol). in that order. Amidst the roar. When the formations closes up during conditions of limited visibility it will resemble a file formation. and sometimes courage. It makes it easier for the PL to direct the fire of the gunners when he does not have to crawl around under fire trying to get his gunners in action. When you have more than this you will need to organize your patrol into multiple 'maneuver elements'. This is a rule that should NEVER be violated. A patrol order is always preceded by a warning order. recon satellites. fury. and audacity in the face of the enemy. Some leaders rise from the most unlikely places in the "ranks". This means crawling under fire from position to position. states the mission. A good sniper with a self-loading rifle can hit 5 men in less than three seconds at 900 meters! A machine gun in the hands of a good gunner can hit everyone in the patrol two or three times. Files are dangerous when visibility is good because a gun in enfilade position can fire down the patrol hitting everyone very quickly. with the assistance of the APL. Signal intelligence units. the patrol members will respond favorably and take the fight to the enemy when it's needed. hides under fire. and insuring that each has a constant supply of ammo. This is an example warning order. and men. and do as he has seen his leader do under fire. Warning Order The warning order is a statement issued by some higher authority that authorizes the patrol. the patrol leader. the easier it is to travel silently. In a fight. In this manner the PL can direct multiple elements by directly controlling the element leader. must constantly redistribute ammo and give encouragement to his men. Each element leader then controls up to five men under him. PFC Joe Rag Bag will step forward. A good patrol leader leads by example. You cannot just move every one online because the enemy could flank you.This is a sample formation for seven men. In a fire fight the men in the patrol look to the leader for direction. or drink. One man can effectively control up to 5 other men directly. Some men fire more often than others do. good leaders distinguish themselves by this type of conduct under pressure. and information from other intelligence sources indicates that the enemy has established a headquarters area in Grid Square ZZ1044. A good patrol member must always be ready to take command when the PL /APL is unable to do so (dead or wounded). and control is greatly enhanced.

You will be able to meet afterwards with the Air Liaison. political advisors. Strength/Size . mobility. There probably won't even be an officer at your briefing. You have one hour to get your team together. guard them? Expected reactions if you are discovered -.Unit name/numbers. They will launch your slicks to the LZ. Enemy Forces       Identification . If you piss them off with a lot of questions they'll let you know. and get the hell out. kill as many officers or key personnel as you can. markings on vehicles Training . heavy weapons. They'll have to be cool heads though. vehicles. and that's just as well. Pictures if they are available. pick your spotter and three good LRP men.Are their combat forces in the area? Do military police. All road junctions and trails are under enemy control and the entire area under surveillance. You must find their HQ. the last thing you want is to be compromised 120 miles behind enemy lines. The enemy has extensive signals intelligence capabilities and you can expect artillery or rocket fire within 2 minutes of any radio transmissions. etc. S2 Briefing Often this is done when the initial warning order is given. You will let your relay station know when you are on your way out. Since the AO is hot.equipment and supplies. You will need helicopter extraction standing by 24 hours a day throughout the operation. air assets. This is the most important part of the warning order.Individual.What will they do? Do they have the resources to mount a major search and destroy? . The AO is crawling with [insert expletive here]'s. commanding officer. Hopefully good weather will prevail. Well. In this example. you will need a good 3-man security team just in case you get into trouble.Are they well trained? Discipline . you heard it. Intelligence indicates that this is a Regimental HQ and the probability of at least Field grade officers is very high. You mission is to get in there and recon the area without being caught for a period of not less than 48 hours. Equipment -. You'll find out all about that at the S2 briefing. etc. The area is 125 miles north and well beyond artillery support. Anything that the briefer does not cover you must ask about. On 22 November 1995 you will set your sniper team in the best position you can find. Don't assume it's because they don't know. For now. There will be a full S2 briefing in 1 hour at Battalion. XO.All elements including fire support. I only set it apart because a bunch of officers aren't going to drop what they are doing to put on a "dog and pony" show for a sniper team.

We will use this information to build our sand table. Will we be there during a holiday? Do they work? Where? Farmers? Are they friendly? How has the enemy treated them? Do we have a contact in a partisan group we can use if necessary? Can they be trusted? Do they keep dogs? Do they have electrical power? Vehicles? We could write a book on this subject and we won't. Inter-unit call signs and passwords. CEOI codes. structures. that you cannot see looking at a flat two-dimensional aerial photo. fields. Heat will have an adverse effect. each member of your team should have his own map.Indigenous Personnel        Customs. To identify and fix enemy resources you will need assistance from the photo interpretation guys. It will make sentries sleepy. It will make you consume more water.It will limit air support. they can identify vehicles. Moon Phase Before morning and early evening nautical twilight Maps and Aerial Photos If they are available. life styles. . etc. You must never mark a map you will carry on your operation. Frequencies to use on the days in question to contact them. These photos must be used to markup maps. Preferably everyone on your team should be able to speak the local language and should already have received some training on the religious and cultural customs of the population. It allows you to move silently and hide. but who counts on those guys anyway? Rain softens the sounds of your movement. traditions. Friendly Forces     Locations of all adjacent friendly units. etc. By using stereoscopic lenses and overlays. positions. Sunrise and Sunset Moon Rise and set. infantry and vehicles -. extreme cold will drive undisciplined soldiers indoors or into sleeping bags when they should be alert and watchful Effect on terrain.tracked and wheeled.Rain is the soldier's best friend -. Forecast . Weather       All major weather systems. Aerial photos can help with locating vegetation densities like forests. dress. Wide fluctuations in temperature can be expected in mountainous or desert terrain. You will need an extra set of maps with plastic laminates to mark on with grease pencils. It also keeps you from being spotted from the air.

you'll have the time to work it out. make our shots and air strike on the 22nd. Scope the site out on the 21st. prepare sand table Organize the patrol Select men. 22 Nov. and move to a better site if necessary. If air transport and TACAIR are available. Sample Time Table Action Debriefing Extraction Call Choppers Make Shots Date 22 Nov. Rehearse Execute the mission Example We are going to plan on being in position 1 day sooner than required so we can scope out the situation. 22 Nov.After the warning order you must find out what assets you will have to work with. Incorporate the air assets into your patrol order. a fly over might be inadvisable. with a few additions.(Continuous throughout) Make reconnaissance if possible. In the warning order given above. Hopefully. your chain of command has a good relationship with the rotor heads so you won't have a problem getting the priorities your people need. Find out what you will have to work with first. Use maps and aerial photos to find your insertion point. Time 1700 1500 1400 1400 Equipment/Personnel All Personnel All All Snipers . 22 Nov. if not use maps and photos Complete detailed plans Issue Patrol Order Supervise. Lets back up from there. then meet with your liaison to give them all of the details. You will give your own people the warning order all over again. You don't want the enemy to think you might know where he is. That means we will move into our hide on during the night of the 20th. make arrangements with the liaison officers to meet with you after you have worked out your patrol order. Inspect. It won't do you any good to plan for choppers or a fly over if none are available. weapons and equipment Issue Warning Order to your men Coordinate . Do this early enough so that if they have a problem with something you want to do. move to the LZ and get out.             Study the mission Plan use of time and prepare time table Study terrain and situation. Now you must prepare a plan for your patrol.

17 Nov. All but Platoon Leader All All All . 16 Nov.Asst. 20 Nov. 16 Nov. 20 Nov. 16 Nov. 17 Nov. 17 Nov. 18 Nov.Platoon Leader to Conduct. 17 Nov. 16 Nov. Patrol Leader Patrol Leader Everyone Else . 16 Nov. 17 Nov. 17 Nov. 16 Nov. 16 Nov. 18 Nov. 17 Nov. All All All All All All All . 17 Nov.Exercise All All . 17 Nov. 20 Nov. 16 Nov.Classroom All . 16 Nov. Platoon Leader to Conduct. 0200 2000 1800 0600 0600 0100 2100 2030 1930 1830 1030 0930 0830 0700 0600 2200 1800 1700 1400 1200 1100 1000 0900 1000 All All All All All See Patrol Base Annex.On Objective Movement to Objective Disseminate Intelligence Sleep Split-up/Recon Sleep Movement to AO Parachute Jump Takeoff Board Aircraft Sleep/Eat Move to Airfield Final Inspection Draw Ammo Chow Sleep Night Rehearsals Chow Patrol Order Command/Control Chow Air Requirements Turned In Fire Support Overlays Extraction Class 21 Nov.

