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ITIL® V3 FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION E-LEARNING COURSE
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ITIL® V3 Foundation Course Objectives
At the end of the course, you should be able to
Discuss the ITIL v3 qualification scheme Explain the practice of Service Management Describe Service Lifecycle Identify key principles and models of ITIL V3 Define generic concepts in ITIL v3 Discuss the processes, roles and functions in ITIL V3 Summarize the use of technology with ITIL V3 Successfully clear your ITIL v3 foundation exam.
ITIL® V3 Foundation Course Agenda
Module 1: Introduction to Service Management Lifecycle Principles of Service Management, Processes, The ITIL Service Lifecycle Module 2: Service Strategy Concepts and Models, Processes Module 3: Service Design Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes Module 4: Service Transition Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes Module 5: Service Operations Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes and Functions Module 6: Continual Service Improvement Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes Module 7 : Summary and Exam Preparation Review of Key Concepts and Practice Exam
Introduction To Service Management Lifecycle
0: What is ITIL ? 5 What is ITIL® ? A set of publications for good practices in IT service Management. Why ITIL ? • Focuses on descriptive guidance on IT Service Management that’s easily adapted. adaptable to different IT environments. standards ITIL® goals • • • • Consistent. hygienic set of Best-Practice guidance Platform independent discussion of processes Common Language. • Emphasizes Quality Management approach.Lesson 1. De-Facto Industry Standard . comprehensive. Standardized vocabulary Flexible framework.
1: ITIL V3 Components 6 .Lesson 1.
2.Lesson 1. Service Strategy Service Design Service Transition Service Operation Continual Service Improvement . 4. 3. 5.2: ITIL Core Publications 7 Each lifecycle phase of ITIL V3 Core is represented by a Volume in the Library 1.
8 Lesson 1.3: ITIL V3 Qualification Scheme: Credits System Lifecycle Modules Service Strategy Service Design Service Transition Service Operation Continual Service Improvement Capability Modules Operational Support and Analysis (OSA) Planning Protection & Optimization (PPO) Release Control and Validation (RCV) Service Offerings & Agreements (SOA) http://www.com/Qualifications/ITILV3QualificationScheme.asp .itil-officialsite.
4: ITIL V3 Foundation Exam Format 9 Type Online. Maximum 60 minutes.com. visit www.Lesson 1. 40 questions. Exam Code: EX0-101 Duration Supervised Open Book Pass Score Where ? .prometric. The questions are selected from the full ITIL Foundation in IT Service Management examination question bank. Multiple choice. Candidates sitting the examination in a language other than their native language have a maximum of 75 minutes Yes No 65% (26 out of 40) Prometric Centers.
Functions. Roles &Processes.0: Principles of IT Service Management Lesson objectives At the end of this lesson. and RACI The role of IT Governance across the Service Lifecycle . Service Management. you should be able to: Explain the concept of good practice Define the concepts of service.10 Lesson 2.
Good Practices Good Practices are Commoditized.1: ITIL is presented as Good Practice. generally accepted principles. or regulatory requirements . Successful Innovations applied diligently become Best Practices Best practice accepted and adopted by others become common. generally accepted. What are good Practices? 11 Good Practices are generally commoditized. proven effective ways of doing things which were previously considered best practices of the pioneering organizations.Lesson 2.
Public Standards and frameworks Wide Community Distribution Public Training and Certification Valid in Different applications Peer Reviewed Used by different parties Free and publicly available Labor market skills easy to find Proprietary knowledge Difficult to adopt Difficult to replicate and transfer Hard to document Highly customized Specific to business needs Hard to adapt or reuse Owners expect compensation .2: Why Choose Good practices over Proprietary ones? 12 Good Practices.Lesson 2.
Customers focus on outcomes versus means.3: What is a Service? 13 A means of delivering value to customers by facilitating outcomes customer want to achieve.Lesson 2. without the ownership of specific costs or risks. Costs and Risks are transferred to service provider. Customer Transfer costs and Risks Retains focus and accountability for outcomes Service Provider Takes on Costs and Risks Responsible for the means of achieving outcomes .
Lesson 2.4: What is a Service Management? 14 Business Outcomes Value Customer Assets Performance Service Management Services Capabilities Resources Financial Capital Infrastructure Applications Information People Service Assets A5 Management A4 Organization A3 Processes A2 Knowledge A1 Capabilities Resources .
A set of activities designed to accomplish a specific objective.Lesson 2. tools and management controls required to deliver the outputs . responsibilities.5: Process. A process may include roles. Functions and Roles 15 Process . A process takes defined inputs and turns them into defined outputs.
6: A Basic Process 16 Data. Information and Knowledge Suppliers Process Activity 1 Desired Outcome Activity 2 Customer Activity 3 Service Control & Quality Trigger .Lesson 2.
7: Process Characteristics 17 • It is measurable • It delivers specific result • Primary result are delivered to customers or stakeholders • It responds to specific events (triggers) .Lesson 2.
8: Functions 18 Function .Lesson 2.A team or group of people and the tools they use to carry out one or more processes or activities .
Lesson 2.9: Processes across the organization 19 CIO Operations Service desk Mainframe Application Networks Development Website HR Applications Finance Applications Project Management Project 1 Project 2 Project 3 Architecture Enterprise Architecture .
Lesson 2. Example: The owner of the Payroll Service Responsibilities: To act as prime Customer contact for all Service related enquiries and issues To ensure that the ongoing Service delivery and support meet agreed Customer requirements To identify opportunities for Service Improvements. To liaise with the appropriate Process Owners throughout the Service Management lifecycle To solicit required data.10: Service Management Roles : Service Owner 20 Service Owner : The person who is accountable for the delivery of a specific IT Service. discuss with the customer and to initiate changes for improvements if appropriate. statistics and reports for analysis and to facilitate effective Service monitoring and performance . They are responsible for continual improvement and management of change affecting Services under their care.
Lesson 2. Example: The owner for the Availability Management Process Responsibilities: Assisting with process design Documenting the process Make sure the process is being performed as documented Making sure process meetings it aims Monitoring and improving the process over time .11: Service Management Roles : Process Owner 21 Process Owner : The person responsible for ensuring that the process is fit for the desired purpose and is accountable for the outputs of that process.
12: Connecting with Processes and Functions: RACI 22 RACI is an acronym for the four main roles of: Responsible – the person or people responsible for getting the job done Accountable – only one person can be accountable for each task Consulted – the people who are consulted and whose opinions are sought Informed – the people who are kept up-to-date on progress. Activities Create a framework for defining IT services Build an IT service catalogue Define SLA for critical IT services Monitor and report SL performance Review SLAs. OLAs and UCs Review and Update IT service catalogue Create service improvement Plan Service owner C C A I A C I Process Owner C A/R R A/R R A/R A/R Security Manager C I C I C I I IT Head A/R C R I R C C Chief Architect C I C I I I C Process Manager I I I R R C R Example RACI matrix .Lesson 2.
13: Key Terminology: Service Provider 23 Service Provider : An Organization supplying Services to one or more Internal Customers or External Customers.e. but instead support effective and efficient business processes. one IT organization within each of the business units.g. The key factor is that the IT Services provide a source of competitive advantage in the market space the business exists in. outsourcing .g. one IT organization to service all businesses in an umbrella organization.Lesson 2. IT Services typically don’t provide a source of competitive advantage. Type II Shared Services Provider • An internal service provider that provides shared IT service to more than one business unit e. Type III External Service Provider • Service provider that provides IT services to external customers i. There are three types of business models service providers: Type I Internal Service Provider • An internal service provider that is embedded within a business unit e. Service provider is often used as an short form for IT Service provider.
Lesson 2. and outsourcing Organizations.14: Key Terminology: Supplier 24 Supplier: A Third party responsible for supplying goods or Services that are required to deliver IT services. Business Contract: A legally binding agreement between two or more parties to supply goods or services Service Provider Supplier Fig: A Basic value Chain . Examples of suppliers include commodity hardware and software vendors. network and telecom providers.
25 Lesson 3. you should be able to: Understand the value of the Service Lifecycle How the processes integrate with each other. throughout the Lifecycle Explain the relationship between Governance and IT Service Management .0: The Service Lifecycle Lesson objectives At the end of this lesson.
1: Lifecycle Components 26 Application Mgmt Facilities Mgmt IT Operations Mgmt Supplier Management Service Knowledge Management Infrastructure Mgmt Information Security Management Evaluation Management Service Desk IT Service Continuity Management Release & Deployment Management Access Management Strategy Generation Availability Management Validation & Testing Management Service Asset & Configuration Management Change Management Transition Planning & Support Problem Management IT Financial Management Capacity Management Service Catalog Mgmt Service level Management Incident Management Request Fulfillment Event Management Service Portfolio Mgmt Demand Management Service Strategy Service Design Service Transition Service Operations Continual Service Improvement Service level Management Service Improvement Service Reporting Service Measurement & Analysis .Lesson 3.
2: The Lifecycle Interactions 27 Requirements Service Knowledge Management Systems (SKMS) Including the Service Portfolio & Service Catalog Service Strategy Strategy The Business / Customers SLP’s from Requirements Policies Resources & Constraints SDP’s Service Design Solution Design Architectures Standards SKMS Updated Service Transition Transition plans Tested Solutions Service Operation Operations Plan Operational Services Continual Service Improvement Improvement Plans & Actions .Lesson 3.
