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Supplement No. 1 to Quartermaster Service Reference Data, Volume II, Dated 15 December 1943p3

Supplement No. 1 to Quartermaster Service Reference Data, Volume II, Dated 15 December 1943p3

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y^IM±itE9R..S^.I^9^EL.
1. Oporrtic^s of Olrss I, IImd IV Depots 2. Opera uicn of Epilher&s ?nc Tr-uckrerds
(except Clp.ss 111 Sir-Holies)
3, Operation of Clr,ss XII Depots md, Diuips
U. $plvagc and Sr.lvrge ?3pair Opera ticn^ SqiLipr;ent
5. Lpintenpnce P.nd Hep? lr of Lrundr ;'
7. G-rpYes Ref istrption pr.d Perscnrl Sixscts 3. Ccir!rr:id and Teclmicpl Suoervision
t

%.

-6S~

S3CTIUH 111

UglLlZxiilO^i Off PERSOSEIEL K'R QJI CPSrIaTIGITS 117 5.5.C._
1 a.
iiae
IJJri.O C C

I, II

~*-a-:*

v x .•. .\u25a0

following units end personnel ;;ill"bo operation of depots:

ernlo^ed in this Theater for

Hq &Eg Conrpan^, Csi 3a sy Depot
Depot Supply Ccmppjiy Supply Platoon (conbinin^ Sup-ly Section (T^npe 25, Cc;npany Service Cc;npany
Civilian la^ocr:?rs
la^ocr:?rs Italirn Service "Units
"Units G-ernpn Frisoners of V>r
V>r

l/

3A and AB , 0*& E 10-500}

S/0

& 3 10-500)

"b. Hq &Hq Company,

supervise the operation cf ail depots assigned to its control ?y the Br.sa Sec­ ; tion Quartermaster. 2hc depots vill oe operated normally "by porso::r,oi from Depot Supply Conpanies, uith raanual Ip.tjor heinf; furnished "by civil­ ians, Italian Service "Jnits, G-ernsn pr is oners of v/ar, and to the extent

QJ-i Base .Depot, will

and supply points within the area

necessary, Qsl Service Oonpmies Toy Supply Platoons or Sections,

.

Snail t-r
assisted

instpilations

v:ill "be operated

"by leoor && at-bvo.

2

OPggAgIOST OF EaILHBASS

All!)

T T5ICZHIMS (2XO3?^ CLASS 111 SUPPLIES),

a. The following rjiits md personnel uill "be used in this Theater eration of railheads and true -meads :
Eg £; Kg Ccnpyny, Q?-I 3aee

for the op­

De^ot

b. Sail and truckheac.s v.'ill normally "be operated "by Hfilhead Company or a section thereof in the Cor- \u25a0unications Sore uru : .iT tho jurisdiction of the Eg cc Hq Company, QM Base- Depot, in charge of the rrer, ihe "Railhead Oom­ pany \;illnornally not require a.cd tionrl lacor. Should aclo.it ional labor "be required itM-'illhe provided "o~j mean;'' of civilians, Italian Service Units or sections of QjU. Service Co. oanits.

3

OPEHATIOii OP CLASS 111 I3POTS Al-«D DUMPS
.a.

The following units and personnel Class 111 supply points t

*

employed for tho operation of illD3

Hq & Eg Coirprny, Q*i Base Depot
G-a soiine Supply Compa:iy
Service Company
oivi1i 1v'oorer s
an Italian Service Units

"b.

Class 111 depots and supply points will be under the supervision cf Eg & Eg Coi:,ipany, $•! Ba.se Depot, ar.d.\^ii , be operated "by a Gasoline Supply Com­ pany or a section or platoon thereof-. Additional laoor will he furnished "by means of civilians, Italian Service Units or platoons of Qj.i Service German, prisoners of v/ar will not ordinarily be Companies where necessary. employed in installations handling POL products.
AIID SALVAGE E3PAIS OPSEaTIOICS will be employed for the processing and

k SALYAGS

a. The following units and personnel rep ai of s alva^ e : r

#

#


rlq_. Company, Qll Base Depot
Salvage Collecting Company
Salvage Hepair Company (P 4.:ied)
Srlvrpe Hepair Company ( Semi-mo ilc)
Oivi' iari laborers

r.o
;


assisted

tr.ii.7-n Service Units
ilitr.ry If^qt

b

by the available labor personnel, salvage at Class IIand IV supply dumps and sort and forward ' other salvage collecting points. Salva ?e Ecpair Companies ( Semi-mot lie) in the vicinity of. such points will han .die all repairs within their capa­ bilitics. Eepair work beyond' the means3 or caoacity of Semi-mobile Units will "be forwarded to the Bate Salvage ±f)opot, where it will "be procossed "by
Salvage Collecting Companies,

will receive,

labor opsratin^; "under the supervislor oif a Salvage Heppir Corr;)rriy (rized) , Civilian and prisoner of war labor uill be used to the maximum in the pro­ cessi:i£ of s?lva ? :e in order to free mil.itary personnel for employment in activities for which civilian la"bor is net available or feasibl c

.

The operation of the Salvage Sepair Company (Fixed) v/ill De supervised by a Ha Cs Ha Corv^ny, Cp 3ase D^pot; v. .ich will jilso assist in the supervi­ sion of "11 RpIVF-^re activities vith n the Comnuni cat ions Zone. .ai d ?t.?aih c?
t

R

.

l'i-i.l

qm

s^j;?i_:
i

The following units and personnel wi eouipmert: repair of Quartermaster

be employed for the maintenance

and

' Auto Mechanic Team {Typ? T/0 6 E 10-500) C: Hepair Team (\2rpe DA, :2/2/C c. 3 10-i-"500) ; Office liachine Hepair 'I'earn {Tj^e 81, 2/0 6; E 10-500)
"b 11 ase Salvage Depot for the Communications Zone uill be operated ur ier the suoervivsion of a spocia.lly devj .gnated Hq & Hq Coiipany, Cgxi Base Dr -ot. This Hq cz Hq Company will be respo: .sible for the storage and issue of re­ It will pair par-.s for Quartermaster equip: :ent for the entire Theater. responsible for the mainte: Lance and repair of garter master equip­ also be beyond the capacity of lower eche­ ment that is evacuated to it as be major repairs 111 be accomplished by the Csi Salvage lons of repair. Such Company (Pized) \ rhich operate under the Kg C: Hq Company, Q}l Base Bepair Depot. The Base Salvare Depot will Z.so be responsible for obtrinin fr from the Ordnance and Snrincer Services s" .eh maintenance and repair work as cannot be perfcrned by Qij.arter master Units cr Installations. In addition to the Base Eepair Depot described above there will be four units which will operate in the Communications Sone and as required in the Army Service Area: (l) Salvage Hepair Company (Semi-mobile) , which. .includes personnel trained to repair field ranges: (2) Auto Mechanic Team, which will mahe repairs to field ranges, gasoline containers and similar equipment; (3) Hepair Team (Type DA, T/0 co 3 10-500), which will be used to supervise civilian labor in small salvage installations for ma.hins; minor repairs; and (U) Office Machine Hepair Team, used for the These units repair of typewriters and Quartermaster office equipment. operate under the supervision of the Base Salva ,je Depot, and the will Repair Terms may be attached to Salvage Hopalr Companies (3«mi-mobile) fcr mahina; r qprirs in the field. 3very effort will be made to repair typewriters and field ranges as far forward as possible in order to re­ duce the flow ox equipment to the Base Salvage Depot, thereby saving
'transportation.

Hq 5s Hq 'Company, QM Base Depot
Salvage Hepair Company (fixed)
Salvage Hepair Conrpany (S \u25a0mi-mob: ile)

c

-b7~

b

.

: lu.J
a.

•->t?"v \u25a0r i

The lollou-.n,?- -unit 3
O

r^ic.

personnel

will "be pvriirbie for providing Ipimdry

C*

7 .v W w

*

LrunJ.: ./ Co;:r;r.r.y (^einl-^obi. c) Korvu- •'! Lpun dry Fifteen, 'lypo 3
a.Z,.>".
Strtic Lruiicries y Section, Srlvr~e P.oppir Ccnronny (xixed)
c.:.v::l •rruOx'
r,."l\.rn Service Urits
I Prisoners of \'rr

jj

Id

The str tic A E.2 LrunJ-.rios villbe opcr. ted. cy civilian cmplo^ees md Such other Irbor under the r."a"Of:.~v: sion of riilitrry]?crso:ir.sl .pitri L"Liiicivy rlr-.toor.s r.r.d to rbor '/ill r-Ico "be used to resist the \u25a0y Section of t":c S^ivrre Keprir supply tho r.'..-c etarry l^":cr for the L Ccrri.)r .;y' (jrixed) Kos/oit:! Tjpi.::.o. Plrtcon, T;-"pe 3, is currently "being coiViVi-^ac: i.i:o Lrundiy 3c;c tier. (Pixcd.) Kospitrl "^Xype EJ "I/O 5s 3 10-500) is secoi.on nvasi: 'be rur^cntcd by civ J i.^n lr":or or service troops in or­ der to p.j its dutie
1

.

.

>

.

t

c

Hos'oitrl '.ruic'.r-/ villreceive first, priority, the service to oe furbished static A-!i..-\ Lru.n&nor , "b trl Lrcir.dry Fir toons, Type 3 (or the '^farxjr'j Sections rs md cr-tod r'-jovo) , supplemcted r.s necessrxy c^r^rr.ized clothing: o.y r L^unaiy Oonprny (fo'ii-mc'bile) Second priority laundry pud eqv.ip^fe to ";e rcp'-.ir^d v;ill oc done cy the Lr-uiidry Section of the i"sc gplvp^e Depot fcx' sr-ivrre processed ?-.$ thrt poir.t. At other points Lrur.dry \:ill cc done it v;ill cc clone '?;/ Irur.dry Co-j^mies (Sor.i-nobilc) only to th«j fcXvent thrt surplus lr\i~nd:-y c-prcity is i'cr ciilisted personnel rvril.'iolo. I'onc of the rfc/ovc facilities v.'ili «g used to proc^^s Irandry for officers unless there etia.l r^nrins r surplus rfter the reauirer.entyss of + enlisbc-d perconnei hrve tern ;-j C.l^ilirn laundry crp^city uiil "be used to the r.p.zir.vjii in 3i:rplb.*nent:n v ;. .( p. rove frcilities for rll typos of Irundry .:

— .
.

--

.

7.

G-H

r.

£he fcv.iovi.a-; units md personnel \/iil be employed in the supervision c "ourirlo pr.d. hrnc.lin{: of the perscnrl effects of the decersed;

Ha c: Y.cL Cenprr.y, C_:i 2t& Depot
:>:\u25a0 r.v*os ?. or,i trr t iic n Cojnp rr s 1^ Conpp.ny Her.dourr~cr3 (Type AC,
\u25a0

T./O

6 3 10-500)

b

Although the "brsic responsibility for identifying md bivryin^ the derd re­ r.irins with "Jnit Co;:T!pndcrs, Graves He.'-isorrtion Coi pr.nies v;ill be utilized tc tho r.iani;.:ur.: extent in supervising the buriril of the dep.d, processing: of personal effects cr>.& the crre of cemeteries. £h.G'=e cor.rornics v:ill jn.lr-o cuptrvisc re-tiii'irls. Lrbor for dir.-rin;; .^rrvss villbe furnished by pris­ oners cf \;pt , civilians, It.-lirr.Service "J:i?.ts, md if neccsspry, Oil Ser­ \'-ce Cempj-.nies '.'ithin the Co-nr^unicr-tior-s Sone the hmdlir.^ of bur iris pjnd p^vsonrl effects v/ill be supervised by Ho 6 Hq Oor^prny, QM 3r.se Depot, hrv­ i::.;; .jurisdiction over the :>re^.

.

c

Person.- 1 effects './ill be iorvrrdcd to the Effects Depot to be cstrblished in th-.i Cor.:r:unicrtions Zone. This Effects Dcpct v/ili be opcrrted "by non­ 17 0 personnel supplemented by civilipn employees. The Effects Dcpct will ';nr.ted Eg a Ho C^rnrny, opcr.-te under thu supervision of r specirlly dcsi fc

6

.

U>.

r..

10

the coctuit fersible, Qp.r>.rt orrr-ster activities vithin the Comr^jrications Z-cne will be decentralized to Srso Sections, vho in turn \. illdecontrol izo
?

#

- 68 -

#

#

;

appropriate operations to Kg & He C'l^-anies, QK 2rso Depot, of which there will oe at least one in each Base Section, Thus every Qiirrterniaster Unit operating within a J3r,se Section --rill 1c und< r the jurisdiction of r Eg 6 Eg Conp ?ny, tK 3p.se Depot.

'To r.ssish the 3r.se Section Quartermaster ir the command and fjiiporv^sicn of Quarter n:p.ster Troops cp orating in his 3r.se Section, the following uni^s uill he euployed;
Hq & F.q_ J)etr.cl"jr:«nt, Q^ Brttalion Hq 2: Hq Detrichrn/jnt , Q.M Group

c

For connnid md adninistrptiori. , Qij.artermn.ster Units will oe organized into "battplions under a Hq_ i& Hq Dotachiient, C^ Sr.ttrlior!. Sevornl bpttplions, in turn, will "ze orf?-ni?ed under aHq£ Hq Dotrciuront, QJ-a Group. I'lio channels for connt-nd vnt technical supervision are shovii difrrannatic^lly in Figure 2.

-69­

#

0

63CTI")N IV

LABOR OIK: T}UM U.S. .'..ILITAiTi PEKoOE'EL 1. Civilian Labor 2. ' Italian Service Units 3. Prisoners of -ar

- 70
-

_7"1

f

1

SSC2ICI: IV

Because of the need to conserve nil!itrry personnel to the utmost, it- is essen­ tial to employ civilian labor, Italian Service Units, and prisoners of var for gen­ Eetriled instructions for thei: eral labor purposes to the maximum extent possible, util ization have "been or are in the process of being published "o"j theater Keadquar­ ters The follov/ing.. infenartion is furnished for general guidance 1 Civilian Labor a. For details concerning the employment of British civilians, see Circular To. 24, En ETCUS^., lOharch IS4-,, "Smployirent of British Civilian Person nel by the U. S. Army in the U. X.11 •

b. Por procedure covering enplc/ment of civilians on t-h? Continent, sco SOP ITo. 29, Hq 3TCUS.I, 26 Kp/l-UU, "Procurement, Utilization -nd Ad-in' stra­ tion of Civilirn Labor in Liberated or Occupied Territories' 1

.

2

Itrlian Service Units
a.
r \jct v.ho arc loyrl to the cruse of the United iT^tions and vho hrve volunteered for such enlo'/raent hrve been organized into .service units in pecordpnee \rith standrrd U. 3, Trblor, of Or.rpnizrti.on and Squipmont , using Itp.lirn officers, non-cor.ir.ix?zioned officers md enlisted men. She status of personnel assigned to the so units r on? ins unchanged in thnt they continue to be under the custody of the United States as prison­ ers of \;ar. Units so organized nr; be used io perform the mission normrlly assigned to the type ur.it or to perform niscellrneous trsks to meet operation? 1 requirements; i.e., Italirn 3?h&ry Gon-p^ vr:ies, Tepot Supply Comm­ ies, etc., mry be called upon zc perforr.l the mission normally assigned a Q£l Service Corapary.

Italian prisoners of

r

"b. Units uillbe rssigned to Base Sections in r manner identicrl to thrt of
U. S. Units and villbe utilized ;nd p.dministered under the technical sup­ ervision of the using service in ,-ccordrnce vi^-h xhertor policy. P.esponsi­ bility of the Base Section •Ccmmrnders rillbe identical to that toward U.S. Units, rs prescribed in Circular 1, Hc_ SOS, drted 8 January 15^4. c. U. S. Army non-^/O personnel (furnished by the using service) will be at­ tached to epch Italirn Service Unit. The senior U. S. Army officer uill coi-.r-rnd the unit, through the Itrlian officer personnel, end is responsible for its discipline, adriinistrruion, training, liaison ?nd employment under the technical supervision of the chief of the using service.

d.' QL' Composite 3?ttelion Hq d-

Hq Detrohmcnts. T/C C: S 10-500, will be allot­ ted to supervise ?nd cocrdinrte the administration, operation, training and supply of four to sis: Itplipn Service units.

c. AKq 6Hq rctrciinent, QJ-I G-roup, 1/0 Cz 2 10-22, will be provided ?,& r.n agen­ cy for the planning, supervising md coordination recess: ry t-o obtain max­ imum results and efficient operation, administration, trrining and supply of the Italian Service Unito utiliKed by the Qurrtermr st^r Service. f

.