Danger Areas Class Fire Missions Class Chow Sleep Night Compass Class Chow Patrolling Chow Patrolling Inspection Chow Sleep Photo Intelligence Class Patrol Order Development Warning Order

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Everyone Else Everyone All All All: 1 MRE, LBE, Compass, Map, Note Book and Pencil. All All All All All All All All - S2 NCO Conducts Class All All

Well, we are back to the 12th and have a few days to work with. We should probably move everything back a day to allow more recon time, and another day to allow everyone one full day to sleep and eat. This patrol will take a toll on everyone. We want to be well rested and fed when we board the choppers. Our assholes will be so tight you couldn't drive a 10-penny nail up them with a sledgehammer. We will need the extra sleep and food. If things go bad we could wind up without a ride home and be forced to escape & evade the 120 miles back to friendly lines. We want a lot of good food in our system, vitamin supplements, high energy foods, foot powder and socks. Looking back over the timetable I can see that I have allowed too much time for some things and not enough for others. It is important that all personnel know what they are doing so that you can cover the basics quickly and use the rest of the time to develop the operations order. As we shall see, all of the details will be planned for and included in our OPORD.

Patrolling - Operations Order
Written by David R. Reed Now that we have an understanding of what we must be able to do, this is how I would plan our sample mission. I am tired of writing all of this so I'm going to make it brief. This is an acceptable outline to use for your operations order.

Operations Order Format
Situation
o

o

o

Enemy Forces  Location, size, strength  Capabilities, supply lines, communications, posture  Probable courses of action Indigenous People  Location, numbers, organizations  Capabilities, resources, communications, hositilies, civic groups  Languages spoken, religious, superstitions, other cultural aspects  Probable courses of action Friendly Forces  Mission of parent unit  Mission of supporting units (air, artillery, etc.)  Missions of other patrols, defensive positions you must cross Mission
o

Who, what, when, where (coordinates) Execution

o o o

Concept of the Operation - Overall plan Sub-unit missions - for elements, teams, individuals Coordinating Instructions  times of departure & return  Formations and order of movement  Route, primary and alternate  Passage of friendly front lines - out/in  Rally Points and actions at rally points  Actions on enemy contact  Actions at danger areas  Actions on objective  Fire Support (if not in it's own annex)  Rehearsals and inspections

 

Debriefings - time, place, uniform, format Annexes - mini OPORDs that cover specialty items

Service & Support
o

Supply Rations Uniforms & Equipment Arms & Ammunition Captured Material Transportation - may be annexed Medical Evacuation - may be annexed Personnel Prisoners of War Command & Signal
   

o o o o

o

Signal Frequencies & Call signs Pyrotechnics & Signals Challenge and password (sign/countersign) Code words Command  Commander/leader location  Chain of Command
   

o

Operations Order Summary
Look at the outline. It is a suggested format and that is all. You will issue your OPORD in any manner you choose. Make sure it is complete, well organized, and interesting. You should use sand tables, pictures, drawings and other instructional aids. Prepare a multiple choice and true/false quiz that tests each soldier on every point in the patrol order. Every one must be able to recite in detail call signs, passwords, locations, the mission, and everything that they would need to know to complete the mission if they were the sole survivor of a firefight, plane crash, etc. If everything goes wrong you will want each man to have the knowledge he needs to complete the mission and return home safely. Friendly lines cannot be safely crossed without adequate preparation and training. Soldiers in a defensive posture are apt to fire on anything they hear, see, or think they hear or see. The unit you will be passing through must know when you will be there and how you will contact them. Break the mission down to these specifics:
o o o o o o

How you will insert What you will do once you are on the ground How you will move to the objective What you will do when things happen along the route How you will occupy patrol bases/ORP What you will do once there

it will be in a very inaccessible place. When using slicks it may be advisable to make a couple of false insertions. This lessens the amount of time spent studying the map and everyone will know the route before hand. chutes are hidden. if you can think of another way to get there secretly then do that. If this can't be done we may want to consider an Airborne HALO insertion. If the enemy has strong AA capabilities. except each category will pertain to the air movement only. If we have to change. Coastlines. We will establish a winding route that if followed by a tracker. and moves off. For instance. Say about 20. You will need enough to get down to 10. If you choose to use aircraft. Your annex will follow the same format as your patrol order. Insertion We will want to get as close as we can without our choppers being heard. appears to lead nowhere. create an annex for this part of the mission.35-000 feet jump. everyone meets up. What air unit will you use? Aircraft? Where will you board? What flight path will be followed? Command & Signal will pertain to frequencies the aircraft use etc.000 feet. We will pick the one we'll use when we get there. Everyone must know where to run once they are on the ground. You will need to complete the patrol order outline with everything you need to describe this part of the mission. This may confuse any 'LZ watchers' into thinking you got out at another LZ. We don't want to tax ourselves foolishly (and make a lot of noise) but we sure can't go walking down a road or trail. Use your imagination.o How you will get out. rivers. This will lessen the chance of discovery by enemy patrols. Contingencies are: o o o What happens if someone breaks a leg on the jump? What happens if you are fired up on the DZ or LZ? What happens if you are shot down and some of you survive? Movement to the Objective We will move only at night and observe during the day. When we make camp during the day. you may want to consider some other scheme. Once on the ground. we'll try to move over to our other route. 000 . and roads will probably be watched. . the mission would be to make a covert parachute jump into the enemy's rear area at 2100 hours. There should be at least one alternate rally point. Our route will follow the most difficult country we can find within reason. You will need a few minutes worth of oxygen for your free fall. Our route will depend on the terrain and vegetation. You will need a password to recognize each other in the dark. We need at least one alternate route.

ShelterConstruction Written by Roger Perron and David R. Seek Dry ground as much as possible. dampness. by stacking rocks or snow. Add to its height. if you can. it may provide a shelter or materials which one can be built. virtually any protection from wind. wait until it has burned out before attempting salvage.  Spurs which lead down to water. on rising ground that has no risk of flooding and is safe from rock falls or avalanches.  Look for somewhere sheltered from the wind. In this case. if you have one. rain and to keep warmth. more liable to frost at night. You may have to make do with any natural shelter that you can find for the night or until you can fully assess the situation. Sleep and adequate rest are essential and the time and the effort you put into making your shelter comfortable will make them easier to get. Valley bottoms and deep hollows . Shelter is necessary to give shade. to repel wind. Winter storms ALWAYS come from the West & North. High enough to AVOID mosquitoes using air draft. move down and look for shelter on the Leeside. to increase the windshield before settling down on the leeward side. Other considerations for a long-term shelter:   Hilltops exposed to wind. Close to drinking water supply yet not too close bugs. If movement down a slope seems risky. which are often routes to watering places for animals.  Hillside terraces where the ground holds moisture. rain & cold will be welcome. Reed You will need to make fire and to choose the right type of fire construction. Look for these when selecting your campsite:          Wind sheltered Offer wood for burning Away from swamp. make use of any hollow in the ground. Winter: Sheltered from wind as much as possible. If no cave or crevice is available to give shelter. traversing even a short way along the contour may bring you out of the wind. . If you are a victim of a plane crash or a vehicle that has let you down. Shelter opening facing east or rising sun position. but if there is a fire or the threat of fuel tanks exploding. For a long-term camp you should find a secure site with convenient access to your major needs.could be damp & especially when the sky is clear. but make sure that any structure is stable & use a back-pack.

Make or find a shelter while there is light.) Near riverbanks. Make more permanent shelter when permitted.conserves heat How long do you intend to remain at the location? Snow caves and natural holes are ideal if you are on the move and do not need a permanent structure. and grass.  In areas that get plenty of rainfall. Heavy rainstorms in nearby hills can easily send water rushing down them in flash floods with no warning. You must get out of the rain. however may lead you to be troubled by insects and the sound of running water can hide other noises that might indicate danger or the sound of search or rescue parties. Sleep with your head elevated. wind. Don't wait until it's dark. leaves. and snow before Hypothermia sets in. for water collects there before flowing further downward. In deep snow. Be courteous to the natural habitants when near small ponds or in any area with a scarce water supply. Check above your head for bees or hornets' nests and for dead wood in trees that could come crashing down in the next storm or high wind. which attract lightning. head lower than feet can cause headaches. Insulate floor of shelter as deeply as you can with brush. Slides and avalanches are a danger. You will get cold faster if you lay on the bare ground. Hot air rises. Be careful about staying near steep slopes or cliffs. The following are essential for shelter:    Insulated bed Wind Blocker Small as can be squeezed into . Keep away from solitary trees. Alpine meadows are fragile. Choose ground that is reasonably flat and free or rocks and insure that you have space to lay out signals and that you can be easily spotted by rescue parties. improvise but keep shelter simple and small. make a bed of something. Dig tunnel into snow if no other shelter is available. ticks and other bugs like to camp too. Also near sea where there are tidal changes. be susceptible to frost and damp mist. Camping there for a week may leave a visible scar for years. (Sniper Note: Camping next to water will keep animals that depend on the water for their survival from approaching. rising as much as 5m (17ft) in an hour! Even on plains keep out of old watercourses. no matter how dry they are. and in forest areas keep to the edges where you can see what is going on around you. Use your imagination. In MOUNTAIN REGIONS streams can become torrents in minutes. so valley bottoms will often pockets of cold air and in cold weather. Size will depend upon the number in the party. Use stick to keep air vent open.anything to keep you off the cold ground. base of trees can provide shelter. . terraces across a slope will often be damper than the steeper ground above and below them. cold air sinks. look for the high water mark. Pitching camp too close to water. conserve energy. Tall grass is where the chiggers.