Lesson 3. processes and key controls Establishes. compliant IT service provisioning. Establishes the Corporate policies and enables strategic direction. Establishes Operations to assure high-quality. IT Compliance IT Service Management . enables and executes the IT strategy. Standards and Principles. Assures the design and operability of IT policies . Assures alignment of IT strategy to corporate business strategy IT Governance Corporate Compliance Assures adherence to Legal. Ensures effective key result Areas. objectives. critical success factors and key result areas. Establishes IT policy.3: Relationship between Governance and ITSM 28 Relationship between Governance and ITSM Corporate Governance Ensures the provision strategy and business plans. Industrial and regulatory requirements.
e. SD. SO and CSI We are covering hereon… Lifecycle Phases Processes and Functions Tools used for ITSM But before that a quiz ! .End of Module 1 29 Covered so far… What it ITIL Process. Function. Technology Life Cycle of Service i. ST. SS.
Module 1: Quiz 30 Sample question 1: Which of the following is NOT one of the ITIL® core publications? a) Service Operation b) Service Transition c) Service Derivation d) Service Strategy .
Module 1: Quiz 31 Sample question 2: What is the RACI model used for? a) Documenting the roles and relationships of stakeholders in a process or activity b) Defining requirements for a new service or process c) Analyzing the business impact of an incident d) Creating a balanced scorecard showing the overall status of Service Management .
Module 1: Quiz 32 Sample question 3: A service owner is responsible for which of the following? a) Designing and documenting a Service b) Carrying out the Service Operations activities needed to support a Service c) Producing a balanced scorecard showing the overall status of all Services d) Recommending improvements .
Only one person can be accountable for an activity a) All of the above b) 1 only c) 2 only d) None of the above . Only one person can be responsible for an activity 2.Module 1: Quiz 33 Sample question 4: Which of the following statements is CORRECT? 1.
Module 1: Quiz 34 Sample question 5: Which of the following statements are CORRECT about Functions? 1. They provide structure and stability to organizations 2. 2 and 4 only c) All of the above d) None of the above . They are costlier to implement compared to processes a) 1. 2 and 3 only b) 1. They are self-contained units with their own capabilities and resources 3. They rely on processes for cross-functional coordination and control 4.
2. It responds to a specific event 5. 3.Module 1: Quiz 35 Sample question 6: Which off the following is a characteristic of every process? 1. 4 and 5 only c) 1. 3 and 4 only b) 1. 4 and 5 only d) All of the above . It is timely 3. It delivers a specific result 4. It delivers its primary result to a customer or stakeholder a) 1. It is measurable 2. 2.
36 End of Module 1 .
Module 2 37 Service Strategy .
38 Lesson 1: Service Strategy Lesson objectives At the end of this lesson. you should be able to: • Understand the Goals and Objectives of Service Strategy .
systems or processes and the business models. before thinking HOW.Lesson 1. strategies or objectives they support KEY ROLE: To stop and think about WHY something has to be done. .1: Service Strategy Objectives 39 Shows organization how to transform Service Management into a strategic asset and then think and act in a strategic manner Helps clarify the relationship between various services.
and • Financial management .2: Key Strategy Questions 40 The objectives of service Strategy are to answer questions such as : • What services should we offer and to whom? • How do we differentiate ourselves from competing alternatives? • How do we truly create value for our customers? • How do we capture value for our stakeholders? Process in Service Strategy: • Demand management • Service portfolio Management.Lesson 1.
41 Lesson 2. you should be able to: • • Describe basics of Value Creation through Services Explain Business Case .0: Key concepts of service strategy Lesson objectives At the end of this lesson.
Lesson 2.1 Key Principles and Models 42 Service Value Creation : Utility & Warranty Performance Supported ? Fit for Purpose ? OR Constraints removed ? Utility Value Available enough ? Capacity enough ? Continuous enough ? Secure Enough ? AND Fit for Use ? Warranty .
2: Service Value creation: Utility & Warranty 43 Utility Functionality offered by product /service as the customer views it What the customer gets Fitness for purpose Warranty Promise that the product/service will meet agreed requirements How it is delivered Fitness for use Three Characteristics of warranty >Provided in terms of availability/capacity of services >Ensures customer assets continue to receive utility.Lesson 2. even if degraded. through major disruptions > Ensures Security for value-creating potential of customer assets Reduces performance variation Increases performance average .
control. Capabilities – ability to co-ordinate. money and others which might help to deliver an IT service. the assets of an organization. deploy resources. the intangible assets of an organization.3: Basics of Value Creation: Service Assets 44 Service Assets – Resources and capabilities available to an organization. Resources Financial Capital Infrastructure Applications Information Capabilities Management Organization Processes Knowledge People .Lesson 2. Resources – the IT infrastructure. People.
45 Lesson 2.4: Service Packages Core Services Package (Basic outcomes desired by the customer.) Supporting Services Package (Enables or Enhances the value proposition ) Service Level Packages (Defines level of utility and warranty provided by Service Package) Availability Levels Capacity Levels Continuity Service Features Service Support Security Levels .
Recommendations – Specific Actions . risks and possible problems Uses qualitative and quantitative terms Type Business case structure 1. Introduction – business objectives addressed 2. issues. Includes Information about costs. Methods and assumptions.5: Business Case 46 A decision support and planning tool that projects the likely consequences of a business action Justification for a significant item of expenditure.boundaries of the business case 3. options. benefits. Risks and Contingencies 5. Business Impacts – Financial and non financial 4.Lesson 2.
Lesson 2. • • . security. whether positive opportunity or negative threat. Risk management supports critical decision making process. in terms of evaluating and selecting controls. Risk analysis is concerned with gathering information about exposure to risk so that the organization can make appropriate decisions and manage risk appropriately. Risk Analysis and Risk Management. including business continuity management (BCM). program/Project risk management and operational service management. Management of risk covers a wide range of topics.6: Risk 47 Risk • • • Risk is defined as uncertainty of outcome. There are two distinct phases.
It also includes the ongoing service improvement plans and third party services. Customer 3 Service Improvement Plan Market Space 1 Customer 2 Service Portfolio Market Space 2 Customer 1 Third Party Services Market Space 3 .Lesson 2.7: What is a Service Portfolio? 48 Service Portfolio The Service Portfolio represents the commitments and investments made by a service provider across all customers and market spaces.
8: Components of Service Portfolio 49 Service Portfolio Components of Service Portfolio Service Catalog Service Pipeline Market Spaces Continual service Improvement Third Party Catalog Service Transition Service Design Resources Engaged Service Operations Retired Services Customers Return on Assets earned during Service Operations Resources Released Common Pool of resources .Lesson 2.
Lesson 2.9: Service management Technology & Automation 50 Automation (Tools) are extremely useful to improve utility and warranty of services: Real time and historical data for analysis Correlation of data from multiple devices Service Impact analysis for prioritization Service Performance optimization .
and by efficiently resolving trade-offs.Lesson 2. . reduce costs and reduce risks by reducing complexity and uncertainty. Some of the areas where service management can benefit from automation Design and modeling Service catalogue Pattern recognition and analysis Classification. prioritization and routing Detection and monitoring Optimization.9: Service management Technology & Automation 51 Automation of service processes helps improve the quality of service.
Integrated CMS: CIs.9: Service management Technology & Automation Service Management Tools functionality include Self Help: a web front-end offering a menu-driven range of Self-Help and Service Requests – with a direct interface into the back-end process-handling software. ability to deploy new software at target locations .52 Lesson 2. assist in license management. timescales. KE & Change Discovery/Deployment technology: populate or verify CMS data. problems. escalation paths and alerting to be predefined and then automatically managed. Workflow or Process Engine: should allow responsibilities. Relationships. activities. Records related to incidents.
9: Service management Technology & Automation Service Management tools functionality include (contd.) Remote Control: allow relevant support groups to take control of the user desktops Diagnostic scripts & utilities Reporting & Dashboards .53 Lesson 2.
and Financial Management. .0: Service Strategy Process Lesson objectives At the end of this lesson.54 Lesson 3. you should be able Objectives and basic concepts of the two processes in Service Strategy: Demand Management.
• Utilizing techniques to influence and manage demand in such a way that excess capacity is reduced but the business and customer requirements are still satisfied.55 Lesson 3. Other objectives include: • Identification and analysis of Patterns of Business Activity (PBA) and user profiles (UP) that generate demand.1: Demand Management: Objectives The primary objective of Demand Management is to assist the IT Service Provider in understanding and influencing Customer demand for services and the provision of Capacity to meet these demands. .
Lesson 3.2: Managing Demand for Services 56 Demand Pattern Service Process Service Belt Patterns of Business Activity Delivery Schedule Capacity Management Plan Demand Management .
Lesson 3.3: PBA and UP 57 Pattern of Business Activity (PBA) Workload profile of one or more business activities Varies over time Represents changing business demands User Profile Pattern of user demand for IT services Each user profile includes one or more PBAs .
4: Financial Management: Goals and Objectives Business Opportunities Business Technology Capabilities Financial Management IT .58 Lesson 3.
Working with the process of Demand Management to anticipate usage of services by the business and the associated financial implications of future service demand. Enables the IT organization to account fully for the way its money is spent. Demand Modeling .Lesson 3. Accounting Chargeback Charging customers for their use of IT Services.5: Financial Management: Activities 59 Activities Budgeting Predicting the expected future requirements for funds to deliver the agreed upon services and monitoring adherence to the defined budgets.
Improved operational control.60 Lesson 3. Increased visibility of IT leading to increased perception of IT • . Greater insight and communication of the value created by IT services. Increased speed of change. Improved Service Portfolio Management. Financial compliance and control.6: Financial Management: Benefits Benefits • • • • • • Enhanced decision making.
.61 End of Module 2 • Objectives and Key concepts of Service Strategy • Service Strategy processes.
Module 2: Quiz 62 Question 1: Which ITIL® process is responsible for drawing up a charging system ? a) Availability Management b) Capacity Management c) Financial Management for IT Services d) Service Level Management .