Itrlian Service "Units may not be employed at m instrllaticn ers of v;rr are employed. Letter Eg IEOU2A, file AC. "Italian Service Units".

r:

here prison­
subject:

g. Reference:

322

OpGA., dated 8 July

IhUU,

#

#

«
3.
Prisoners a. of War

\u2666

Prisoners of

r/ar ira.v bo used for labor purposes provided such labor is w to tie Geneva Convention,, 1929* "nd is in. accordance vdth tho cor.tr?.r/ police prescribed b;- Theater I"os/Iqur.rt^rs

.

b.

Requests

for tho use of prisoners of -war for labor ma; " originate -ith a uwng service or with a Ease kectior C^ii-iandor an-1 •\u25a0dll bo directed to the Coni..ip.:iding Goner?.l 5 CoiUuUiiicctions Zone.
1

c.

U.S. riri;:./ personr/il (furnished b; tho usin.r; service) for prisoners of var ;nust be v?li-disciplined, commanded bjr nzzo optionally able officers ,
7

soloctecl as guards and must be

d.
c.

Prisoners of vex m&p not be cr.pl n Ed at an installation "/here Italian Service Units are e.Mployod.

Special instructions,
Quarter; -.asters

cj.arisified

"Socrat' J5J 5 are being sent to
t/ar.

vdth to the utilisation of oris oners of general policies sea FT 27-10, "Hulos of

recpect

Fqit

f. A directive is in process of publication by Hq STO-jSj* setting forth apec­ ific policies and procedures concerning tht3 use of or isoners of war for
labor purposes.

~ 72

-

IJ Al^^^m^g^

simapmft tksater oF.opiSiiTioiis Office of the Chief Quartermaster gg7 :- Ap.O
\u25a0

Quartermaster

Field Observation Report Ho. XU.
U; S. ECTPI-iStn?

The purpose of this-Field Observation Report is to _ -:ive proper dissemination of information collected' in this theater regarding Quartermaster equipment ,'supply, installations, and activities. Contained in this report are experiences of personnel of all ranks and positions'' regarding the use of Quartermaster ecruipment. Opinions, suggestions and recommendations published herein do not
j

r t

necessarily have the concurrence of this office. communication is forwarded as information DULY.

This

I.

: GEOa&Ir
A, period of Time Covered by This Eeport 3,

- 1 Jan.

to

7

Ja <n.

19U5­

Sector From Which Eeport First U.S. Army, .

gmanated

«-

ITinth U.S. Army and

C- Sbd sting Weather Conditions .- A cold fog prevailed over the area, covering FOads with. a thin sheet of ice. This type of, cold seemed to' -penetrate all types of clothing, even though the actual temperature hoyered around freezing* The iUnth U.S. Ariay sector Mature of Military Operations was very quiet. There was a re-grouping and re-^s-huf fling' of Corps "between all armies. Since the recent German drive^ all rear area installations
•D

*

~

\

p.nd hcadouarters doubled guards, and intensified checking all persons.' ilany German agents and dropped parachutists v/ere captured in and around installations Some casualties Were suffered by guards, during nights especially* . The sudden movement of our troops after a comparative' period of. static warfare is resulting in active salvage operations. Piles have noticeably and sizeably increased,

.

35. Units Observed and Individuals Interviewed
ITjnth U,S.
Army

Class 11-IY- Officer Class 1 Officer • Class 111 Officer
Salvage and Captured Hate rial Officer Purchasing and Contracting Officer G-raves Registration Officer and Asst. Asst laundry Officer

.

602nc1" Ifofeineor 3n. (Camouflage) Executive"" Officer
CO "3" Company Ist Infantry pivlsion As si; ; Quartermaster 'Class lI^IVOfficer: Salvage Officer 3 JTGQVs Class IISection

Quartermaster

r-lr-

111| A^^A^^UP I"!

mp

W

Field Olos

.Hcporte^^J^lii |J W|L *LL^
Infantry

2nd

Division Quartermaster
As s t Quar terf-la's tor
Quart crnas.tcr Supply Officer
3 £ICO*s

.

th Xnfantry Division
Quart c mas tcr

29th "

Infantry

Division

Quartermaster .
Battalion CO

S-U,

;

'Il6th :Inf

\u25a0,

JBn'i

1

Surgeon,

2Uth <#* Bn, (Colored)
'
\u25a0 \u25a0

(Salv. Collecting) CO, 3052nd .Qi Co. (Salv, Collecting) CO, SjUth'QK Co, (Salv. Collecting)

•\u25a0\u25a0\u25a0\u25a0\u25a0\u25a0\u25a0'

\u25a0

i

CO, S^lSt

|"f" f

Keport arid

\u25a0'\u25a0'\u25a0\u25a0

fhotographic Annex

-

Prepared By;

;'Captain "John: 5) \u25a0.^anlcus^

.

<$iC

. T/s'Vcrnon
XI,

3?/sgt. wil^rP ? Baylor
lv f leepcr

CLASS' X

A. B Ration

'( 1

area highly 1. All officers and men 'intfcrvicw.cd at, random throughout this discouraging very •oraised the 3 ration. To "oe mating 'good chou during the vrpatHer prevailing 'is' ja tog no rale
factor, equal to the receipt of mail fron hone.

Alnost the entire' division is committed at present hut we are nana£ing to feed 90>j of the -r.cn 3 rations, using Containers, Hound, Insulated. Only a'oout 1,000 operational rations are issued per day. lb, pail and is very difficult to "break Lard at present comes in a | very important one, and much needed, because it is down. This iten is a used in TDalcing. • It would seem that a smaller container should "be avail­ able and thus enable us to "break dovm this item at the same time to all units rather than issue "over" and "short"' each time wo get this item.^ During the summer,, soup appeared on the menu and was not popular. During this month when it is believed the troops would like it, it is not on the menu. (•^ and Asst. £iv. Cs, lst-Div.)

2.

3.

C Eat ion

1.

The new menus which arc eagerly anticipated have not as yet "been Complaints? have *>ccn available to us mere than on a .couple occasions. • received that the C ration can cuts int© tires and causes numerous
flats, Xt would seen that another method of opening this can to eliminate that
sharp edge cpuld "bp devised. When leading and unloading during constant moves, the C ration l)oxes disintegrate much more so than the 10-in-l "box
with the steel strapping.. .' .. : (Q/i, 2nd Inf. Div. and <y-i, Ist Inf Div.)

..

,

C,

D Ijatiorx

1.

This is a very popular supplement to the ration with the men in this division. ?hey all like to carry one in their pockets to nitole on during
\u25a0**C.-*"

\

\

"\u25a0\u25a0/\u25a0\u25a0

$-i Field O"bs, Report 10..

/ llfU^.f

r> fej^l*^|# h I tiaUo
they can make chow for

the day,'' especially when .th«jrd6n !t know whether the next ncal- -or no\ , (8 rCO's,- Ist £nf ,*Div#
\u25a0

D."\u25a0'\u25a0£ Ration
I,

Cold "beverages are still not popular and never have "been, even during the warn months,".' Besides "tha-i /.lemon powder needs a large quantity of sugar to properly sweeten it and sugar is saved for coffee.

2. Mo used X ration lotion powder" dissolved in buckets of water for scrubbing the floor when we were living in "buildings, and it worked out exceptionally well", cutting dirt spots' and hore or less "bleaching the . wooden floors, (\u25a0^l and A;sst.. <$*, 2nd Jnf, Div.; CndrV, 29th Inf, Div.)
\u25a0

3n^

3\

I/enon powder takes canteen of water, and after one drinks it a "burning or dryncss of the throat is noticed, iiorc water is needed to quench his thirst and as a result, a soldier's supply of water is soon exhausted. (Sunnary of donnchts of 10 iTCO's and 2H, 2nd Inf. Div,)
E,
IQ^jn^l Ration

l/S

"be any dehydrated food items "in this ration "because it is issued, water is not readily available in quantity, "he corn beef hash in this ration needs a" lot of water in its preparation. Haloaonc tablets in the 'lOrfirb-rl arc rarely used "because drinking water in cans is always issued together with the 10~»in-l, Xt 'would scon- -that Halo zone, tp^lets should "be- included with -C or X rations "because, ordinarily drinlcing water is not as readily available when C or X rations' arc issued. As it is now, we salvage -Daily "bottles of Ea-lo zone tablets fron 10-in--l rations "v/hich we re-dssiic to troops. It also night "be a good idea to include heat tablets or.a canned heat in the lO^in^l as well as with operational rations, Sxdept in the case of isolated $% batteries, Rccon, G-roups, Anti-Aircraft outfits. Patrols, ctc f , if the 10r-in-l can "be issued to unit's, we feel the 3 ration could also f (Q-i and Asst. Div. Q^, 2nd Inf, Div,) whenever
\u25a0

l". -There should not

x3ro"blor.i we have with this ration is that' of It is difficult tcr dc'tcrninc what nuralDcr norm a unit has
2,
I?hc only

distribution, already had, repeat the issue of the sane ne'nu to then, in order that' we do -not

teinth

U.S.

Amy,

Officer) Class I

"3»

Xayariably, 'when we have to- use "the 10"~in-rl ration, sane racnu for several days' at a tine. (Sunnary of conncnts 'of 10 iTCO 1 s and' 3s, 2nd. lnf. Div,)

v/c

have the

U. There -arc ton nany Hatches in this ration , Mo have enough supplied with our cigarettes, f'iany of" the crackers in this ration arc discarded. Haloaonc tablets cone "back to' us through salvage channels and arc re­ issued, Xt would s'cen that these -tablets- could 3>c issued in "'oullc as needed, "because water in nost cases is availa"blc for drinking v;hen the lC~iiv«l is issu,e4." ifo additional soap is -necessary in this ration. '"' -\u25a0-. . (j^i and Asst.^ t ;lst' Inf.' Div.):/..--' \u25a0'-'".
\u25a0

.

(ifor Anrphfoious Operations) :>.-. . :'. : ] k,. >\u25a0\u25a0' 1, \!q landed on \u25a0tho' beach on D-plUs-3, vd'fch nostly X rations, a few C •rations- and sone 10«i-in~l.— Each i4an -^had two" (2) rations on his person, and there were' two on the vehicles. Jt "s-oencd as if the Gen ate approxi­ natcly four (U) X ration packages each day: after -we 'landed, There was a cry-in^ need for coffee,- sugar, \u25a0and nilk,, o; wh: ? there never s coned to "be f. icsi
f r Assault Bat ions • •
• •
;

..

'

'\u25a0

\u25a0\u25a0\u25a0

'

-3r

1

rs

'

l

*

*

Detailed observation was not possible,- and due to the confusion, it is not known how nuoh of what itens tft the rations were thrown away have, in it plenty . or eaten. A proposed Assault ration .'should certainly powdered nilk,;but the, . ••.. of coffee and sugar and'". possible sonc 'sort of Heat -tablets should; also ."be .included in. latter Iten is least important . . ie'^ory^satisfactory as is/ such- a ration. o?hcK package' Mi) ($: and i-sst, .!-jit 2nd,lnf , Div.; 10 iTCO's and 2, '."e were an assault division and landed on the "peach en D Day.^ ?hc rations, ncn #ere heavily 'loaded, too heavily loaded/ Everybody had S heavily after sone n'erc than others-, "but.it is ."believed that nen ate very along.with nany other ' the action- slowed up; -Bone IC rations' were .discarded an assault ration is 'ngtin thin,£"'carried. If t'tens. Ax.iriunition -was .the planned, it shcu^ld 1?e as -sr.iall aad; as- sii.^ie as possible; a "bar .of chocolate, and coffee should "be included/ (C^, 29th Inf. Divv)
enough.

,

.

averaging a'oout .two X neals a day. ncn didnH 'eaij'nuch 3. Th6 right* for• an assault Tmt should have norc coffee. The E ration sqens' all A soldiey in action drinks a lot '6f coffpe. (3n. Ondr M 29th |nf, piv.)

U. This type of ration should "be light and snail, naybc about half the crackers, and' size of:the : present X.' It should contain a neat, sonc gun. Xt is not TDeiieved that ccffce'or. cigarettes arc- necessary, "^acause "\u25a0 the latter are usually carried in quantity, and, ordinarily, an assault is rmdo during, the sutmert^ne'' when 'coffee is not as popular as it is now. ' \u25a0\u25a0. » ••". (Os, Ist Inf. Div.) , i «
'
\u25a0

\u0084

have "been -observed The nen cat :lightly during an assault redistributing, the contents anon^- their brcaicin-; open- the IC ration- and pockets,' discardinc certain of'the itens like the cold beverage, and one package' of the crackers.' i.n assault ration should be packaged snail and be lif-ht.' Jt should contain a neat, a package, of -crackers, gun, plenty of coffee, and a few heating tablets.. It is not believed, necessary tc package this rat ion as heavily as the present X is.. £t present .there ' • • is too nuch paper '<".n- it./. * , (^sstV QA, Ist Inf. mvVr'and 3 HCO's.) .

5.

.

1

\u25a0

.

;

real good" It should be packaged

i-jen do not eat vcrj^ nuch during hot' action, "but.afe soon as it quiets down, they. cat all tho tine. An assault ration should contain a can of
neat,- a package of crackers, coffee, and a few heating tablets,

6".

(;$, 9th Inf Div>)

.

snail and lightly.

G-.

3cvcxagos

I*. Ihc additional coffee

in the new pracurcnent of: 0 and
X rations greatly appreciated; however, it is not believed that this
vdll be inclusion will solve
thc-ptfobXcn entirely. A large percentage of soldiers, especially during this weather and. when engaged in active
operations,' arc great co.f fee drinkers, and the supplcnental issue ;of
\u25a0;•
coffee, nilk and sugar is a fine .thing. \u25a03y the use T,f. suppiencnta]. individual^,, needing it
coffee we can control its- issue tc the .units- and
most. It is needed during' cold weather even when the 3 ration is
' '
, issued, as %s the case at present,' : ''. (v-I and Asst. (^., "2nd Inf..Dir f )
\u25a0

She inclusion of additional coffee in the C and X ration is a good supplenental issue is also denanded Vj units m the 3 ration.' idea,, To control the iss^e of coffee for supplencnting rations xTCUId seen ncrc logical than its inclusion in operational rations, and eliminating the
\u25a0supplemental issue*.'
(Class I Officer,: iTinth US -Amy)

2,

kt'a

r-Uyr,


fyi Field Obs. Hep or t ITo .XU
H. BAG Kits
Co
\u25a0

5

* l|iflj I| %'C "%T * II | ?
7J

'"

1. It is believed, that vthe toilet articles in. this, kit,., such as tooth­ brushes, shaving soap:, and razor-blades should' "be. issued";. in "bulk, as called for ,-' rather than -be. packaged an a 'component kit,, The number of items in always the kit rarely fits the 'situation. r and the proportions are not ' > • ,' . \- . .•\u25a0 . ,\u25a0 .'\u25a0' •'.••.. correct. \u25a0"• > \u25a0,
\u25a0 \u25a0

%

(;ji, let Inf. Div.)
I. Bread

partially 1. It is not believed that fresh 'oread could be counted upon to It would^be too or completely replace the \u25a0biscuits in operational rations. dangerous to assume that bread would always be available for issue with ' ' - ''
\u25a0

'

operational rations.
J, Tablet s

.

.

.

.

\u25a0'

"

::

(Class I Officer, iUnth US

.

'

!

, Hat ion Heat ing

1. This iten
is very popular in this division, However, the German type,* or the canned heat used "by -the British, is nuch nore popular "because it
does not snoke up the utensils ? Ho conplaints have "oeen received concern­ ing the toxicity of the Oernan type heat units. The fact that they are
water absorbent was net even known.- .
{<$\u25a0: and Asst. Q^, 2nd Inf.. Div.)
2. feny of the canteen cups and ness gear received "by this collecting conpany" are very heavily Slackened. Some of this is no doubt due to snoke fron mod, fires, Tout nuch of it could l)e. attributed to sone of the type heating talxlets. (CO, 2^lst Q/I Salvage Collecting. Co .),

ni.

cuss v
ATA T

*.yr
"i ".

