This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Response spectrum analysis and design response spectra
Department of Civil Engineering, EPOKA University, Albania
ABSTRACT One of the most important issues of earthquake engineering is to assess the response of structures due to the ground shaking caused by earthquakes. The most common representation of the seismic action on structures in different codes is achieved through the response spectrum analysis (RSA). This paper deals with the explanation of the response spectrum concept, how it is constructed and used in order to determine the peak responses of the structures directly from the response spectrum. Further, is discussed in general the response spectrum method of analysis. In order to give a more precise view of the response spectrum analysis and its application it is presented how this method is implemented by Eurocode 8 and the main points where one should focus when using RSA.
1. INTRODUCTION The most useful way of describing the ground shaking during an earthquake for engineering purposes is the plot of ground acceleration versus time like the one shown in figure 1 below.
Ground acceleration, percent of gravity
Figure 1. Typical earthquake accelerogram To provide the information shown in figure 1, we need a basic instrument called accelerograph. Such equipment makes it possible to measure all of the three components of ground shaking during an earthquake. Since it is impossible to know where the next earthquake will take place and it is not logical to install these instruments everywhere because of their installation and maintenance cost, it is only probable to obtain such records only in strong – shaking regions. As we will see in the forthcoming paragraphs, the accelerograms provide the basis of the response spectrum construction. 2. RESPONSE QUANTITIES AND RESPONSE HISTORY In structural engineering it is very important and useful to know the deformation of a structure because the latter is directly related to the internal forces of structural elements such as the bending moment, shear force and axial force. If we take a look to the equation of motion of a single degree of freedom system (SDOF) (Equation 1), it is obvious that the displacement of a system depends only on the natural period Tn of the system and its damping
3 .ratio ζ . THE NOTION OF RESPONSE SPECTRUM The concept of the earthquake response spectrum was first introduced in 1932 and has become in now days a very important concept in earthquake engineering. Such thing can be noticed too from the Figure 2 which implies that a large period results in bigger deformation and in contrast a bigger damping ration results in a smaller deformation of the structure. or a related parameter such as circular frequency ωn . As Chopra defines in his book "Dynamics of Structures". is called the response spectrum for that quantity. 2 u + 2ζωnu + ωn u = −u g ( t ) (1) Figure 2. a plot of the peak value of a response quantity as a function of the natural vibration period Tn of the system. Deformation response of single degree of freedom systems 3.
Only the frequency of vibration (in this case represented by the period Tn ) is changed. Each of these peak responses provides one point in the displacement response spectra plot. Acceleration response spectrum Depending on the quantity we want to use it is possible to have three kinds of response spectrums: a. the computed peak displacement is u0 = 2. In order to obtain this plot it is needed to repeat the process over a range of Tn while keeping fixed the value of damping ratio ζ (for this case ζ = 2% ). in continuity the third one shows Tn = 2.0 sec and the peak displacement is u0 = 5.0 sec and peak displacement of u0 = 7. Let us focus on the first SDOF with Tn = 0. Deformation response spectrum b. For all of these SDOF the ground motion is the same and the damping ratio as we can see is set to 2%. CONSTRUCTION OF RESPONSE SPECTRUM For this purpose we will take in consideration the deformation responses of the three SDOF introduced in Figure 3 above. Velocity response spectrum c.5 sec . 4 . The second system has a period of Tn = 1. The deformation response spectrum provided by this procedure is shown below in Figure 4.To provide the response spectrum we need several plots of SDOF system with constant value of the damping ratio ζ as shown in Figure 3 below.97 inches.67 inches.47 inches. Acceleration response spectrum 4. Figure 3.
But for design purposes 5 . Response spectra (a) deformation response spectrum (b) pseudovelocity response spectrum (c) pseudo-acceleration response spectrum Given that each of the spectra above are related to each other by the formula (2) and (3) we can say that they represent the same information but using different response quantities.After we have obtained the deformation response spectra. we can easily get the pseudo – velocity response spectra and the pseudo – acceleration response spectra by using respectively formula (2) and formula (3) given below V = ωn D = 2 n 2π D Tn 2 (2) ⎛ 2π ⎞ A=ω D =⎜ ⎟ D ⎝ Tn ⎠ (3) Figure 4. so if we have one the response spectrums we can derive the other two.
