# Table of Information and Equation Tables for AP Physics Exams

The accompanying Table of Information and Equation Tables will be provided to students when
they take the AP Physics Exams. Therefore, students may NOT bring their own copies of these
tables to the exam room, although they may use them throughout the year in their classes in
order to become familiar with their content.

Table of Information
For both the Physics B and Physics C Exams, the Table of Information is printed near the front
cover of the multiple-choice section and on the green insert provided with the free-response
section. The tables are identical for both exams except for one convention as noted.

Equation Tables
For both the Physics B and Physics C Exams, the equation tables for each exam are printed only
on the green insert provided with the free-response section. The equation tables may be used by
students when taking the free-response sections of both exams but NOT when taking the
multiple-choice sections.
The equations in the tables express the relationships that are encountered most frequently in
AP Physics courses and exams. However, the tables do not include all equations that might
possibly be used. For example, they do not include many equations that can be derived by
combining other equations in the tables. Nor do they include equations that are simply special
cases of any that are in the tables. Students are responsible for understanding the physical
principles that underlie each equation and for knowing the conditions for which each equation is
applicable.
The equation tables are grouped in sections according to the major content category in which
they appear. Within each section, the symbols used for the variables in that section are defined.
However, in some cases the same symbol is used to represent different quantities in different
tables. It should be noted that there is no uniform convention among textbooks for the symbols
used in writing equations. The equation tables follow many common conventions, but in some
cases consistency was sacrificed for the sake of clarity.
Some explanations about notation used in the equation tables:
1. The symbols used for physical constants are the same as those in the Table of
Information and are defined in the Table of Information rather than in the right-hand
columns of the tables.
2. Symbols in bold face represent vector quantities.
3. Subscripts on symbols in the equations are used to represent special cases of the
variables defined in the right-hand columns.
4. The symbol before a variable in an equation specifically indicates a change in the
variable (i.e., final value minus initial value).
D
5. Several different symbols (e.g., d, r, s, h, ) are used for linear dimensions such as
length. The particular symbol used in an equation is one that is commonly used for
that equation in textbooks.
A
Table of Information and Equation Tables for AP
®
Physics Exams

TABLE OF INFORMATION FOR 2008 and 2009
CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS
Proton mass,
27
1.67 10 kg
p
m


Electron charge magnitude,
19
1.60 10 C e


Neutron mass,
27
1.67 10 kg
n
m


1 electron volt,
19
1 eV 1.60 10 J


Electron mass,
31
9.11 10 kg
e
m

 Speed of light,
8
3.00 10 m s c 
23 -1
0
6.02 10 mol N 
Universal gravitational
constant,
11 3 2
6.67 10 m kg s G

 <
Universal gas constant, 8.31 J (mol K) R <
Acceleration due to gravity
at Earth’s surface,
2
9.8 m s g
Boltzmann’s constant,
23
1.38 10 J K
B
k


1 unified atomic mass unit,
27 2
1 u 1.66 10 kg 931 MeV c


Planck’s constant,
34 15
6.63 10 J s 4.14 10 eV s h

  < <
25 3
1.99 10 J m 1.24 10 eV nm hc

  < <
Vacuum permittivity,
12 2 2
0
8.85 10 C N m

 < �
Coulomb’s law constant,
9 2
0
1 4 9.0 10 N m C k p  < �
2

Vacuum permeability,
7
0
4 10 (T m) A m p

 <
Magnetic constant,
7
0
4 10 (T m) k m p

 < A
1 atmosphere pressure,
5 2 5
1 atm 1.0 10 N m 1.0 10 Pa  

meter, m mole, mol watt, W farad, F
kilogram, kg hertz, Hz coulomb, C tesla, T

second, s newton, N volt, V degree Celsius, C 
ampere, A pascal, Pa ohm, W electron-volt, eV
UNIT
SYMBOLS
kelvin, K joule, J henry, H

PREFIXES
VALUES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS FOR COMMON ANGLES
0
D
30
D
37
D
45
D
53
D
60
D
90
D
Factor Prefix Symbol q
9
10
giga G 3 5
2 2 3 2 sinq 0 1 2 4 5 1
4 5
6
10
mega M
cosq 1 3 2 2 2 3 5 1 2 0

3
10
kilo k 3 4
tanq 0 3 3 4 3 1 3
2
10

centi c

The following conventions are used in this exam.
3
10

milli m

I. Unless otherwise stated, the frame of reference of any problem is
assumed to be inertial.
6
10

micro m

II. The direction of any electric current is the direction of flow of positive
charge (conventional current).
9
10

nano n
12
10

pico p

III. For any isolated electric charge, the electric potential is defined as zero at
an infinite distance from the charge.