Clothing,
>

.

*

'\u25a0

1, -Shoes,

Service anfl BootsyConbat

.

a. The x^^esent tariff of sizes on shoes and conbat "boots is too vnried. It is believed that n-any of these sizes and widths could
be cenbined, Shoe sizes are not generally substituted in this division because
individuals who have been wearing a certain size
and width ordinarily feel
that they carnnot wear a substitute size, and demand the exact one. In
cases of emergency, however, sone nen have been given sizes and widths
other than those requisitioned because of non-availability of the size the
This •theory is borreout asked for. Eesults Vere, satisfactory. pair of socks at certain seasons
fact that individuals .-can usually wear 1 of the year, and twe pairs of socks, or a nuch heavier pair, during
colder weather, and not change" shoes, A heavy demand exists f^'r E and SB widths. It is believed .that this is due to the fact that individuals
feet tend to spread out, especially when they wear roony shoes.
(<#: and Asst. ty'i, 2nd Inf Div.)

t

.

b f

Coniba/t boots are not satisfactory

for the following reasons;

(l) They leak -no re than the Type IIshoe.' A walk in damp grass will v prove it, let .alone walking about in snow, rain and nud r
(2) They are .shapeless because they have no toe cap protection to the foot' at that point.
and,

offer no

(3) In.warn

weather., or when active,

. -5­

it is believed that when an

<$i Field Obs, Report Ho

. *§|>4'

v->-v>

% 1

individual perspires, the smooth leather on the inside docs not absorb the water as. readily as would the roufch leather on the inside of the Type IIshoe. This makes the feet cold when the individual ceases to exercise. of the rivet "breaking out at the instep have "been observed, probably because the leather rotted there as a result of many different kinds of dubbinj. Their only advantage is that It would have been much better the legging has been discontinued. if we had continued to use the Type II shoe, and were sent the leather tops with the buckles to be sown on the Hype IIshoe. It is believed that if a hard toe were added, and the leather reversed so that .the smooth side would be out, wo would have a £ood boot (:^;, Ist Inf. Div.s Class 11-IV Officer, Ist Inf. Div.)

(Ll) A few instances

.

c. Uotc; 99>° of rand on inquiries omen.; officers and men indicate that the present conbat boot, although better than the le^.inc and shoe combination, is still not satisfactory because it leaks. When heavily dubbed complaints have been received that the feet get ecld. Only spotty complaints have
1

,

been received concerning the welt coming apart fron the sole. '4 hard toe or cap similar to the paratrocp boot is also generally .felt to be r.iuch more •' desirable than the present soft too.

2,
a.

Shoes,

Tariff of Sizes

Sizes and widths substituted-. Because the African campaign, It seems strange that

of shoes certainly arc interchangeable and can be of the short supply of certain sizes and widths during we had to substitute, and did it satisfactorily. 3L and EE widths arc still difficult to obtain as their hi. ;h consumption factor was established during the African campaign. Ist Inf. Div.) Usst.

3
a.

.

3oots, Service, Conbr.t

, '.."oncri's

Have not been received in this amy area (Class 11-IV Officer, iliatliUS Army)

U. Overshoes
a. Colored troops feet are norc sensitive to the cold. In this 3n. it is SCP to place an individual on inside work if he reports on sick call con— plainiiy.; of frostbite. Overshoes are not available to this service unit. (3n. Surgeon, 2Uth CJ.-I Bn. (Colored))
Sizing difficulty of overshoes lias been experienced. Different r.anu­ facturcrs of the cloth type overshoe evidently have different netheds of sizir,;. For example, a size 10 nr.de ~^imcr °nc manufacturer sonctir.es can hardly be differentiated betvecr. a size 12 cf another manufacturer. The only way we could rcccivin;.; the proper size vas to allow each lii enc of thcr. to try p. bunch en until they fitted. It is su.o >~csted that the sizes senchow be standardized, and that the fi<vurc denoting the size be permanently cut into the arch on the outside of 'the overshoe rather than simply painted on. This would facilitate re-sizing in salvage operations, because vr c attempt to size and re-issue every pair that cemes in. (0/. Class IIOfficer and 3 iTCOU, Ist Inf. Div.)

b.

c, ITo'tc: Over a two-week period, 15^-3^ Dec. 19UU, the 231st %. Salyagc 1,086 of these were rjatcd Collecting Co, received ab^ut 2,125 overshoes, up, cleaned, and returned to stock. 1|039 v/crc evacuated as salvage to Com Zone.. • Cf the number evacuated, 9U> were worn out through fair wear an<i tear; 5/o had holes in them due to shrapnel and sharp objects; and l/o had broken buckles.

-t*

0

*^ l /

4#i||ic.c '. .# I

tfiField Qbs. Beport Ea,
$*\u25a0
a.

** *- * ificl"^J'
Fain

&loy.es» 'f001,. 0p y/frcatker
'

individuals

in -a very heavily wooded 'sector. are working and noving 1y..-ir.Tprovin{.;ljheir handiwork, on dugouts and foxholes, They are const ant carrying on snail "logging operations"; and- this type of glove is not very satisfactory for this purpose.. ,
(tf-I, 9th Div.;Hcgt'l, S-U, 9th Div,)

Shis

glove is wearing out very

ribout'.

rapidly in this division "because, nany
\u25a0

\u25a0

\u25a0

b. This type of glove -is t.oc cold for any individual who cannot frequently exercise his hands. Ho at doughboys have the opportunity to flex their gets fingers and "beat their hands, but even then
the Ipack of the hand still
cuitc cold.


\u25a0 \u25a0

(Vjl Class 11-IV
6.

Officer, Ist Jnf. Div.)

Jackets,

Field

a. Although the K-19H3 field jacket is thought to l)c "better than the oldtype field. jacket "by soae individuals, nziny of cur older ncn feel that the old type is warncr than the i>-19U3. Sooc havp lined the 1-I-X9U3 .tJ^Pc Vith several kinds of fur and. salvaged Anericftn Hankets, The old con'Da.t jacket just can't 'dc "beat, i^ny officers and wen in this division have, had the opportunity to try all types, and the great najority prefer the conbat jacket (q)i, Ist Inf. Div, Class lI^JV Officer, and conncnts of U HCO's, Ist

~

Inf. Div.)

*b. Bo tot Handon observations, anong officers and nen still,indicate that the old .type, cor/bat jacket is the nest popular of the three*

T* Raincoats

*>

jPonchos

survey ennducted by the £31st QJI Salvage Collecting 'O. during, the two-week period-, 15-^3O. dec. 19UU» revealed that out of apgroxinately 3,800 c raincoats received, hhs were cracked* causing leakage; U2/» were worn out thrown, fair wear and tcar§ and llij*Were ripped or cut by shrapnel or sharp objects* Bough treatnent in rain, snow and dirt » which froze causing cracking of fabric, secned to be the "tiost- ocmion deficiency. It was the opinion of the personnel in the 231st <^i Salvage Collecting Co. that the raincoats standing Up best undci? these rough conditions were the type manufactured Qy the following concern*

A

n

Jacob jrinkelstoin 6 Son Dated Dec. 11, 19U3

V%36-030-Qr-22UU

Jewcr raincoats salvaged because of cracking were found bearing the above contract nark than any of the others.
The raincoat having the following nark secned
the one failing because
to be the poorest

of cracking to a greater

type and extent than the others:

Hood Eubbcr Co.,

.V^699-Q/~35531
Dated

6-3CM*3

"

Other raincoats observed having the sane * • • the following contract nunber:

type of cracking failure bore

Signund Sisner Co-,
\

Dated. FeY 5, 19U3
Cambridge Eut)"bcr
••

Co..
'

Dated

UNewwrr

/cV 0.15U3

IlJfn *^Cr "^^ii
qtl Field O^s. Eepcrt Ie

"*

.

1U

c?nVr

V

*\i w«^§§

Sanplcs of cracked These studies arc fceias contin^c^by'-thc aborc unit. : m the gaments arc Dein*: forwarded, Wf icne of the: 3,000 raincoats used evacuated. Ptovc tabulation were available fox sarnies "because all had been

In spite

overcoat
;

present GI nf the fact that the 'ijp^ity'p?. the ncn condenn the raincoat, they still carry the' Itcri and "wear it, In a static position, nany, tines the raincoat is worn over the overcoat. arc worn, 4 large sizes, Tttis- practice raised -tlie rccjufrcncnts for Div.) ($i Class 11-IV Officer, Ist Inf

an

.

Fotc:

have not as yet keen &s9ti,bstr. units in this area. Insofar £i~thc use of the raincoat is:;cA.ce.rAcci; '^cvious reports have indicatedIs : takes "a hell of a ticattnc 11 • M the present tine it that this to% only Tjcinc used in/this area on. tfyc i-TCund..during cold, wet weather. dugouts, is it'uscd ae'a ground^shcct. r Wt'a^.sQ as. ca.'caiiopy for foxholes and Xo^b in the construction and is even sonetirW covered v;ith nudi

'tonchos

:

1

rf Shelters.,'

8.

H3?s

,_\u25a0'\u25a0'

\u25a0

''' *'\u25a0\u25a0.•' :

\u25a0.•

\u25a0\u25a0\u25a0••

\u25a0', \u25a0i

;

;

:5o: OKs, 5o into conhat wearing a. Althouf;h nost individuals olDsq^^rKQar^'&Ts over ODs for additional recently, nany have warnth.
(q>i Class IJ-JT Office?;-,, Is* Inf

..Diy,p

<-. .1 .'

9. Socks : .
a.'

,

''•

has; recently

of the energetic, at QhW-ccf socks every day

Because'

"been. srrtin -; socks
;

nakc' air unit tcr^>^ >yhe' -.gjlrtS( to.Salvageavailable a Co, {^llccting \u0084^en,;

t arc/ Received, laundered,' sized

'^'

:

and

returned to .sto«k-.
10

.

Skin Irritations Caused fry" Sffl Cloth

to H3T
a> iln instances r,f any skin irritations or disease attrilmted of a
few nild ny attention, I have known gariients; have corae, to is irritation or "aversions" fr.ora 'us ing heavy woolen under-clothing. Itwould clrthin,;; were wci-n next %c
tiic skin it possible that if inpre^atcd irritate, it "but I have reserved n^ troops v/caring it in this nanncr.
(Bn. Surgeon, 2Uth.Q^i 3n. (Colored))

cases^of

11

.

Color and Texture .of 4> 9
{

S

• '

HHD,­ on a. Generally,- the darker typp-OD natcrial recently used very the pack, factory 'satis Jacket 1ic1d,..M.9U3', shelt.crlialf a,nd:other tcnUaee,
is The kha]ci or tan color -on the old type
fr^n the canouflagc- standpoint... field jackets, shclterhalvcs and wc^in^, reflects too nuch li,~ht and' can
n is
"be rcadilvspc;tt,ca. fr^n-thc' air. The new dou olc-^gnd type shclterhalf type was revealed
as a advant^ccus in that the .£:apin f hole in the old up. The closed definite da*k spot £rnn> the . air and cru3.d Tac easily picked used during the ends eliminate this". The H3T' trousers' and jackets were Inf, Div,, with St.' Lc .operation^ a few specialized units fr^n the 29th caraouflagc "br^-m and -rc en garlands sewn on then at irregular intervals for t-rt than, the .standard •Jjurposcs.; and they were generally' thought trr >c better indivi^a3;s.. "rattled" type jackets" "and trousers. 'H^ wcVoinfc is- washed intentionally dis­ ."A's* a natter pf fact > ir...srnc instances new itens arc Aithr^.;h c^lorce with dirt *t>- naltc then U'pnd intr the surroundings.Tjccn n^crved, it reversing field- jackets., and . conbat jackets, (old type) has jackets xicrcly is not a 'rencrob' "practice./ Kany individuals -hravc reversed "fr kecu the Putsido •\u25a0.clean,.'. Cancuf lace /detain,/ of aasstandard >type can though car^ufla.--in^ : rarel-/"ocu,scd: under; ..all conditions, and it appears n c situation. of clothing should oe done locally t^ fit the imcd'iat fecc. Officer:;*'.602w3:-51ng. -Bn. (teiQU-fl^e);. CO cf Co, A)

-

.

'

'

• ujblSSvllmH

4 q, Field Obs . Ecpcrt i?o ,1U cMliUlillll^L

?J

3

.

i

Individual Squlpnent
1

.

Packs

The i^l?2g pack is nueh ncrc popular in this division than the new type -pack. She new type is unnecessarily bulky even in itself, and packs are rarely, if ever, carried into ccr.oat , hen distribute all itens they wtsh tc carry'abcut their persons « (tyl, Ist Inf, Div.j 2 tfCQts, Ist Inf. Div.)
a,

2. |tcr,s Carried In Packs In the assault, the conbat infant rynan attempts- tc carry everything he needs en his person or in his pockets, rather than carry a coiibat pack* However,' the percentage of tine that a soldier spends in actual fi~htin£, and r-ovin:; during fi^htin^is spall ccnparcpl to the tine that he is in a holding or a United objective type cf attack. Although very Xittlc is carried, this does not necessarily ncan that the soldier docs not want nany cf the itens that arc issued hin. Provision nust "be nadc after an objective sleeping is reached or a situation beconcs stable, to Taring up itens like r on burner stoves, etc* If i force ba/^s, blankets, cvercrats, minconts, I ens, he vrill discard then because .during an assault each hin to carry such it just decsn't nan dccsnH^know whether he is v:oinLj to. survive cr not,, and hii; fcr not wanting to -"be initially You cannot hlanc car-o vrhat ho discards. a let cf stuff which is of no inncdlate use» and which haa^pcrs encunocred V
fi.

his novencnts^ T / Officer,' lst Inf. Hiv.J (g-i Class Uk, I

.

. .

'"\u25a0

3- Covers
a,

> i';ugalc» for Carbine and

I^l

infantryraen v^io dc not have the regular canvas nu3?lc covers inprovise V us itig. a variety cf itens including the mechanical prophylactic. It is very satisfactorily. £his iten is available in quantity and serves necessary when the ncchanical not "believed that a-nuzzlc covers as such* is X ration inner wrapper , etc. arc serving the purpose. pro-ohylactic

Kai^

(^ Class IW Officer i let Inf. XJiy.)
'

U. Shovel

t,

fofrrcnchfe

\u25a0

\u25a0a/ Scnc
an^unt*

breakage

i this iten has "been experienced, 'out only the ncrnal Shis is an excellent piece of "The soldier can break anything
r
'
'\u25a0

CQUijpr-cnt » (Qjii and Asst> «^i-,. 2nd infV Div/)
Td,
Our salvage

collc-ctinn conpanica report an ar.-unt of broken shovels Tpclicvcd evacuated for repair, "out the ntmlpcr is not excessive. It is. repaired withiA the amy area if handles that this itcn coutd be \u25a0easily were available. (Salvage Officer, J:TintH US yirny)
c.
During a two-vcek period; Co, received about

the 231$t Q* Salvage itcn; 25Q' of \fhich wprc cleaned 50G of this up, painted and returned to sfck; the thcr 250 bow: evacuated to Con 2orcfcr repair t Of the 250 evacuated, ~(%p had brol<Len.'handlcs, lS>3 had broken or shot -Up blades, and 1$ had rusted and locked adju'stinc nuts. Jhe officer in charge of the cell pet in^ crew operating in front-line division areas reports that there is- noVaji exceptional breakage of this itcn, The najcrity of • the ones he "picks. -t^.jarc. serviceable,, and he returns then to the division in whose .area, ho found tien, ,;-3?his amy 'is operating in an area consistin:; nostly -of : heavy clay soi^> .: a (CO, 231st A Salvage Collecting Co .)

15-»3O'l)ec.. 19UU,

Crllcctin^

­

%

».

1

x

- —^

5.
-1.

