This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
The UMTS Architecture
The UMTS Architecture
1 UMTS ARCHITECTURE – THE REQUIREMENTS
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Aims of the UMTS Architecture Key new features in UMTS vs. GSM/GPRS The Two Modes of W-CDMA Access Elements & Domains in a UMTS network 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 17 17 19 21 23 25 25 25 25 27 29 29 31 33 35 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51
THE USER DOMAIN (USIM + ME DOMAINS) THE ACCESS NETWORK
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.8.1 3.8.2 3.8.3 3.9 3.10 3.10.1 3.10.2 3.11 The Access Domain and Interfaces Requirements of the UTRAN Further UTRAN features UTRAN Architecture – General The Node B The RNC RNC Terminology Functions of the RNC Controlling RNC Functions Serving RNC Functions Drift RNC Functions Further UTRAN features Handovers Softer Handover Soft Handover Functions Of The UTRAN Protocols Requirements Of The Transport Network The Options ATM Operation The ATM Cell ATM and Quality Of Service The Core Network Domain Specific Entities in the UMTS Release ’99 Core Network Architecture The Circuit Switched Domain & GSM Core Network Elements The GSM Location Registers The Packet-Switched Domain & GPRS Core Network Elements
THE UTRAN TRANSPORT NETWORK
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5
THE CORE NETWORK
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5
The UMTS Architecture
5.6 5.6.1 5.6.2 5.7 5.7.1 5.8 5.8.1
Operation in the Core Network CS Domain User and Control Information in the CS Domain Signalling in the CS Domain – SS7 Overview Operation in the Core Network PS Domain User and Control Information in the PS Domain OTHER NETWORK ENTITIES Some other entities for specific services Intelligent Networks CAMEL
53 53 55 57 57 59 59 61 63 65 67 69 71
IN/CAMEL IN UMTS
7 8 9
CHARGING CORE NETWORK TRANSPORT MOBILE IP
9.1 9.2 Mobile IP: Basics Mobile IPv4 vs. IPv6 Release 4 – Control & Data Separation in the CS domain The IP Multimedia Subsystem New Domain Concept in Release 4 and Beyond 3GPP Release ’00/Release 4 UMTS Domains
10.1 10.2 10.3 73 75 77 79 81
ANNEX 1 DOMAINS AND STRATA
The UMTS Architecture
1. UMTS ARCHITECTURE – THE REQUIREMENTS
1.1 Aims of the UMTS Architecture
The fundamental difference between GSM/GPRS and UMTS is in the need for the latter to support high bit rate bearer services, plus the notion of negotiated QoS and traffic characteristics. In particular, UMTS needs to support bursty and asymmetric traffic in an efficient way, and to allow support of single and multimedia N-ISDN applications and single & multimedia IP applications. However, no one knows what precise future service requirements will be. Therefore it is essential that the UMTS system is designed to be as flexible as possible. For this reason, a modular approach has been followed, with network nodes defined that implement some specific functionality, and open interfaces defined between such nodes. A modular approach also increases the chances of being able to implement future seamless roaming between the various IMT2000 family standards. In order to ensure that UMTS is implemented as quickly as possible, it also became obvious that its design needed to take account of the cost for operators. The optimisation of the signalling load as well as reduction in the overall transmission capacity are critical cost factors for operators, and so the aim is for an architecture which will minimise signalling traffic and optimise transmission infrastructure. The architecture also needs to protect existing investments which operators have, and re-use as many elements of these as possible. In particular, the first release of UMTS (UMTS Release ’99) builds directly upon an evolved GSM (GSM Phase 2+) network, including the addition of GPRS. Of course, different phases of release of UMTS will need to be compatible with each other.
building on evolved GSM Fig. 1 – Aims of the UMTS Architecture ©Informa Telecoms 2 .• Flexibility • IMT2000 interworking • Minimise signalling • Optimise transmission • Protect existing investments • Enable evolution Modular approach.