Module 2: Quiz 63 Question 2: A Service Level Package is best described as? a) A description of customer requirements used to negotiate a Service Level Agreement b) A defined level of utility and warranty associated with a core service package c) A description of the value that the customer wants and for which they are willing to pay d) A document showing the Service Levels achieved during an agreed reporting period .
Module 2: Quiz 64 Question 3: The utility of a service is best described as: a) Fit for design b) Fit for purpose c) Fit for function d) Fit for use .
Service Level Packages . Service Level Package c) Core Service Package.Module 2: Quiz 65 Question 4: The contents of a service package include: a) Base Service Package. Supporting Service Package. Supporting Process Package. Base Service Package. Supporting Services Package. Service Level Package b) Core Service Package. Service Support Package d) Core Service Package.
Service Transition and Service Operation d) Service Strategy. Service Transition. Service Operation and Continual Service Improvement .Module 2: Quiz 66 Question 5: Setting policies and objectives is the primary concern of which of the following elements of the Service Lifecycle? a) Service Strategy b) Service Strategy and Continual Service Improvement c) Service Strategy. Service Design.
Module 2: Quiz 67 Question 6: Which of the following questions does guidance in Service Strategy help answer? 1: What services should we offer and to whom? 2: How do we differentiate ourselves from competing alternatives? 3: How do we truly create value for our customers? a) 1 only b) 2 only c) 3 only d) All of the above .
Module 3 68 Service Design .
69 Lesson 1.0 Service Design Lesson objectives At the end of this lesson. you should be able to: • • Understand the Goals and Objectives of Service Design Understand the Value Service Design provides to the Business. .
1: Service Design Objectives 70 To convert the strategic objectives defined during Service Strategy into Services and Service Portfolios. . To use a holistic approach for design to ensure integrated end-to-end business related functionality and quality.Lesson 1. To ensure consistent design standards and conventions are followed in all services and processes being designed.
2: Value to Business 71 Reduced Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) Improved quality of service Improved consistency of service Easier implementation of new or changed services Improved service alignment More effective service performance Improved IT governance More effective Service Management and IT processes Improved information and decision-making .Lesson 1.
• Understand the five major aspects of Service Design. Products and Partners for Service Management.72 Lesson 2. you should be able to: • Understand the importance of People. • Explain Service Design Package . Processes.0: Service Design Key Concepts Lesson objectives At the end of this lesson.
Lesson 2.1: 4 P’s in Service Management 73 • Skills • Organisation • Experience • Services • Technology • Tools IT Service Management • Suppliers • Manufacturers • Vendor • Activities • RACI • Dependencies Processes .
2: Major Aspects of Service Design New or Changed Service Solutions Design Service Management systems and tools design Technology and Management architectures design Processes design Measurement systems design .74 Lesson 2.
a major change or for retiring a service.3: Service Design Package 75 Defines all aspects of an IT Service and its requirements through each stage of its lifecycle. Business requirements Service Applicability Service Contacts Service Functional Requirements Service Level Requirements Service Design & Topology Service Acceptance Criteria Service Operational Acceptance Plan Service Transition Plan Service Program Organisational Readiness Contents of a Service Design Package . A service Design package is produced for every new IT service.Lesson 2.
0: Service Design Processes Lesson objectives At the end of this lesson. you should be able to: • State the Objectives and basic concepts of the following processes • • • • • • • Service Catalog Management Service Level Management Supplier Management Capacity Management Availability Management IT Service Continuity Management Information Security Management .76 Lesson 3.
and kept current. maintained. Key terms • Business Service Catalog • Technical Service Catalog . containing accurate information on all operational services and those being prepared to be run operationally.77 Lesson 3. and ensure that it is widely available to those who are approved to access it.1: Service Catalogue Management: Objectives Objectives • To provide a single source of consistent information on all of the agreed services. • To ensure that a Service Catalog is produced.
together with relationships to the business units and the business process that rely on the IT services. components and CIs necessary to support the provision of the service to the business. shared services. This is the customer view of the Service Catalogue.78 Lesson 3. .2: Service Catalogue Management: Key Terms Business Service Catalog Details of all the IT services delivered to the customer. together with relationships to the supporting services. Technical Service Catalog Contains the details of all the IT services delivered to the customer.
Service Catalog.79 Lesson 3. • Proactive measures to improve the levels of service delivered are implemented in a costjustified manner. and future services have an achievable target. report and review the level of IT services provided. Service Level Agreement (SLA). monitor measure. Operational Level Agreement (OLA). Underpinning contract (UPC) Key terms . • To define . • To provide and improve the relationship and communication with the business and customers. agree on. document. • Service Level requirements (SLR’s).3: Service Level Management: Objectives Objectives • To ensure an agreed level of IT service is provided for all current IT services.
80 Lesson 3.4: Service Level Management: Process Activities Design and Plan SLA’s Monitor Service Performance Determine and Document Requirements Service Design Negotiate & Continual Service Negotiate & Agree Improvement Produce Service Reports SLA Improvement Conduct Service review and Instigate Service Improvement .
and specifies the responsibilities of the IT Service Provider and the Customer. Service Level Agreement (SLA) Operational Level Agreement (OLA) Underpinning Contract (UPC) SLAM Chart . prices and identification of which business processes or customers use them.5: Service Level Management: Terminology Service Level requirements (SLR) Service Catalog • Detailed recording of the Customer’s needs.81 Lesson 3. forming the basis for design criteria for a new or modified service. • An Agreement between an IT Service Provider and a Customer. documents Service Level targets. options. default levels. • Contract with an external supplier that supports the IT organization in their delivery of services. • A Service Level Agreement Monitoring(SLAM) Chart is used to help monitor and report achievements against Service Level Targets. The SLA describes the IT Service. • A written statement of available IT services. • Internal agreement with another function of the same organization which supports the IT service provider in their delivery of services.
82 Lesson 3.6: Service Level Management: Key Terms Illustrated Business Process Payroll Business Process Business Process S L A Storage Services Network Services Email Services Storage Services OLA OLA OLA OLA Service Desk Hardware Software Applications IT Infrastructure U P C U P C U P C Storage External Supplier .
Lesson 3.7: Service Level Management: Designing SLA Structures 83 Customer Based vs. Service Based SLA’s Customer A Customer B Customer C Service Based Customer Based Service X (Tea) Service Y (Coffee) Service Z (Juice) Multi Level SLA’s Corporate Corporate Level SLA Customer A Customer Level SLA Service X (Tea) Service Y (Coffee) Service Z (Juice) Customer B Service Level SLA .
Service description Mutual Responsibilities Scope of SLA Applicable Service Hours Service Availability Reliability Customer Support Agreements Relationship and Escalation contacts Service Performance Metrics Security Costs and Charging Mechanisms.84 Lesson 3.8: Service Level Management: SLA Content Service Level Agreement for Service XYZ • • • • • • • • • • • • Introduction to the SLA. .
• Manage supplier performance. • Maintain a supplier policy and a supporting Supplier and Contract Database (SCD). • Ensure that underpinning contracts and agreements with suppliers are aligned to business needs.85 Lesson 3.9: Supplier Management: Objectives Objectives • To manage suppliers and the services they supply. • Manage relationships with suppliers. • Supplier and Contract Database (SCD) Key terms . • Negotiate and agree contracts with suppliers. to provide seamless quality of IT service to the business and ensure that value for money is obtained.
86 Lesson 3.10: Supplier Management: Supplier and Contract Database Supplier Strategy & Policy Supplier and Contracts Evaluation Establish new suppliers and Contracts Supplier categorization and Maintenance of the SCD Supplier & Contract Database (SCD) Supplier & Contract Management & performance Contract Renewal And/or termination .
Lesson 3.11: Supplier Management: Relationship with Service Level Management 87 Supplier Management To ensure the UC’s are aligned with SLR’s and SLA’s by managing relationships with Supplier. Service Level Management Service Level Agreements (SLA) Supplier Management Underpinning Contracts (UC’s) External Suppliers .
12: Capacity Management: Objectives Objectives • To ensure that cost-justifiable IT capacity in all areas of IT always exists and is matched to the current and future agreed needs of the business. • Produce and maintain an appropriate and up-todate Capacity Plan. • Capacity plan/ CMIS • Business capacity management • Service capacity management • Resource/Component capacity management Key terms . • Provide advice and guidance to the business and IT on all capacity and performance-related issues • Ensure that service performance achievements meet or exceed all of their agreed performance targets.88 Lesson 3. in a timely manner.
13: Capacity Management: A Balancing Act Supply Capacity • Resources • Components Demand • Performance Cost .89 Lesson 3.
90 Lesson 3.14: Capacity Management: Process Activities Review Current Capacity and Performance Capacity Management Information System (CMIS) Capacity performance reports & data Improve Current service and component capacity Forecasts Plan new Capacity Capacity Plans Assess. Agree & Document new Requirements & Capacity .
Service Capacity Management Component Capacity Management . as detailed in service targets within SLAs and SLRs. • Management. control and prediction of the end-toend performance and capacity of the live.91 Lesson 3. • Management. and that the collected data is recorded. planned and implemented in a timely fashion. designed. ensuring that the future business requirements for IT services are quantified. operational IT services usage and workloads. utilization and capacity of individual IT technology components. control and prediction of the performance. • Ensure that the performance of all services. is monitored and measured.15: Capacity Management: Sub Process Business Capacity Management • Translates business needs and plans into requirements for service and IT infrastructure. analyzed and reported.