Picki- at treks

This Itcn has,, not Wen"" Vcivizif: -luuch .trouble other than a certain nunloer as often as they do of broken handles.. Kon'-dVnrt use. the; pick as mcji available, we could rc^handle ther: in the the shovel. If we .had handles' amy .area and. return tHe;"; tfo stack. ', (Srtlvtwe Officer, Ninth US 4xp&)

.

1

*

a-pick. :When this-untt wfvsvin >^ts^ tihan"I Xpejand; .yo did rccc iyc ,scnc ..picks;; . "Ucl-ibvc <i(*r.c : frctf"box'ca narked "'• tha^ they, were .: . ; with a,.191T and; I^l8 date^nVthciV^dic^tin^ ; r.anufacturcd durin,-: the first war. These handle's did\u25a0\u25a0"Srcafc' vcrv easily, aAci,. as a natter -«f» fac.^, s srjx .rf then vrcrc drv~rotted. The present mes / 1 appear t; oc Tcrj" (^,and^sst, : ,2nd Inf* div*) v*>
siirycl ;
1
\u25a0

"b i; i?q • dspccial. 'trouble

tf: 'Cr^r^:anvintre^6^ia;T

is

:

c^cr3,cncca:

with 'picks.

'

Itest .nen prefer

A

; c." Lurin : the twrr-w?e&£?W d '"ls^36 pec. 19UU; th;c-23lst- <$i Snlya^c Ocllcctin ;-; Co, reported that" cut "c'f 'appro:d-r.atcl3^ 200' pickr.atfocks received, a^cui/'&alf were- c-loanqd,. up-,-. l ; repainted, and returned to stock; the o'thcr hal,f'-vjere eva'cuat'ed' to Cor. Scnc f-r repair. Of the 100 returned to UO;j had broken, \u0084ti.pac\s, Or-n Zo.n'c for repair,, 6p handles. If ruld, Vghfindlc- then richt here. 'Uc .exceptional we' 'had handles availn"bla r. we: c trouble on "brcnl^af.-c of"''iiancUcs on pickinatitbeks or­ shovels, iiitrcnchin,;, has ;:
"been observed. \u25a0."\u25a0".;'.' V 'T->r "''•-" '"^" piv. '^-i,' lsi" 9tji Inf. Pivs., (Surxiary of coi.incnts of -^i & Class
11-IY Officer, Ist 3jnf> i'4^,...ari<l. 3Q .3^)

; ;

,

handles
j

"broker^

r'"^";:r

.6.
a,

r

:Ca3itccn£« *
™^

','

,\u25a0.\u25a0

'

* «
i.

"'

>

J

1 AiOcut 500 x^ntcens;. at, the ijist^i^alva^c Collecting Co. had'"been ; o .scrvic enable enes hcpdiiv: only gaskets', and s'crvicoa'blc. ones separated i-rii , { • c^nplcte with caskets.' Sach pile contained a^^ut 250 cant ems, -Xt was noted that a c>nsidetaTD.l~c '•nmi^er .of the depressed top type did not retain their caskets.' The HCO" in charge tf tKis particular function reported that neither the flat plastic top nor ,the depressed plastic t^p nade nuch However, the .difference insofar as retaining the gasket was concerned. raskct,. aluiiinun top -type nparly always, retained itsv
1
I

7•7 •

'

Snaps on Belts.,, Cart rldc'c; C'-vcr $ht'ron'chin£.

r

Canteen; Carrier',

Shovel ,.

*..-;s!he following statistics covprin,; a ;two~week 'pcaH/od, I*s-30- 3ec > were c^thcrcd.loy t]ae 331st $1 Sa.lvrif;c Colicct"int'r Qc> 9 ,'ishewing .the \u25a0ar^oipvts "' \u25a0,of each cfthc a"o.ove it,cr:s "receJived, 'the xiwvocr of sprviccaToie itcr.s,-.

tr.>a J.i Laundry .for processing prior t^ sending t* stock, nun^cr br-Qp.~{'ZcnQ lov'.tQ^rlx^ ?<&& th.6 aicfic^encics-'^'^brfiJ^AtT^cf:.­ evacuated
evacuated

Tr-, accclyocl. . T.n

C^u-Zonc for .Xjaunderinrr'''
dfije 'C^r tri 3 el t s

. Sv-cuntccl

(Scrviocn,>)lc) tb '"'

'

'\u25a0\u25a0' .

'

i^.' &vp.cwv£c.& tf po;: 2fnc -:': :^for'-^cpalri. ;.-,

4

'
>

1692

•\u25a0\u25a0

556-

S36*

/*£&s\u25a0 had *
2Sy<3 .

'ha^..

'orrken front fastpiain;;. hook, ' ' ' '"\u25a0\u25a0' ' br^kcn . p,c uc.& snaps, •'• fair Wear and t ear ;
:

.

Covers, Canteen

13US

;.

•'\u25a0\u25a0:.- ,v-767

581*
and te^rt

*6ls had "broken snaps *2S/o w^rn out through fair wcrvr * "0j». "had brrkdn hooks,
c/oc

V

iTo .:. deceived

go Cop, OarrjlQy.t
\u25a0

jjo „.STacu£vbed(serviceal)le)

2ipHTW^]CSBBb.-erinG Sliovel , Intrenching
269

2T0 Evacuat ed to Oov. Zone for Eepair

.

so 6

537*

*37/j worn out thrown fair wear and tear. *2U/3 broken or faulty snaps *26/<> had broken belt hooks.

.

\u26663.3$ were torn excessively.,

It has been observed that even though many of the above items have "broken snaps they are nevertheless still v/orn "by the individual. iiany canteen covers and intrenching shovel covers with broken snaps have been seen on soldiers, Broken snaps on these itcr.:^ are not considered a serious
deficiency.

.

S. Belt } 'feo , Con'oination a. It is believed possible to design a "basic" web belt similar to the present pistol belt upon which could be easily nointed pockets to accommo­ date clips for 30 cal. ammunition f carbine amr/unition, 115 cal. aiinunition., and also clips for the 3aE. This would eliminate present shortages of various types of belts, and save on salvage, because many tines belts are discarded when one or two pockets are ripped or fheir snaps become permanently stuck and ripped open. The supply of individual pockets down to the echelons would be easier to replace than ielts.
C. Or^nni zat %oncJl Equipment
1,

Stove, Cooking, G-asolfoic., U~lSk2 t 1 Burner

a. The C and X ration can is heated directly on the 1 burner stove most men in this division, ictarcly do they useless sear to cook C and £ rations unless they can supplement the operational ration with P locally procured" fresh itens* Sometimes utensils wh£ch they.picic up in buildings are used, "the 1 burner stove in itself is a very popular item. It is not believed that the cookso.tj raountain, or tiny cJfe citing utensil,, should be issued to the infantry Vritli this stove* It is to be noted that at -present th,e -infantryman somctiiios discards his 'ness; Gear v/hen he is eating operational rations for an extended i^eriod of tine, and it. is believed that any cookinc utensil issued with the 1 burner stove would be discarded in the sane fashion when u^ed, with C and X rations. A problem cf cleaning these utensils also presents itself. Operational rations should continue to be designed as they are now to be eaten cold directly out of the can
;
or heated directly in the can f (q>l and As st, 2nd, £nf , Piv.)

-

b. The basis of issue of this stove should be one per vehicle rather than one for sc many men. This stove is not only used for cooking purposes, but probably more often for other reasons such as heatinr water for shaving » washing clothing, ; takin/: spoiv:c baths i and prcvidinfc heat in snail tents and hastily constructed structures for dryinr; out wet clcthin?':. V/hcn the opportunity is available tho men cortserve tlieir stove and build fires. It is not believed utensils of any "kind'' should be issued with this stove, iten and we're set ting. alone fine as is. because it is just another • ' ' (j^l, 3 r& Armored Div,) ;

*'

\u25a0

\u25a0

i

c. Ifutensils are nade apart of this cooking outfit, it is believed t-hcy v/ould soon be; i'ost cr .discarded. It is difficult enough at present fr>r men to retain their. ness gear, and- cooking utensils would be another iten to lvu: around or discard-. (x A , Ist Inf. Piv v)

V* ?icld Obs. Kcport lie. 1U cont,,
2.,'.

Lanterns; Gasoline

serviceable, this is a vcty fine piece of -equipnent.; however, duo to the difficulty" supplyirif; rcplaocnents -"f nant,los, rlobcs, in Invari­ <•rcr.err.tors , it' is Relieved thr.t .a chc,A.\'c in t-.osi ;:n -is necessary. ably, every ti::c a unit r/.oves the r.vantlo breaks, and sor.cti:»cs even the ;;lobc. As rmch care as possible is exercised out this thin;: still breaks thiiil;.v;c-havc-ncn sr/zirt encu;h'to fi.oirc out a better type of onus. I l^it^t. The noise produced "by .the present converted single nan tic _, .' . . ". lantern 'do' cs not Mother 'much, once you. f ;c.t. used- to it,(Sugary of councfit-s' -e'f v-i^-Jrd -Armored 3iv> > C> it Ist Inf. Div'v,, Class 11-' IV- Officer, let Inf : £iv. ," and r.any other officers and IM questioned at - ' •'• rando::;.) \u25a0".\u25a0 • .'; . ...- •/ • . • ,• . . .

a,

r *;.hcr.

and^

.

..

•\u25a0

\u25a0

>

"b. Reference is nnde' to ''3" vrliiph describes an ir.rprovisp.tion to the Pressure C-asolinc Lantern l)y a nc:.;ocr cf the Maintenance and Hcpair staff of the- " 28th KcdicbX Dcl^t'Co, at pxesent located in Maastricht , " -V.. •' Hollr.ncl. c. The CO' ph& officer- in 'chrrr;c of the U'vintcnancc '.and xtcoair Shop, and• the scldicr credited with tho, .infomat irn, . olair^i that over twenty (20) lanterns imich they 'currently .use have rir-t lircl..the r.antlcs olo\m out at the -'jcfrtori jeeausc cf. the insfallatirn-ojf tjn part -referred, to in the Appendix. • The so-called n diff user" -has occn: the suoject of approxiruatcly throe (3) tenths cxperi.T.Ciitatirn-. .On. the "D^ttor. vras flat *^.c »r.si m rather tban concave-, vrhlcH -tended -ta .burn 'it '^'-i i-orc rajjidly. The present CLcsiV;n has used satisrtact^r^l;' for., over a n.chth, and even th-av.h all users are -cfautioncd to, turn on lant*crn only aV-u'^.a quarter of a turn, it v:as c'oserved that a la-ntcrr. was. lit several tir.ics with the that the valve v/icLc" ope 2. vifhcuf p^piT^; the r.antlc. t*% is.t^ijc n^tcd ; £2cn. section of the diffuscr nust. face -the ,--:-crigi-'vtor tube for proper epe ration.

,

\u25a0

1

It \ as noticed that ran;'- of the flar.c cups v.'aich vferc turned off at the "br.se (a corners defect noted in previous r^p orts) \rcrc bcin^ welded by a local air corps maintenance unit. The result v;as not too satis­ factory because the flanc burned eccentrically, not spreading evenly.
f

d,

defect described by these ncciianics' vras the heavy carbonization and eventual "freezing" of tlio nc iscntricn cci5cntric block" which r:ovcs the needle up and-dovm, I>.ny individuals (ic. net use' this periodi­ cally to clean the needle and it "frco^gs" quite solid v.dth . carben. Many ti:.ics the brass, stc:.; casting housiii;; the ccoscnt-ric nust be replaced for this reason- and never has been available The soldier a^Ls'o described a heavy carbonization at the point where the tube joins the base of the l.antcrh,v7Hic")i he'. claj,:-cd. resulted fror. a l>j.at blast continually bcinf; forced downward out frcr. the mantle. Many ;generators were replaced because of carbon completely closing the epenin", and it was felt that
cordon

c. Another

the diffuscr rut the heat instead rf -^lowin/: it to blast and concentrate cV-whward on the joint .referred., to, v/r^lcl reduce generator • replace: vents, . •:>..' ....".'
\u25a0

3» Stove,
a.

Tent

The first thir^ to break on this,- st^vc .is the cast iron •yratc. It sccr.s as if this part should bo available- as a c^.r-poncnt part. It is believed if it were,,., there would, be less replacements qlcn-andcd on entire stoves.
(Class 11-IY Officer, Ist Inf. Div.)

>./

—12—

>

Q/i Field Obs, Report
%,' »gQ.ntn,f 3-c

Ho,

\u25a0\u25a0\u25a0-\u25a0\u25a0'\u25a0.

:^%

a\ Tent repair is haripcrcd these days for: lack of a' suitable place in which' to .properly dry Wet 'canvas, Jhc weather for the past few months has bad in.this respect, arid indoor facilities for this -type of work arc been difficult to obtain. The' type sewing machine with' a long am, used/by the Ordnance Service for repairing pmxlins,- is a nuch better piece/of eouip ' nc'nt that the one our- -Repair companies' have- te repair tentitle, .
:

.\u25a0

(Salvage Officer, Uinth US Army)

Trouble is experienced- with command post tents leaking and not bcin^ li-:htproof. ?hc lattci4 feature, especially, is essential. Only recently, a Idrand new OP tent was returned l)y a 3n. "because it was showing li^ht in • many cracks,
(*4i Class 11-.IT Officer, Ist Inf. 2iv.)

b,

5. Kits, BnrlJor
However, replacements of
a. Shis outfit is \tc>rkiiic; satisfactorily. corpenent x^arts worn cut ,or lost have not "been available Civilian
"barbers cccasir-nally sharpened our tools » "but soi.ze of then have "gone"
to a point where replacements a,re necessary.
(i# A Class ll4f Officer, Ist Inf. Div.; yit 3rd Arnorod Div»)

I).

SvipxDlies

1, Soap
least, 'There seens to 09 sufficient soap in the IQ^ln-l ration. At ' porrplains a"bout not Getting enough, and the anount airoadj in the no one ration is aipparently consiAned. Ken do not wash often enough under actual conDat conditions to warrant the inclusion of soap in C and; X rations. It is Relieved that the inclusion of this iten would "be a waste of space. " *
a,
7'7

and material. The allrrpurposo soap scens (ox 4 and Asst/gi, 2nd Inf DivJ

'

.

to

"oo satisfactory.

'

b,

It is believed that soap should be issued. as it is now, and not included in the G and IC rations > nor should an additional anount be included in the 10r-in^l ration* With whatever .anount of s-^ap we receive
fron Con Zone, it is posßiHe to control and apportion its, distribution
to units nocdirit; it riostt /' .
(^: Class 11-IV Officer^ Hinth US Amy)

'

2. Or can, protective, Flashburn iten but it has nevpr been available. (^1 Class tZrIY Officer, ITinth US

r*

There is a demand for this

3.
we Isslic allowances*
a.

Stationery
stationery more on a

; attcr.pt to establish priorities is 'made bec^ausc very needs; as" can example,- the Eq_s. ;"inth rarely do we have sufficient 'for all TJS'AiTTjr uses about 2,000' reams of nimccfcraph paper every three weeks, This is considerably over the table of -allowances, but it is needed. (Class lI^IY Officer, Hinth US' Army)

"need" basis rather than

by table of

An

U. Liquid lucls
a. is believed that it- should be a'l-iilitary characteristic thnt all stoves * heaters, and. .lanterns developed by the army, burn the "sane fuel as the majority of the vehicles burn; at present' f, this is leaded gasoline If there wore n^ problen of d'istributiori, anct St could be insured that several kinds of fuel would be available for use in many varied types of

.

Un

flit||

IItti^'

UP- ISTiFiED

YcMctcs:,.^mrnorsY :licai;er.s, and lanterns,: it would-^c a- decided advantageu'\ 25a0 :in i:akc ustroF sii^lir Earners opcr^tin ;-*on'cliffcTont fuels'. prescht'-osp^^cne^^s-^>eerrthat sor.e certain fuels have ' net noe en readily in' nost case's •. availa^ler whcrcasy "leaded baseline is>>available vji,*-2nd In£:., v'iv.); . j Officer, i-ittntk-USVAriiy; na >sst\ ('Class \u25a0111

.However-^
\u25a0 \u25a0

j

\u25a0

5,
n,,f

Qork T
)

this the surgeon 1s office of cork. It division "khs Teeniest c£ the C^rt:cri:aste^^c^ b"btain -an anount .is planned tcchar brC-Swii th^ cork* and «^roly .it underneath individuals an-sbouMn^ all pu^s* and "barroens eyes-' for this purpose-,^ At'•present.",: \u25a0\u25a0' I . villages- to '^et-as>:rj^co:rks'as'-i>assi'blc. in three (Clas-s I^IV OCftccr,^st -Inf i>iv^)

f^^-dttc:rp^'''to rceUie:e .snow

Ib" tain1

of^

.