multimedia services. provided through toolkits • the generation of additional charging records. for example based on number. traffic. call duration. VLR etc. A new. and supports tandem free operation both to lower transmission costs and to improve speech quality. N-ISDN. in order to provide operators with the capability to offer new pricing models. UMTS core networks must be able to interoperate both this new UTRAN and the existing GSM BSS access network. The connections can also vary during their lifetime.The UMTS Architecture 1. MSC.2 Key new features in UMTS vs. operators will need to upgrade capacity throughout their networks in order to cope with the expected increase in traffic. although they require extensions (e. again permitting services to be flexible • support for the Virtual Home Environment (VHE). QoS and so on. In order to support more data intensive services.g. in order to optimise congestion control and other management & efficiency techniques • support for IP mobility between different environments (e. Most of the individual elements are re-used. These new charging methods are also set up in such a way as to provide support for on-line billing • interworking and roaming with PSTN. Thus. GSM. GSM/GPRS The UMTS Core network in Release ’99 is based on the GSM/GPRS network.25 and IP signalling. in which media elements may be added or removed dynamically during the call • support for a range of traffic and performance for connectionless (multicast. with a range of performance characteristics. defined using bearer services. ATM is specified as the transport mechanism in the new interfaces in the radio access and between radio access and core network. X. standard default speech codec (adaptive multi-rate) is also standardised for UMTS. in UMTS Release ’99. Once established. renegotiation and clearing of connections (both circuitswitched calls & packet-switched sessions). broadcast. and with their respective numbering schemes • the measurement of traffic flows and so on. and use transport protocols which are more efficiently suited to data and packet transport.). bearers do not prevent the set-up of new bearers. unicast) traffic.g. Among other key features provided by UMTS networks but not previously standardised within GSM: • the enabling of set-up. This provides for flexible. fixed & mobile) Understanding UMTS 3 ©Informa Telecoms . but the UTRAN elements are completely new.
re-negotiation & clearing • Flexibility in bearers • Support for VHE • Enhanced charging & billing support • Interworking with other networks & numbering schemes • Traffic flow measurements to enable management efficiencies • Enhanced IP mobility support Fig.• Upgrades to existing GSM/GPRS elements • ATM transport • New speech codec • Flexibility in connection set-up. 2 – Some Key New Features of UMTS Networks ©Informa Telecoms 4 .
stations. the system allocates time slots for both the uplink and downlink transmissions. The channel allocation is called unpaired spectrum. due to the slower power control loop. Understanding UMTS 5 ©Informa Telecoms . In future. where traffic levels may be high but users are moving slowly. Duplex refers to the combination of both uplink (mobile to base station) and downlink (base station to mobile) transmission. and is absent in Japan. TDD (Time Division Duplex) TDD uses W-CDMA as the modulation scheme. TDD is therefore sometimes described as equivalent to a cordless level of mobility. The system is capable of very high data rates (up to 2Mb/s) but is not suitable for anything above pedestrian mobility. the concept of cell hierarchies arises. supermarkets. and may also include GSM/EDGE for the widest area coverage in the early stages of UMTS deployment.3 The Two Modes of W-CDMA Access Two modes are defined for the W-CDMA access scheme. It can support 384kb/s in a mobile environment and uses a 5Mhz frequency band for uplink and a separate 5Mhz for downlink. airports and so on.The UMTS Architecture 1. To do this. but shares a single 5Mhz channel for both uplink and downlink.The typical uses envisaged include offices. with lower power output and up to two antennas serving a range of 100m or so. likely to be smaller. as in FDD. Given the different wide and local area advantages of the two access schemes. although present in four of the five licences in the UK. FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) This is the name for the UMTS mode which is designed to give wide area mobile coverage in UMTS. This is termed paired spectrum channel allocation and operators in the UK for example have two or three channels of paired spectrum depending on their licence (10Mhz or 15MHz). a further multi-carrier UTRA mode is expected to define compatibility between UMTS and cdma2000. Note that adding TDD mode to FDD will require a new Node B. according to the two different ways in which duplex operation is dealt with.