Combined D-V-A response spectrum. 5. This type of combined plot can be constructed on a four way logarithmic paper and it is shown below in figure 5. to resist further earthquakes.the shape of the spectrum must approximated and for this purpose we need all the three response spectrums and this is achieved through the D-V-A spectrum which brings up a combined plot showing all three spectral quantities.20 sec and ζ = 0 to 20% is represented in figure 6. damping ration ζ = 2% A response spectrum should cover a wide range of natural vibration periods and a practical range of ζ = 0 to 20% in order to provide us the peak responses of all possible structures. This type of plot was first introduced by Velestos and Newmark in 1960. ELASTIC DESIGN SPECTRUM The design spectrum has to complete some certain requirements because it will be used for the design of new structures or the seismic retrofitting of existing structures. Figure 5.. for a given value of natural period Tn the values of spectral displacement D and spectral acceleration A can be read from the diagonal axes. A response spectrum for Tn = 0. As it is shown in the figure.05. We cannot use the response spectrum of a past earthquake to design a new building in a given site because the response spectrum for another ground shaking in the same site doesn’t have the same jaggedness and the peaks and valleys are not at the same 6 ..
V / u g .periods. 2.5. So the design spectrum should consist of a set of smooth curves. The design spectrum should be a representative of all past recorded earthquake ground motions. Combined D-V-A response spectrum for El Centro ground motion. A / u g 7 . Figure 5. damping ration ζ = 0. The derivation of design spectrum is based on statistical analysis of the normalized response spectra like the one in figure 6. Response spectrum for El Centro ground motion with normalized scales D / u g .10 and 20% Figure 6.
its mean value and its standard deviation . Tb . Te and T f and the amplification factors for the three spectral regions are retrieved by earlier analysis of a large number of ground motions recorded in different soil types. The values of recommended periods Ta . If we connect all mean values we get the mean response spectrum as well if we connect all mean plus one standard deviation values we get the mean plus one standard deviation spectrum as it is presented in figure 7 below. From the figure it can be noticed that such type of smooth curves spectrum can be more easily idealized by straight lines as we mentioned in the paragraph below. ζ = 5% Dashed lines show an idealized design spectrum.As it is obvious for each natural period there are many spectral values as the number of ground motion records. The amplification factors are introduced in table 1 in the next page. Through the statistical analysis of these data it is provided the probability distribution for the spectral ordinate. 1 and 4 sec. (After Chopra "Dynamics of Structures") 8 .25. Figure 7. For this purpose there have been developed methods to construct design spectra directly from ground motion parameters and this procedure is presented in figure 8. Mean and mean +1 σ spectra with probability distributions for V at Tn = 0.
This is the case because the amplified factors α A . αV and α D substantially change with the soil conditions. It is seen from the figure that spectral accelerations (Sa) for a soft soil profile are more compared with those of a hard soil profile at periods of more than 0. 9 . Construction of elastic design spectrum (Chopra "Dynamics of Structures") Table 1. the normalized acceleration response spectrum can be obtained in an ordinary plot.5 s. A typical plot of the normalized pseudo acceleration spectrum (derived from a log plot) as given in the codes of practice is shown in Figure 9. Elastic design spectra Source: Chopra "Dynamics of structures" The elastic design spectra can be used to estimate the deformations of systems and design forces too in order that these systems remain elastic.Figure 8. Once the design spectrum is drawn in a four way log plot. Amplification factors.
pseudo acceleration corresponding to natural period Tn and damping ration ζ n (4) 10 .n-th contribution to any response quantity rnst . rno = rnst An where rno . Design pseudo – acceleration spectrum 6. Peak modal responses The design of structures is generally based on the values of peak forces of deformations over an earthquake – induced response. The peak response of a MDF corresponding to the n-th natural mode can be retrieved from the earthquake response spectrum according to the formula (4).modal static response An .1.Figure 9. As we saw from the paragraphs above it was possible for single degree of freedom systems to get these peak responses from the response spectrum of a specified ground motion. This method can be applied also for multi degree of freedom systems but the results will not be exact but accurate enough for structural design purposes. RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS 6.