From sudden shower you can keep dry by just lingering under a spruce or pine. Snow Cave -. You need some kind of implement to cut into it or make blocks from it. Along the top of the sides of the trench. It is most effective when built on a slight slope. There is usually sufficient small growth in such a forest to break off and angle in lean-to form against a protective log or trunk. sleep on the center one and keep off the lower level which will trap the cold. cold air sinks. fill it with hot coals. but be soft enough to allow a probe to be inserted evenly through it. wrap them well. These will be an easy size to handle. Use more snow blocks to close the sides. A medium-sized tree may have a space right around the trunk or a large one may have pockets in the snow beneath a branch. Stack for walls. Fill any gaps with snow.All shelters must be ventilated for evaporation. Snow Construction A saw. Anchor a ground sheet or poncho along the top with another course of blocks. yet allow maximum penetration of the sun's rays. thick enough to provide good insulation. Fires give off carbon monoxide. Snow or rock caves will be easily recognizable but not so obvious are the spaces left beneath the spreading boughs of conifers in the northern forests when the snow has already built up around them. At the other end downwind have a removable block as a door or dig an entrance. Put equipment below your sleeping bag so that you are not in direct contact with the snow beneath. Those with equipment can cut blocks. Heat up stones. Create 3 levels inside: build a fire on the highest. The ideal snow will bear a man's weight without much impression being made. Cut blocks about 45 X 50cm (18 X 20in) and 10-20cm (48in) thick. use others to secure the bottom edge. Old trapper trick: Dig a rectangular hole.Dig into a drift snow to make a comfortable shelter. Build a lean-to with whatever is available. If you have tools to cut blocks of snow. then cover up with earth and lay a blanket over it. Try digging under any tree with spreading branches on the Lee side. you can build a complete snow house or use it for walls around another shelter. All you need is a cross bar between two supports. Dig down to a depth of at least 60cm (2ft). the cold air will collect in the entrance leaving warmer air in the sleeping place. A heavy grove of big evergreen itself affords considerable shelter. Snow trench -. If you have enough plastic groundsheet material. Then pile on branches and leaves/snow. At very low temperatures snow will be solid. Mosquitoes seem to hate the smell of Basilic. and insert them in your sleeping bag. cover with anything you have. cut a ledge about 15cm (6in) wide and the same deep. knife. fold it so that it doubles as groundsheet and a roof. Even soft snow can be built into a windbreak.Mark out an area the size of a sleeping bag including head support and cut out blocks the whole width of the trench. Block the windward end with another block or piled up snow. Drive a hole through the roof to . shovel or machete is necessary to cut compacted snow into blocks. Make use of the fact that hot air rises and heavier. Rest the snow bricks on each side of the ledge and lean them in against each other to form a roof. Lean branches densely against the cross bar to make the shelter.

so that it will not freeze up and jam. If the inner walls start to glaze with ice and drip. Make sure that the inside dome walls are well smoothed use the back of your mittens or mukluks to do this job not your hand. Smooth the inside surfaces to discourage melt drips and make a channel around the internal perimeter to keep them away from you and your equipment. Placing a piece of snow on the source can stop small drips in igloos. Build the main shelter first then dig out an entrance or build an entry tunnel which is big enough to crawl along. The central hole can be used as an entrance if you are too exhausted to complete the structure. Raise a central column of blocks in the center about 1- . but this block helps to keep the structure from collapsing. Seal the top with a flat block. INSIDE THE IGLOO: Build a sleeping level higher than the floor or dig down when building to create a lower cold level that can be used for storage. You could bend the tunnel or build a windbreak.Spiral Method Lay the first course of blocks and then shape them to the required spiral.unless the space is small enough to leave for ventilation. Dripping comes from the inside heat. Smooth off all the inside to remove any drip-points. Parachute Snow house This is a useful structure if stranded on sea ice where sufficient snow for an igloo for a larger party may be hard to find. Angle the top edge slightly down towards the center. Make ventilation holes near the top and near the bottom but not on the side of the prevailing wind or so low that snow rapidly builds up and blocks it. Build up more layers but place each only halfway over the lower tier. Cutting the first course to an even spiral eases the whole process. Leave an entrance space if on ice. Cut an entrance way through the lower course of blocks or dig a tunnel beneath them. so that the igloo tapers in or becomes dome shaped. The last few blocks in the center may need some support as you fit them into position. you are overheating. Igloo . The final block must be cut to fit. Mark out a circle on the ground about 4m (13 1/2ft) in diameter and tramp it down to consolidate the floor as you proceed with the rest of the building. Stack one layer of blocks on another and. Look for snow or convenient blocks of ice in the pushed up pressure ridge of the ice. center new blocks over the previous vertical joint. Shape the top and bottom faces of subsequent courses to lean inwards. This will allow any condensation to run down the wall instead of dripping off. Dig a lower area in the floor for cold air to sink into. You will not be able to dig an entrance tunnel. Use a block of snow as a door and keep it loose fitting and on the inside. as when laying bricks. An igloo takes time to construct but centuries of use by the Eskimo demonstrate its efficiency. Mark out a circle and build up a circular wall of snow blocks about 1m (4ft).let out smoke and make another hole to unsure that you have adequate ventilation. You do not have to overhang the blocks if you angle your initial spiral downwards and inwards. Fill any other gaps with snow. Shape out the entrance arch as you proceed.

such as a ration can. Seal oil or caribou fat is used as fuel. Drape the parachute over this and the wall securing it with a further row of blocks on top of the wall. The Koolik has provided heat for comfort and cooking "even cookin-king" for thousands of years. The igloo is ready. It is carved from soapstone in the form of a shallow pen of 1/2 moon shape. Then heap the loose snow on top (use snowshoes as a shovel). Clear accumulated snow regularly. giving a quiet pleasant light and warmth to the native home. To avoid its melting into the snow shell and to keep it warm enough to render fat. The structure of this parachute roof makes it a snow trap. The straight edge of the lamp is veiled to support the wick made of Arctic cotton or moss. Koolik for cooking Pots can be suspended from pegs driven firmly into the walls above the fat lamp koolik or the primus stove koolik. Properly tended it does not smoke or smell and it can be controlled to give more or less heat on demand. Living in a snow house In bad weather MAKE SURE that you have a good supply of timber or liquid fuel. inside the shelter. Mark the entrance clearly so that it is easily found. not near the central column. You can burn lubricating oil in a fat lamp but the flame will smoke more readily and the wick will have to be trimmed more carefully to keep the flame below the smoking point. After about an hour it hardens and the leaves and branches can be taken away. Another Igloo . Keep shovels and tools Inside the shelter. That snow would melt inside and make a mess and more dampness.1. Do not carry loose snow into the shelter. all that is required is a piece of heavy cotton. Anchor parachute cords with a block of ice or snow or cut a hole in the ice and pass the top through it to make a firm anchorage. . IMPROVISED KOOLIK: (Invented by "AL" KOOLIK?) You can improvise a fat lamp out of any flat pan. linen cloth or absorbent cotton for a wick and a slopping ramp to support it. If you have fat to burn. When the Eskimos of this tribe want to pitch camp.5m (3-5ft) higher than the wall.Mold Method According to the latest researches of the Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory in Alaska. Site the fire on the outer shelf where it will not affect the canopy. which could become a dangerous weight poised above your head. If you want a small fire inside ensure there is adequate ventilation. When the level of the oil drops. they pile up branches and bushes and cover them with skins or tarpaulins. it is supported on short sticks driven into the shelf. you may have to dig yourself out. the flame may follow down the wick causing further smoking. they can not only be built from solid block of polar snow pressed together. knock it off your boots and clothing before you enter. but also from fresh fallen snow-as is the practice of the Nunamiut Eskimos in Alaska.