*IV. For mechanics and thermodynamics equations, W represents the work
done

on

a system.

*Not on the Table of Information for Physics C, since Thermodynamics is not a
Physics C topic.

www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents).
ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS B EQUATIONS FOR 2008 and 2009
NEWTONIAN MECHANICS ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
0
at u u
2
0 0
1
2
x x t a u t
0

2 2
0
2a x x u u
net
m Ç F F a
fric
F N m
2
c
a
r
u

sin r t q F
m p v
t D D J F p
2
1
2
K mu
g
U mg D h
cos W F r q D
avg
W
P
t D

P F cos u q
s
k F x
2
1
2
s
U k x
2
s
m
T
k
p
2
p
T
g
p
A
1
T
f

1 2
2
G
Gm m
F
r

1 2
G
Gm m
U
r

a = acceleration
F = force
f = frequency
h = height
J = impulse
K = kinetic energy
k = spring constant
A = length
m = mass
N = normal force
P = power
p = momentum
T = period
t = time
U = potential energy
u = velocity or speed
W = work done on a system
x = position
m = coefficient of friction
q = angle
t = torque
2
1 2
0
1
4
q q
F
r
p

q

F
E
1 2
0
1
4
E
q q
U qV
r p

avg
V
E
d

0
1
4
i
i
i
q
V
r p

Ç

Q
C
V

0
A
C
d

2
1 1
2 2
c
U QV CV
avg
Q
I
t
D
D

R
A
r

A
V IR
P IV
p i
i
C C
Ç
1 1
s i i
C C

Ç
i
i
s
R R
Ç
1 1
i i p
R R

Ç
sin
B
F q B u q
sin
B
F BI q A
0
2
I
B
r
m
p

cos
m
BA f q
m
t
f
e
D
D

avg
B u e A
A = area
B = magnetic field
C = capacitance
d = distance
E = electric field
e = emf
F = force
I = current
A = length
P = power
Q = charge
q = point charge
R = resistance
r = distance
t = time
U = potential (stored) energy
V = electric potential or
potential difference
u = velocity or speed
r = resistivity
q = angle
f
m
= magnetic flux
www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents).
ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS B EQUATIONS FOR 2008 and 2009
FLUID MECHANICS AND THERMAL PHYSICS WAVES AND OPTICS
0
P P gh r
buoy
F Vg r
1 1 2 2
A A u u
2
1
const.
2
P gy r ru
0
T a D D A A
kA T
H
L
D

F
P
A

B
PV nRT Nk T
3
2
avg B
K k
f u l
T
3
3
B
rms
k T
RT
M
u
m

W PD V
U Q W D
H
W
e
Q

H C
c
H
T T
e
T

A = area
e = efficiency
F = force
h = depth
H = rate of heat transfer
k = thermal conductivity
K
avg
= average molecular
kinetic energy
A = length
L = thickness
M = molar mass
n = number of moles
N = number of molecules
P = pressure
Q = heat transferred to a
system
T = temperature
U = internal energy
V = volume
u = velocity or speed
u
rms
= root-mean-square
velocity
W = work done on a system
y = height
a = coefficient of linear
expansion
m = mass of molecule
r = density

c
n
u

1 1 2
sin sin n n q
2
q
2
1
sin
n
c
n
q
0
1 1 1
s s f
i

0 0
h s
i i
M
h s

2
R
f
sin d m q l
l

m L
x
m
d

d = separation
f = frequency or
focal length
h = height
L = distance
M = magnification
m = an integer
n = index of
refraction
curvature
s = distance
u = speed
x = position
l = wavelength
q = angle
ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS
E hf pc
max
K hf f
h
p
l
2
( ) E m c D D

