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**The accompanying Table of Information and Equation Tables will be provided to students when
**

they take the AP Physics Exams. Therefore, students may NOT bring their own copies of these

tables to the exam room, although they may use them throughout the year in their classes in

order to become familiar with their content.

Table of Information

For both the Physics B and Physics C Exams, the Table of Information is printed near the front

cover of the multiple-choice section and on the green insert provided with the free-response

section. The tables are identical for both exams except for one convention as noted.

Equation Tables

For both the Physics B and Physics C Exams, the equation tables for each exam are printed only

on the green insert provided with the free-response section. The equation tables may be used by

students when taking the free-response sections of both exams but NOT when taking the

multiple-choice sections.

The equations in the tables express the relationships that are encountered most frequently in

AP Physics courses and exams. However, the tables do not include all equations that might

possibly be used. For example, they do not include many equations that can be derived by

combining other equations in the tables. Nor do they include equations that are simply special

cases of any that are in the tables. Students are responsible for understanding the physical

principles that underlie each equation and for knowing the conditions for which each equation is

applicable.

The equation tables are grouped in sections according to the major content category in which

they appear. Within each section, the symbols used for the variables in that section are defined.

However, in some cases the same symbol is used to represent different quantities in different

tables. It should be noted that there is no uniform convention among textbooks for the symbols

used in writing equations. The equation tables follow many common conventions, but in some

cases consistency was sacrificed for the sake of clarity.

Some explanations about notation used in the equation tables:

1. The symbols used for physical constants are the same as those in the Table of

Information and are defined in the Table of Information rather than in the right-hand

columns of the tables.

2. Symbols in bold face represent vector quantities.

3. Subscripts on symbols in the equations are used to represent special cases of the

variables defined in the right-hand columns.

4. The symbol before a variable in an equation specifically indicates a change in the

variable (i.e., final value minus initial value).

D

5. Several different symbols (e.g., d, r, s, h, ) are used for linear dimensions such as

length. The particular symbol used in an equation is one that is commonly used for

that equation in textbooks.

A

© 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, and the acorn logo are registered

trademarks of the College Board.

Table of Information and Equation Tables for AP

®

Physics Exams

TABLE OF INFORMATION FOR 2008 and 2009

CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS

Proton mass,

27

1.67 10 kg

p

m

Electron charge magnitude,

19

1.60 10 C e

Neutron mass,

27

1.67 10 kg

n

m

1 electron volt,

19

1 eV 1.60 10 J

Electron mass,

31

9.11 10 kg

e

m

Speed of light,

8

3.00 10 m s c

Avogadro’s number,

23 -1

0

6.02 10 mol N

Universal gravitational

constant,

11 3 2

6.67 10 m kg s G

<

Universal gas constant, 8.31 J (mol K) R <

Acceleration due to gravity

at Earth’s surface,

2

9.8 m s g

Boltzmann’s constant,

23

1.38 10 J K

B

k

1 unified atomic mass unit,

27 2

1 u 1.66 10 kg 931 MeV c

Planck’s constant,

34 15

6.63 10 J s 4.14 10 eV s h

< <

25 3

1.99 10 J m 1.24 10 eV nm hc

< <

Vacuum permittivity,

12 2 2

0

8.85 10 C N m

< �

Coulomb’s law constant,

9 2

0

1 4 9.0 10 N m C k p < �

2

Vacuum permeability,

7

0

4 10 (T m) A m p

<

Magnetic constant,

7

0

4 10 (T m) k m p

< A

1 atmosphere pressure,

5 2 5

1 atm 1.0 10 N m 1.0 10 Pa

meter, m mole, mol watt, W farad, F

kilogram, kg hertz, Hz coulomb, C tesla, T

second, s newton, N volt, V degree Celsius, C

ampere, A pascal, Pa ohm, W electron-volt, eV

UNIT

SYMBOLS

kelvin, K joule, J henry, H

PREFIXES

VALUES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS FOR COMMON ANGLES

0

D

30

D

37

D

45

D

53

D

60

D

90

D

Factor Prefix Symbol q

9

10

giga G 3 5

2 2 3 2 sinq 0 1 2 4 5 1

4 5

6

10

mega M

cosq 1 3 2 2 2 3 5 1 2 0

3

10

kilo k 3 4

tanq 0 3 3 4 3 1 3

2

10

centi c

The following conventions are used in this exam.