Remember FAT is ESSENTIAL in Arctic survival don't waist it. which you then cover up with snow. just remember to try small first. liver and every edible part. Body heat is derived from food intake. . Eat fat rather than burn them if the supply is low. and leave yourself plenty of room to get out of the way. you would be far too successful and might find yourself in trouble. A few drops of aircraft fuel used with caution will aid in lighting the wick. so eat your entire ration and supplement with fish whenever possible.A simple damper made of sheet metal will prevent this and will permit closer control of the flame. They should not leak. Burns blister. this seems the only explanation that in case of avalanche death is due more often to suffocation then exposure. It's not central home heating but will prevent freezing to death. to ensure that you don't suffer from dietetic deficiencies. I watched a madefor-TV movie about a team of athletes that crashed in the Andes. You MUST eat flesh. Instead of melting snow/ice they ate the snow cold. Remember to drain oil from crankcases before it freezes solid. The explorer Stefenson lived for a full year on meat alone to prove this point. If there are several people in the hole. Exactly how you would do this I'm not sure. Cover the bottom of evergreen branches as well as the walls on the outside toward the tree. the temperature will rise even further. Remember that a little animal fat in lubricating oil makes a good improvement in the flame. They must have ventilation. they remained in a section of wreckage with no insulation. water or wind. They had cushioned seats all around them and used them all for fire fuel rather than body/shelter insulation. Hopefully this section has given you a few pointers. Most of them died of exposure. A diet of meat is good for you. remember this before you do something that could result in a burn. To belabor the point by describing 100 shelters is not necessary. Shelters have walls and a roof. When they thought a plane had spotted them (because they THOUGHT he wagged a wing) they ate all of the food they had left. NEVER try to burn a volatile fuel in the koolik. Other Snow Shelters If you are stranded in forest in the winder and darkness comes simply dig a hole in the snow at the foot of a tree all around it. Fuel will burn slowly if the oxygen supply to the flame is restricted. fat. Scientists from an Aeromedical laboratory have established that the temperature within such a shelter even without the bodily warmth of those occupying it can be 18F higher than the outside where storms may be raging at 36F below freezing point. Rather than building warm shelters (They had a multitude of supplies). drawing fluids from the body. Shelter Summary Shelters can be built from damn near anything.

feelings of abandonment. There was much I didn't know at the time. I can tell you that there is nothing easy about any of this. I will definitely cover the following subjects:    Arctic Jungle Desert Topics will include dealing with attitude.Rural and populated areas Survival Attitude is everything. society was full of unnecessary trappings that only made men soft and weak. It was about a 18 mile trek. ground sheet/blanket.   Celestial Navigation . For me. fishing with equipment I made. I would leave for the country on Friday afternoons. a liter of water. Maybe I will save these subjects until someone else offers to contribute the material. Fortunately my mom made sure I took along 'emergency rations'. rescue. I used primitive fire making methods and only used matches when I had to.Stars/Sun Camouflage . just in case I had trouble finding game. but I had read a lot of books. practiced the techniques described. By sunday I was ready to return home. I would take water proof matches. Tell yourself that you WILL get out of this. and hunting with my bow. Caught a few fish . Some of you may read this and think "yeah. and spend the weekend making snares. Resistance. the other topics will be of use for only a short period of time. o. You WILL persevere. and computers were magical talking 'entities' as seen on Star Trek and 2001. Emergency rations were about the only things I ate all weekend. I was preparing myself for a life in the wilderness as a 'mountain man'. What you must realize is that without the proper mental attitude..k. loneliness. Depression. Cable TV was unheard of. and the feeling that nobody knows where you are or cares will conspire to kill you. Needless to say. I probably knew more at 13 than most people ever do.Survival. dehydration. I have seen some survival books talk as though collecting water is easy. catching game with snares is simple. and survival is something that can be taught in books. despondency. My parents would usually drive out to the area I was staying in and give me a ride. there is a very good chance you will survive if you have a positive mental attitude. I shot a few birds and snakes with my bow. When I was very young. Escape. food gathering. exposure. If you have done your homework. my bow and some arrows. now get on to the good stuff". Evasion by Dave Reed Introduction I'm not sure how much I will include on resistance and escape. I had not yet discovered girls or beer.

Generally. Water. If you try to walk out. binoculars. mirrors. If you cannot replace these losses you will die. To survive you must battle three things in this order:    Exposure Dehydration Food Gathering You can die in a few hours if you cannot retain body heat. Gather material in this order: . Rescue. Thread stripped from a from seat cushion and wound together can be used to lash things together. Seat cushions from a vehicle are insulation. In moderate climates. Bark doesn't either. can be used to focus the suns rays enough to start a fire. and food. parasites. Shelter. Taking Inventory First examine what you have to work with. calories that will be hard to replace. Remember your priorities. Glass with imperfections.Arctic Time is running against you here. can you afford the water loss? If the enemy is searching for you. You will have to balance these priorities and make decisions. build a fire: Hopefully you will have matches or a lighter. You can die of exposure in 72 degree weather! You will develop hypothermia when your body loses heat faster than you can produce it. bifocals. Perspiration causes water loss. pick a place for your shelter. When you breath your breathe causes water loss. After you have taken inventory.too. you should stay in the area where you became stranded if there is any chance of a search for you. You will burn calories while walking. Evaporation from your eyes causes water loss. In extreme cold food is more important because your body converts food to heat. People die of hypothermia in warm water. the search party will not find you. or polished metal can be used to signal search aircraft. You will die without water in one or two in the desert! Finding edible berries and plants are the last things you need to learn. Exposure and Body Heat . This will increase your fluid loss and you will die even quicker. Food is the last thing you will need. Cones from pine trees don't burn. Rescue and conserving fluids and body heat are the primary survival skills. Drink water with little microbes. You must conserve these valuable items. and you will develop diarrhea. If you can survive long enough to get real hungry you are doing a good job. The water is cooler than they are. etc. you will have to move to a safe location. you can survive without food for up to 30 days. sutures fro stitching wounds. Before you build your fire. Now gather combustible materials. etc. You need calories to generate body heat. But I learned something that many people do not realize. make fishing nets. Shiny glass. It is a slow death. You will also perspire. etc. You must work quickly and conserve energy. (see below). subsequently the water absorbs body heat until their body can produce no more. DON'T waste matches trying to ignite them.

Luxuries to add will be more insulation. Now build a tiny lean-to with the smallest sticks by leaning them up against the branch. Small sticks a little bigger than the smallest. Leave a small gap up close to the big branch to get your match under the pile. . As soon as you can. put some bigger stuff on by laying them across the big branch on the ground. This will only waste fuel and increase the risk of the fire not lighting. put it under the lean-to and ignite it. etc. Every match you have is like gold.half gallon. The heat generated from the rapidly burning small ones is needed to dry and ignite the larger ones. DON'T wait too long to add the next size larger sticks. using a teepee shape. seat cushions. Drift wood will work if it's dry. You want the opening to be away from the wind. Do not waste them. If it's raining or windy cover yourself with something to protect your fire. If you have something to line the floor with it will be much warmer. If the wood is available you will need as much as you can gather in an hour. The cave has to be very small. and start building your shelter. the center of a stump or dead tree (dug out with a knife). even more of these. Bigger sticks . the heat will dry them if they are damp. DON'T let it go out. (Not if they are green or soaked through. Some of these may be a little wet. Hollow out a place to lie in the snow. You want as much between you and the cold ground as you can. Now add the bigger sticks to the top of the your neat little lean-to. Take a medium size branch and lay it down. You will lose more heat by being in contact with the cold ground than you will from the air. They must be dry. If you need more fuel gather more. Once your fire is going. start adding more and more sticks to get the fire very hot. look under the overhang of an embankment. Take your time and do this right. and a door. If not. To find dry sticks in the rain.Very small match stick thickness twigs. and surrounding the little lean to on all sides. Have at least a good double handful. dead dry roots pulled out of an embankment. DON'T throw the fire together haphazardly. at least a quart . Take more and and lay them perpendicular to first layer. You will need it more at night when the temperature drops. For a snow shelter to be effective it must be below freezing. If you have a small heat source you can place a vent through the roof to allow gas to escape. You will need more of these. and parallel to the big branch. Now that you have your wood it's time to build your fire. Keep moving up in size until you are collecting branches/small logs.Twice the thickness of the ones before. As your fire grows. The air in your cave will warm and retain heat. If you have a small slip of paper or lint from pockets. under-side of logs.) Keep building your fire in stages. If you do this right you will only need one. melting snow will saturate your clothing and you will freeze. You must ration your heat source. Now add the larger sticks. try to find evergreen tree limbs to line it with. If you have nothing but plastic or something. This is the fastest shelter I know of: Is there a snow bank nearby? Can you build a small one? You are going to dig a cave in the snow. Use lots of very small sticks and leave enough gaps between them for the flames to rise up through and ignite the upper layers.

