BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY 1.1 The Study of Biology 1.

2 The Scientific Investigation CHAPTER 2: CELL STRUCTURE AND CELL ORGANISATION 2.1 Cell Structure and Function 2.2 Cell Organisation 2.3 Appreciating the Uniqueness of the Cell CHAPTER 3:

MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE 3.1 Movement across the Plasma Membrane 3.2 Movement of Substances across the Plasma Membrane in Everyday Life 3.3 Appreciating the Movement of Substances across the Plasma Membrane CHAPTER 4: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL 4.1 Chemical Composition of the Cell 4.2 Carbohydrates

4.3 Proteins 4.4 Lipids 4.5 Enzymes 4.6 The Importance of Chemical Composition in Cells CHAPTER 5: CELL DIVISION 5.1 Mitosis 5.2 Meiosis 5.3 Appreciating the Movement of Chromosomes during Mitosis and Meiosis CHAPTER 6: NUTRITION 6.1 Types of Nutrition 6.2 Balanced Diet

6.3 Malnutrition 6.4 Food Digestion 6.5 Absorption and Assimilation of Digested Food 6.6 Formation of Faeces and Defaecation 6.7 Evaluating Eating Habits 6.8 The Importance of a Healthy Digestive System 6.9 The Importance of Macronutrient and Micronutrient in Plants 6.10 Photosynthesis 6.11 The Mechanism of Photosynthesis 6.12 The Factors Affecting Photosynthesis

6.13 A Caring Attitude towards Plants 6.14 Technology Used in Food Production 6.15 Technological Development in Food Production CHAPTER 7: RESPIRATION 7.1 The Respiratory Process in Energy Production 7.2 The Respiratory Structures and Breathing Mechanisms in Humans and Animals 7.3 Gaseous Exchange across the Respiratory Surfaces and Transport of Gases in Humans

7.4 The Regulatory Mechanism in Respiration 7.5 The Importance of Maintaining a Healthy Respiratory System 7.6 Respiration in Plants CHAPTER 8: DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEM 8.1 The Abiotic and Biotic Components of the Environment 8.2 Colonisation and Succession in an Ecosystem 8.3 Population Ecology 8.4 Biodiversity 8.5 The Impact of Microorgnisms on Life 8.6 Appreciating Biodiversity

CHAPTER 9: ENDANGERED ECOSYSTEM 9.1 Human Activities that Endanger an Ecosystem 9.2 The Greenhouse Effect and the Thinning of the Ozone Layer 9.3 The Importance of Proper Management of Development Activities and the Ecosystem

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