GSM/EDGE? FDD TDD t t f f Fig. 3 – Two Modes of W-CDMA Access ©Informa Telecoms 6 .
and may be connected to other PLMNs. in practical application this might mean that a single physical UTRAN infrastructure could be shared by a number of core network domains. Core Network Each domain is further described in the following pages. A UMTS system could be divided into sub-networks.4 Elements & Domains in a UMTS network A UMTS network can be divided into the following physical domains: 1. and each may involve further subdivisions and elements. thus leading to more competition and greater operator choice in sourcing infrastructure. An important feature in the standardisation of UMTS is that the internal functionality of domains is NOT specified. Understanding UMTS 7 ©Informa Telecoms . but each with unique identities. operational either alone or together.The UMTS Architecture 1. PSTN or the Internet. Infrastructure Domain. or other networks such as ISDN. Radio Access Network b. A single such network is described as a Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN). It also means that different domain elements can be more easily sourced from different equipment manufacturers. For example. with interoperability ensured by the standardised interfaces. Instead the interfaces between them are defined and open. This means that in theory it is possible to have several network elements of the same type. itself subdivided into: a. with the minimum requirement for a fully featured network being to have one of each. User Domain 2.
4 – UMTS Domains Overview ©Informa Telecoms 8 . Other Networks Fig.USER DOMAIN Uu Interface (Radio Interface) INFRASTRUCTURE DOMAIN RADIO ACCESS DOMAIN Iu Interface CORE NETWORK Other PLMN.
to describe the various types of human user involved: • the subscriber. and may be a separate device from the radio equipment. THE USER DOMAIN (USIM + ME DOMAINS) The user domain describes the equipment needed by the user to access UMTS services. The ME domain performs radio transmission and contains applications. able to receive/transmit between both GSM-based and UMTS-based radio access schemes. for example a laptop). In almost all cases in the early deployment of UMTS. It may itself be further subdivided. for example the calling party in a call. The functionality of the MT is entirely new in UMTS. The combined ME and USIM is sometimes referred to as the Mobile Station (MS). Uu. who is associated with the home environment & responsible for payment • the user. the called party and so on. the mobile terminal must also be multi-mode.The UMTS Architecture 2. into the Mobile Termination MT (radio functions only) and Terminal Equipment TE (contains end-to-end application. They may not be a 3G user The User Domain is linked via the standardised Uu Interface (“air interface”) to the Access Domain. Note that it is also possible to define the following terms relevant to this domain. who is authorised to use services by the subscriber (and may have their own user profile) • another party. Within this domain are further subdivisions into the Mobile Equipment (ME) domain and USIM domain. and is linked to the ME by the defined Cu Interface. Understanding UMTS 9 ©Informa Telecoms . The USIM domain contains the data and procedures allowing the ME to securely identify itself. in being able to interact with the access network over the all new UMTS radio interface.
5 – User Domain ©Informa Telecoms 10 .USER ACCESS Uu Interface CORE MS MT Radio TE TE Applications ME Cu Interface UICC/USIM External Applications ME – Mobile Equipment MS – Mobile Station MT – Mobile Termination TE – Terminal Equipment USIM – UMTS Subscriber Identity Module Fig.
the Iu to the Core Network Domain. The Access domain contains the physical entities to manage resources of the access network and provide the user with a way to access the core network domain. it remains relevant to also include the GSM/EDGE radio network as an alternative within the access domain. In UMTS. and split between core and access network. However the modular approach. In the early roll-out of UMTS.The UMTS Architecture 3. This split is intended to decouple access functionality from non-access functionality. However all access methods will require use of the USIM. and is also known as the UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Access Network). open interface. only the new UTRAN is considered as part of UMTS Access. means that there is no reason to preclude other types of access network developed later on. the Access Domain refers to the radio access mechanism. Understanding UMTS 11 ©Informa Telecoms . For UMTS phase 1. since interworking will be required until UTRAN coverage is fully achieved.1 The Access Domain and Interfaces The Access Domain is in direct contact with the User equipment and the core network. The UTRAN is connected via another standardised. THE ACCESS NETWORK 3.