etc. If you have access to lots of branches or something that provides a good contrast to the white snow. If there is plenty of snow/ice you will have a good water supply if you have a fire and a container to melt it in. Now that you have your fire and a shelter it is time to improve the odds of rescue. It only gets bad when one of the guys has gas! A vehicle will block the wind but the compartment is too big to retain body heat. from the vehicle to line your shelter with. It will thin your blood and increase your urine output. until it dissipates. stuff your shirts and pants with it. you can use it as a disinfectant. The russian army has always used wool strips for field socks. If it snows these will fill in. You will freeze if you stay in a car or aircraft. Your X's should be 100 . lay them out to form 3 large X's. remove all of your clothes and lay on them. this can be used for insulation stuffing. floor mats. leaves. you will have to use the shelter for clothing. carpet. This is your only chance to survive. can be quietly collected. your body heat will be trapped between your skin and the bag. Don't build three fires because it wastes fuel. or to help start your signal fires if an aircraft approaches. Next layer lay's on top of the others. cross ways. Extra clothing can be stripped in to pieces of about 5" x 4' and used as wrapping for extra socks. Sleeping bags are designed to hold in heat much better than clothes. When you get into a bag. It will lower your body temperature and bring on hypothermia. Naked. Just pile it on each layer before the next gets on. Clothing What do you have to work with? Thin material should be put closest to your body. The international distress signal is three (3) of anything or the letters SOS. If you have extra foam from seat cushions. Another layer on top of them. This same concept can be used when you have the luxury of a sleeping bag. If a quantity of DRY pine needles. Strip cushions. must not risk fire or shelter construction. Scrape out three large circles in the snow by dragging something around. Keep the openings away from the wind. build one similar to the way you built your fire. If you are fortunate enough to have the materials to construct a lean-to. as should wool. If you have tools and can remove the hood or trunk lid you can use these for a reflector to direct heat in one direction from a fire.000 feet. Do not drink alcohol of any kind.A Ranger Pile is a shelter used by small parties who lack bulky camping equipment or who for tactical reasons. You want to have the material that best holds in heat closest to your skin. etc. Remaining ponchos are snapped together and pulled over the top and tucked in around the sides. If it's strong enough. and stays between your clothes and the bag. Always melt it and get it warm first.150 feet across . Keep your shelter VERY small and use insulation. Use a reflector to direct the heat into your lean-to. Otherwise your heat escapes through the thin material of your clothing. First layer of men. insulation. This is how small recon teams survive without carrying a lot of bullshit with them. and towards your fire. If you have no clothes for the environment you find yourself in. four or five lays very close together on two ponchos snapped together. DO NOT EAT SNOW. It will work as insulation. What looks big to you on the ground looks very small from an aircraft at 10.

Succulent plants like cactus also contain water. The only two parts of animals in North America that cannot be eaten are the livers of the polar bear and bearded seal. That far north and you won't find much snow. Be careful about burning critical supplies however! I would not throw a poncho. Have you ever wondered why arabic people wear those long. Use your poncho during the day as shade. but if it's all you have you will have to drink it. If the pilot is an idiot. Near the sea you will be able to hunt seal. and kill you. It chronicles the lives of three men who were lost in their small whaling boat in the arctic back in the 1800's. it must be conserved. Exposure . dig a hole (or use support sticks) as wide as the plastic. it dissipates quickly after the sun goes down. It must be loose enough to allow heat loss. You will have to use common sense. there is little I can tell you here that will save your life. you could be there a while longer anyway. Deserts can drop to near freezing over night. but avoid the poison glands in snakes (they are right behind the head in the neck). heavy. On the Ice pack you will have to build your shelter with ice. If you can. Water is the most important thing to consider in the desert. Stretch the plastic over the hole and weight down the edges with rocks. Smoke will be quite visible from the air also. lizards. During the day the temperature will soar and fry your brain. and has to radio for help. Large piles of pine needles smoke well. or oil. lichens. he might report your location as being 20 miles away from where you actually are. with no supplies. If you wind up on the ice pack. and other animals. You will have to stay warm long enough to get rescued. If the plane cannot land near you. and heat it with animal fat. When dew forms on the plastic it will roll down hill through the hole and it into your container. (if there are enough rats to feed them). It is an excellent work of fiction and provides many accurate details of how northern aboriginal peoples survive in their climate. Do not strip off your clothes. . or lacks a GPS or LORAN. You may want to find a book named "White Dawn". sheet of plastic. If you have the wood build three fires in the middle of each but don't light them. They contain toxic amounts of Vitamin A. hot looking clothing on their heads and bodies? It is because moisture evaporation is your worst enemy in the desert. If you have plastic or a poncho you can collect water at night in the desert. the only thing you will find are lemmings. With bad weather it might take a rescue party several days to get you. and maybe a fox or two. Suck every drop you can from them. For shelter you must get out of the sun. or rubber boots on the fire in a vain attempt to signal a distant plane. as does rubber. Press down the center of the sheet or tie it to a tock to pull it down.Desert Since there is nothing in the desert to hold in the heat. as do the bodies of snakes. it is too arid and cold. Place a container under the hole. Make a hole in the plastic at the center. which had better be pretty quick. Keep your main fire going so that you'll be able to take a torch to the other fires in a hurry. In some areas of the north. plastic. dry you out. Clothing helps keep in this moisture and slows evaporation. You will need to stay warm at night. refer to the arctic topic above. dig a hole to get in and cover it. Long term drinking of urine can make you sick. For this reason any movement should only be at night. If you are inland you will not have much opportunity to hunt for seals.and 75 feet apart.

Insects will eat you alive if you don't. Jungle streams are usually as deep as they are wide. you can use their skin secretions for poisonous blow gun darts. grubs can be found in the center of (????) trees. Take a limb and split it length-wise. When in doubt. It must be perfect. Mud can be used to keep mosquitos off. Many species of tree frogs in the rain forests are highly toxic. Keep doing this until you've tried enough . They are recognized by there bright vivid colors. This water is safe to drink without boiling. move up the vine and cut it off about three feet up or sever it to release the suction. Try not ot let it run along the exposed outside of the vine though. and other fruits are safe to eat if you wash them with sterile water first. bananas. These are very thick vines that hang down from large trees. You know. I don't know of any poisonous plants that don't taste extremely bitter and nasty. Blow guns are difficult to make.Jungle Here. Any untreated wound will fester within a few hours.Do not drink alcohol. In a day or two a cut can become bad enough to cause gangrene. If you are very careful not to touch them. Bind the two back together with bark or vine strips. With a little common sense anyone should be able to survive. If the leaf tastes mild it is probably OK to eat. blousing your pants to keep insects out. I can't remember their names but I know what they look like. Safe water can be found in water vines. that area will have tiny creepy crawlies. Build a platform or hammock to get off of the ground when you sleep. Allow it to dry and polish the bore halves smooth. Darts are made from any wood that can be sharpened. The jungle is a garden of eden compared to the desert or the arctic. try a little piece first and wait a couple of hours. but I'll tell you how for the hell of it. the ones that Tarzan swings from? Cut one at a 45 degree angle. it will increase your urine output and aid in dehydration. Hold your mouth under the vine and the water will flow out. To launch the dart a small tuft of fiber (like cotton) from the stem of a (????) tree branch is balled around the base of the dart. The two sides must fit perfectly. Diffenbachia (or 'dumb cane') can be crushed and added to water to stun fish. During the rainy season. Insects and water contamination are also major problems. (This is harder than it sounds). The seeds of the Star apple are poisonous. Mangoes. heat and sunlight are your worst enemies. Water must be boiled well to kill parasites. and wearing gloves and a hat. Chinese Star Apples. If nothing bad happens try twice as much and wait again. Scrape the bore of the weapon into both halves. coconuts. The heat and humidity of the jungle makes for rapid bacteria growth. You must protect yourself by turning down sleeves. Exposure .

discomfort and stress for granted he would be better able to focus on the mission. This delivery can only occur successfully if all the people involved are adequately trained. Once the participant takes exhaustion. training in the sniper community focuses on those individual tasks critical to the mission such as sniper marksmanship while neglecting some critical collective tasks. which seems to make sense in garrison or on the firing range. harden the participants to the realities associated with sniper operations. or slithers on it's belly it is safe to eat. Over time the participants will become accustomed to the miseries common to life in the field. sniper operations training must be conducted. Individuals familiar with the rigors of the field generally distill their individual kits to the bare essentials with few if any "nice to have" items included. An item of equipment. If you are still OK then it's probably safe to eat. Lessons learned can be applied in subsequent FTXs and integrated into the unit's Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) thereby enhancing the operational readiness of the unit.  FTXs. Once the snipers have achieved the necessary proficiency in their individual tasks. equipment and skills to the right place at the right time. This distillation process gave rise to the phrase. Field Training Exercises (FTXs) that closely simulate actual sniper missions should occupy at least as much training time as that dedicated to sustaining individual skills.to have made you sick. Generally. Focusing on individual training neglects the need to train the leaders. Some berries don't taste too bad but are poisonous. walks. "Travel light. Pictures in books never look like the actual plant. freeze at night. successful sniper operations require the delivery of people. Sniper operations FTXs benefit an organization in a number of ways:  Leaders have the opportunity to exercising their skills and accumulate experience. leaders who have experience with sniper FTXs develop an appreciation for the capabilities and limitations of the snipers they command and will be more likely to utilize them properly in combat.  During FTXs. Sniper Field TrainingExercises Train Like You Fight .Fight Like You Train 26 May 2000 By Kevin R. Mussack Whether in a military or police context. Often. You should educate yourself before going to a new area. if it crawls. which closely simulate combat operations by allowing the fewest administrative exceptions. There are exceptions to this rule. sometimes loses its utility after a few days in the field. Additionally." . equipment is continuously tested and evaluated. most notably among berries.