16: Availability Management Process: Objectives Objectives • To ensure that the level of Service Availability delivered in all services is matched to or exceeds the current and future business requirements. in a cost-effective manner. MTBF. • To provide a point of focus and management for all availability-related issues.92 Lesson 3. • Produce and maintain an appropriate and up-todate Availability Plan. • Ensure that proactive measures to improve the availability of services are implemented wherever it is cost-justifiable to do so. Maintainability. MTBSI Key terms . • Availability. Reliability. Serviceability • Vital business Functions (VBF) • Expanded Incident Lifecycle & MTRS.
Maintainability or Availability for an IT service or component. • The ability of a Third-Party Supplier to meet the terms of its Contract.17: Availability Management: Key Terms explained Availability Reliability • The percent time of agreed service hours the component or service is available.93 Lesson 3. • A measure of how long a component or IT Service can perform its agreed operation without interruption. This Contract will include agreed levels of Reliability. Maintainability Serviceability . • A measure of how quickly and effectively a component or IT Service can be restored to normal working after a Failure.
• All aspects of service availability and unavailability and the impact of component availability.contd. Service Availability Component Availability .94 Lesson 3. • All aspects of component availability and unavailability. Vital business Functions (VBF’s) • The business critical elements of the business process supported by an IT Service. or the potential impact of component unavailability on service availability.. • Typically this will be where more effort and investments will be spent to protect these vital business functions.18: Availability Management: Key Terms explained.
95 Lesson 3.19: Availability Management: Expanded Incident Lifecycle Uptime Time to detect Time to Record Time to Diagnose Time to Repair Time to Recover Time to Restore Mean Time to Restore Service (MTRS) Mean Time to between system incidents (MTBSI) Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) Downtime Uptime Recovered Incident 1 Diagnose Repaired Restored Record Detect Incident 2 .
networks. business timescales.96 Lesson 3. technical support and Service Desk) can be resumed within required. applications. • Maintain a set of IT Service Continuity Plans and IT recovery plans that support the overall Business Continuity Plans (BCPs) of the organization. telecommunications. and agreed. environment. data repositories. • • • • Business Continuity Planning (BCP) Business Impact Analysis (BIA) Business Continuity Management (BCM) Risk Analysis Key terms .20: IT Service Continuity Management: Objectives Objectives • To support the overall Business Continuity Management (BCM) process by ensuring that the required IT technical and service facilities (including computer systems.
Business Impact Analysis (BIA) Vital Business Functions (VBF’s) .21: IT Service Continuity Management: Key Terms Explained Business Continuity Management (BCM) • Strategies and actions to take place to continue Business Processes in the case of a disaster. • Identifies the most important services to the organisation and is therefore critical input to Strategy • The business critical elements of the business process supported by an IT Service. • Typically this will be where more effort and investments will be spent to protect these vital business functions. • Quantifies the impact loss of IT service would have on the business. • It is essential that the ITSCM strategy is integrated into and a subset of the BCM strategy.97 Lesson 3.
IT services. • Identifying appropriate risk responses or costjustifiable countermeasures to combating identified risks. • A Risk is measured by the probability of a Threat.22: IT Service Continuity Management: Key Terms Explained. the Vulnerability of the Asset to that Threat.contd 98 Risk • Possibility of an event occurring that could cause harm or loss. IT infrastructure and other assets. Threats and Vulnerabilities that exist to business processes. • Identification & Evaluation of Assets. and the Impact it would have if it occurred.Lesson 3. or affect the ability to achieve Objectives.. Risk Assessment Risk Management .
23: IT Service Continuity Management: Lifecycle Activities Initiation Invocation On Going Operations Requirements & Strategy Business Continuity Strategy Implementation Business Continuity Plans .99 Lesson 3.
• To protect the interests of those relying on information. Integrity • Information Security policy • Information Security Management System (ISMS) .24: Information Security Management: Objectives Objectives • To align IT security with business security and ensure that information security is effectively managed in all service and IT Service Management activities.100 Lesson 3. from harm resulting from failures of availability. and the systems and communications that deliver the information. Key terms • Availability. confidentiality and integrity. Confidentiality.
• Examples: Passwords. Service desk hours Integrity Availability .25: Information Security Management: Key Terminology Confidentiality • Protecting information against unauthorized access and use. • Examples: Rollback mechanisms. data information. resilient systems. audits. swipe cards.101 Lesson 3. • Examples: UPS. firewalls • Accuracy. test procedures. systems and physical locations. completeness and timeliness of services. This depends on the continuity provided by the information processing systems. • The information should be accessible at any agreed time.
102 Lesson 3.26: Information Security Management: Security Framework Information Security Framework Information Security Management System Information Security Policy Information Security Organisation Information Security Strategy Information Security Processes Management of Security Risks > Communications Strategy > Training & Awareness Strategy Information Security Controls .
contracts and agreements.27: Information Security Management: Security Policy Security Policy Contains…. . An overall Information Security Policy Use and misuse of IT assets policy Access control policy Password control policy E-mail policy internet policy Anti-virus policy Information classification policy Document classification policy Remote access policy Policy for supplier access of IT service. information and components Asset disposal policy.103 Lesson 3. and their compliance should be referred to in all SLRs. SLAs. Audience for Security Policy • These policies should be widely available to all customers and users.
Suppliers etc.) • Service level Agreements (SLA’s) • Underpinning Contracts (UC’s) • Operational level agreements (OLA’s) • Policy Statements Plan Implement • Awareness. Classification • Personnel Security • Physical Security • Systems Security • Security Incident Procedures Interested Parties (Customers.Lesson 3.) Information Security Requirements & Expectations Control • Organize • Establish framework • Allocate responsibilities Managed Information Security • • • • Learn Improve Plan Implement Maintain Evaluate • • • • Internal audit External audit Self assessments Security Incidents . Suppliers etc.28: Information Security Management: Information Security Management System (ISMS) 104 Interested Parties (Customers.
105 End of Module 3 .
106 Service Design :Quiz .
including the Service Catalogue B.Module 3 : Quiz 107 Question 1: Which of the following is NOT one of the five individual aspects of Service Design? A. The design of the technology architecture and management systems . The design of new or changed services C. The design of Market Spaces D. The design of the Service Portfolio.
Service Design . Service Transition C.Module 3 : Quiz 108 Question 2: Which of the following is MOST concerned with the design of new or changed services? A. Service Strategy D. Change Management B.
Process. Partners . Technology C.Module 3 : Quiz 109 Question 3: Implementation of ITIL Service Management requires preparing and planning the effective and efficient use of: A. People. Process. Partners. Suppliers B. Partners D. People. Process. People. Products. Products. Products. People. Technology.
To ensure that service availability matches or exceeds the agreed needs of the business . To guarantee availability levels for services and components D. To ensure that all targets in the Service Level Agreements (SLAs) are met C.Module 3 : Quiz 110 Question 4: What is the MAIN goal of Availability Management? A. To monitor and report availability of components B.
Senior business managers and all IT staff only B.Module 3 : Quiz 111 Question 5 : The Information Security Policy should be available to which groups of people? A. Information Security Management staff only . users and IT staff D. Senior business managers. IT executives and the Information Security Manager only C. All customers.
1 and 3 only C. 1 and 2 only B. All of the above .Module 3 : Quiz 112 Question 6 : Which of the following are activities that would be carried out by Supplier Management? 1: Management and review of Organisational Level Agreements (OLAs) 2: Evaluation and selection of suppliers 3: Ongoing management of suppliers A. 2 and 3 only D.
Module 4 113 Service Transition .
you should be able to: • • Understand the Goals and Objectives of Service Transition Explain What value Service Transition provides to the Business .0: Service Transition Lesson objectives At the end of this lesson.114 Lesson 1.
1: Service Transition Goals 115 Assure proposed changes in the Service Design package are realized. Plan for and Implement the Deployment of Releases for New or Changed Services. Retire or Archive Services. KEY ROLE: To move Services from Design to Operations.Lesson 1. without impacting the ongoing Services . Test Releases so as to minimize the possibility of undesirable impact to the Production environment.
•Increase proper use of the services and underlying applications and technology solutions. communications. •Ensure there is minimal unpredicted impact on the production services. •Increase the customer. training and knowledge transfer.2: Service Transition Objectives 116 •Plan and manage the resources to establish successfully a new or changed service into production within the predicted cost. user and Service Management staff satisfaction with the Service Transition practices including deployment of the new or changed service.Lesson 1. operations and support organization. release documentation. . quality and time estimates.
• Changes in the business as a result of takeovers. • More successful changes and releases for the business. • Less deviation between planned budgets and the actual costs • Better insight into the possible risks during and after the input of a service into production. • Higher productivity of customer staff . etc.117 Lesson 1.3: Value to Business • The capacity of the business to respond quickly and adequately to changes in the market improves. are well managed. contracting. • Better compliance of business and governing rules.
0: Service Transition: Key Principles and Models Lesson objectives At the end of this lesson. you should be able to: • • • Understand the V Model of Service Transition Understand Configuration Item Understand Configuration Management System .118 Lesson 2.
Lesson 2.1: Service V Model 119 Service Transition – V Model .
hardware.120 Lesson 2. buildings. and formal documentation such as Process documentation and SLAs . people. software. CI information is recorded in the Configuration Management System. CI information is maintained throughout its lifecycle by Configuration Management. All CIs are subject to Change Management control.2: Configuration Item (CI) Anything that needs to be managed in order to deliver an IT Service. CIs typically include IT Services.
change records etc. presentation .).Lesson 2. or any component Stored in 1 or more databases (CMDBs) CMS stores attributes Any information about the CI that might be needed CMS stores relationships Between CIs With incident. CMS has multiple layers Data sources and tools. dashboards etc.3: Configuration Management System (CMS) 121 Information about all Configuration Items CI may be entire service. information integration. problem. knowledge processing (scorecards.