3

10

milli m

I. Unless otherwise stated, the frame of reference of any problem is

assumed to be inertial.

6

10

micro m

II. The direction of any electric current is the direction of flow of positive

charge (conventional current).

9

10

nano n

12

10

pico p

III. For any isolated electric charge, the electric potential is defined as zero at

an infinite distance from the charge.

*IV. For mechanics and thermodynamics equations, W represents the work

done

on

a system.

*Not on the Table of Information for Physics C, since Thermodynamics is not a

Physics C topic.

© 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and

www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents).

ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS B EQUATIONS FOR 2008 and 2009

NEWTONIAN MECHANICS ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

0

at u u

2

0 0

1

2

x x t a u t

0

2 2

0

2a x x u u

net

m Ç F F a

fric

F N m

2

c

a

r

u

sin r t q F

m p v

t D D J F p

2

1

2

K mu

g

U mg D h

cos W F r q D

avg

W

P

t D

P F cos u q

s

k F x

2

1

2

s

U k x

2

s

m

T

k

p

2

p

T

g

p

A

1

T

f

1 2

2

G

Gm m

F

r

1 2

G

Gm m

U

r

a = acceleration

F = force

f = frequency

h = height

J = impulse

K = kinetic energy

k = spring constant

A = length

m = mass

N = normal force

P = power

p = momentum

r = radius or distance

T = period

t = time

U = potential energy

u = velocity or speed

W = work done on a system

x = position

m = coefficient of friction

q = angle

t = torque

2

1 2

0

1

4

q q

F

r

p

�

q

F

E

1 2

0

1

4

E

q q

U qV

r p

�

avg

V

E

d

0

1

4

i

i

i

q

V

r p

Ç

�

Q

C

V

0

A

C

d

�

2

1 1

2 2

c

U QV CV

avg

Q

I

t

D

D

R

A

r

A

V IR

P IV

p i

i

C C

Ç

1 1

s i i

C C

Ç

i

i

s

R R

Ç

1 1

i i p

R R

Ç

sin

B

F q B u q

sin

B

F BI q A

0

2

I

B

r

m

p

cos

m

BA f q

m

t

f

e

D

D

avg

B u e A

A = area

B = magnetic field

C = capacitance

d = distance

E = electric field

e = emf

F = force

I = current

A = length

P = power

Q = charge

q = point charge

R = resistance

r = distance

t = time

U = potential (stored) energy

V = electric potential or

potential difference

u = velocity or speed

r = resistivity

q = angle

f

m

= magnetic flux

© 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and

www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents).

ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS B EQUATIONS FOR 2008 and 2009

FLUID MECHANICS AND THERMAL PHYSICS WAVES AND OPTICS

0

P P gh r

buoy

F Vg r

1 1 2 2

A A u u

2

1

const.

2

P gy r ru

0

T a D D A A

kA T

H

L

D

F

P

A

B

PV nRT Nk T

3

2

avg B

K k

f u l

T

3

3

B

rms

k T

RT

M

u

m

W PD V

U Q W D

H

W

e

Q

H C

c

H

T T

e

T

A = area

e = efficiency

F = force

h = depth

H = rate of heat transfer

k = thermal conductivity

K

avg

= average molecular

kinetic energy

A = length

L = thickness

M = molar mass

n = number of moles

N = number of molecules

P = pressure

Q = heat transferred to a

system

T = temperature

U = internal energy

V = volume

u = velocity or speed

u

rms

= root-mean-square

velocity

W = work done on a system

y = height

a = coefficient of linear

expansion

m = mass of molecule

r = density

c

n

u

1 1 2

sin sin n n q

2

q

2

1

sin

n

c

n

q

0

1 1 1

s s f

i

0 0

h s

i i

M

h s

2

R

f

sin d m q l

l

m L

x

m

d

d = separation

f = frequency or

focal length

h = height

L = distance

M = magnification

m = an integer

n = index of

refraction

R = radius of

curvature

s = distance

u = speed

x = position

l = wavelength

q = angle

ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS

E hf pc

max

K hf f

h

p

l

2

( ) E m c D D

E = energy

f = frequency

K = kinetic energy

m = mass

p = momentum

l = wavelength

f = work function

GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY

Rectangle A = area

A bh

C = circumference

Triangle

V = volume

1

2

A b

S = surface area

h

b = base

Circle

h = height

2

A r p A = length

C r 2

p

h

p A

r

w = width

Parallelepiped

r = radius

V w A

Cylinder

V r

2

S r

2

2 2 p p A

Sphere

3

4

3

V r p

S r

2

4p

2

c

Right Triangle

a b

2 2

sin

a

c

q

c

a

b

90q

q

cos

b

c

q

ta

n

a

b

q

© 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and

www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents).

ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS C EQUATIONS FOR 2008 and 2009

MECHANICS ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

0

at u u +

2

0 0

1

2

x x t a u + + t

)

0

(

2 2

0

2a x x u u + ÷

net

m ¿ F F a

d

dt

p

F

dt D

[

J F p

m p v

fric

F N m s

[

F r < W d

2

1

2

K mu

dW

P

dt

F v < P

g

U mg D h

2

2

c

a r

r

u

w

× r F t

net

I ¿ t t a

2 2

I r dm mr ¿

[

cm

m m ¿ ¿ r r

r u w

I × L r p w

2

1

2

K I w

0

t w w a +

2

0 0

1

2

t t q q w a + +

a = acceleration

F = force

f = frequency

h = height

I = rotational inertia

J = impulse

K = kinetic energy

k = spring constant

A = length

L = angular momentum

m = mass

N = normal force

P = power

p = momentum

r = radius or distance

r = position vector

T = period

t = time

U = potential energy

u = velocity or speed

W = work done on a system

x = position

m = coefficient of friction

q = angle

t = torque

w = angular speed

a = angular acceleration

s

k ÷ F x

2

1

2

s

U k x

2 1

T

f

p

w

2

s

m

T

k

p

2

p

T

g

p

A

1 2

2

ˆ

G

Gm m

r

÷ F r

1 2

G

Gm m

U

r

÷

2

1 2

0

1

4

q q

F

r

p

�

q

F

E

0

[

E A <

v

Q

d

�

dV

E

dr

÷

0

1

4

i

i

i

q

V

r p

¿

�

1 2

0

1

4

E

q q

U qV

r p

�

Q

C

V

0

A

C

d

k

�

p i

i

C C

¿

1 1

s i i

C C

¿

dQ

I

dt

2

1 1

2 2

c

U QV CV

R

A

r

A

r E J

d

I Neu A

V IR

i

i

s

R R

¿

1 1

i i

p

R R

¿

P IV

M

q × F v B

A = area

B = magnetic field

C = capacitance

d = distance

E = electric field

e = emf

F = force

I = current

J = current density

L = inductance

A = length

n = number of loops of wire

per unit length

N = number of charge carriers

per unit volume

P = power

Q = charge

q = point charge

R = resistance

r = distance

t = time

U = potential or stored energy

V = electric potential

u = velocity or speed

r = resistivity

f

m

= magnetic flux

k = dielectric constant

0

m

[

B<

v

d I �

I d

d

r

0

3

4

m

p

×

r

B

�

I d ×

[

F B �

0 s

B nI m

f

[

B A <

m

d

m

d

dt

f

e ÷

dI

L

dt

e ÷

2

1

2

L

U L I

© 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and

www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents).

ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS C EQUATIONS FOR 2008 and 2009

GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY

CALCULUS

Rectangle

A bh

Triangle

1

2

A bh

Circle

2

A r p

2 C r p

Parallelepiped

V w h

r

A

Cylinder

2

V r p A

2

2 2 S r p p A

Sphere

3

4

3

V r p

2

4 S r p

Right Triangle

2 2

a b c

2

sin

a

c

q

cos

b

c

q

tan

a

b

q

A = area

C = circumference

V = volume

S = surface area

b = base

h = height

A = length

w = width

r = radius

c

a

b

90q

q

d f d f du

dx du dx

1 n n

d

x nx

dx

x x

d

e e

dx

1

1n

d

x

dx x

sin cos

d

x x

dx

cos sin

d

x x

dx

1

1

, 1

1

n n

x dx x n

n

Ô

x x

e dx e

Ô

ln

dx

x

x

Ô

cos sin x dx x

Ô

sin cos x dx x

Ô

© 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and

www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents).