Due to the nature of sniper operations the activity is hard to observe and measure. encrypt and decrypt messages. John L. the most current versions of the following references may be useful: FM23-10.  When FTXs last several days and nights the participants are afforded the opportunity to practice a logistical routine. The requirement that the sniper team maintain radio contact will present opportunities to solve problems related to radio communications not found in the classroom. use proper radio procedure and to act as part of a radio net. During an FTX the evaluator keeps a physical distance from the team except as required for evaluation purposes. construct and use field expedient antennae. How the team conducts their sleep cycles. He quietly observes and . The transportation of the radio and secure equipment along with spare batteries influences the selection of load bearing equipment and the prioritization of essential items. Special Forces Operational Techniques ST31-180. water replenishment activities. Train to standard. As an aid in the planning and conduct of sniper FTXs. eating and field hygiene should be practiced to the point of habit.The equipment configuration and packing list must be documented in the units' SOP and made uniform. Special Forces Handbook ISBN 0-87364-704-1. These practices must be standardized and documented in the unit's SOP so that members of different teams can be rotated with minimum adaptation required. Ensure everyone involved knows what the standard is.  While afield the sniper team must perform seamlessly many of the techniques taught separately in the classroom. Competent evaluators should be attached to each sniper team for at least part of the entire duration of the exercise so that the team's performance can be observed and evaluated. Do not compromise or shortcut the process. Ranger Handbook FM 31-20. The FTX should be conducted as much like a combat operation as possible. The keys to a productive sniper FTX are:     Detailed Planning Complete Preparation Uncompromising Execution Detailed After Action Review (AAR) An FTX should simulate an actual sniper mission. The Ultimate Sniper. Sniper Training ST 21-75-2.  Maintaining communications during FTXs provides ample opportunity to practice with the equipment. supported with a notional enemy situation and a detailed operations order. by Maj. Plaster Evaluators are a critical element in the success of a sniper FTX. The purpose of an FTX is to train the participants in the right way to conduct an operation. Practicing the integration of numerous individual tasks into a larger combined task is the principle benefit of an FTX.

Each FTX should focus on developing some particular collective task. act as a coach or advisor to the sniper team when an opportunity to instruct presents itself. Whenever possible integrate live fire into the FTX. His role is to observe and record the team's actions during the exercise. However during periods of testing the evaluator will not coach or advise. Those activities corrected on the spot that do not reoccur are not recorded as negative observations by the evaluator during an FTX. Particularly with snipers. As the proficiency of the teams improve the complexity of the missions should be increased so to always present a challenge. Sometimes coordinating with units in nearby training areas can pay off in this respect. . as his judgement directs. The amount of training value drawn from any FTX will be proportional to the amount of planning and preparation done beforehand and the enthusiasm with which it is executed. The evaluator may. Properly planned and executed these exercises will test the men. Coordination with an artillery unit firing illumination missions might allow for night sniper firing under that same illumination thereby reducing training costs while adding a new dimension to the sniper FTX.records the actions of the sniper team throughout the exercise so that the technical and tactical proficiency of the team can be assessed. the evaluator acts as a coordinator for administrative and safety issues related to the exercise. the equipment. In the beginning the exercises should be kept simple and straightforward with a minimum number of distractions. These exercises are mostly hard. the leaders and the SOP. The evaluator is not a spy. live fire is considered a treat and will help to motivate and reward the troops. Every FTX offers a lesson to be learned. Exploit every opportunity to create interesting but plausible live fire adjuncts to the exercise. unglamorous infantry work with very little "high speed" activity. FTXs for sniper operations are not fun. Additionally. These live fire portions of each exercise should present realistic challenges to the snipers. Eventually groups of sniper teams should be able to conduct complex sniper missions such as "Wolfpacking" and Mutually Supported Retrogrades.

sat back and watched.       ALERT Conduct Troop Leading Procedures Conduct Insertion Move Tactically Occupy an FFP (final firing position) Perform Surveillance . 6." Tasks Trained: Invariably. 2. or by changing the Situation briefing. 7. Provide a real "Gut Check. pride and teamwork in both the snipers and chain of command. Learn what strengths and weaknesses are present in team proficiency 3.. 5. but I found that when you get a few scenarios drawn up. but when they "oversaw" the FTX. Of course you should use varying missions. they came out with a much better understanding of sniper employment and capabilities) 4.g. Document and record the teams' performance according to the FM. METL (Mission Essential Task List) etc. you can re-use them a lot. e. I used the following tasks to focus the scenario. Covertly train the officer core and chain of command on sniper employment (they were never receptive to receiving formal training from an NCO. simply by changing the terrain on which they are executed. My goals in planning an FTX were as follows: 1.Sniper FTX Summary 6 November 2000 By Jeff Waters Introduction Tasks Trained Critique Introduction The following is a summary of a standard FTX scenario I used for internal and external evaluations. Gain a clear understanding of whether a team is ready for combat. Build confidence. Allow the teams an opportunity to run a mission from beginning to end with no interruptions so they get a clear idea of the big picture.

Conduct Insertion: I always tried to use a wide variety of techniques. with the individual teams breaking off either before or just after insertion. Additional attention was given to the Fire Support Plan. Helicopters are NOT a great way for a team to go in due to OPSEC. The Ranger Handbook has a good coordination checklist for this task. it went something like this: ALERT: Based on current events. would give a Warning Order and Operations Order. and did they check their optics and so on. since it is part of the Sniper's Mission and generally the only form of friend help nearby. OPSEC was a graded task here as well as throughout as well as Pre-Combat checks. The MEDEVAC and COMMO plans were also closely scrutinized due to the nature of the mission. CESO (Commo officer) and S-2 (Intel officer) for the leader's coordinations. particularly those unique to the sniper's equipment. Examples are did they put black electrical tape over the muzzle of the rifle. Coordinating with the above was graded. or acting squad leader. Every man in the squad would be heavily involved in the planning. . making the sand tables or prepping gear. In more detail. obviously there are several sub-tasks that are evaluated under each heading. and the principal was to use whatever method was common to the area and would not arouse attention. either writing paragraphs 4 and 5 (service and support and command and signal). all team members were evaluated regardless of rank. The beginning part was conducted at the squad level. In the planning phase. the team was given a thorough Situation and Mission briefing after being placed in isolation (a secure environment). I would act as the unit's FSO (Fire support officer).     Gather/Report Intelligence Engage a Target Evade and Escape Conduct Extraction Debrief That's the plan in a nutshell. Conduct Troop Leading Procedures: The squad leader. since in such a small unit. The leader must do the execution paragraph himself. did they check their data books and note taking material. everyone must be able to plan missions. Every effort was made to produce an excellent briefing based on a realistic future threat.

Although helicopters are sometimes the only practical way, we used long foot movements, cliff assaults or rappels, waterborne techniques, civilian vehicles such as vans or a military blazer which was painted dull black with tinted windows (this was an authorized vehicle, I am not suggesting you paint your units vehicle like that for the obvious reasons), skis, and whatever else seemed reasonable. A good sniper works his mind and doesn't restrict his thinking to solely what's in the manual. Neither does he march off into fantasyland. Using Departure of the FFU (Friendly Forward Unit) is an excellent task to incorporate here. I again would act as the FFU CDR for the purposes of coordinating the departure, which was graded.