And Knowledge Management .122 Lesson 3.0: Service Transition Processes Lesson objectives At the end of this lesson. you should be able to understand Objectives and basic concepts of the four processes in Service Transition: • • • • Change Management Service Asset and Configuration Management Release and Deployment management.
you should be able to: • State the Goals.123 Lesson 3.1: Change Management Lesson objectives At the end of this lesson. Objectives and basic concepts of Change Management .
124 Lesson 3.2: Change Management : Goals and Objectives Goals and Objectives: Respond to changing business requirements • Respond to Business and IT requests to align Services with business needs. • Optimize business risk • Implement changes successfully • Implement changes in times that meet business needs • Use standard processes • Record all changes . • Ensuring Changes are introduced in a controlled manner.
Modification or Removal of Any Service or Configuration Item or associated documentation Including Strategic.3: Change Management : Scope 125 Scope Addition.Lesson 3. Tactical and Operational changes Excluding Business strategy and process Anything documented as out of scope .
4: Change Management : Change Types Change Types Normal changes Types are specific to the organization Type determines what assessment is required Standard changes Pre-authorized with an established procedure Tasks are well known.126 Lesson 3. Should be kept to minimum Remediation planning Backout Plans . documented and low risk (usually) E.g replacement of faulty printer. Emergency changes Business criticality means there is insufficient time for normal handling Should use normal process but speeded up Impact can be high. upgrade PC etc. more prone to failure.
127 Lesson 3.5: Change Management : Change Flow .
128 Lesson 3. test and implementation of the change? What is the RELATIONSHIP between this change and other changes? .6: Change Management : 7 R’s of Change Management 7 R’s of Change Management Who RAISED the change? What is the REASON for the change? What is the RETURN required from the change? What are the RISKS involved in the change? What RESOURCES are required to deliver the change? Who is RESPONSIBLE for the build.
129 Lesson 3.7: Change Management : Roles in Change Management Change Manager Process owner Ensures that process is followed Usually authorizes minor changes Coordinates and runs CAB meetings Produces change schedule Coordinates change/built/test/implementation Reviews/Closes Changes .
130 Lesson 3. users. operations. capacity. service continuity. service desk. application/technical support. third parties … people who have clear understanding of business needs Technical specialists / consultants Emergency CAB (ECAB) Subset of the standard CAB Membership depends on the specific change .8: Change Management : Change Advisory Board (CAB) Change Advisory Board (CAB) Supports the change manager Consulted on significant changes Business.
9: Change Management : Change Metrics Change Metrics Compliance Reduction in unauthorized changes Reduction in emergency changes Effectiveness Percentage of changes which met requirements Reduction in disruptions. defects and re-work Reduction in changes failed/backed out Number of incidents attributable to changes Efficiency Benefits (value compared to cost) Average time to implement (by urgency/priority/type) Percentage accuracy in change estimates .131 Lesson 3.
10: Change Management : Key Challenges Business pressure to “just do it” Inaccurate and incomplete Configuration Management System Siloed Technical Function areas Misunderstanding of “Emergency” changes Scalability across large organizations Vendor/Contract Compliance Adhoc nature of people .132 Lesson 3.
objectives and basic concepts of Service Asset and Configuration Management .11: Service Asset and Configuration Management Lesson objectives At the end of this lesson. you should be able to: • State the goals.133 Lesson 3.
and resolve incidents and problems faster.Lesson 3. manage change and release effectively. . This enables an organization to comply with corporate governance requirements. logical etc) needed to deliver these services The objective of SACM is to define and control the components of services and infrastructure and maintain accurate configuration records. optimize its costs.12: Service Asset and Configuration Management: Goals and Objectives 134 The goal of SACM is to provide a logical model of the IT infrastructure correlating IT services and different IT components (physical. control its asset base.
hardware. people.13: Service Asset and Configuration Management: Basic Concepts 135 Basic Concepts What is a Configuration Item (CI) ? Anything that needs to be managed in order to deliver an IT Service CI information is recorded in the Configuration Management System CI information is maintained throughout its lifecycle by Configuration Management All CIs are subject to Change Management control CI Types : CIs typically include •IT Services. and formal documentation such as Process documentation and SLAs . buildings. software.Lesson 3.
g. This captures both the structure and details of a configuration Item.13: Service Asset and Configuration Management: Basic Concepts 136 Basic Concepts Configuration baseline Configuration details captured at a specific point in time. Typically managed through the Change Management process. . Releases and Changes.Lesson 3. After major changes. (e. It is used as a reference point for future Builds. disaster recovery etc).
information integration. knowledge processing (scorecards.). •CMS has multiple layers •Data sources and tools. dashboards etc. 137 Basic Concepts What is a Configuration Management System (CMS) ? •Information about all Configuration Items •CI may be an entire service..13: Service Asset and Configuration Management: Basic Concepts: Contd. or any component •Stored in 1 or more databases (CMDBs) •CMS stores attributes •Any information about the CI that might be needed •CMS stores relationships •Between CIs •With incident.Lesson 3. change records etc. problem. presentation .
.Lesson 3. 138 Basic Concepts What is a Definitive Media Library (DML) ? The only source for build and distribution Master copies of all software assets In house. . virus scanned .13: Service Asset and Configuration Management: Basic Concepts: Contd. external software houses Scripts as well as code Management tools as well as applications Including licenses Quality checked Complete. correct..
14: Service Asset and Configuration Management: Basic Concepts: CMDB & DML 139 Basic Concepts DML and CMDB .Lesson 3.
Banking User Experience Availability SLA Application E .Lesson 3.Sales Application User Experience SLA Availability Business Logic Application Infrastructure Business Logic Application Infrastructure Web services Name service Data Center Network Messaging Data services Web services Network Topology Data services Messaging Authentication .15: Service Asset and Configuration Management: Basic Concepts: Logical Model 140 Services E .
Lesson 3.16: Service Asset and Configuration Management: Basic Concepts: Relationship between CMDB. CMS and SKMS 141 SKMS Informed Decision CMS CMDB .
objectives and basic concepts of Release and Deployment Management .17: Release and Deployment Management Lesson objectives At the end of this lesson. you should be able to: • State the goals.142 Lesson 3.
in the form of a release package. or other configuration items into the live production environment.18: Release and Deployment Management: Goals 143 • Release management is responsible for planning. software. to both the testing and the live production environments • Deployment management is responsible for the movement of new or changed hardware. documentation. and controlling the movement of new or changed services. scheduling.Lesson 3. .
operations. Test and Integrate releases Efficiently. successfully and on schedule. and support teams Enabling new or changed services to deliver agreed service requirements • • Control and minimize the impact of releases to the ongoing services Transfer knowledge and skills to end users and support teams. With minimal impact on production services.144 Lesson 3.19: Release and Deployment Management: Objectives • Planned Release and Deployment in line to the business needs • Build. Install. leading to an effective use and support .
training. numbering and naming conventions. documentation and knowledge • Exit and entry criteria and authority for acceptance of the release into each Service Transition stage and into the controlled test. e. hardware. repeatability and efficiency • How the configuration baseline for the release is captured and verified against the actual release contents. • The roles and responsibilities at each stage in process. • The mechanism to automate the build. software. disaster recovery and production environments • Criteria and authorization to exit early life support and handover to Service Operations.21: Release and Deployment Management: Basic Concepts: Release Policy 145 Release Policy: The overarching strategy for Releases and was derived from the Service Design phase of the Service Lifecycle and typically includes: • Release Description with the unique identification. • The expected frequency for each type of release • The approach for accepting and grouping changes into a release. . installation and release distribution processes to improve re-use.g.Lesson 3.
warranty. software. For example .Single release or many related releases .Lesson 3.Typically includes sufficient components to perform a useful function.Fully configured desktop PC. documentation. payroll applications Release package . training … .20: Release and Deployment Management: Basic Concepts: Release Unit 146 Release unit . utility.Cls that are normally released together .Can include hardware.
Also known as a Major Upgrade. generally supersedes all preceding minor upgrades. .Lesson 3. Emergency Release: Normally linked to an Emergency change. Minor Release: Contains small enhancements and fixes. A Minor Upgrade or release generally supersedes previous emergency fixes.21: Release and Deployment Management: Basic Concepts: Release Types 147 Release Types Major Release: Containing large proportions of new functionalities.
Lesson 3.22: Release and Deployment Management: Basic Concepts: Release and Deployment Approaches
Release and Deployment Approaches Big bang versus phased approach Phased approach can be users, locations, functionality ..
Push versus Pull deployment
Automated versus manual deployment
Lesson 3.23: Knowledge Management
Lesson objectives At the end of this lesson, you should be able to: • State the goals, objectives and basic concepts of Knowledge Management
Lesson 3.24: Knowledge Management: Goals
The goal of Knowledge Management is to Improve quality of management decision making by ensuring that reliable and secure information and data is available throughout the service lifecycle The objective of Knowledge Management is to ensure that the right information is delivered to the appropriate place or person at the right time to enable informed decisions.
Lesson 3.25: Knowledge Management: Objectives
Knowledge Management is The process responsible for gathering, analyzing, storing and sharing knowledge and information within an organization. The primary purpose of knowledge Management is to improve efficiency and effectiveness by reducing the need to rediscover knowledge.
26: Knowledge Management: Basic Concepts: DIKW .152 Lesson 3.
Lesson 3.27: Knowledge Management: Service Knowledge Management System
Lesson 3.28: Knowledge Management: SKMS
A set of tools for managing knowledge and information. SKMS includes CMS. SKMS contains all the information needed to manage the lifecycle of IT Services.