E.

uiscellanc^ue­
IV 'BzXSrn.se
'•
y

TllT

11

\u25a0':

a.

The tjtji; %h •Div^Vwas--p*tssctv:ca- spondfe;- nu;ch tine and "effort in salv^rinr; clothing and equipnent collected i.n his area. Six local ens tr stock. u|!,ncss>»^ear and return the it civilians vfhr'o .hired \u25a0\u25a0%¥' clean : 2) serins nachines wh:ich arc used in the division Ist- Inf. 2iv. 'has; -two' { .-. . \u25a0; . v .'\u25a0 . \u25a0'' ': 'V r-est area for' clothing, repair .-" >; •..:.:;, .
; ••

'

'

j >*\u25a0

find it pbssim,6 Inth^s'area to \u25a0\u25a0Jir.ve "c^r.r QoO,lccting companies do V. V6 ; quite- a. little repair toc£k-on lt ens In frtfSLSv. tfh^if WQ riry- return, then to stock ;-:ore ouickiy. Svcry collecting conpany has a dcta.chi.ient at Class I truckhcads^crc' the \u25a0initial.'" sorting-: is nn.de ar soon, as loads arrive. c^llectinr; The sinplc repair c-fi nany'itcns is elenb ri hsrvfoy the " e:ht '•• • c^rpa?iy staff ratfcer fchan'te evacuate the. entire lety' '\u0 84
I (Salvarc Officer, iT-in'th" TJS

'
;

'

;

" 2,:" Sh^c R'o-pp.ir »
\u0084
|
\u25a0 \u25a0

\u0084',M,Jt,

i

a. Since the Brest ca::pai ;m this division has had with it 10 civilians 161 classified' as, POV's, who have "been d-inr all the division 6 shoe repair vrrk -)lus any other miscellaneous repair jo as. Those ncn had their own shoe repair tofls and nachinc^ with then, and certain supplies arc drawn frcn strcks.

(j:,-:23th Inf....Div.)'

3. Ifat-civa op. client rMid fflano~3csi6tn.nt Xrnro
a\ .It was '\u25a0reported oy the Asst t Laundi-y Officer^ iTicth US prny that ar:.:orcd force, staff personnel have approached hin conccr^in^
the possi­ bility of rc-wntcrprr'c.fihr:, fireproof in,;, and rc~irrjprc';na tinr; clothing of
Shis was not thought to "oc feasible
t-anlccrs, usin^ laundry machinery. ; Maundering bf' cloibhih^r would certainly suffer ,in the ncantinc.
the Hovxver, this observation spens to inrUcatc there will "be a need for
_ rc~uaterproo.fin{.; nany of the/- water-rcp client -itens: :of .clothing which: are '' ; ;. ; Carps. .;. "•\u25a0 \u25a0:...­ cr at present standard --is'suc' a-y 'the /\u25a0 v
\u25a0

.

U.
ay.a v '\u25a0 .

I/E

ai Glothinr;

It has.-:Deen previously: reported that \u25a0on^rc^fne.n't :^f-;thc 'Z^t'h Inf. Piv, ; •­ has nadc it SOP to • issue the infantry^ soldier only the it-ens of c^othinf;
he can" vjear, and regain the rest of- the ..authorization 'in. unit.
' storage (sec :'Gsi Jicl&CPok, Eeport' ro.; 10.);,: Jhis; systpn was observed in
• aotxial' operation a^'ain ahd-vas 'apparently working atit very sucrccssfuily.­ Cne-Bn.r o*f infantry had "be en .pulled out: r:'S fth<i:linc, ;andwqre filing,' through a 'buii.dinc:, receiving OP !s, underwear, and socks, and a few other T/S itens which- they needed and which were available. They then claribcrod

i

m,

«

frjrrjrvr

3f

»

'£%»*s!<•*

aboard trucks and were driven, to showers at facilities of a privately owned coal mine. There they undressed, dropped all t.Jieir- dirty clothing in a pile, had their bath and dressed in clean clothing. .The regimental S-U had the dirty clothing laundered in bulk, returned to the warehouse where it was sorted' and s-ised ready .for the next outfit coming off the line. The definitely unserviceable items were evacuated.
1

b. The battalion commander of the unit being so processed was very pleased with this set-up. The" division \si stated that this system had been cperating quite successfully .for. the past 5 °r 6 weeks and it was planned to observe its effectiveness for the next couple months before the pro­ cedure would be extended to the other infantry regiments of the division.
attempt to maintain a stock of Class 3 socks, underwear, and wool c. I 03 shirts and trousers for approximately one battalion so I can .of fer a change of clcthing to a unit which is pulled out of the line suddenly, which is always the .case. This can quite easily be carried in organic transportation, for an S~U of a regiment to maintain a large stock is a ­ hardship , , . Officer, Ist Inf. Div,) {Qfrl Class 11-IY
\u25a0

IT, laI??7ZMQ%
1

FACTORS

A,.- A discussion on this subject was held' with the Class 11-IY Officer, Tinth ITS A,rmy. Ec has attempted to maintain a large chart next to his desk with stock balances and a rough maintenance factor on certain Q£* items. The- original maintenance factor was taken from Qfc Qom Zone ' experience and -several changes Were made in a few items as demands in— Eowever, no definite formula -or method had been derived as to creased. properly based factor. a B, During a discussion on this subject with the Class lI—IT Officer, Ist Jnf. Div., it was pointed out that although a "maintenance 1 factor as such is proper terminology in connection vith replacing worn out items, there is also a "combat 11 maintenance factor- which sometimes is not con­ sidered in arriving at a true .figure. "Combat" replacement applies especially to such items as. field ranges and parts, mess gear ana other organizational \u25a0•equipment which normally doesnlt "wear" out. One enemy shell can, and has, wiped out an entire kitchen and its equipment. Sometimes even "clothing, and equipage falls in the category of combat '" This division has developed a 16s.ses rather than actual maintenance. table of maintenance factors over a period of six months, June through The table shows a rather November 19UU inclusive. (See Appendix MAn ) true picture of net only the items consumed but also includes amounts of each item due the division but not furnished it at the end of the six month period. During the course of these six months, as well as at present, as many items as possible, and as circumstances warranted, wore salvaged, processed, and returned' to division stock. Much thought and effort was expended- in getting together such figures.
\u25a0•

'

.

Y. JxISCSXiX^IEOIJvS A. Graves Registration

1.

Headquarters, Ifinth US Army, G-raves Registration Section consists at the present time of ."two (2)' officers and seven (j) enlisted wen (l officer and 3 J-i* of ''this, group are on i)S from the SOSth Grayes Registration Co). Only one .cemetery is now operated for the entire army.

two full Graves .Registration companies,- and the Kq.s. one platoon ; company. One full company docs I<he Collecting and o| evacuating for the -Army area. -Another full' company is_ splft so tha,t and
2.
5?h3,s Army .uses

'«*;3

<#: Field Cbs , Report

|f.$ifrci>nt>

V' . . *f\|(TFl

the Hqs. and two platoons operate the cemetery, and the other two platoons operate collecting' points for divisions and evacuate from the collecting points to the cemetery. The other company Hqs and one platoon 'perform dis'internments,- attend to the many isolated "burials occurring over the army area, and other miscellaneous duties. The Army, in all cases, sets the policy and SOP even though collecting points operate usually with divisions. It is a unit responsibility to bring "bodies -to the division • collecting paint , whioh is usually located near the division Quartermaster. The collecting point is operated "by 1 officer and l from the Graves 6 men. Registration Co. Experience has proven that this number has "been sufficient «| ilen are rotated at intervals with ether men from Graves Registration Co. Hqs i "< This practice permits rest, "baths, change of clothing, etc.

.

3. Three methods
i

of positive- identification of "bodies are used, in the follo ring priorities:

(l) ' Identification

tags

•(2) Pay books (3) Certification of person recognizing "body
Each collecting point -operates three (3) rj/h ton trucks with three (3) 1-ton trailers. Generally this system works satisfactorily. During the St. Lo "break-through, -there was 'a period when approximately 3^o bodies per day were evacuated and buried.

~,

Ll. Units prefer to evacuate their own dead to- collecting points because they feel a moral responsibility and also they can identify bodies niorc readily and ruickly than could a special Graves Registration ovacuating team or organisation which would operate in the forward area. From the Army G3D standpoint, the present system is better than for any Graves Registration organization performing the complete evacuation similar to the i'iedical Service in the evacuation of wounded.

i

\u25a05

1 <(
\u25a0•.

j

c

Insofar as a special Pouch, Human Remains, 3urial Type, is concerned, such an item would be better' than the mattress cover which is used at It ie recommended that if such an item is available for issue, present. it be stocked at Army Class II IV depots and its issue controlled by GRO is

\u25a05.

"=,
X

•at .Army.

6.

At present the 60Sth Graves Registration Co, is using twelve (12) 1-ton *
trailers and five (5) l/U ton trailers over and above its T/O&S for
evacuating bodies. These trailers were borrowed from a truck company while
the unit was still in the UK.

1

7. Several immersion type heaters arc being used fcr the sterilization of instruments by medical and GR personnel handling bodies at cemeteries and collecting points. They are working satisfactorily but arc not on T/OcsE and some provision for sterilization should ''oc made.' During cold and
inclement vcathcr a tent should also be provided collecting points
and *• c-cmetcrics for processing bodies.
(lst'Lt., 608th GR Co. at present on i)S with Graves Registration Sect.,
ITinth US Army)

that a Graves Registration Co, operate v/ith each corps and each army in the field. . The evacuation system "oy units to collecting points, as being handled at present, has proved satisfactory. If a special Graves Registration unit instead of given the responsibility of evacuating bodies from the combat units wore the front line, such personnel would have to be as highly and specially trained. as infantrymen in order t* perform proper evacuation with the J minimum ef casualties. The average experienced combat infantryman is jj concerned v/ith- getting around and looking. out for himself. He docs not move unless he has to. .It is believed that any Graves Registration pcrsonnJ

8. As an ideal set-up, it is recommended

-16­

"

J

\u26 6


QM Meld Obs. Hepoft Ho.

\u0084

YWMpAH

# R f* "'lfif^fl

operating as far forward eSt tMs would be subject to heavier casualties than the combat personnel in that- area. Furthermore, it is not "believed that bodies cculd "be evacuate^ as rapidly "by such a Graves Registration unit

.

very much "better for f Burial Type, would "be "badly mangled "bodies than the present mattress covers which are novr being used for all bodies , At the present time, approximately 10 or 15 dis­ intcrnmonts per week arc being made for identification purposes, and such a pouch would be a much more satisfactory container than the mattress cover. Again, if ever a national Cemetery is established after the war, and dis internments on a large scale were made, mattress -covers would be ouitc disintegrated, At the present time, difficulty is being experienced by people "appropriating* mattress covers, stuffing them with straw and ' : using them to sleep oorn r

9. The Pouch, Human Remains

10. At present there are a number of Dutch troops under command of the T inth US Army. They serve as guards, police, etc,, and are quartered, I fed and paid bjr the Army, In. case the.se individuals arc killed, their bodies arc usually sent to their homes. In one such case occurring in this area, the body was buried in a local civilian cemetery, The method of handling records, and whether such individuals should be buried as allies, is- not definitely known. 3. Effects
1,

Initially the effects of casualties wore forwarded to the Effects Com Zone, immediately after the . individual became a casualty. This procedure did not work very well because much difficulty experienced in getting the effects back to the individual returned was to jiuty or sent to replacement centers, or those who needed their effects at hospitals. At present,, in the case of enlisted men who are wounded in action, tjhc initiative rests with a division to hold personal effects for 30 days, or deliver them to the man at the hospital, In the case of officers' personal effects this same procedure 'applies, except that the effects can be held by the division for 90 days or sent to the officer at the hospital. The present personal effects bag for enlisted personnel, with the drawstring, is considered satisfactory, but more should be available to divisions directly, so that effects can be properly inventoried
and forwarded to the rear initially, it is now, the personal effects
arriyc in miscellaneous containers.
(O-ravcs Officer, ITinth US Army)

Quartermaster,

*

0,

Salvage

Operations

1. A collecting team from this Salvage Collecting Co, operates in division areas and. has made arrangements with the division of each division in which .it operates to ,rc turn all CyK items which can be immediately re-issued' to the division Cy.;SO rather than ovacuatp them to the rear.. Ordinarily, the load picked up in a division area on one day will be sorted out at the truckhcad from which tfyo collecting company operates, and serviceable items returned to the same division C^ISO the next day when the collecting
team goes forward to resume
operations

.

2. Approximately four (v) trucks of salvage have been collected daily, the bulk of which are Quartermaster items. This collecting team searches buildings, houses, fields and foxholes for equipment. Recently* during re-shuffling of many units en this front, it has done a the movement and big business in the collection of salvage, One division/which had not
17

Ullil 3 KB** tt^*^ %
Q^l 111I11eld O"bs.- Report Fo. 11l cont.
\

W

**-»\u25a0*

**

1

in this area there was a high increase (231st <$: Salvage Collecting. Co.)

seen action until recently

us§d%ull Add

equipment in an engagement, in the collection of items.

and

RGBSaT ii. LITTLEJOHiT T
X

Major G-eneral, J.S,A* Chief Quartermaster

Incls: Appendix A 6 B

Hjl DIS23H3UIOII0Hj

C^0,,. .,....,.
Q)i Seventh

OC^l, Corn 2one \u0084.,,,,
CJI Pirst US Army Q^l Third US Army

EEIS Team Captains.'.

1
Army, \u0084...*..
1
US 1
tyi. ITinth US i^rmy qli Fifteenth. US Army. \u0084,',.* 1
o,l'x Sixth US Arn^r Group \u0084..,-;_ 1
1
Q^l Twelfth US Army Grouju f ..•••*' 1
Q^* Ady Sec Com Zone • • • f« 1
Q^i SOLOC,

........... ...........

2 1

... .. .. ,...

.-

:U

1

•'

"

.

T.IS­

*(>

\u25a0

-S>

3elt, tfc-b, Vaipt

UO

811
r

.

102.0

kh

277

U6-O

36
3S uo
Drawers ,. 'fool

30 32 3U

15936

U2

UU' U6
28
.

12133 21UU 379 l&j. 5 17

20D55

2322.66
33U2.0
2022.0

355J

63.0
27.3
2,83 1

23
50

s

(Sec rote 2.)

2

30 32

3U
./

36

»

uo
C-loves, leather, heavy, worjeing Q-loves, riding

32

623 10U

9SU

277

210.. 0

69.25
s.o

157.0 26.0

U2
UU

uo
362

32

13

10.0 3,25

Medium
&arge

IUUO

, Xined

10 11
Gloves, riding, unlined
Grloyes, wool- ,

9

S3 U6
'

2U0.0 60.3 1.5

1

7.66
73,0 18.0

Hediina
Large

fe'raaU
g

.17

U39 10$
'

392

65.33

on

10 11

9

162S

2037

U33
39U_

108.25 509.25

Handkerchiefs,

Cotton

uusys

9^.5 TUSO .0

Kotc 1 lote 2

(insufficient data)
months maintenance

These figures cover only about two after initial issue had "been made.

.

These figwe.8 cover approximately -three experience after initial issue. months Some individuals wear this type underwear all year around ,
\u25a0»

(insufficient data).

APPENDIX V
-lr.

T

Q;i Picld O"bs. Hepo

Fl

sizs
Jacket

TOTi^i

, 'FicM . FicM

30 30 DAY AVERSE

I

36 B !• 36 !•
11P..L 11P..L

6030 5619

1005.0

R 38 R I 3S I

1786

210

van- ....

'301 '301
37 3U 3U
7 7 3

IU2

9*6,5 35.0 298.0

11,83
\u25a0

23.66

/i;2a..
Jacket,' EBT •;. T (Sec *; otc 3-?)