Move Tactically:
This never just started with a stalk. It always included a long movement at night to get everyone sleep deprived and physically tired. Remember what I said about covertly training the officers or other leadership? I always found that lots of staff pogues would leap at the chance to "evaluate the snipers." It was always a moral boost for the men to watch them suffer through the nastiest, longest, hardest route we could find. In this manner, we scared off a lot of straphanging wannabe pogues. On the more positive side, we liked to have the S-2 come along, since the snipers should have a strong relationship with him due to their mission. Navigation, stealth, noise, light, litter and camo discipline, counter-tracking SOP's and route selection were all evaluated here, in addition to the basic movement techniques. Uniform for this should generally NOT be a ghillie suit. They would always be expected to avoid patrols and danger areas. They should also use OPSKEDS (code words) to report their progress and to alert the FSO and chain of command as to their location at pre-designated checkpoints. A good FSO will have his guns shift to the next TRP covering the current portion of the team's route upon receiving the code word (that's easy to plan, since you call in a code word at designated check points during your route anyway) as long as this was planned and coordinated. This is crucial upon approaching/occupying the FFP. At this point, the mortar maggots need to be on their toes. Normally, they would occupy a Patrol Base and be evaluated on this also. They should obviously stay off of key terrain and natural lines of drift. The final part of the movement would be a stalk into their FFP. This would be on a live fire range that had OPFOR (opposing force) personal watching for them. Prior to the stalk, the evaluator would move away from the snipers and onto the objective, which was located on the firing range. This was a learning point for a lot of snipers who have the 'abominable snow man' type ghillie. By that, I mean a huge suit with burlap a foot thick. That type of suit is not practical for

a number of reasons. It takes up too much space in a rucksack, is too hot, snags on everything leaving a trail if you have to run away and slowing you down. Neither does it leave much space to garnish the suit with natural camo. A light suit with a well done boonie cap and veil is much more important. The cap is light, small and covers the most important parts of the sniper, his head and shoulders. That is the part of your body, which is normally exposed.

Occupying the FFP:
A lot of this evaluation is simply whether they are observed or not by the OPFOR. However, the FFP's should be walked by the evaluators AFTER the contact is completed and the OPFOR are pursuing the teams and examined for the standard stuff; natural cover and concealment, field of fire and ESCAPE ROUTES! One of the most often overlooked training points in fieldcraft is that after you complete a stalk and take your shot, you better have a damn good way to get the hell out of there via multiple routes. Its easy to throw a rock at a beehive, but remember, they are going to be pissed and chase you (Remember what I said about the "Abominable' ghillie suit here).

Perform Surveillance:
First, let me explain what I had on the objective. There was a mock signal, missile or other enemy site with the OPFOR bearing foreign uniforms and weapons. They were given optics to attempt to locate the snipers but were never given the times or locations where they would be on the objective. Scatted around the mock site is one Iron Maiden per sniper team at ranges varying from 600900 meters. I put old DX'd uniforms over the targets and the effect is very good particularly in the morning/evening. (Or BMNT and EENT for the really devoted). The priority information requirements are SALUTE and OACOK (observation and fields of fire, avenues of approach, cover/concealment, obstacles and key terrain) as well as any other specifics tasked such as good support and assault positions for a follow on assault etc. After a few hours of observation, and 15 minutes prior to hit time, I would call off the OPFOR. After gaining 100% accountability, I would give a code word to the teams and they would chamber a live round. The mission leader would then conduct a simultaneous fire mission on all the targets and begin withdrawing. All teams will call in a code word confirming their weapons are clear and the OPFOR will pursue. Due to safety factors, and the mission, the teams will not fire on the OPFOR.

Evade and Escape:
This reinforces the crucial event of getting out of the objective area, which is so often not covered at all. It concerns me greatly that our doctrine does not incorporate this as an integral part of each stalk.

It is also fair play for the teams to employ booby traps near their FFP's or along their escape routes to slow down their pursuers. In real life, a claymore mine with time fuse is an excellent tool to break contact or simply disorient them from your actual position and add to the confusion. You can remove the fuses from grenades and insert a cap with time fuse and tape a coat hanger hook around them to leave them hanging in trees behind you also. White phosphorous will always screen your withdrawal if you are under pressure and slow people down. Don't try these at home unless you're qualified to do it. The leader should be evaluated as to his plan for breaking contact after initiating. He should anticipate the enemy's moves according to their tactics and doctrine and have countermeasures ready. There should also be a target reference point with indirect fire on standby at the objective. Basic concepts like never withdrawing straight towards your actual objective should be observed, as well as counter-tracking and ambush techniques such as doubling back on your path and overwatching your trail once the teams are reasonably clear of the objective. This is also an overlooked part of training. The danger here is that people hit the target successfully and think its all over. We often mistakenly reinforce this by stopping the evaluation right after actions on the objective and doing the AAR right there. The fact is that after showing his hand, the sniper is in a dangerous situation, and we should really focus on ensuring that they are trained well in dealing with this time. Reaction forces from the OPFOR should pursue and a plan for dealing with the team as a POW included if they are captured. If they are captured, they do not pass the evaluation, regardless of the shooting. This is for their own good.

Extraction:
Extraction is like insertion, in that as many different ways that can be used should be incorporated. There are good tools for a sniper team like the STABO rig or SPIES that are ideally suited to them. It should not be a cakewalk. They should come to expect the worst and prepare for problems in every evaluation/stx. It's not to screw with them, just to prepare them. Having the helicopters fly away as they come running out to load them is a good check on the leadership and discipline of the teams. Does the leader immediately resort to an alternate plan? Or does the discipline of the team erode and bad attitudes flare. Remember that sleep/chow deprivation should be factored into the evaluation. On the other hand, they can also be evaluated on how they deal with the helicopters, i.e., did they issue an inbound advisory and so on. Did they maintain good security, stealth etc., or did it erode.

Debrief:
Immediately upon return, the teams are given a short amount of time to prepare for a debriefing. There should be a room or site in the field set up with a map for them to use and they

unless the teams are too tired to stay awake. until they are asked their opinions. Upon receiving a mission. The evaluators should focus on the accuracy of the information and quality. the sniper team locates the target area and then determines the best location for a tentative position by using one or more of the following sources of information: topographic maps. the team also determines how it will move into the area to locate and occupy the Final Firing Position (FFP). on the way in to the objective as well as the information gathered at the objective.. The teams should never speculate or state anything but the facts. There is an entire list of tasks listed in the ARTEP manual for Scout/Snipers by the way. It is best for the evaluators to meet before the critique in order to avoid contradicting opinions in front of the men and the unit commander should be briefed on the results as soon as possible. and information gained from units operating in the area. The best way to conduct the debriefing is with the team leader talking through the mission from insertion to extraction according to the format. Critique: This should take place right after the debrief. Sniper Positions Selecting the location for a position is one of the most important tasks a sniper team accomplishes during the mission planning phase of an operation. a. The sniper team ensures the position provides an optimum balance between the following considerations: . The underlying principal of the evaluation and closing comment should be based on the question "Is this team ready for combat?" It never hurts to have a couple of cold beers waiting on them after a job well done and a pat on the back by the evaluation team and unit commander. detailing information on the terrain. they should stand down so they can be alert for the evaluation. If that's the case. visual reconnaissance before the mission. After selecting the location. The S-2 and commander or his representative should be present and ask questions after the presentation is finished. will be turned in at the beginning to the S-2. map corrections etc. aerial photographs. The sketches. logs etc.should conduct the debriefing according to the standard NATO format.

 Inside rubble piles.  Deep shadows. or streams. (way too time and energy consuming)  Swamps.     Maximum fields of fire and observation of the target area. the team avoids choosing locations that are.   Under logs in a deadfall area. A sniper team must remember that a position that appears to be in an ideal location may also appear that way to the enemy. In populated areas. Located no closer than 300 meters from the target area. The sniper team must use its imagination and ingenuity in choosing a good location for the given mission. Concealment from enemy observation. is there adequate drainage. Covered routes into and out of the position. The selection of the hide site and surveillance site(s) is METT-T dependent. d. At bends or ends of roads. The team chooses a location that not only allows the team to be effective but also must appear to the enemy to be the least likely place for a team position. Close to isolated objects. any terrain easy for foot movement)? • Could the team be easily trapped in the site? . Therefore. or is the area prone to flooding? • Is the area a place the enemy would want to occupy? • Is the site silhouetted against the skyline or a contrasting back-ground? • Are there roads or trails nearby? • Are there other natural lines of movement nearby (gullies. Tunnels bored from one side of a knoll to the other. unless it is required. draws. c.     On a point or crest of prominent terrain features. b. A natural or man-made obstacle between the position and the target area. trails. Considerations for site selection are — • Can the team place the designated surveillance target(s) under continuous and effective observation and within the range of surveillance devices to be used? • Will the surveillance site have to move if weather and light conditions change? • Does the area provide concealment and entrance and exit routes? • Are there dominant or unusual terrain features nearby? • Is the area wet.