Module 4 : Summary
• Goals and Objectives • Service Transition V Model • Service Transition processes: Change Management Service Asset and Configuration Management Release and Deployment Management Knowledge Management
Module 4 : Quiz
Module 4: Quiz 157 Question 1: Which of the following statements about a standard change is INCORECT ? a) A Standard change is a low risk change b) Standard changes are pre-authorized changes c) Standard changes are authorized by E-CAB d) Standard changes are only raised by Incident Management .
Module 4: Quiz 158 Question 2: Which statement is the CORRECT statement about the relationship between CMS and SKMS ? a) The SKMS is a part of the CMS b) The CMS is a part of the SKMS c) There is no relationship between the CMS and SKMS d) The CMS and the SKMS are the same .
Module 4: Quiz 159 Question 3: Whish of the following is an activity of SACM ? a) Account for all the Financial assets of an organization b) Specify the relevant attributes of CI c) Implement ITIL across the organization d) Design Service models to justify ITIL implementations .
Transfer of services to and from external service provider a) All of the above b) None of the above c) Only 1 and 2 d) Only 1 . Testing and Validation 3.Module 4: Quiz 160 Question 4: Which of the following does Service Transition provide guidance on: 1. Moving New and Changed Services to production 2.
Module 4: Quiz 161 Question 5: Which of the following is an INCORRECT Release and Deployment approach? a) Propagate and Consolidate b) Push and Pull c) Big bang and Phased d) Automated and Manual .
2 and 3 only . Copies of Internally developed software 3. Relevant License documentation 4. Copies of Purchased software 2.Module 4: Quiz 162 Question 6: Which of the following would be stored in the DML? 1. The Change schedule a) All of the above b) 1 and 2 only c) 3 and 4 only d) 1.
Module 5 163 Service Operations .
164 Lesson 1. you should be able to: • • • • Understand the Goals and Objectives of Service Operations Briefly Explain What Value Service Operations provide to business Understand Key Concepts & definitions Understand the Role of Communication in Service Operations .0: Service Operations Lesson objectives At the end of this lesson.
KEY ROLE: How to achieve effectiveness & efficiency in Service Delivery so as to ensure value to business and the service provider .Lesson 1. Carrying out activities and Processes required to deliver and manage Services at agreed levels.1: Service Operations: Objectives 165 To coordinate and carry out the activities and processes required to deliver and manage services at agreed levels to business users and customers. Responsible for the ongoing management of the technology that is used to deliver and support services.
• • • Service value is modeled in Service Strategy The cost of the service is designed. designs and optimizations from other ITIL lifecycle phases are executed and measured. Service Operation is where actual value is seen.2: Value to Business 166 Service Operations is where the plans. predicted and validated in Service Design and Service Transition Measures for optimization are identified in Continual Service Improvement From a customer viewpoint. .Lesson 1.
All communication should have: .Lesson 1. Issues can often be mitigated or avoided through good communication . who should be involved in deciding the need/format Examples of Communications in Service Operations · Routine operational communication · Communication between shifts · Performance reporting -Communication related to emergencies · Training on new or customized processes and service designs .Clear audience.Intended purpose and/ or resultant action .3: Role of Communication 167 Good communication is important across all phases of the service lifecycle but particularly so in Service Operation Good communication is needed between all IT Service Management staff and with users/ customers / partners.
Event Type Informational Warning Description An event that does not require any action. An Event signifying a service or a device is operating abnormally Example: A PC scan reveals the installation of unauthorized software. Exception . Example: A servers CPU utilization is approaching maximum performance threshold. regular operation Example: Notification that a scheduled workload has completed An Event that is unusual but not an exception.4: Events 168 An expected or unexpected change of state of a an IT component that could negatively impact delivery of IT services. Configuration Item (CI) or a monitoring tool. Events are typically notifications created by an IT service. requires closer monitoring.Lesson 1.
Alerts are often created and managed by System Management tools. but not all Events trigger Alerts All Incidents are Events. but all Events are not Incidents .Lesson 1. Alerts and Incident All Alerts are Events. Failure of an IT component that has not yet affected service. Alerts are managed by the Event Management Process. something has changed. Objective is to notify the concerned Stakeholders Incident An unplanned interruption to an IT service.5: Alerts & Incidents 169 Alert A warning that a threshold has been reached. Example: Failure of a server in a clustered mode. or a Failure has occurred. Relationship between Events. This can be raised by IT support teams. A reduction in the quality of an IT service. but could likely disrupt service if left unchecked.
A request to relocate some items of desktop equipment . Examples: A request to change a password. frequently occurring. Many of these requests are actually small changes – low risk. A request to install an additional software application onto a particular PC. low-risk nature means that they are better handled by a separate process. rather than being allowed to congest and obstruct the normal Incident and Change Management processes. Their scale and frequency. low cost.Lesson 1. etc.6: Service Request 170 Service Request A generic description for many varying types of demands that are placed upon the IT Department by the users.
. Used for reducing or eliminating the Impact of an Incident or Problem for which a full Resolution is not yet available.7: Problem & Workaround 171 Problem The cause of one or more incidents. The cause is not usually known at the time a Problem Record is created. Workarounds for Incidents that do not have associated Problem Records are documented in the Incident Record.Lesson 1. Workarounds for Problems are documented in Known Error Records. Workaround A temporary way to restore service failures to a usable level. For example. and the Problem Management Process is responsible for further investigation. Prioritized in the same way and for same reasons as Incidents. rebooting a server hang.
Lesson 1.8: Known Error (KE) and Known Error Database (KEDB)
Known Error (KE)
A Problem that has a documented Root cause and a Workaround. • A known error might be raised for a problem whose root cause is not yet known but a workaround has been identified. Known Errors are created and managed throughout their Lifecycle by Problem Management. Known Errors may also be identified by Development or Suppliers. For example; Application incompatibility reports for Windows by Microsoft .
Known Error Database (KEDB)
A storage of previous knowledge of incidents and problems • exact details of the fault and the symptoms that occurred • how they were overcome Allows quicker diagnosis and resolution if Incidents/Problems recur.
Lesson 1.9: Impact, Urgency & Priority
A measure of the effect of an Incident, Problem or Change on Business Processes. Based on how Service levels will be affected. A measure of how long it will be until an Incident, Problem or Change has a significant Impact on the Business. The relative importance of an Incident, Problem or Change. Priority is based on Impact and Urgency, and is used to identify required times for actions to be taken. • For example, the SLA may state that Priority 2 Incidents must be resolved within 12 hours.
Lesson 2.0: Service Operations Process
Lesson objectives At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
State the objectives and basic concepts for Event Management
Lesson 2.1: Event Management: Objectives
Definition The process responsible for monitoring Events throughout their Lifecycle. Objectives
To detect events, make sense of them and determine the appropriate control action. Can be used as a basis for automating many routine Operations Management activities, For example - executing scripts on remote devices, or - submitting jobs for processing It provides a way of comparing actual performance and behavior against design standards and SLAs. Provide the basis for Operational Monitoring and Control
Lesson 2.2: Event Management: Process Activities
Event occurs Event Detection , Filtering & Notification Event Significance (Type of Event) (Information, Warning or Exception) Event correlation. Event Response Event Review & Closure
Lesson 2.3: Event Management: Event Logging & Filtering
Lesson 2.4: Event Management: Managing Exceptional Events
5: Event Management: Managing Information & Warning Events .179 Lesson 2.
or automatically detected and reported by event monitoring tools.Lesson 2. Objectives To restore normal service operation as quickly as possible and minimize the adverse impact on business operations To ensure that the best possible levels of service quality and availability are maintained. i. this can include failures. by technical staff. restore service within SLA’s .e. questions or queries reported by the users (usually via a telephone call to the Service Desk).6: Incident Management: Objectives 180 Definition The process for dealing with all incidents.
The capability to identify business priorities and dynamically allocate resources as necessary. which in turn means higher availability of the service. . The ability to identify potential improvements to services.181 Lesson 2.7: Incident Management: Scope and Value to Business Scope Managing any disruption or potential disruption to live IT services Incidents identified • Directly by users through the service Desk • Through an interface from Event Management to incident Management tools Reported and/or logged by technical staff Value to Business Lower downtime to the business.
8: Incident Management: Basic Concepts Time Scales • Timescales must be agreed for all incident handling stages. An Incident model is predefined steps to handle a particular Incident. Incident Models Major Incident . The incident model should include: • The steps that should be taken to handle the incident • The order in which these steps should be taken in.Documented in OLA’s & UC’s • All support groups should be made fully aware of these timescales. .182 Lesson 2. • Responsibilities. who should do what An Incident Model to handle Incidents of Major Impacts and great Urgency.Depending on Priority & SLA’s .
9: Incident Management: Process Flow & Activities .183 Lesson 2.
10: Incident Management: Process Interfaces • • • Performance incidents Incident Workarounds SLA’s. UC’s Event Manage ment • Service break/ degrading Events Capacity Manage ment Incident Management Problem Manage ment • Potential problems • Availability incidents Change Manage ment • • CI data Maintain faulty CI Status • • RFC for resolving Incidents Incidents from Failed Changes *SACM: Service Asset & Configuration Management .184 Lesson 2. OLA’s.
Objectives To prevent problems and resulting incidents from happening and to eliminate recurring incidents To minimize the impact of incidents that cannot be prevented. Problem Management seeks to identify and remove the root-cause of Incidents in the IT Infrastructure.185 Lesson 2.11: Problem Management: Objectives Definition The process responsible for managing the lifecycle of all problems. .
Maintain information about problems and the appropriate workarounds and resolutions Value to Business Together with Incident and Change Management increases IT service availability and quality. especially Change Management and Release Management. Responsible for ensuring that the resolution is implemented through the appropriate control procedures. Reduced expenditure on workarounds or fixes that do not work Reduction in cost of effort in firefighting or resolving repeat incidents.12: Problem Management: Scope and Value to Business 186 Scope Activities required to diagnose the root cause of incidents and to determine the resolution to those problems.Lesson 2. . Reduction in downtimes and disruptions of Business critical systems.