•. :

50.0 6.16 1.16
>5
739 >0 18U.0 19,63

;

5.66

u6.a ..', u6.a
\u25a03U

3;6

?^,

UU3U
110U

7S2U

836 fO

I+o
Laces legging shoe Leggings canvas
0

119 13 13 IB

2.17
3.0
259U.0

15566 6760
OD
'

23U50
9010

39.02. 0

Overcoat, -w001.,-.

(See iTotc 3«)
\u25a0

3".3>'. \u25a0\u25a0 3*"A' 36 7BL
S UO S UO H

"\u25a0
f

691
18

1501.6

1126.6

115.0

5

.

\u25a0

. .

\u25a0)

36' L L 38' a L J8 L

18.0

5.0

17

UQ L U2 Xi U2 Xi

»

1U 1 22 X9
10 18 1
,

39

17.0 -39.0

'1.0
19.0 '18.0

22;0'
I

10,0

Haincoat ,

synthetic

10;- » Small

-1.0

Medium
Large

Shirt, wool

1285 3839 1567 •836 166 3X36
32

21U ,0
261.0
\u26 6

639. g

1U -r32 -r32

.

IH-33 IH-33

15-35. 15-35.

15 -32 15 -33." -33." 15. -3U

lUi-32 itir-33 *l*-3U

1502

86 1988
1022

1052

17-5,3 •1U.3

-27.66" ' 522.6
331.3
250,3

5>33 X39.5 X39.5

.

i i

I

16^33 16^33 1-7-3 3 3 -17-35 -17-35 174-33

16 r-3U 16 -35-

X5i~32 X5i~32 Isi-3U 154-35 16 -33

175 175 57

-\ \u25a0\u25a0\u25a09.5
\u25a0

29.16

1382 278 72

17t>.3 230.3
\u25a0U6,3

131

286 \u25a09S

-1+7.6S 16.33
'" '
:

12.0 21. 53

'

. -6u

vSO

10,66
.5,0

5.335.33­

\u25a0"30

.2

21 21

\u25a0'-•\u25a0\u25a0\u25a0

.

-3,5
. .33:

ITote 3»

Tiiis isprolpably a conservative figure "because much renovation, and salvage on these items has "been- and 3,s "being accomplished "by the division en its'. o^m seeing; machines.

& V

V

*.­

Q/i Field O"bs. HeiDort iTo \u25a01U i^ajfl?<r* cont A

.

*
Shoes, Service
(See Tote k.)
'

SIZE

TO2AL 1
\u25a0

30 B&I

5 A'
*

5 3-.
5 5

5

C D 3

3 6

.17
,5

25
\u25a0

H. 6 1 16

l; 0

SSE

16

2U

',

6 c 6 psp •6s 6 ss
V

6a 6 3

sis SiO 5*3 54 3 5k 'S3

,

h}

31

x
\u25a0

2.66 M-7 5.17 7.17 9.5 6.66
.17

UO
2
s

57

V;A
3

179

165 77

207

5 23

3U.5

.83 3.83 .17

.33

27.5

30,0

. .6J 0 6* d
6^
73 7c
0

6-J6-J­

1• 11

E 6| ks 7A

.

32S 27s 331

12.^3

5U.66 U6.33
55.17

1

7 d 7E 7 EE

17s
.

25

UU3

631 .

xou.g 7U,0

29.66

.17 U. 7 17 1

li
1

Ik 7i o 5 7? »
g 3

7* a 3
g4

'6
Ul 18U

UO5

.

906 636
26

151*0

67.5 X.XT 6.55 30.66
SB.O 3.5

X06.0 7.17 57.0 98.0 88.5 2.66 9.33 81.5
.

'

'

21

.
\u25a0

2 0 g D g % 8 SE 8-| A
3

\u25a0

3U3 SSS 58S
US9

1b.6,6

531 16

g-J
\u25a0

8| C 6-| 3
E

56
'

1202

200,0

S| ES 3 A

'

9 es 9i a

9 9 9 3

3 0 3

592 26 U6

697

1x6,0

H3S

38.$ U. 3 33 3 19.33

% -

U26
U2S

591
\u25a0

98.5
71.0

72.6

9I- 6
9i D
3^
E

94.3

350 26 107 . 81?
.

94 es

322 293

7103 135.3
53,7

U. 3 33 3 17. 8S

58.33

U8.83

.

\

(#.

jfield

Shoes, Service cont ,
(See i"ote

IU, O"bs. Sep»rt To, r^'i App A cont. B * J A, q g H w '*.02\u 5a • * ri V \ c \ «i *•\u25a0 ,' c i-'* i,y? yr1: i£i SLJi 3U.
H
•\u25a0<> 1 » 4 W#
[

.

I.'

\u25a0\u25a0»

1

:d

'•\u25a0

i

\u25a0

\u25a0

jt

r

L

y

ir

L%

nnnjT nnn\T

30

mx mx

AVJuruujj:

«

U.)

10 10 10 10 10 10

A 3

33
czcz 00

c
D L

U55 15.0

297

in.66 U9.5

5.5

10\

lOj- A
3

E5

55
Sb

76.0 26.33

29

10^ c 10-> I) XOS E

\Q% SS 11 A 11 3 11 Q. 11 D 11 E 11 S£ 11^ A 11^ 3 C
lit; X)

197 2^7 99
IUB

1U.33

9.33 U.83

39.5 16,5 10.5

32. 53 32.53

39

116 55

118

63

6.5 19.66
\u25a07.66
3.Q

2U.66

18

h6

19.33 '9.17 3.17

XX-?"

ll| E
11-7
JSiL.

12-' A 12 3 12 C
»

12 S 12 SE
\u25a0

\Z

D

19 62 55 29 13 1U 23 23
28
8

.

9.17 •U.83 83 2.17 . 2.33 3. 53 3. 53

•10.33

Soc;':s, li-ht wocl

»

10 11 12

XQ-V
A3A3­

UOOU6
17970 10273

19 U3SH

- \u25a01.33
3.17

U.66

IX4
Suit, '.forking, 1 pc :i3T

36767
890 H77 37 19
\u25a0

7?52.0 667U.0 6^3X,0
2995.0 1712.0 XUS.3 95.5

i

36 a 36 l
3o B
UOE UO- L U2- R U2 L

38

L

156

6.17 26.0 •. 7.66
3.17 ,66 1.5 735.0
.06

Trousers, K3T

kh B 30-31

v _i_
UUII 137Q U271 1307

v

30-33 32-33

3:2-31
3U-31 3U-33

3669

•228.3 .309.5

:711.63
216,0

611.5

36-31 36-33

1557 328

2.61
-U2

,U3.5

5U.66
7.0

3&-33 UO-31

38-31

uo

\u25a0

CSfroes, Service) iTote k, This figure should represent an excellent division replacement factor "because no repairs are ever made to shoes throug. out this division, including any troops attached to it.

-

.

iti: Uk-33
-ril­

w~3?

3 16 3

•••

6.66
-5 2,66

4

tlmiLfkv w 4| i y £,

Q)l

Held. O"bs. Report l"o, HT, -App. A cont. SIZE ITI^I ITI^I

TQTAL

30 HiY 15.0

Trousers, '.Tool, 'OD))

28^-31
28^-31 29-29 29-29

366 366
' '

19

30-31 30-31

30-33 30-33
31-29 31-29

31-31
31-31 31r-33
31r-33

29-33 29-33
30-29 30-29

29-31

553 553 1U73

550 550 105 105

17,5

91.66
92.0

61.0

956

222 222

16U .3
.3
•219*0

2115.5 37.0

3?-29 3?-29

32-29 32-29
32-31
32-31 32-33 32-33
32-35 32-35

33-31
33-31

131U 902 UO7 UO7 20U9 2500 2500

150.3

31-1.5 )a6.66
77,0

67.66
9.5

U62 U62
57 622 955
SO5 900
900 355 355

103.66
159.0 \u25a013U.0
150,0

33-33 33-33

\

36-31
36-31 .3^-33 .3^-33

36-31 36-31
36-33 36-33
36-35 36-35

36-35 36-35

3U-31 3U-31
3U-33 3U-33
3U-35 3U-35

172

219 219

U2" U2"

•25.66
6,0
\u25a0

36.5

59-0 59-0

7,0

36 36

29 29

UO-31 UO-31

Undershirt, Cotton

v v
8 8 S S
2

UO-33 UO-33
U2*33 U2*33
3U 3U

M 3 .66
.66 1.33
1.33

.SB

36 36

3S 3S

16536

152UU­ 152UU-

2756.0 25U1,0
12U.0
\u25a0

,U2

HO. HO.

5131

355.0

SUU 109

16 16
5
_^_

U6
U6
Undershirt, V'ooX (See Hote 2.)

2Lt.S3 2.66 SI

3U 3U

HO
HO

11 GO

36 36

32 32

1527 1527

5757­ . 5
._..

295.0 3,22.0
in,35 1,0 19,5

72.0

U2 U2

_UU _UU

1.25 1.25

U

chevron Insignia, sleeve- chevron

H/Sgt H/Sgt
H/Sgt
S/Sgt
S/Sgt

l/Sgt l/Sgt
T/Sgt
T/Sgt
iTt/i

117
117 jrx 352 352 U97 U97 1570 17 17
7CO

55.66
53.0 .->»
u w

po.DD

26X.66

CQJ, ,Ut>

Sgt "J-'/U Corp

T/U
T/5

567
567 266 266 136 136
Bfi7

C.O JJ ' Ur)i R 7.1 wo; UU.33 22.66 22.66

2.83

111
111 Ul3 4-O 955

1.RQ.0 159.0

69.0

Ilote 2.

months, experience

(Insufficient data).; Ihese figures coyer approximately three after initial issue. Some individuals wear this type underwear all year around.

, »-

Ml®

$

'

-

V

- •* * H *

QJi Field OTds. XT©'!

Report fcC
TOTAL

111, ~App. X coiit
:

r

.

;t.; t.

AVx3EiAG&

JiAT 30 JiAT

MAL 30 HA.T
AVEHA^S

Bag, canvas, field 1271 " Belt , cart , cal 30 319 *Belt, BAR (See *~ote 5.) **3elt, pistol (See ilote 5.) 855.;.

212.653.0

Desk^

field, company Desk, field, hqs.\
Flag, chaplain,

11 2 2

31

'5»X6
'

Blanket , wool, OD , • Canteen' • . Carrier, pack' pack' meat Can » meat Chain, identification
'

166U •
\u0084

776 , 129.0 1b.2.5

13.00

1069

178,0

216.6216.6-
609,8,

55U.66

'

3^59 3^59
505

Cover, canteen Cup, canteen

Fork Haversack Knife

. Headland, helmet Helmet, steel .
.275J.

3255 IUO3 1573 3U35 887
2
'

696

116.d

BU/o''
'

362.0 562,5

5U2 e 5: 23U.0

Christian ,•• . . faith ) flag, guidon, mcd.) See ' ) IXag,. natl s.erv Flag," G-en, Con. ) ilote) Amb; I^arker Flag, natl std, ) t. ) serv Fly tent wall large
\u25a0

1.83 .33.
,33

h
.

,66

.

55
1

.91 '~
12.11

IUQ.O

Idne.r, helmet helmet Neckband, helmet Fin, tent, s/h Pocket, mag, P/tf docket., mag, f/car"bine
pocket, mag, Si-IG'
\u25a0\u25a0

XSUUS 9UO IUB2

75J U586. U632
26 3308

U59.5
70U.0
772,0
'

.

yiy tent wall small U Globes for lantern, gas 23 G-lobes for lantern, kers. . $ Goggles v//clear lens UB6 * w/green lens • 118U

73

.16

.66 3.9

Sl.O

"I#J3

\u25a0

307U.0

156*6
2U7.0

Gauntlets barbed. wire Ratchet, claw U" edge -

w/red

lens

67 2J6

, 11.16

1970

*19

39*33

'

Po^.e, tent, s/h £ouch, £ouch, Ist Aid Pouch, mag, SHG-

..

.

U2O
12

551 » 3'
70,0 2.0

Uo Uo

Heater, immersion type Kit, barber w/case

3.16'

U7

52

7*^3 -• 8.66
.

Kit, sewing Lantern, gas, two mantle (S'ee.Eote Bf>.8 f liantern, kerosene, army

' '

35U

>.

69

59.0 11• 5
0 80 f0

BoUY
I

bedding

B,ope, tent, Spoon. Strap, f/bag, field

s/h s/h
.

131^

10U 217

lent,' shelter halfAxe handled chopping Axe intrenching w/hn<U 3ag ,\u25a0 canvas , water
Bag, carrying, ammo Bag, carrying rocket

Suspenders

1399

1019 8105 213. 132 37 70
do

673

.

1351,0 1351,0

36.0 219-.6 112^0 169.8

17-.3 17-.3

Mantles 'for lantern, gas
i-iachete,

Machine, mimeograph
ka,ch3,ne

18" bla^e

23 UOO 22

3*9 3*9

1.0

, perforator

.2 . 6
1

. 3^66
.16

.33

22*0 : 6^2 233*q

«^Q. «^Q.

Machine, adding iiattock, hndl pick #2 Outfit cook, 1 burner (See

282 282
10 10

Bucket, canvas, IS qt, Bucket, gen pur, 11; ct» Can, corrugated,

lltxlO^ Carrier axe intrench 1 919 1 26 0 Carrier pick intrench 157 Pole, upright, 12«r.3» Carrier shovel intrench 1023 919 1 121 33 33 Carrier wire cutter 728 V*2« 101 16 Case, canvas dispatch 7? Chair, folding wood U9 30-., .5.0 6<x2tt Container, rd,, insulated 373 2,83 17;. s'xC" T 6,) (See iiote 6,) " . 6.33 :^°P e dra S w/sldr strap 38 Cutter, wire 718 11°. 6 Safe, field key lock U : \u0084' .66 . Inserts f 6l f rd. Saw, crosscut 2 man o x : *. 8. ; 1.33 (See ITote -6.) , ' ' Hote 5. ~ Xt is to "be noted that simply because there is, only a cornxoaratively small amount of 3AE Taelts authorized for a division, a prop,o'rl>'ionate maintenance factor as such does not necessarily -follow. The 3AB. man is afier and conse­ first in a souad is usually the high man that the Jerry among auently there have oeen a rate of casualtiesBArimen^d replacement figure for -this' assi-stanf 3AE men.it The to "be noted that Ordnance alsoitem runs high. reports- a high Correspondingly, is replacement figure for the -BAR itself/ Belts, pistol, are now ."being used to improvise "belts-,- 3Axt, and consequently the factor for,pistol ' _" ftelts is somewhat higher. \u2666Belt, 3AE ' 3ec'ause only a comparatively small amount of 3A3. Delts to Sag, "
\u25a0\u25a0\u25a0

Can,

water, water,

5

10 gal. 16 gal, 2k gal, 32 gal. gal.

I>3 2226 26 26

11 U3 U3

Outfit officers mess kj'q Paulin, large, 17xU0 ' small, 12x17 * * T166 M vu 0 ' Pick, handled intrench T*sg Pickmattock., i'g{ Pins, tent wood \6? .

5 .83 7U2 123,6 U#l6 U#l6
? burner ( Fote 25 20 man '1U . 2.33 9. .

'

2

17 90 105
222

.
".
'

,33 2,83

7%c. 7%c.

y'ig • •

Pole, ridge, ll|
\u25a0

2U" n

j(( \u25a0TOO ,

20 20

. '^

1h33 IS6S 7
\u25a0

tVr

.

:| Vii Vii
62*16

lM '33 28 U.66 ; S , 1.33 25. U. 6 1 33 .5.5 9.16 55 39\u25a0-".. 6.5

*

239-.0 311.3

15.0 17.5 37.0
,

...-,

/cont

10*18_ 10*18

­-

v

~

'-

\u25a0\u25a0\u25a0

-

-

\u25a0

»*Belt, l^istoX

-

\u25a0\u25a0

\u0084

\u25a0

canvaa, fie4.d f Bein§ used to

make.BAE's.