02 c 3. the frame of reference of any problem is assumed to be inertial. Magnetic constant. . volt. e 1.0 105 N m2 W C V W H 1.14 1. Acceleration due to gravity at Earth’s surface. *IV. PREFIXES Factor Prefix Symbol 109 106 VALUES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS FOR COMMON ANGLES q 30 0 37 45 53 60 90 giga mega kilo centi milli micro nano pico G M k c m m sin q 0 1 0 12 3 2 35 4 5 3 4 2 2 2 2 4 5 35 43 3 2 1 0 cosq tanq 12 103 10 2 3 3 1 3 10 3 10 6 10 10 9 12 n p The following conventions are used in this exam. Universal gravitational constant.8 m s2 Boltzmann’s constant.collegeboard. newton. second. R 1.com (for AP professionals) and www. m kg s A K mole.60 1. Visit apcentral. Speed of light.00 108 m s 1023 mol-1 G g 6.60 10 10 19 19 C J 1. II. tesla. since Thermodynamics is not a Physics C topic. N 0 Universal gas constant. k 1 atmosphere pressure. k Vacuum permeability. 1 eV 9. electron-volt. m p Neutron mass. the electric potential is defined as zero at an infinite distance from the charge. coulomb.67 10 27 31 kg kg 1 electron volt. kelvin.85 9. For mechanics and thermodynamics equations. Coulomb’s law constant. mn Electron mass. kilogram. ohm.31 J (mol K) 9.collegeboard. me Avogadro’s number.TABLE OF INFORMATION FOR 2008 and 2009 CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS Proton mass.99 10 10 10 27 34 25 kg Js Jm 2 931 MeV c2 4. The direction of any electric current is the direction of flow of positive charge (conventional current). © 2007 The College Board. ampere.66 6. III.24 2 10 15 3 eV s 10 eV nm �0 1 4 p�0 m0 m0 4 p 8. Planck’s constant.38 10 23 J K 1u h hc 1 unified atomic mass unit. joule. All rights reserved. pascal.63 1. W represents the work done on a system. I. k B 1.11 10 6. degree Celsius. Vacuum permittivity. farad.67 10 11 m3 kg s2 8. hertz.com/apstudents (for students and parents). For any isolated electric charge. Unless otherwise stated. henry.0 4p 10 7 10 7 12 C Nm 109 N m 2 C2 10 (T m) A (T m) A 1 atm 1. *Not on the Table of Information for Physics C.67 10 27 kg Electron charge magnitude. meter. mol Hz N Pa J 1.0 105 Pa F T C eV UNIT SYMBOLS watt.

All rights reserved.com (for AP professionals) and www. .com/apstudents (for students and parents).collegeboard.collegeboard.ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS B EQUATIONS FOR 2008 and 2009 NEWTONIAN MECHANICS ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM F 1 q1q2 4 p�0 r 2 u x u0 x0 at u0 t 1 2 at 2 u2 F u02 Fnet 2a x ma x0 a F f h J K k m N P p r T t U u W x m q t F fric ac t p mN u2 r r F sin q mv J K DUg W Pavg P FDt Dp 1 2 mu 2 mgh F Dr cos q W Dt F u cos q = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = acceleration force frequency height impulse kinetic energy spring constant length mass normal force power momentum radius or distance period time potential energy velocity or speed work done on a system position coefficient of friction angle torque E UE F q qV 1 q1q2 4 p�0 r A B C d E F I e Eavg V C V d 1 4 p�0 Q V i qi ri C Uc I avg R V P �0 A d 1 QV 2 DQ Dt r A IR IV i P Q q R r t U 1 CV 2 2 V = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = u = r = q = fm = area magnetic field capacitance distance electric field emf force current length power charge point charge resistance distance time potential (stored) energy electric potential or potential difference velocity or speed resistivity angle magnetic flux Cp 1 Cs Rs 1 Rp FB FB Ci Fs Us Ts kx 1 2 kx 2 2p m k 1 Ci i i Ri 1 Ri i Tp 2p g qu B sin q BI sin q T FG UG 1 f Gm1m2 r2 Gm1m2 r B m0 I 2p r fm BA cos q Dfm Dt B u eavg e © 2007 The College Board. Visit apcentral.