• N ABSSUM – Absolute sum modal combination rule ro ≤ ∑ rno n =1 (5) Actually this rule is too conservative and it is not popular in design of structures. 11 . 2... Actually this is impossible. Base shear and fifth-story shear. Vb (t ) and V5 (t ) (After Chopra) It is clear that..6. Modal combination rules In order to determine the peak value ro ≡ max t r ( t ) one needs to combine the peak modal responses rno ( n = 1. such thing leads to the need of some assumptions which consist of three rules of modal combinations that will be introduced below. N ) .2. Figure 10. because as we can see from figure 10.. when using a response spectrum the information regarding to the time instants at which peak modal responses occur is not available. the modal responses rnt reach their peaks at different time instants and the combined response r ( t ) attains its peak at yet different time. modal contributions Vbn (t ) and V5 n (t ) and total responses.
3. As long as the response spectrum analysis uses the dynamic properties of a structure such as natural period. Comments The response spectrum analysis is a procedure to determine the response of a systems subjected to earthquake excitations but it reduces to several steps of static analysis of a system subjected to static forces which provides the static modal response rnst that is multiplied by the spectral ordinate An to retrieve the peak modal response rno as it can be seen from equation (4). modal damping ratios and natural modes it is considered as a dynamic procedure. • CQC – Complete quadratic combination 1/2 ro ⎛ N N ⎞ ⎜ ∑∑ ρin rio rno ⎟ ⎝ i =1 n =1 ⎠ (7) This rule for modal combination can be applied to wider range of structures because it goes beyond the limitations of SRSS rule. The correlation coefficient ρin can be calculated according to Der Kiureghian by the formula below 3/2 8ζ 2 (1 + βin ) βin 2 2 in ρin = (1 − β ) + 4ζ 2 βin (1 + βin ) 2 (8) Where βin = ωi ωn 6. 12 .• SRSS – Square root of sum of squares 1/2 ro ⎛ N 2⎞ ⎜ ∑ rno ⎟ ⎝ n =1 ⎠ (6) This modal combination rule applies well to structures with well separated natural periods.
Determine the natural frequencies ωn and natural modes φn of vibration 3.6. It counts for linear elastic analysis and uses 5% damped elastic spectrum divided by a factor q called "behavior factor" that counts mainly for ductility and energy dissipation capacity and also for overstrength.4.…. the deformation and pseudo – acceleration.1. Determine an estimate for the peak value r of any response quantity by combining the peak modal values rn using one of the rules presented above. c.2.N a. 7. b. RSA is exactly called in EC8 "modal response spectrum analysis" and in contrast with US codes. The EC8 spectra includes ranges of : 13 . to be repeated for all modes. Step by step procedure to complete a response spectrum analysis 1. read Dn and An . 4. torque and overturning moments – and element forces – bending moments and shears – by three dimensional static analysis of the structure subjected to external forces f yn and fθ n . for displacement – based assessment or design) they can be derived from S a (T ) as explained in the paragraphs above. from the earthquake response spectrum or design spectrum b. The pseudo – acceleration response spectrum S a (T ) is normally used but if spectral displacements are of interest (e. Compute the peak response in the n-th mode by the following steps. n=1. Compute the lateral displacements and rotations of the floors Compute the equivalent static forces: lateral forces f yn and torques fθ n Compute the story forces – shear. Overview The seismic design of new buildings according to contemporary building codes including EC8 is force – based. Corresponding to the natural period Tn and damping ration ζ n . Determine the mass and stiffness matrices Estimate the modal damping ratios 2. d. EC8 accepts this as the reference method for the design of new buildings and fully respects its rules and results. RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS IN EUROCODE 8 7. Define the structural properties a.g.