Organizes equipment so that it is easily accessible. c. This allows the team to operate more effectively for a longer time. The time required to build a position must be considered. d. fence. river)? • Are there any inhabited areas in the prevailing downwind area. axes. and so forth). (3) Personnel and equipment: (a) Equipment needed for construction. stream. If the sniper team’s mission requires it to be in position for a long time. wall. picks. the team constructs a position that provides more survivability. b. and latrine calls. •Are there any suitable communication sites nearby? • Is the site(s) in the normal line of vision of enemy personnel in the area? • Is there a source of water in the area? (1)When the sniper team arrives at the firing position. if required. It is vital that the natural appearance of the ground remains unaltered and camouflage blends with the surroundings. Starts construction of the firing position.• Are there any obstacles to prevent vehicle movement nearby (roadside ditch. Loopholes must be camouflaged by foliage or other material that blends with or is natural to the surroundings. (4) Loopholes. (2) Time: (a) Amount of time to be occupied. . Establishes a system of observing eating resting. especially during the mission planning phase. (5) Approaches. Conducts a detailed search of the target area. it. a. (b) Personnel needed for construction. Coordination is made if the position requires more personnel to build it or a security element to secure the area during construction. The team plans for the use of any extra equipment needed for construction (bow saws. (b) Time required for construction. The construction of loopholes requires care and practice to ensure they afford adequate fields of fire.

or immediately assumes a position. A hasty position is used when the sniper team is in a position for a short time and cannot construct a position due to the location of the enemy. The darkened area inside this position allows the team to move freely. These can range from inside attics to street-level positions in . Expedient Position. The entrance/exit to the position must be covered to prevent light from entering and highlighting the loopholes. This position requires extensive work and extra tools. a. Soil dug from this position can be placed in sandbags and used for building firing platforms. Semi-permanent Hide. It should be constructed during darkness and be completed before dawn. Like the belly hide. A position may have more than two sets of loopholes if needed to cover large areas. When a sniper team is required to remain in position for a longer time than the hasty position can provide. These loopholes should have a large diameter (10 to 14 inches) in the interior of the position and taper down to a smaller diameter (4 to 8 inches) on the outside of the position. The expedient position lowers the sniper’s silhouette as low to the ground as possible. Belly Hide. this position can be constructed by tunneling through a knoll or under natural objects already in place. Loopholes that are not in use should be covered from the inside with a piece of canvas or suitable material. it allows sniper teams to remain in place for extended periods or to be relieved in place by other sniper teams. but it still allows him to fire and observe effectively. This requires no construction The sniper team uses what is available for cover and concealment. a rock. or any available object that provides overhead protection and a concealed entrance and exit. All equipment is inside the position except the rifle barrels. POSITIONS IN URBAN TERRAIN Positions in urban terrain are quite different than positions in the field. This position can be dugout under a tree. the rifle barrels may also be inside. but it has overhead cover that not only protects the team from the effects of indirect fires but also allows more freedom of movement. This allows some freedom of movement. Construction time: 4 to 6 hours. the team need only prepare loopholes by moving small amounts of vegetation or by simply backing a few feet away from the vegetation that is already there to conceal the weapon’s muzzle blast. This is completely concealed.Hasty Position. The semi-permanent hide is used mostly in defensive situations. However. This position is constructed by digging a hole in the ground just large enough for the team and its equipment. yet they still allow the sniper and observer to view the target area. Depending on the room available to construct the position. Occupation time: 12 to 48 hours. This will help conceal all but the rifle barrel. The belly hide is similar to the expedient position. The sniper team normally has several places to choose. b. They allow for the smallest exposure possible. As soon as a suitable position is found. Loopholes are the only part of the position that can be detected. an expedient position should be constructed. The team must remember to cover the entrance/exit door so outside light does not silhouette the team inside the position or give the position away. This position requires additional equipment and personnel to construct. It should not be constructed near the enemy. It can be occupied in a short time.

The sniper team constructs a rafter hide position in the attic of an Aframe-type building. the team must make sure all other windows are also barricaded. however. the team makes sure the target area can be observed. Shooting through loopholes in barricaded windows is preferred. (1) The sniper team should not locate the position against contrasting background or in prominent buildings that automatically draw attention. The team constructs and occupies one of these positions or a variation thereof. b. Carpet or furniture placed over escape holes or replaced ceiling tiles will conceal them until needed. desks or tables. When constructing an urban position. To avoid. teams must notice both front and back window positions. the sniper team uses an existing room and fires through a window or loophole. crawl space hide. Escape routes can be holes knocked into the floor or ceiling. Room hide position. remove curtains. Crawl space hide position. (More than one position should be constructed if time and situation permit. however. This type of terrain is ideal for a sniper. Common sense and imagination are the sniper team’s only limitation in the construction of urban hide positions. The sniper team builds a crawl space hide position in the space between floors in multistory buildings. In a room hide position. they must make sure there are other shingles missing from the roof so the firing position loophole is not obvious. Screens (common screening material) are important since they allow the sniper teams maximum observation and deny observation by the enemy. Firing from inside the attic around a chimney or other structure helps prevent enemy observation and fire. they may need to use a backdrop such as a darkcolored blanket. When selecting a position.) When constructing other positions. Dummy loopholes also confuse the enemy. a. The team must not fire continually from one position. carpet. They must not. the team should make them different shapes (not perfect squares or circles). When building loopholes. but a damaged building helps considerably.basements. silhouetting. and engaging targets. observing. the sniper team must be aware of the outside appearance of the structure. canvas. Sniper team positions should never be used by any personnel other than a sniper team. and a sniper team can stop an enemy’s advance through its area of responsibility. The team removes the shingles and cuts out loopholes in the roof. and a screen. . Positions in attics are also effective. Sniper teams use the technique best suited for the urban hide position. teams can randomly remove panes in other windows so the position is not obvious. Remember. It should always back away from the hole as far as possible to hide the muzzle flash and to scatter the sound of the weapon when it fires. however. Weapon support may be achieved through the use of existing furniture-that is. (2) The team must never fire close to a loophole. These buildings normally have shingled roofs. Urban hide positions that can be used are the room hide. Loopholes are difficult to construct. c. they can make a hole through a wall to connect the rooms and fire from inside one room. Rafter hide position. and rafter hide. It must stay in the shadows while moving. they can open windows or remove panes of glass. The snipers may be located in a different room than the loophole. Building loopholes in other windows also provides more positions to engage targets.

do not remove those in the position. ensure effective coverage of the assigned target area. (6) The sniper makes sure the bullet clears the loophole. do not clean it for better viewing. staple. or weight them. Loose boards/derelict houses. (4) Other loopholes/viewing apertures are nearly unlimited. Loose or removed tiles.(1) The second floor of a building is usually the best location for the position. follow suit. (d) Firing a round through a curtain has little effect on accuracy however. a window is the best viewing aperture/loophole. . (c) If strong winds blow the curtains open. however. Set up well away from the loophole. (b) If curtains are prevalent in the area. It presents minimal dead space but provides the team more protection since passersby cannot easily spot it. usually netting. Drilled holes (hand drill). This can be done during the reconnaissance phase of the operation. Brick removal. (3) Firing through glass should be avoided since more than one shot may be required. Battle damage to gables and or roof. (2) Normally. Lace or net-type curtains can be seen through from the inside.     Gable ends close to the eaves (shadow adding to concealment). or slates. but they are difficult to see through from the outside. however. (b) Remove or replace panes of glass with plastic. avoid drawing attention to the area. The muzzle must be far enough from the loophole to ensure the bullet’s path is not in line with the bottom of the loophole. (5) Positions can also beset up in attics or between the ceiling and roof. ensure the muzzle is far enough away to avoid muzzle blast.     Battle damage. (7) Front drops. (e) When area routine indicates open curtains. may have to be changed (if the situation permits) from dark to light colors at BMNT/EENT due to sunlight or lack of sunlight into the position. (a) If the window is dirty. The team considers the following options: (a) Break or open several windows throughout the position before occupation. tack. Skylights. shingles.

(f) Tradesmen’s or construction worker’s uniforms and accessories can be used. (b) Urban-camouflaged uniforms can be made or purchased. preset explosive charge situated on a wall or floor for access into adjoining rooms. Regardless of area color. they can be filled and carried inside of rucksacks or can be filled in the basement. . the team meets the security element at the ORP. partitions can be made by hanging blankets or nets to separate the operating area from the rest/administrative area. the BDU and required equipment are worn. or stucco.(8) If the site is not multi-roomed. the team will not be able to leave from the same point at which it gained access. The following applies: (a) Most often. Urban areas vary in color (mostly gray [cinder block]. (10) Always plan an escape route that leads to the objective rally point. Normally. or the outside. white [marble]. (11) The type of uniform or camouflage to be worn by the team will be dictated by the situation. most woodland-patterned BDUs can be worn inside out as they are a gray or green-gray color underneath. or a small. uniforms should include angular-line patterns. anchored ropes to climb down buildings. When forced to vacate the position. and area of operation. a separate escape point may be required in emergency situations. (c) When necessary. or wood). how they are employed. (e) Civilian clothing can be worn (native/host country populace). buildings. red [brick]. The team must consider windows (other than the viewing apertures). therefore. black [granite]. (9) If sandbags are required. clay. (d) Soft-soled shoes or boots are the preferred footwear in the urban environment. depending on the situation/location of the position site.