E = energy
f = frequency
K = kinetic energy
m = mass
p = momentum
l = wavelength
f = work function

GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY

Rectangle A = area
A bh
C = circumference
Triangle
V = volume
1
2
A b
S = surface area
h
b = base
Circle
h = height
2
A r p A = length
C r 2

p
h
p A
r
w = width
Parallelepiped
V w A

Cylinder

V r
2

S r
2
2 2 p p A

Sphere

3
4
3

V r p

S r
2
4p
2
c

Right Triangle

a b
2 2

sin
a
c
q
c
a
b
90q
q
cos

b
c
q

ta

n
a
b
q
www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents).
ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS C EQUATIONS FOR 2008 and 2009
MECHANICS ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
0
at u u +
2
0 0
1
2
x x t a u + + t
)
0
(
2 2
0
2a x x u u + ÷
net
m ¿ F F a
d
dt

p
F
dt D
[
J F p
m p v
fric
F N m s

[
F r < W d
2
1
2
K mu
dW
P
dt

F v < P
g
U mg D h
2
2
c
a r
r
u
w
× r F t
net
I ¿ t t a
2 2
I r dm mr ¿
[
cm
m m ¿ ¿ r r
r u w
I × L r p w
2
1
2
K I w
0
t w w a +
2
0 0
1
2
t t q q w a + +
a = acceleration
F = force
f = frequency
h = height
I = rotational inertia
J = impulse
K = kinetic energy
k = spring constant
A = length
L = angular momentum
m = mass
N = normal force
P = power
p = momentum
r = position vector
T = period
t = time
U = potential energy
u = velocity or speed
W = work done on a system
x = position
m = coefficient of friction
q = angle
t = torque
w = angular speed
a = angular acceleration
s
k ÷ F x
2
1
2
s
U k x
2 1
T
f
p
w

2
s
m
T
k
p
2
p
T
g
p
A
1 2
2
ˆ
G
Gm m
r
÷ F r
1 2
G
Gm m
U
r
÷
2
1 2
0
1
4
q q
F
r
p

q

F
E
0

[
E A <
v
Q
d

dV
E
dr
÷
0
1
4
i
i
i
q
V
r p

¿

1 2
0
1
4
E
q q
U qV
r p

Q
C
V

0
A
C
d
k

p i
i
C C
¿
1 1
s i i
C C

¿
dQ
I
dt

2
1 1
2 2
c
U QV CV
R
A
r

A
r E J
d
I Neu A
V IR
i
i
s
R R
¿
1 1
i i
p
R R

¿
P IV
M
q × F v B
A = area
B = magnetic field
C = capacitance
d = distance
E = electric field
e = emf
F = force
I = current
J = current density
L = inductance
A = length
n = number of loops of wire
per unit length
N = number of charge carriers
per unit volume
P = power
Q = charge
q = point charge
R = resistance
r = distance
t = time
U = potential or stored energy
V = electric potential
u = velocity or speed
r = resistivity
f
m
= magnetic flux
k = dielectric constant
0
m
[
B<
v
d I �
I d
d
r
0
3
4
m
p
×

r
B

I d ×
[
F B �
0 s
B nI m
f
[
B A <
m
d
m
d
dt
f
e ÷
dI
L
dt
e ÷
2
1
2
L
U L I
www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents).
ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS C EQUATIONS FOR 2008 and 2009

GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY

CALCULUS
Rectangle
A bh
Triangle

1
2
A bh
Circle

2
A r p
2 C r p
Parallelepiped
V w h
r
A
Cylinder

2
V r p A

2
2 2 S r p p A
Sphere

3
4
3
V r p

2
4 S r p
Right Triangle

2 2
a b c
2
sin
a
c
q

cos
b
c
q

tan
a
b
q

A = area
C = circumference
V = volume
S = surface area
b = base
h = height
A = length
w = width

c
a
b
90q
q

d f d f du
dx du dx

1 n n
d
x nx
dx

x x
d
e e
dx

1
1n
d
x
dx x

sin cos
d
x x
dx

cos sin
d
x x
dx

1
1
, 1
1
n n
x dx x n
n



Ô

x x
e dx e
Ô

ln
dx
x
x

Ô

cos sin x dx x
Ô

sin cos x dx x
Ô