•r»,

*

*

0

­ rpi*

\u25a0

"r

i

t

q: Field. Olos. Heport Ho.
JCTi
TOTAL
~
"

Ik, App. A

St&S.1/^^^ L^(l* u-'u -'
ITEM' ITEii
~

v, t_j
DAI TOTiO. TOTiiL 30 PAY AY^.^.^^ AVENGE

DAY 30 DAY AVSEaGE

Seacard, "rifle

SiGScreen, latrine complete 20 Sheath, machete 18" 1 Shovel, D hndl hndl ' rd point (See Fote 10)U69 Shovel, lg hndl rd pt 36
'

23 31

Shovel, intrenching Stretcher, shoe new

Stove, tent v//grate Stone, sharp, pocket

6711 U 236
6

Sling f color, "we^ OD Table, camp folding 5.16 cpt 3*33 Tent, command postcpt large .wall *« *\u25a0 \u25a0 %all small cpt . pyramidal cpt 7S,O' ' snuad i'^U2 cpt 66 f0 storage cpt 112,3 ,66 ,66 ?col irit, carpenters (initial) (initial) Tool set, cartvrright Trumpet G w/slide to 3F 1,0 1,0 Tube r flexible nozzle

3. 53

2

4^

37 U9

7 26

6,16 8,16 lylo U-33

f

33

/

Ul2 3 3
(initial, ,16 .
1 . 5 .83 -2 .33 . 35 5.83

Typewriter, noiwporta"ble portable Uhistle, thunderer

U6 U25

10

9U

15.66
3*o
8,0

'

70.53

iTote

6.

U "Containers, round, insulated and inserts,- round, insulated. This figure varies with the tactical situation. If constantly "being \u25a0used for supplying hot chow to front-line troops, ,the factor goes up, primarily because of combat losses,
.Flags, all types. These items, have not "been available for some time* "but organizational tailors. are making up flags using four • sewing machines which this division has "accumulated"

l ro 7. rorte 7« ote
T

.

8, rote ~"~* -v Lanterns, gasoline.

This figure, as well as the figures for all lighting "equipment and supplies, is "based on a season with shorter evenings than at present, and consequently a higher figure during , . winter months is to "be expected.
Outfit, cooking, 1 burner, 2 "burner, 20 man_. This figure is based on authorization under the old T/3, not the new one authorizing