187 Lesson 2.13: Problem Management: Basic Concepts Reactive Problem Management • Resolution of underlying cause (s) • The activities are similar to those of Incident Management for the logging. The subsequent activities are different as this is where the actual root-cause analysis is performed and the Known Error corrected. categorization and classification for Problems. and using data collected by other IT Service Management processes and external sources to identify trends or significant problems. • Generally undertaken as part of Continual Service Improvement (CSI) Proactive Problem Management . • Covered in Service Operation • Prevention of future problems by analyzing Incident Records.
14: Problem Management: Process Flow: Reactive Problem Management 188 Problem detection & Logging Problem Categorization & Prioritization Problem Investigation & Diagnosis Problem Resolution & Closure Workarounds & raising Known Error Records Known Error Database Major Problem Reviews Errors from Development / Suppliers .Lesson 2.
and its management information is used as the basis of some of the SLA review components. it interfaces with ITSCM Service Level Management • contributes to improvements in service levels. Financial Management • Problem Management provides management information about the cost of resolving and preventing problems . Release & Deployment Management • assists in ensuring that the associated known errors are transferred from the development Known Error Database into the live Known Error Database. • Is involved with determining how to reduce downtime and increase uptime through proactive problem management techniques Capacity Management Configuration Management • uses the CMS to identify faulty CIs and also to determine the impact of problems and resolutions. Problem Management • Capacity Management helps in problem investigation and resolution IT Service Continuity Management • When a significant problem is not resolved before it starts to have a major impact on the business.Lesson 2.15: Problem Management: Process Flow: Interfaces with Other Processes 189 Availability Management Change Management • ensures that all resolutions or workarounds that require a change to a CI are submitted through Change Management through an RFC.
etc. Objectives To provide pre-defined pre-approved standard services to users. IMACS.190 Lesson 2.16: Request Fulfillment Process Definition The processes of dealing with Service Requests from the users. Assist IT users with general information. To provide users with information on available services and procedures for obtaining them. comments and complaints Basic Concepts Request models – Specific procedures for handling certain types of requests For example. Password resets. Deliver requested standard services. .
191 Lesson 2. • • Also referred to as Rights Management or Identity Management. Objectives To grant authorized users the right to use a Service and deny access to unauthorized users To Execute policies and actions defined in Security and Availability Management . Access Management is the operational enforcement of the policies defined by Information Security Management.17: Access Management: Objectives Definition The process of granting authorized users the right to use a service. In practice. while preventing access to non-authorized users.
change. • Also called privileges. Rights Service/ Service Groups • Granting users/User groups access to similar set of services . the identity of a user is unique to that user. and which verifies their status within the organization. refer to the actual settings whereby a user is provided access to a service or group of services.192 Lesson 2. write.18: Access Management: Basic Concepts Basic Concepts Access Identity • Access refers to the level and extent of a service’s functionality or data that a user is entitled to use. • Typical rights or levels of access include read. • The information about the user that distinguishes them as an individual. • By definition. execute. delete.
objectives and organizational structures of Service desk .0: Service Operations: Functions Lesson objectives At the end of this lesson.193 Lesson 3. you should be able to: • Explain the role.
1: Service Desk 194 Definition A Service Desk is a functional unit made up of a dedicated number of staff responsible for dealing with a variety of service events. web interface. often made via telephone calls.Lesson 3. Acts as daily Single point of contact for IT users Objectives To restore the ‘normal service’ to the users as quickly as possible. Operate as Level 1 for Incident Management and Request Fulfillment i. or automatically reported infrastructure events. Manage Incidents throughout its lifecycle. do initial diagnosis and investigation and if possible resolve and close. .e. which also includes user communication and Technical & hierarchical escalations. Conducting customer/user satisfaction survey. Log calls.
Better quality and faster turnaround of customer or user IT requests Enhanced focus and a proactive approach to IT service provisioning. .1: Purpose of Service Desk 195 Purpose of Service Desk Improved customer service. A reduced negative business impact. More meaningful management information for decision support Improved teamwork and communication amongst IT staff.Lesson 3. communication and information. Improved usage of IT Support resources and increased productivity of business personnel. perception of IT and satisfaction with IT services Increase accessibility to IT services through a single point of contact.
Service desk is deployed at one central physical location. ‘specialist groups’ within the overall Service Desk structure. so that incidents relating to a particular IT service can be routed directly (normally via telephony selection or IVR or a web-based interface) to the specialist group.Lesson 3. through the use of technology and tools to create a virtual Service desk. 4. Follow-The-Sun 5. Local 2. Multiple Service desks across time zones to provide 24x7 service. Specialized . Centralized 3. Impression of single. centralized Service desk. Virtual Description Located physically close to the user community it serves.2: Organization Structures 196 Type 1.
3: Service Desk Function: Organization Structures.Local Local Local Users Aids communication and gives a clearly visible presence Can often be inefficient and expensive to resource due to low call volumes Reasons for a Local service desk… • Language and cultural or political differences • Different time zones • Specialized groups of users • VIP/criticality status of users. Infrastructure Support Service Desk (local) Third Party Support Application Support .197 Lesson 3.
but controlled and deployed from the central desk. Service Desk (centralized) Second-Line Support more efficient and cost-effective.4: Service Desk Function: Organization Structures.Centralized Centralized Customer Site 1 Customer Site 2 Customer Site 3 Local Service Desks merged into one or few locations. allowing fewer overall staff to deal with a higher volume of calls.198 Lesson 3. ‘local presence’ to handle physical support requirements. Third party Support Application Support Infrastructure Support .
Allows for ‘homeworking’. off-shoring or outsourcing – or any combination necessary to meet user demand. secondary support group.5: Service Desk Function: Organization Structures. Safeguards are needed to ensure consistency and uniformity in service quality and cultural terms .Virtual Virtual Single Visible Service Desk which may actually be run by staff in multiple locations.199 Lesson 3.
g. Infrastructure for short breaks Minimum qualifications • Interpersonal skills. travel time • Processes and procedures in place.200 Lesson 3.6: Service Desk: Service Desk Staffing Service Desk Staffing Correct number and qualification at any given time. out-of-hours. time zones/locations. Expert Typing skills . Budget • Number of users to support. call response time (SLA) . Business and underlying IT understanding • Skill sets Customer and Technical emphasis. considering • Customer expectations and business requirements e. their language and skills • Coverage period.
maturity. effectiveness and any opportunity to improve Realistic and carefully chosen – total number of call is not itself good or bad Some examples: • First-line resolution rate • Average time to resolve and/or escalate an incident • Total costs for the period divided by total call duration minutes • The number of calls broken by time of day and day of week.201 Lesson 3. efficiency. combined with the average call-time • Customer/User Satisfaction surveys .7: Service Desk: Service Desk Metrics Service Desk Metrics Periodic evaluations of health.
cost-effective infrastructure configuration . build. transition. . operate and improve the technology required to deliver and support IT services.Lesson 3. Objectives To help plan.Ensures that resources are effectively trained and deployed to design. . implement and maintain a stable technical infrastructure to support the organization’s business Processes -Well designed and highly resilient.8: Technical Management 202 Role of Technical Management Function The groups.Use of adequate technical skills to maintain the technical infrastructure and to speedily diagnose and resolve any technical failures that do occur. departments or teams that provide technical expertise and overall management of the IT Infrastructure Custodian of technical knowledge and expertise related to managing the IT Infrastructure. Provides the actual resources to support the ITSM Lifecycle.
• It provides the actual resources to support the ITSM Lifecycle • Providing guidance to IT Operations about how best to carry out the ongoing operational management of applications. Assist in ongoing support/maintenance/improvement of applications.9: Application Management 203 Role of Application Management Function Responsible for managing applications throughout their lifecycle. whether purchased or developed in-house. Assist in design and deployment of applications. • Custodian of technical Knowledge and expertise related to managing application. • The integration of the Application Management Lifecycle into the ITSM Lifecycle Objectives To helping to identify functional and manageability requirements for application software so as to support the organization’s business Processes. .Lesson 3.
10: IT Operations Management Function Role of IT Operations Management Function The function responsible for the ongoing management and maintenance of an organization ’s IT Infrastructure to ensure delivery of the agreed level of IT services to the business. Facilities Management . Job Scheduling. Print & output Management and Maintenance activities on behalf of Technical or Application Management teams. .204 Lesson 3.The management of the physical IT environment. Operations Control . Backup & restore. typically a Data Centre or computer rooms and recovery sites together with all the power and cooling equipment. Includes Console Management.oversees the execution and monitoring of the operational activities and events in the IT Infrastructure.
205 Lesson 3. Regular scrutiny and improvements to achieve improved service at reduced costs. . while maintaining stability.is infrastructure and procedures to achieve stability of the organization’s day-to-day processes and activities. Swift application of operational skills to diagnose and resolve any IT operations failures that occur.11: IT Operations Management Objectives Objectives Maintenance of the as.
206 Module 5 : Quiz .
Less documentation . Separate procedures B.Service Operations : Quiz 207 Question 1: Major Incidents require: A. Less urgency C. Longer timescales D.
Both of the above C.Service Operations : Quiz 208 Question 2: Which of the following should be done when closing an Incident? 1: Check the Incident categorization and correct it if necessary 2: Decide whether a Problem needs to be logged A. 1 only B. 2 only D. None of the above .
To source and deliver the components of standard services that have been requested . To provide information to users about what services are available and how to request them B.Service Operations : Quiz 209 Question 3: Which of the following is NOT a valid objective of Request Fulfillment? A. To provide a channel for users to request and receive standard services D. To update the Service Catalogue with services that may be requested through the Service Desk C.
