ENGINEERING

BY
Prof. Dr. Suhail A. Qureshi.
Electrical Engineering Department.
University of Engineering & Technology Lahore.
THREE STAGE IMPULSE GENERATOR ANALYSIS

R
f
C
L
R
L
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

R
f

C
L
R
L
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

R
f

C
L
R
L
S-PLANE/FREQUENCY DOMAIN EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

Z
1
Z
2
V
L
V/S

2
1 2
1
2
/
1
3
3
1
1
1
L
F
L
L L
L L
L
L
V IZ
V S
I
Z Z
Z R R
CS
R
C S R
Z
R C S
R
C S
=
=
+
= + +
×
= =
+
+

( )
( )
1 1
1
1
1 1
1
2
2
1 2
1
1
1
3
1
/
/
1
1
1
L
L
L
L L
L
L L
LET
Z R
C S
C C
Z R
C S
Z
V S
V Z
Z Z
R V S
V
R C S
R
R
C S R C S
= +
=
+
=
= ×
+
= ×
+ | |
| |
+ +
|
|
+
\ .
\ .
1 F

L
L L
i.e R = 3R+R

=
R

R C S+1

( )( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
1 1
1
2
1 1 1 1 1
1
1
2
1 1 1 1 1
1
2
1 1
/
1 . 1
1
. 1
/ / 1
1
1
1
L
L
L L L L
L L
L L
L L L
L
L L L L L
L L
L
L
L L L L L
L
L
L L
R V S
V
RC S R C S R C S
R C S
C S R C S
V S R R C S
V
RC R C S RC S R C S R C S
C S R C S
VR C
V
RC R C S RC S R C S R C S
VR C
V
RC R C S AS B
= ×
+ + +
+
+
× +
=
+ + + +
+
=
+ + + +
=
+ +

( )
( )( )
2
1
2
1
1
1
,
1
L
L
L
L
L
L
V
V
RC
S AS B
Let us say
X B are the roots of S AS B
V
V
RC S X S B
V C D
V
RC S X S B
= ×
+ +
÷ ÷ + +
= ×
+ +
(
= +
(
+ +
¸ ¸

Using Partial faction applications Determine the value of C and D
1 1
, C D
B X B X
÷
= =
÷ ÷

( )( ) ( )( )
( )
( )
1
1
1 1
1 1
L
L
L
L
V
V
RC S X B X S B B X
V
V s
RC B X S X S B
(
= ÷
(
+ ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
(
= ÷
(
÷ + +
¸ ¸

Taking Laplace Inverse of the above equation we get;
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
1
1
.
1
Xt Bt
L
L
Xt Bt Xt Bt
L
L
Xt Bt
L
L
V
V t e e
RC B X
V
V t e e VC e e
RC B X
V t V E e e
Where
E
RC B X
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
(
= ÷
¸ ¸
÷
( = ÷ = ÷
¸ ¸
÷
= ÷
=
÷

DETERMINATION OF WAVE FRONT TIME
Let us take Wave Front Duration, = t
f

1
C =
1 f
L
1/3C
R =3R+R
R =Ignored
t
1
t
t
t
DETERMINATION OF WAVE FRONT TIME
Let us take Wave Front Duration, = t
f

By Assuming very long wave tail
We mean e
-xt
decaying nill on the wave
t
V(t)
DETERMINATION OF WAVE FRONT TIME
Let us take Wave Front Duration, = t
f

( )
( )
( )
90
90
, 1
1
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
0.9 1
90%
Xt Bt
C
Xt
Bt
C
C
Bt
V V e e
Long wave tail therefore e
V V e
V eak Value V
V V e
t time to of the peak value of the voltage
÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷
= ÷
=
= ÷
=
= ÷
=

=P

DETERMINATION OF WAVE FRONT TIME
Let us take Wave Front Duration, = t
f

90
90
90
90
1 0.9
0.1
2.325
2.325
Bt
e
Bt Log
t
B
t
B
÷
= ÷
÷ =
÷
=
÷
=

DETERMINATION OF WAVE FRONT TIME
Let us take Wave Front Duration, = t
f

( )
30
ˆ ˆ
0.3 1
30%
0.3
Bt
V V e
time to of the peak value of the voltage
÷
÷
=
30
30
30
-Bt
-Bt
Now
=
t =
0.3 = 1-e
1-e
DETERMINATION OF WAVE FRONT TIME
Let us take Wave Front Duration, = t
f

( )
30
30
30
1 0.3
0.7
0.7
0.3566
0.3566
Bt Log
Bt
t
B
= ÷
=
÷ =
÷ = ÷
=
30
30
-Bt
-Bt
f 90 30
e
e

T = 1.66 t - t
DETERMINATION OF WAVE FRONT TIME
Let us take Wave Front Duration, = t
f

( )
1.9459
B
wave front time
| |
|
\ .
×
=
f
f
f
1.66 2.3025 - 0.3566
T =
1
1.66
T =
B
3.2301
T =
B
Sometimes then the changes are made accordingly.
( )
f 90 10
T = 1.67 t - t

THREE STAGE IMPULSE GENERATOR ANALYSIS Rf CL RL .