I'ote 9,
~~~^~~

-

I'ote 10.

one per souad of 12 men.
Shovel, D

handle and long handle* round point. This figure is. quite high "because the artillery have in their possession more shovels than authorized. The additional amount is needed in order to quickly place a gun into position.

!(

4

-r-7

l-iAIHTBHALTC]3..&REPAIH

28m MEDICAL DSPOI COiPAfIY
apo
t *

339

-H
23
January

19U5

STI3J2C2;

Conversion Parts for Pressure Gasoline Lanterns.

1. l-iaatles on Pressure Gasoline Lanterns have "been blowing out shortly after being installed "because tf the force of -the gas on the "bottom of the mantle. This causes the lantern to burn with insufficient
light..

2. In this shop I have discovered aw ay to make the mantles
serviceable from one to two months. 3y the use of a small strip of
metal "bent in the shape of a flat bottomed tt TJM the force of the gas is
diffused to the sides and does ucft "burn out the bottom of the mantle.
device is suspended inside the mantle by hooking the top of each
' The side of the nTJ" to the inside of ;the burner cap.
3, I have been making these diffusers from metal binding strips , but if they were made from metal which would stand the heat better, the mantle would last even longer.
believe this device U, With the shortage of' ai^mtlcs in the 3SO, I would relieve the shortage", and at .the 'same time make mantles now in use ; : more efficient;. . .
\u25a0

'

"'

;

v

5.

Following is the diagram of the diffuser?

1

-**-* .-...••.^

*\u25a0•

-~

-*.-*«

HEADQUARTERS
COMMUNICATIONS ZONE
EUROPEAN THEATER OF OPERATIONS Office of the Chief Quartermaster
\u25a0

APO

BS7

Quartermaster

Field Observation Rjeport No* 1.3
U. S; EQUIPMENT

The purpose »f this Field Observation Report is to give proper dissemination of information collected in this Theater regarding Quartermaster equipment, supply, activities, and installations. Contained in this report are experiences of personnel of all ranks and positions in the use of Quarter­
mastereequipmentt t • Opinions, suggestions, and recommendations published herein do not necessarily have the concurrence of this Office, This communication is forv/arded as information
ONLY,

I.

GrE&ERAIi
A. Period of Time Covered by This iieport

-6

January

to

13

January

19U5?

B. :Sect or From Which Report Emanated
v

The weather was cold with the -C. Existing Weather Conditions temperature ranging from 15° to 2S° F. above sero, Snow covered the entire 'area in depth from 6" to 10", The highways were slippery and covered with ice or hard~packed snow
Mlitary Operations The entire sector was static with small patrol operations by both French and German units. Certain French Col6nial trocps (colored) had been relieved by white French soldiers and had been senttf Southern France; the colored Colonial troops were unable to acclimate themselves to the cold weather conditions.

-

~ First French Army.

D,

Nature of

-

.

E,

Report Prepared

Captain Robert Collett, Q>iC T/Sgt. Omer E. Lowry X/k Robert J f Schrass (All French Army units).

F. Units and'

lndividuals Interviewed

Hqs. First French Army
Q|i Section Q|'i. Section'- Ist Armored Div.
(M 1... Section

-

Bakery Group
2nd 314.9th ($4 Bakery Group
Coy,: 3U9th qjA Bakery Group
Uth \u25a0•sth R.A,C, (Regiment
Africa Chausseurs) Ist Bn f Zouaves (Motorized Infantry)

Co,. v

Q^i Section Ist Army Corps
9th Colonial Infantry Div.

-" -

tt

tt

3149 th <$

Total '"Number of Individuals 'Interviewed

Q?:.-. \u25a0.,.*...:., ..., ? .\u25a0.. \u25a0..;­ 20 : , ....;.. !;.. 13 .;. S^b
,
Other Officers & WOs. ; r it ' Keri,. ....;. Enlisted 2J
!

.

\u25a0

.

•\u25a0­

\u25a0

TT
tt
'

"

\u25a0

~1 "

1i I f^ Hi
G.

*^'** *****

~

fi*f\-

Qsi Field Observation Report 3Jo. 13 (ognt) Special

*

The team was accompanied to t&e.Fjj.rst" French Army area by Captain Yves Louis G-ay, French. Army,. wtiQ.vniade the "necessary arrangements for visits with the f.rench.,units..and w&o..acted as interpreter. The comments con­ tained herein represent the U.S, Army- Team's impressions gained through observation; and replies ,to questions, by .French officers and soldiers, A separate report will be submitted by Captain Gay.

11.

CLASS I
\u2666.i

A. "AM Ration 1.
The French soldiers,. are issued the regular American A ration with the following supplement's: ...300 grams, of French bread per man per day; one half liter of wine per. man., per day; 200 grams of fresh meat (beef or mutton) per man P er week; and', 6 liters or, brandy $cv day per 100. men. The soldiers consider all American canned ve.getjprbles too sweet for their taste, and condiments are added before 'serving. Items which are specifically disliked are corned .beef hash and meat -and- -vegetable stew.

(l Lt., subsistence

officer, 9th Col; Inf. Di'v.,

7

Jan. U5)

2. The A ration is very well liked but is short on the fresh meat supplement;.-this supplement is 50 lbs t jer week per 100 men. (Hote: It wasobserved at a Class Iissue point that the fresh beef 'supplement was of /t^e, ;-oarcass .type . r.athe.r. than the boneless beef issue which is normal in " ' " ''" \u25a0\u25a0". - : : ;trhei'U,S.,. Armie^)* -/ . . iP$L r 9th Col..,.lnf^;'Div., 7 Jari, U5)

.

\u25a0

3. The ratipvof; rations issued.i-n the Ist Armored. Divv is normally r;~{Oft A rations and 30/^ operational rations whether the unit is' fighting- oi*-at rest : The French soldiers consider canned American vegetables too sweet and prefer to eat fresh vegetables, More lard and coffee could be used

..

with the A ration,' and when chocolate is issued as a 'drink, additional sugar and milk, should be issued to be used in it t Whfen certain types of native troops are used, such as" Arabs, 'pork and bacon items must be ration eliminated^ from the menu. (sote: A supplementary coffee ••- : is not issued in the First French Army). (Summary Of .Comments By 32 supply officers and lICOs, Ist Armored Div,,­ 10 Jan. U5")
\u25a0\u25a0•

­

'

B, 1,.

«C" Ration

criticisms of the C ration are that the biscuits and' meat components are too sweet. He adds salt and pepper to meet his The

French -soldier's
.-\u25a0.,;

taste,.

(DC^-1 and 1 Lt., subsistence 2..

-'.\u25a0».

. . officer,
t

\u25a0

\u25a0\u25a0\u25a0\u25a0\u25a0'"

" •

9*n

Col, Inf. Div.^

7

an ? U5)

The C ration is very well li&ed, except for the prepared breakfast food* which is not. eaten, during this cold weather the l'emoh powder is disliked;- however* during, warm weather it wa§ used. (1 S-U, Africa Chausseurs^ 9 Jan."Us)

3. The new C ration is very popular with the troops. We have been receiving the new types for 30 days. Among the types received, the •preference- Is; First , meat., and spaghetti*, second, pork and beans ; third ,
meat and noodles; fburth»'meat and 'rice.
(Summary of Comments of 32 officers and ITCOs, Ist Armored Div., 10 Jan. U5)

C.

"D" Ration

1, It was the con&e'n'sus" :Vof opinion among officers and soldiers interviewed that the D ration is a gcb'd \'emse"f gejicy ration, Ho strong opinions either

f


/


for or against D. "X" Hation

3

1

'3 % <?# «•« fcil«i$ *%s% |I || it,
1

Qjl-i Field Observation Report Ho.

13 (cont) ,

the ration were encountered.

1. The "biscuits are too sweet factory. (Summary of information from U

.

Otherwise, the X ration is very satis­

Lts'. and 1 Col., 9th Col. Inf. Div., 7 Jan. U5)
men.
I have no

2. The X ration is a very good operational ration for our complaints to offer.
(S~U of the Begt, Africa Chausseurs, 9 Jan. U5)

3.
Bouillon is

very popular with the French soldiers, hut the "biscuits are considered too sweet. Cheese with bacon, egg with chopped, pork, and
similar combinations of food items found in the X ration are not liked "by Lemon the average French soldier; he prefers to eat each item separately. powder is not liked during these winter months. (Summary of Comments of 32 officers and NCOs, Ist Armored Div., 10 Jan. U5)

1. 10~in-l Eat ion

1. It was the consensus of opinion that this ration was the most popular among the French troops, whether infantry or tank divisions, This ration is normally supplemented "by wine, "brandy and fresh "bread.
F. Condiment Kits French Army, No condiment "kits arc issued in the First

A very infrequent issue of BaC kits has "been made. G» HAC Kits When issued the kit is an "extremely popular article, especially the tobacco ration. The last issue was on 1 Jan. 19U5*

\

111. . CLASS- II<k IV

A.

Clothing

1. Shoes
The French soldiers are equipped with both the Type IIand Type 111 TJ..S. shoes. They prefer a shoe with leather soles- and heels rather " than • the composition rubber soles and heels. It is believed that the'
a-,

composition soles cause the feet to perspire more during hot weather' and are colder in the winter than' the leather soles. Another criticism is that the composition soles are more slippery on snow or ice. A limited It is preferred supply of French shoes, Type M-19U1 i have been issued. and a very thick over the American shoes. This shoe has a leather heel full leather sole with a leather half sole on top of it. Botfr.the soles and Jieels contain hobnails and steel toe and heel plates. .Only the center . part of the upper is reversed leather. \ ,'.'•'

(DQJ-'i,' 9th Col. Inf.. Div., "J Jan. U5)

.

b. have both the Type 1^ and Type 111 American shoes which, in my
opinion,, do not repel water sufficiently.
(G-U, Ist Armored Div,, 9 Jan. h5)

\u0084c,

and Type 111 American shoes are used in this regiment. . Both Type II The weak po.int of the American shoes is the composition .sole which is too cold and slippery in' winter weather.' The shoes also do "not', rep el "'water sufficiently^ Our soldiers prefer the type IKL9UI French' shoes which have been issued in a ii.m;i;t.ed quantity. French tank troops prefer leather soles and heels without hobnails or the steel toe and heel plates. Hobnailed shoes are too slippery for tank men and have a tendency to create sparks

-

.

fe to

ft

\u25a0j^

*> -3­

\u25a0

,<•"•>

El

1

„..

. ... . .. .eport ITo*

13 (cont)

when the men are climbing around, the tanks (S-U, sth Regt. Africa Chausseurs, 9 Jan, U5) d. These Trench supply officers g,nd JTCOs were of the opinion that the following were the deficiencies, of the Type IIand Type 111 ."U.'S/ Arniy' ' ' ' ' shoes: '. . . . . . . . .'. . 7V7
V

.

X\: Eubber

composition soles and heels are too cold in the winter and too hot in the summer, .. ;.

2) The American shoes are not sufficiently water-repellent.
French, shoe,. Type M-19U1, with a thick leather sole and hob­ nails., wears longer-: and better than the lighter American, shoe,
-of (Summary of Comments : 32. officers and. xTCOs,;.. Ist Armored Div,,. 10; Jan. U5)

-.3) The

a> Bobbing had not been tissued ..with the Type. II Type 111 shoes and .or. the.French soldiers had to use many' improvisations to. dub their shoes; One unit used the limited quantity of..lmpregnite which had been issued them? other -units were using, any available .grease. .'liisome ..instances the _ "..'_' .', .. _ grease from, cooking had been used,' ..' .
\u25a0

..

2 V//Dubbing

.

\u25a0

3«- Overshoes and Arctics
a,,

V/ith- the exception of one division, the French troops were without This division (9th Col. Inf. Div f ) had only 6,000 pairs for overshoes. 20)000 troops,.. Overshoes are a very welcome item, but ample quantities have not been available. U. Oap,.¥ool, Knit

It'was the consensus of opinion that the wool knit cap was a very, satisfactory. item and the troops who had them had no complaints to offer, 1/ith the exception, of the 3th Col. Inf, Piv», which had none, the other ' ' units had approximately f^yo of the men supplied with these- caps. •

a.

\u25a0

5«- Underwear
a. The American woolen underwear, both 'drawers and shirts, is/considered' best, items issued to the French soldiers. Uot one complaint one of the • , was registered among all the troops interviewed. Woolen underwear is con­ sidered, highly -satisfactory, very useful and, .warm. .

..

.

k 4

6,
a...:; The

Socks

socks.

agreement

American socks issued in this. Army are the lightweight woolen The supply officers and. enlisted men interviewed were .'in complete ""

/

conditions,.. The French troops also have re.ceiv.ed a limited supply of a heavy woolen French .sock which is .preferred, because it provides more wa-rmth, and :longer wear , LTo cushion sole socks or heavy woolen American " * . . . socks have been issued.
;

tdiat .the sock is

too light and not watfm 'enough' for present

-•\u25a0<.-

7. Oloves
a.
to my ixroop-s , This glove is very satisfactory.

The v/oolen glove with leather palm has been issued in \u25a0limited qtiarit itic

(DCili, 9th'Col. Inf. Div., 7 Jan. h5)

-h­

i

#

titkii%i "ft
Csl Field Observation Report Ho. 13 (cont)

c^i^ ll^!*

b. Both the wool knit glove and wool knit glove with leather palm have "been issued in this division. The glove with the leather palm is preferred "because it is warmer and wears longer, (Summary of Comments of I , 2 Capts., 2 Majors, Ist Armored Div,,• lit. \u25a0\u25a0\u25a0'• 9 Jan. us) '. .;" .: . ..:
:

\

8. Mufflers

a. No mufflers of any type have "been issued in the First French Army Many soldiers. and officers have, had mufflers through supply channels. sent from home, or use the Arabian turban as such.
;

9. Trousers, Wool, OP
a.. The woolen trousers are too light for combat wear and the points which
usually wear out first are at the knees,- The seams "break at the crotch,
(Note: It was observed that the. French soldiers were equipped with the

: IS oz. American woolen trousers), . ...
(Summary of Comments of U Lts,, 1 Col., 9th Col. Inf Div,, 7 Jan. U5)
\u25a0

....

.

b. The woolen trousers being used are too light for present operations,
A suggestion was made that flaps with buttons be placed on the hip pockets
to eliminate the loss of articles from the pockets.
(Summary of Comments of 1 Capt , 2 Lts., 2 Majors, -Ist Armored Div.,
' . 9 Jan, U5) . .

.

c. It was the consensus of opinion of 32 officers and j-TCOs (supply men) of the Ist Armored Div. that the trousers, wool, OD was a satisfactory article and no complaints were gathered. 10

.

Shirt, Wool, OP

n

The individuals interviewed were in' agreeiiient that the woolen shirt is an exceptionally durable item and is weir liked by the French' "troops,. A few complaints were received that it .shrinks considerably when laundered. Each soldier washes his own clothing by hand in the French Army.

a.

11,

Overcoat, Wool, Roll Collar
'

a. The overcoat is very well liked, , Infantrymen, wear them in combat '•\u25a0' and do not seem to. mind the bulkines.s of. the .'article. It is often used as a blanket because bur soldiers have been issued only' two "blankets, (Summary of Comments of U Lts,, 1 Col., 9*h Col. Inf. Div., 7 Jan. U5)
r

b.

The overcoat .is a very warm .and. satis factory article, . Tjae men cannot wear them in the tanks., but, use either. mackinaws of field, jackets, , (Summary of Comments- of. 1Lt ,., 2 Capts., 2' Majors, Isf Armored Div., Jan. U5) 9

c. It was observed that 9 °ut of 10 French soldiers wore the overcoat issued them. This, varies wicieiy from, previous, .observations .among American troops in tiie Third:U.S..Army where", it was noted that -few • infantrymen wore the. overcoat. ..' '._./ ..".';.'' .'"'"_.
12.. ..Jacket, -Field, OP
a. French troops have been, issued the old jacket, field, $D t It is the consensus of .opinion, that the jacket is. .too. cold f too. light and .does not ; repel v/ater sufficiently. The ...slash type pockets are jaot well deceived, for items are lost from the pockets when the combat troops" crawl on the ground. Uo .combat jackets or.h-1 9.54.3 .jackets have been issued in this Arnvr­
;

-5­

«-*•» f
l?yy
ty

Pi » ;

\u25a0

J

,S

C}>i Field Observation Report 2To

. 13

(cont;

13,
a.

HBT Suits, 1 and 2 Piece

A very small quantity of HBTs have "been issued to the droops of the First French Army. The troops which have them are very well satisfied; • • = however, the percentage of issue has Is e en small, •• 8
\u25a0

«\u25a0

114.. Raincoats
a. The raincoat is very well liked and it is very often worn over the overcoat. It is considered too long for the French soldiers, . (Summary of Comments of U Lts., 1 Col., 9th Col. I.nf ,Div,,- ~J Ja.n. U5)

.

b.

It was observed that the French soldier is much smaller in stature than,, the American soldier and this accounts for the criticism that the American raincoat is too long, In the- '3fren.cn Army the exception is the nativ.«e colonial soldier (colored or Arabian) who is.quite tall and has: the same . complaint as the American soldier j the raincoat is ;jboo short !

15.

Leggings

a, The leggings. are liked mainly because .they help to keep the legs warm, ••<•• but they are hard to put on and consume too .much time, .\u25a0\u25a0 (Summary of Comments of 2 Capts., 2 Majors, 1 Lt., Ist Armored Div;, 9 Jan.14.5)

b. The U.S.,
XT

leggings are too long for our use. captured G-erman leggings instead. • . ; . (S-Ut Hegt, Africa Chausseurs, 9 Jan,Us)
wv*.

Many of our soldiers use

TO"

\u25a0

.

' f

c.- The leggings are well liked but are difficult; to put on and take off, We have had several cases of trench foot because the soldiers would rather sleep with their leggings and shoes on than bother to take them off. (Summary of Comments of 2 Lts t , 2 Capts., 1 Major, Ist Bn, Zouaves (Motorized Infantry), 10 Jan. U5)
\u25a0

*

3.6. Winter
a.
The* First French
.
clothing..

Clothing
Army does not have any items of special

.
Equipment

-

winter

••

\u25a0

B. Individual.
1,
a.

Blankets, Wool, 0D
i

man three blankets.;:. . (S'-U,' Segt. Africa Chausseurs,

The troops of this unit, have been issued one American blanket per man. This, issue has been, supplemented by captured German blankets to give each

-

9 Jan.. U5)

..

:.

b. Our troops have been. issued two American blankets and one G-erman blanket each, ' The American blankets are well liked for they are very ­ . :. .-\u25a0.,-\u25a0.\u25a0 warm. .• (Summary of Comments of 2 Lts. , 1 Capt.. , 1 Major-, Ist Bn. Souaves *' (Kotorized Infantry), 10 Jan. U5) \u25a0\u25a0: "\u25a0•

'

\u25a0

\u25a0•

'

'

*

2.

Case,. Canvas, Dispatch

a. The canvas dispatch case is liked very well and used at all times by papers .pencils, our officers ;_ >It is used for -carrying -maps* official, notebooks and miscellaneous papers, I3ach French officer considers it necessary to have .this; article. , •• (Summary of Comments. ;of',li Lts,-, 1.'C01. 9^h Col. Inf; l>iv,,- 7 an. !|£-)

... ,

.... ...

". i•­

*
*
4

It

W •*"

(cont) QJ--I Field Observation Report No. 13
"b. The dispatch case
is used extensively "by all offioers. (l S-U, Regt. Africa Chausseurs,; 9 Jan. U5)

officer c It was observed in the French Army area that each purpose. carried is This Its intended the canvas dispatch case and used it for in the Ameri can armies where ouite different from previous observations essential.,,. the canvas dispatch case is not considered
\u0084

3. Mess

Equipment

s

American mess equip- . a The French troops have been issued the regular spoon, The individuals knife, fork and ment consisting of meat can, top, this, equipment. interviewed- had no strong opinions ,. either for or against zinc-coated, types. They had been issued the aluminum, stainless steel and too dull. The only general criticism offered was that the knife is

14..

Canteen

regular U.S. canteen, a. The French soldiers are equipped with the complain that the Those who have "been issued the :aluminum canteen • canteen corrodes after being us ed to carry wine.
\u25a0

<

5.
a

Tent,

Shelter Half

The infantry and artillery units have used the shelter half in the and do past, but the troops are now billeted indoors wherever- -possible that -the not use the shelter half. Our past experience indicates shelter half is not strong enough, leaks and tears easily.­ , (Summary of Comments of 1 Lt , 2 Capts., 2 Majors, Ist Armored Div.,

9
b

Jan,

U5)
with the shelter -half and, in my leaks, tyiite often -the shelter half
soldiers,

This organization is equipped opinion,. it tears too easily and is used as a ground sheet by the
(S-U» Regt. Africa Chausseurs, 9
C,

,

Jan. U5)

onal Equipment Organi zat i 1.
Lanterns, Gasoline

A very small ouantity of gasoline lanterns have". "been issued in the only the French Army. Those issued are the unconverted type which Use The French preference is for a kerosene lantern or white gasoline. lamp rather than the gasoline lantern. The number
of gasoline lanterns very limited.
being used and the amount of experience with them has been a. 2.
Stove,

Gasoline. 1 and 2 Burner
are

a, The 1 and 2 burner stoves Army units.

not.

T/O

dc £

equipment in the. French

.

.

.

.

;

:

3. Immersion Heaters
a.
There is a small number of immersion heaters ..being used. in this Several division and the performance has been very satisfactory. and it is believed the cause was due to
immersion heaters have exploded .
faulty maintenance. (1 Capt., 1 Kajor, Ist Armored 'Div., 9 Jan. U5)

U. Range, Field, H~19!
a. The French unit 9 are equipped with the and the usual difficulties are encountered:

'unconverted M-1937 ?ie l(i ranS e

There is a lack of spare parts

#

A

-iii '^

f li

I•i % # \
N

"

l^­

Q|i Field Observation Report No.

13 (cont)

the asbestos filter disc must "be replaced often; and the fire unit must be cleaned daily. At the present time many of the field ranges are not being used because the French troops are billeted in homes and they use the available cooking facilities.

>'

'

D. General Supplies &

Equipment

issued.

1. Candles, Stearic Acid ~­ Ho American candles have been
The only ones being used are captured German candles.

2,

No ration-heating fuel Fuel Tablets, Bat ion-heat ing Army since they landed in France. tablets have been issued in the French The units had one issue before they left Africa, The troops use.: captured German fuel tablets to heat the operational rations, or eat their rations cold.
'
\u25a0

-

\u25a0

IV,

QUARTERMASTER ACTIVITIES
A.
Salvage "Qollee ting Company

There is no organization in the French Army comparable to .the- American salvage collecting company, Whatever salvage is collected is done by
the combat units, .which' transport the salvage through supply channels to an, army base salvage depot. (l tt. Col., American Liaison Service, First French Army, 7 Jan. I+s)

'B. Graves Registration 'Service
The French Army -does not have a complete GHS -organization such as is administered in the American Armies .by the Q>i Corps, A less 'elaborate
t
\u25a0

service is performed in the French Army by the G-l section, kno\.m as the "Bureau de l*Et Civil". at •' . . ,, ..
\u25a0
\u25a0 \u25a0

.......

x I

Within a division the GRS is conducted by the regimental supply officer. Personnel- from battalions transport the bodies to the cemeter-y. All
\u25a0

personal

effects, officer who sends monies are turned the next of kin. for the division.

except money, are handled by the regimental .supply these affects to the next of kin of the- deceased. All over to the division finance officer who sends them to The division Q,M signs all Graves Registration reports
\u25a0\u25a0

(l Lt. Co].., American Liaison Service, First French Army, 8 Jan. U5; .1 Lt. Col., 9th Col. Inf. Div., 7 Jan. U5)
C,

Fumigation & Bath Co.

Fumigation "and tath functions are not a part of the French Quartermaster service, These activities are. handled by the "Service .&e Santfe 11 (medical). - ' present none, of these services 'is available in the French Army, At (l Lt. Col., American Liaison Service,' First French Army., 8 Jan^ U5")

-

»

D. .'Laundry Company
Although the' laundry operation is a Quartermaster function, no such service is available now in the First French Army. Two companies have been requisitioned, but at the present are either en 'route or still in North Africa. Laundering is being performed by the 'individual ;soldiers. (l Lt Col,, American Liaison Service, First French Army, 8 Jan. ;U5)

.

E,

Gasoline Supply Company

The handling of gasoline is not a Quartermaster •function-; 'but rs con­ ducted by an organization known as "Service dcs Essences". (l Lt. Col., American Liaison Service, First French Army, 8 Jan. U5)
j?
.„-••-•

rf»

4

>

*&lkift*# i
Ql'i Field O"bservation Report ITo. 13 (cont) F. Truck Company

**

*

;*

5< -'

The control and, operation of truck companies is not a Quartermaster
function, "but is directed by the "Direction dv Train".
(l It. Col,, American Liaison Service, First French Army, 8 Jan. U5)

Or.

Service Company

Service companies (Pioneers) are not controlled "by the Quartermaster Corps. These companies are formed "by regiments, controlled "by G~3, and attached to the various services for operational purposes. (1 Lt. Col., American Liaison Service, First French Army, 8 Jan. U5) H. Railhead Company The French Army. has .an. organization which is similar to our railhead Its title is . iGestion.des Subsistences d'Etapes", and it is company. assigned .to the army to. operate either a railhead or an army usually depot. (1 Lt. Col. , Ameriaan.Lj.ai son. Service, First French Army, 8 Jan. U5)

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Salvage .Repair, Company

There is- no salvage, repair, company' quite comparable to the American salvage* repair company.. juhc. French Army has one company located at Vesoul and. Besanc.on. 9 . which, repairs everything sent to it, The French namVfor- this organization is CBB3H "Compagnie de Recuperation et Reparation dcs Effets Habillencnt" , At the present time this salvage

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and
repair company is doing "both salvage repair work and operating an " '
army Class II& IV Depot. 8 -Jan.: Hs).x
(l Lt. Col., American Liaison Service, First French

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Division Quartermaster

In -the French Army' the office of the ?<si is normally divided into two sections. First, the administrative section -'which consists of the-'CQf-I, ' two -/Other officers and 7to 9 enlisted men. $his '\u25a0section p erf brms the administrative. activities which include the- function of checking and approving the division 'payrolls. The, other' section of the organi­ zation's, known as'. "Orbupe d'Exploitation" , -Which performs the function of receiving., :st-or'ing and' issuing 'Clas.s'r, IIand IV supplies. \u25a0: -There \u25a0\u25a0-'> :.\u25a0: .:\u25a0 are two officers and 61+ enlisted men in this section. ; Service, First French Army, 8 Jan. U5) (l..:Lt. Col,, American Liaison
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Bakery Company
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The- control and operation "of the. "bakery companies is -a Quartermaster function, and one of Its most important , ib.' the- French Army,-"bread is in reality the "staff of life" and much importance is placed on the baking -of-. good bread for. the French soldiers, (l Lt. Col. , American Liaison Service, First' French Army, 8 Jan. U5)
L, Bakery Operation

- First French a:
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1. Two bakery companies of the '3U9'th QK 'Bakery Group -(French) were
visited at Belfort. .^he. .following comments were developed from an
' observat ion trip,.:thr..6ugh gne ;'of these bakery companies ; This company These three was using three French mmixe s"; ..size 620 kilograms each. ; The company was pro­ ,U.S ./^^l9lo f^eld "ovens No. mixers served 16 ducing U2,000 lbs., of . tread, per day. and -was using :tHe men in two 12 hr.
; shifts. This company had 12 -TJ,S'. "field ovens \u25a0" in reserve, but according

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%*?ii # ?*f*i?r«CFi
ii
($1 Field Observation

Report No ! 'l3' (cont)
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to the company -commander this was unusual. The. "bread formula "being Flour, 100 kilograms' (220 l"bs.); salt, I.ls. used on this date-was: (average) and water 60^.. The components pf 2s; yeast, 3/iO' °£ to ; the flour on this day were 25$ U.S. flour, ZJ'p Ge man flour .and 50$ y; French flour. The *Frenqh flour was wheat, and the German flour, rye.
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2. The size of the French loaf when "baked is 1200 grams. Each loaf is marked to show the battalion number, company number, and date of baking, $hese marks enable the- bakery unit to get credit for doing a good job; it enables faulty bread to be traced to the right source; and. also helps • to distribute the' oldest baked bread first. 'Bread is usually kept in ' ; \u25a0"\u25a0 ; .;\u25a0. :. storage IfB hours before -issue;. . .'\u25a0"• \u25a0 : '\u25a0\u25a0 ,

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; 3. The method of issue is as :follows.' The division Quartermasters

send trucks to the bakeries. to pick up the bread. Then the bread is delivered supply point where it is issued with the rations. to the division Class i The bread. 5. s placed in trucks without the use of bread sacks or any other ' " • • "'\u25a0'\u25a0 '\u25a0 "\u25a0\u25a0 \u25a0' •. . \u25a0\u25a0;.\u25a0•.-,.;\u25a0 \u25a0-..:... type of \u25a0covering./ \u25a0>'*/\u25a0 -^.

U. Tnis bakery was be ilig t^erated by one' officer f..9 NCOs and* 115. . enlisted men. .In addition to- t^at^ personnel jl).<3:P¥s were being used to bake bread. Using the combination of .French and American bakery,equip­ ment,, it requiries one day- to' break down the eo/uipinent. for. a movement, and seven clays" t.o set up 'before bread can actually be issued.. The major replaCßme'n'ts on the. ,ame ; rice>n : eauipaent are! Trench cover,;. Part #5J5 J burners; 'feed fines" flexible tubing; xl'a,mps 'for •burners;., and asbestos
rope for the joints...

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Distribution: 0cpK.;..., ...:./......;...... OCQ^i, Con Zone.. ../;\u25a0.'.. ,' Qffi First US Army... ; :'; o^4 Third US Army Qji Seventh US Army...;:'. Q>i Uinth US Army , Q|l Fifte enth" US Army q}l Sixth US Army Group

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ROBERT h, LITTLEJOHN Ha j G-eneral f, U S A or Chief Ciuar-ter master

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