IT Operations Control and Facilities Management D. Facilities Management and Technical Management . Network Management and Application Management B. Technical Management and Application Management C.Service Operations : Quiz 210 Question 4: Which Functions are included in IT Operations Management? A.
Service Operations : Quiz 211 Question 5: What is the BEST description of the purpose of Service Operation? A. To design and build processes that will meet business needs D. To decide how IT will engage with suppliers during the Service Management Lifecycle B. To proactively prevent all outages to IT Services C. To deliver and manage IT Services at agreed levels to business users and customers .
1. All of the above B. 2 and 4 only D. 3 and 4 only . 2.Service Operations : Quiz 212 Question 6: Which of these activities would you expect to be performed by a Service Desk? 1: Logging details of Incidents and service requests 2: Providing first-line investigation and diagnosis 3: Restoring service 4: Diagnosing the root-cause of problems A. 2 and 3 only C. 1.
213 End of Module 5 .
Module 6 214 Continual Service Improvement .
215 Lesson 1.0: Continual Service Improvement At the end of this lesson. you should be able to: • Understand the Goals and Objectives of Continual Service Improvement .
.1: Continual Service Improvement Goals To continually align IT Services to the changing Business needs by identifying and implementing improvements. To implement improvement plans in a cost-effective manner.216 Lesson 1. Continually be on the lookout for improvements related to process effectiveness and efficiency.
CSI Reviews and analyze Service level achievement results •Identify and implement activities for improve service efficiency and effectiveness to improve service quality •Improve cost effectiveness •Ensure appropriate quality management methods are used to support CSI activities .2: Continual Service Improvement Objectives 217 •Review analyze and recommend improvement opportunities in all the life cycle phases •To make CSI activities.Lesson 1. fact based.
Lesson 1. Organization need to: •Review management information and trends of service delivery •Ensure outputs of enabling ITSM are achieving results •Conduct audits to access maturity of process. •Conduct customer satisfaction surveys. It takes care of entire ITSM as well as all dependent services. . Alignment of the service portfolio with business needs After implementing and operating processes. CSI help Maturing the processes.3: Continual Service Improvement Scope 218 Scope of CSI: Overall health of ITSM. compliance of processes.
you should be able to: • • Understand the Basic Concepts and Key Principles of Continual Service Improvement John Kotter’s eight steps for Organization Transformation .219 Lesson 2.0: CSI – Key Principles and Models At the end of this lesson.
1: CSI and Organizational Change 220 Successful CSI requires organizational change Organizational change presents challenges Use formal approaches to address people-related issues: John Kotter’s “Eight steps to transforming your organization” Project Management .Lesson 2.
people won’t help and efforts goes nowhere • 76% of company’s management should be convinced of the need • Understand difficulties and producing change. 1 Creating Sense of urgency 2 Forming a guiding coalition 3 Creating a Vision 4 Communicating Vision • Without credible communication. . • Make use of all communication channels. Strong leadership • Not a powerful coalition. • Without a sensible vision transformation effort can easily dissolve into a list of confusing. • An explanation of 5 minutes should obtain reaction of “understanding” and “Interest”.Lesson 2. Opposition eventually stops the change initiatives.2: John Kotter’s 8 steps to Organizational Transformation 221 Steps Quotes • 50% of transformations fail in this stage. Reference: Crown copyright OGC. incompatible projects. • Lack of effective. the hearts and minds of the troops are never captured. and lot of it. • Without motivation.
• Until changes sink deeply into the culture new approaches are fragile and subject to regressions. And removal of barriers to change.3: John Kotter’s 8 steps to Organizational Transformation…contd 222 Steps Quotes • Structures to underpin the vision. . • Show how new approaches. behavior and attitude have helped improve performance. • More people involved. Without quick wins too many people give up or join the ranks of those opposing change. Ensure selection and promotion criteria underpin the new approach. • Actively look for performance improvements and establish clear goals.Lesson 2. the better the outcome. • In many cases worker revert to old practices. • Communicate success. 5 Empowering others to act on vision 6 Planning for and creating quick wins 7 Consolidating improvements and producing more change Institutionalize the change 8 Reference: Crown copyright OGC.. • Real transformation takes time. • Use credibility of quick wins to tackle even bigger problems. • Reward initiatives.
(for example. . Will require someone to take the individual measurements and combine them to provide a view of the customer experience. CIs.223 Lesson 2. This data can be analyzed over a period of time to produce a trend. services).4: Service Measurement The ability to predict and report service performance against targets of an end-to-end service is known as Service Measurement. This data can be collected at multiple levels. processes.
5: Reasons to Monitor & Measure 224 .Lesson 2.
5: Types of Metrics Technology metrics: typically components and applications For example •Performance •Availability Process metrics: Critical Success Factors (CSFs).225 Lesson 2. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). activity metrics for ITSM processes Service metrics: end-to-end service metrics (often Service metrics are a sum of process and technology metrics) .
6: Key Definitions Improvement – Favorable Outcome showing a measurable increase in a desirable metric or a decrease in undesirable metric. Benefit – Gain achieved from Improvement. This is generally associated with ROI or VOI. usually expressed as a percentage. Baseline – Benchmark used as a reference point for later comparison.226 Lesson 2. such as branding. Value on Investment (VOI) – Non monetary benefit. achieved by expending a certain amount of money. Return on Investment (ROI) – Quantifiable monetary benefit achieved by expending a certain amount of money. .
HOW. WHEN PROCESS THE DATA IMPLEMENT CORRECTIVE ACTION ACT .PDCA Cycle 227 7 – Step Improvement Process – PDCA cycle CHECK DEFINE WHAT YOU SHOULD MEASURE ANALYZE THE DATA PLAN DEFINE WHAT YOU CAN MEASURE PRESENT AND USE THE DATA DO GATHER THE DATA – WHO.Lesson 2.7: Seven Step Improvement Process.
8: Continual Service Improvement Model .228 Lesson 2.
229 Module 6 : Quiz .
3 and 4 only . How to improve process efficiency and effectiveness 2. How to improve services 3. Measurement of processes and services a) 1 and 2 only b) All of the above c) 2 only d) 1. Improvement of all phases of service lifecycle 4.Module 6: Quiz 230 Question 1: Which of the following does CSI provide guidance on? 1.
Module 6: Quiz 231 Question 2: Which is the first activity of the CSI model? a) Carry out a baseline assessment to understand the current situation b) Understand the Business Vision and Objectives c) Agree on priorities for Improvement d) Create and verify a plan .
Module 6: Quiz 232 Question 3: Which of the following is NOT a metric described in CSI? a) Process Metric b) Personnel Metric c) Service Metrics d) Technology Metrics .
To improve International standard such as ISO 20000 a) 1 and 2 only b) 2 and 4 only c) 1. 2 and 3 only d) All of the above .Module 6: Quiz 233 Question 4: Which of the following are objectives of CSI? 1. To improve all phases of service lifecycle except Strategy 4. To improve services 3. To improve process efficiency and effectiveness 2.
Service Design. Service Transition and Service Operation .Module 6: Quiz 234 Question 5: Learning and Improvement is the PRIMARY concern of which of the following phases of service lifecycle? a) Continual Service Improvement b) Service Strategy and Service Design c) Service Strategy. Service Transition and Service Operation d) Service Strategy.
235 Module 6 : Summary Goals and Objectives of CSI John Kotter’s 8 steps of Organizational Transformation Service Measurement and Metrics 7 Step Improvement process CSI Improvement Model .
236 Module 7: ITIL V3 Foundation Exam Tips .
.e. 4).ITIL V3 Foundation Certification Exam Practical Tips 237 • Read the question CAREFULLY • At this level of exam the obvious answer is often the correct answer (if you have read the question carefully!) • Beware of being misled by the preliminary text for the question • If you think there should be another choice that would be the right answer. then try to eliminate combinations that are immediately incorrect (based on something you can remember) so that the question is broken into smaller. then you have to choose the “most right” • Use strategies such as “What comes first?” or “What doesn’t belong?” to help with the more difficult questions • Where there are questions that involve multiple statements (i. 3. and more manageable pieces. 2. 1.
they are called functions. This statement is also ruled out. lets evaluate other options. as processes are not units of organizations. some b) They should deliver value for stakeholdersmight be carried out by internal teams as well. . But assuming this isn't an obvious answer. as function design is notsee with an example Lets applicable to ALL process designs. Sample Question statements given below are applicable to all the processes ?” how to answer the questions. this a) They define functions as part of their statement is ruled out. as not all processes design are carried out by external service provider. this statement is ruled out. c) They are carried out by an external service provider in support of a customer d) They are units of organizations responsible for specific outcomes After going through all the statements listed. Which of the following statements is CORRECT for ALL processes? Again Using Elimination Methodology. This leaves the Statement B as the best answer.ITIL V3 Foundation Certification Exam : Practical Tips The question is asking “ What all 238 Using Elimination Methodology. This seems to be the obvious answer.
Choices A. B Statement 2 is incorrect and C are eliminated as as DML stores only Media and related documentation. The DML includes master copies of controlled documentation a) All of the above b) 1 and 2 only c) 2 and 3 only d) 1 and 3 only Based on the above three statements. stored in DHS only Choice D is correct . The DML can include a physical store by the definition of DML 2.ITIL V3 Foundation Certification Exam Practical Tips 239 Let us look at another example. The DML holds definitive hardware spares 3. Hardware spares are they include statement 2. Sample Question The question is asking what all statements are applicable for DML Which of the following statements about a Definitive Media Library (DML) are CORRECT? Statement 1 & 3 are correct 1.
240 Module 6 : Summary Thank You .