com (for AP professionals) and www. Visit apcentral.ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS B EQUATIONS FOR 2008 and 2009 FLUID MECHANICS AND THERMAL PHYSICS WAVES AND OPTICS P Fbuoy A1u1 P0 r gh rVg A2 u2 P r gy 1 2 ru 2 const.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). D H a 0 DT kA DT L P PV F A nRT Nk BT K avg 3 k T 2 B urms W 3 RT M PDV 3k BT m DU e Q W QH W A = area e = efficiency F = force h = depth H = rate of heat transfer k = thermal conductivity Kavg = average molecular kinetic energy = length L = thickness M = molar mass n = number of moles N = number of molecules P = pressure Q = heat transferred to a system T = temperature U = internal energy V = volume u = velocity or speed urms = root-mean-square velocity W = work done on a system y = height a = coefficient of linear expansion m = mass of molecule r = density u n fl c u n 2 sin q2 n 1 sin q1 sin qc n2 n1 1 si M 1 s0 hi h0 1 f si s0 R 2 d sin q f xm ml d = separation f = frequency or focal length h = height L = distance M = magnification m = an integer n = index of refraction R = radius of curvature s = distance u = speed x = position l = wavelength q = angle m lL d GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY ec TH TH TC ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS Rectangle A bh Triangle 1 A bh 2 Circle A pr2 C 2p r Parallelepiped V wh Cylinder V pr2 A= C= V= S = b = h = = w= r = area circumference volume surface area base height length width radius E hf pc K max l DE hf h p ( Dm ) c 2 f E= f = K= m= p = l= f= energy frequency kinetic energy mass momentum wavelength work function S 2p r 2p r 2 Sphere 4 3 pr V 3 S 4p r 2 Right Triangle a 2 b2 c 2 a sin q c b cos q c a tan q b c q 90 b a © 2007 The College Board. . All rights reserved.collegeboard.

.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). All rights reserved.ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS C EQUATIONS FOR 2008 and 2009 MECHANICS ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM F 1 q1q2 4 p�0 r 2 u x u2 u0 x0 u0 2 at u0 t 1 2 at 2 x0 2a x F Fnet ma F dp dt J p F dt mv Dp F fric mN W K P P DUg F dr 1 2 mu 2 dW dt F v mgh ac t r u r 2 = = = = = = = = = L = m= N = P = p = r = r = T = t = U= u = W= x = m= q = t = w = a = a F f h I J K k acceleration force frequency height rotational inertia impulse kinetic energy spring constant length angular momentum mass normal force power momentum radius or distance position vector period time potential energy velocity or speed work done on a system position coefficient of friction angle torque angular speed angular acceleration E F q E dA Q A B C d E F I J L e �0 E V UE C dV dr 1 4 p�0 qV Q V i qi ri 1 q1q2 4 p�0 r n = = = = = = = = = = = = N = P Q q R r t U C Cp 1 Cs I k �0 A d i Ci 1 Ci i dQ dt = = = = = = = V= u = r = fm = k = area magnetic field capacitance distance electric field emf force current current density inductance length number of loops of wire per unit length number of charge carriers per unit volume power charge point charge resistance distance time potential or stored energy electric potential velocity or speed resistivity magnetic flux dielectric constant w2 r F Fs kx 1 2 kx 2 Uc R 1 QV 2 r A 1 CV 2 2 B d� dB m0 I t I rcm t net r 2 dm mr Ia mr 2 m Us T Ts 2p w 2p m k 1 f E rJ m0 I d � r 4p r3 I V Neud A IR i F I d� B u L K rw r p Iw Bs fm m0 nI B dA d fm dt 1 2 Iw 2 Tp FG 2p Rs 1 Rp P FM Ri 1 Ri g r 2 e Gm1m2 Gm1m2 r w q w0 q0 at w0t 1 2 at 2 ˆ r i IV qv B e UL L dI dt UG 1 2 LI 2 © 2007 The College Board. Visit apcentral.

All rights reserved. n 1 S Sphere V S 2p r 4 3 pr 3 4p r 2 2p r 2 e x dx dx x ln x sin x cos x cos x dx c2 sin x dx c q 90 b a Right Triangle a2 b2 sin q cos q a c b c tan q a b © 2007 The College Board.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). Visit apcentral. .collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS C EQUATIONS FOR 2008 and 2009 GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY Rectangle A bh Triangle A 1 bh 2 pr2 CALCULUS df dx d f du du dx Circle A C 2p r Parallelepiped V wh Cylinder V pr2 A= C= V= S = b = h = = w= r = area circumference volume surface area base height length width radius d n x dx d x e dx d 1n x dx d sin x dx d cos x dx x n dx nx n ex 1 x 1 cos x sin x n ex 1 1 xn 1.

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