• • • constant spectral pseudo – accelerations for natural periods between TB and TC constant pseudo – velocity for natural periods between TC and TD constant pseudo – displacements for periods longer than TD Also in EC8 the elastic response spectrum is taken as proportional to peak ground acceleration: • • the horizontal peak acceleration ag .2. for the vertical component Eurocode 8 uses the same spectral shape for different performance levels or limit states and the difference between hazard levels is taken into account through the peak ground acceleration to which the spectrum is anchored. 7.5η (10) Constant pseudo – velocity range: ⎡T ⎤ TC ≤ T ≤ TC : S a (T ) = ag S ⋅ 2.5η ⎢ C 2D ⎥ ⎣ T ⎦ where (11) (12) 14 .5η − 1) ⎥ ⎣ TB ⎦ (9) Constant pseudo – acceleration range: TB ≤ T ≤ TC : S a (T ) = ag S ⋅ 2.5η ⎢ C ⎥ ⎣T ⎦ Constant spectral – displacement range: ⎡T T ⎤ TD ≤ T ≤ 4 sec : S a (T ) = ag S ⋅ 2. Elastic spectra of the horizontal components The elastic response spectral accelerations for the two horizontal components is described by the expressions below and presented in figure 11 ⎡ T ⎤ 0 ≤ T ≤ TB : S a (T ) = ag S ⎢1 + ( 2. for the horizontal components the vertical peak acceleration avg .
TC .55 is a correction factor for viscous damping ratio ζ Figure 11.5) 15 . with less than 5 m cover of weaker >800 – material Very dense sand or gravel. 180–360 15–50 several tens to many hundreds meters deep Loose-to-medium sand or gravel. TD and the soil factor S are taken in accordance with the ground type. or soft-to-firm clay <180 <15 5–20 m surface alluvium layer with vs < 360 m/s underlain by rock (with vs > 800 m/s ) ≥10 m thick soft clay or silt with plasticity index <100 – > 40 and high water content Liquefiable soils. Elastic response spectra of Type 1 (left) and 2 (right) recommended in EC8. several 360–800 >50 tens of meters deep. Ground types in Eurocode 8 for the definition of the seismic action A B C D E S1 S2 Description vs.g.ag . sensitive clays. mechanical properties gradually increase with depth Dense to medium-dense sand or gravel. or stiff clay. any soil not of type A to E or S1 cu (kPa) – >250 70–250 <70 10–20 The spectra’s shown in figure 11 can be categorized as follows: • • Type 1 – for moderate to large magnitude earthquakes Type 2 – for low magnitudes ones (e.30 (m/s) NSPT Rock outcrop. for PGA on rock equal to 1 g and for 5% damping The values of TB . or very stiff clay.design ground acceleration on rock. Eurocode recognizes five standard ground types and two special ones (Table 2). S – soil factor η = 10 / ( 5 + ζ ) ≥ 0. Table 2. with surface magnitude less than 5.
8 0.80 1. Table 3. Some points to consider when using RSA in E – TABS 7.50 1.3.15 1.2.2 7.35 1.05 0.15 0.00 1.5 2.10 0.4 0.20 0.0 S 1.30 0.0 2. They are based on Rey et al.25 0.2. where nst . Its recommended value in Eurocode 8 is β = 0.The values of TB.25 0.2 1.0 2.35 1.15 0.0 2.6 0.is the number of storeys above the foundation or the top of a rigid basement. Fundamental period T1 • For buildings up to 40 m EC8 recommends the following expression (13) 16 T1 = Ct H 3/4 .2 1.0 2. 7.1.3. (2002) and European strong motion data.5 0. 7.10 0.3.05 0.2 sec.20 0.25 0.2 1.40 TB (s) TC (s) TD (s) 0.05 0.20 1.2 1.3.25 1.15 0. TC.0 1. TD and S recommended in Eurocode 8 for the five standard ground types A to E are given in Table 3.60 TB (s) TC (s) TD (s) 0.3. Minimum number of modes The minimum number of Eigen modes to take into consideration during RSA according to EC8 is given by the formula k = 3 nst and at least one natural period below Tk = 0. Lower bound factor β Factor β gives a lower bound for the horizontal design spectrum acting as a safeguard against excessive reduction of the design forces due to the flexibility of the system (real of presumed in the design). Recommended parameter values for the standard horizontal elastic response spectra Ground type A B C D E Spectrum type 1 Spectrum type 2 S 1.