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Rf CL RL .

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Rf CL RL .

S-PLANE/FREQUENCY DOMAIN EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Z1 V/S Z2 VL .

IMPULSE VOLTGE GENRATOR ACROSS LOAD VL  IZ 2 V /S I Z1  Z 2 1 Z1  3R  RF  3CS 1 RL  CL S RL Z2   1 RLCL S  1 RL  CL S .

IMPULSE VOLTGE GENRATOR ACROSS LOAD LET 1 Z1  R1  C1S Z1 = R1  Z2  VL  VL  1 C1S i.e R 1 = 3R +R F C1  3C RL RL CLS+1 V /S  Z2 Z1  Z 2 RL V /S    RLCL S  1  RL 1     R1   C1S    RLCL S  1   .

IMPULSE VOLTGE GENRATOR ACROSS LOAD RL V /S VL    R1C1S  1 RL .CL S  1  RLCL S  RLCL S  1 C1S  RL .CL S  1 VL  R C R C S 1 1 L L V / S  RL /  RLCL S  1 2  C1S  RLCL S  1  R1C1S  RLCL S  1  RLC1S  VRL C1 VL  R1C1 RLCL S 2  R1C1S  RLCL S  1  RLC1S   VRLC1 VL  R1C1 RLCL  S 2  AS  B  .

IMPULSE VOLTGE GENRATOR ACROSS LOAD V 1 VL   2 R1CL  S  AS  B  Let us say  X .  B are the roots of S 2  AS  B V 1 VL   R1CL  S  X  S  B  V VL  R1CL D   C S  X  S  B   .

D B X B X  V  1 1 VL     R1CL   S  X  B  X   S  B  B  X   V 1   1 VL  s   S  X  S  B R1CL  B  X    .IMPULSE VOLTGE GENRATOR ACROSS LOAD Using Partial faction applications Determine the value of C and D 1 1 C .

V e  Xt  e  Bt  VLt   R1CL  B  X   V e  Xt  e  Bt   VC  e  Xt  e  Bt  VLt   R1CL  B  X   VL  t   V .IMPULSE VOLTGE GENRATOR ACROSS LOAD Taking Laplace Inverse of the above equation we get.E  e  Xt  e  Bt  Where 1 E R1CL  B  X  .

DETERMINATION OF WAVE FRONT TIME Let us take Wave Front Duration. = tf t t C1  1/3C R1 = 3R +R f RL = Ignored t1 t .

DETERMINATION OF WAVE FRONT TIME Let us take Wave Front Duration. = tf By Assuming very long wave tail We mean e-xt decaying nill on the wave V(t) t .

9 V ˆ   t90  time to 90% of the peak value of the voltage .DETERMINATION OF WAVE FRONT TIME Let us take Wave Front Duration. therefore e V  VC 1  e 1  ˆ VC =Peak Value  V ˆ  V 1  e  Bt90 0. = tf V  VC  e  Xt e  Bt  Bt   Xt Long wave tail .

1 2.325 t90  B 2.325 t90  B  Bt90 .9  Bt90  Log 0.DETERMINATION OF WAVE FRONT TIME Let us take Wave Front Duration. = tf e  1  0.

3 = 1.DETERMINATION OF WAVE FRONT TIME Let us take Wave Front Duration.e-Bt30  0.3 V t30 = time to 30% of the peak value of the voltage 0.3 . = tf Now ˆ = V 1  e  Bt 30  ˆ 0.e -Bt30 1.

DETERMINATION OF WAVE FRONT TIME Let us take Wave Front Duration.3566 0.7  Bt30   0.3566 t30  B Tf = 1.t30  -Bt30 .3 e  0. = tf e-Bt30  1  0.7  Bt30  Log 0.66  t 90 .

67  t90 .2301 Tf =  wave front time B Sometimes Tf =1.3025 .66  2.3566  Tf =   B  1  1.66 Tf =  1.t10  then the changes are made accordingly. .DETERMINATION OF WAVE FRONT TIME Let us take Wave Front Duration. = tf 1.0.9459  B 3.

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