where Ct is 0. with the restriction that lwi/H should not exceed 0.075 for moment resistant space concrete frames and for eccentrically braced steel frames and 0. from the foundation or from the top of a rigid basement.9. in m. lwi is the length of the shear wall i in the first storey in the direction parallel to the applied forces. H is the height of the building. from the foundation or from the top of a rigid basement. • An alternative expression to estimate T1 is T1 = 2 d (15) 17 . • for structures with concrete or masonry shear walls the value Ct in expression (13) may be taken as being T1 = 0. 2 + ( lwi H ) ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (14) (15) Ac is the total effective area of the shear walls in the first storey of the building. Ai is the effective cross-sectional area of the shear wall i in the first storey of the building. H is the height of the building. in m2.050 for all other structures. in m.085 for moment resistant space steel frames. in m.075 Ac where 2 Ac = ∑ ⎡ Ai ⋅ ( 0. in m2. 0.
and wall systems with more than two uncoupled walls in the horizontal direction considered. depends: • • • on the ductility class selected for the design on the type of lateral-force-resisting-system. and (in Eurocode 8) on the regularity of the structural system in elevation The q – factor value is linked to the local ductility demands in members through the ductility classification as in EC8 shown in the table below Table 3.1 for: one-storey systems and frame-equivalent dual (i.e. Behavior factor q For building structures designed for energy dissipation and ductility. Recommended parameter values for the standard horizontal elastic response spectra Lateral-load resisting structural system Inverted pendulum system Torsionally flexible structural system Any structural system other than those above DC M 1. frame-wall) ones. not belonging in one of the two categories above 3 3αu/α1 4. the recommended values are: • • αu/α1 = 1. 7. 18 .4. the value of the behavior factor q.5 2 DC H 2 3 4αu/α1 Uncoupled wall system.0 for wall systems with just two uncoupled walls per horizontal direction.3. For buildings regular in plan. αu/α1 = 1. by which the elastic spectrum used in linear analysis is divided.. due to the gravity loads applied in the horizontal direction.d is the lateral elastic displacement of the top of the building.5αu/α1 αu/α1 is the ratio of the seismic action that causes development of a full plastic mechanism. to the seismic action at formation of the first plastic hinge in the system – both in the presence of the gravity loads considered concurrent with the design seismic action. in m.
The main advantage that a seismic code offers in terms of earthquake loading is allowing the engineer to bypass considerable effort required for site – specific hazard assessment. Now days a highly specialized discipline such as "Seismic hazard analysis" is evolving and advancing.1. wall-equivalent dual systems.6. In buildings which are irregular in plan according to the classification criteria of Eurocode 8 presented in Sections 2.2 for: one-bay multi-storey frame systems and frame-equivalent dual ones. but every engineer should be aware of the considered assumptions and limitations. Most seismic design codes present zonation maps and response spectra derived probabilistically. the default value of αu/α1 is the average of: • • 1.5 and 2.1. each country have to produce its own seismic hazard map showing PGA values for the 475 – year return period.3 for multi-storey multi-bay frames or frame-equivalent dual systems. 8. 19 . 8. The art of this method lies in assessing the uncertainties associated with the data and the applicability of the models to the specific region and site under consideration.4. CONCLUSIONS 8.1. Although the purpose of Eurocode 8 is the harmonization of seismic design across Europe.• αu/α1 = 1.2.0 and the default values given above for the buildings regular in plan 8. • αu/α1 = 1. even though these design loads are often associated with a totally arbitrary selection of the return period.3. and coupled wall systems. 8.
Chopra (1995) Dynamics of Structures. Prentice – Hall. Brusells 20 . Steven L. USA. Assessment and Retrofitting of Concrete Buildings based on Eurocode 8. Spon Press. USA. John Wiley & Sons (Asia).REFERENCES   Anil K.  Tushar K. Kramer (1996) Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering..  Michael N.  Ahmed Y. Elghazouli (2009) Seismic Design of Buildings to Eurocode 8. Prentice – Hall. USA  CEN (2004a) European Standard EN 1998-1:2004 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance. Inc. Comite Europeen de Normalisation. Inc. Pte Ltd. Springer Science + Business Media.. Datta (2010) Seismic Analysis of Structures. Part 1: General rules. Singapore. United Kingdom. Fardis (2009) Seismic Design.. seismic actions and rules for buildings.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.