User Uu UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network) Iu Core Network A GERAN (GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network) User Um User SAN (Satellite Access Network) User Future Radio Access Fig. 6 – Access Domain & Interfaces ©Informa Telecoms 12 .
relocation of serving entities etc. and future access types such as the Broadband Radio Access Network.). Satellite access networks. This allows replacement of this radio access network with another access technology. and to ensure easy evolution to the UMTS concept from second generation networks. fixed access (narrowband and broadband). Understanding UMTS 13 ©Informa Telecoms . This interface is designed to provide a logical separation of signalling and user data transport (this fits in with the evolved GSM network specified for use in UMTS at Release 99). These are specified to ensure maximum flexibility in the future evolution of the UMTS concept. In addition. The interfaces are designed to be fully specified. including mobility of the radio connection (soft handover.The UMTS Architecture 3. This ensures maximum compatibility between manufacturers. The UTRAN is considered a separate entity to the core network. fulfilling one of the basic requirements. All radio procedures and aspects are fully handled within the UTRAN. a number of requirements and assumptions were identified. but from evolved GPRS/EDGE GSM networks.2 Requirements of the UTRAN In defining the UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN). allowing as few options as possible and based on the logical model of the entities concerned. they provide flexibility in accessing the core network from not only the UTRAN. with a defined interface connecting them.
7 – Requirements of the UTRAN ©Informa Telecoms 14 .CORE NETWORK UTRAN • • • • • Logical Separation of Signalling and Data Transport CN and UTRAN functions separate from Transport Functions Macro diversity fully handled in UTRAN Mobility for RRC connection is fully controlled by UTRAN Interfaces based on logical model of the entities (with as few functional options as possible). Fig.
In this case. Radio channel ciphering occurs in the UE and Serving RNC (at the RLC or MAC layer). Understanding UMTS 15 ©Informa Telecoms . and Radio Resource Management and Control. the mobile is tracked at URA or Cell level and paged accordingly when required to receive data. Mobility. and additionally. unlike GSM. admission control and radio channel congestion. These are used so that the UE can fall back to a less active state whilst retaining its packet data “virtual connection”. Serving Radio Network Controller (SRNC) relocations. Radio Channel Ciphering. known as a Packet Data Protocol Context (which describes the quality of service required as well as specifying the address). They can be split into four main areas – System Access. System access functions involve broadcasting system information to allow the mobile to configure for access. where only the air interface is ciphered. UTRAN Registration Area (URA) and Cell updates for packet mode procedures.The UMTS Architecture 3. Mobility functions within the UTRAN are extensive in that they comprise handovers.3 Functions of the UTRAN UTRAN functions have been specified to provide support for all radio activities needed within the network infrastructure.
Radio Channel Ciphering and Deciphering Systems Access Control (Admission. 8 – UTRAN Functions ©Informa Telecoms 16 . System information broadcast) UTRAN FUNCTIONS Mobility (Handover. Congestion. SRNS Relocation) Radio Resource Management and Control Fig.
Hence an UTRAN is comprised of one or more RNS.4 UTRAN Architecture – General The UTRAN architecture comprises of one or more Radio Network Controllers (RNCs). The UTRAN internal interfaces are also standardised. IuPS. and to the User Equipment. Standard interfaces connect each RNS to the Core Network (both Circuit Switched and Packet Switched Domains). The Iur connects RNC (and hence RNS). Each grouping of RNC and its associated Node Bs are collectively known as a Radio Network Sub-system (RNS). Understanding UMTS 17 ©Informa Telecoms . whilst the Iub connects the RNC and Node B. each controlling a number of base sites.The UMTS Architecture 3. These interfaces are known as IuCS. and Uu respectively. known as Node B.
CORE NETWORK Iu (CS & PS) Radio Network Controller Radio Network Sub-system (RNS) Iub Node B Iur RNC RNS Fig. 9 – UTRAN Architecture and Terminology ©Informa Telecoms 18 .
and uses UMTS channel allocation to communicate with the handset.The UMTS Architecture 3. Node B tasks are as follows: • conversion of data to and from the radio interface • forward error correction • rate adaptation • W-CDMA spreading & despreading • QPSK modulation (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) • measuring the quality & strength of connection • determining the frame error rate • handover between different sectors on the same Node B (“softer handover”) • participation in power control.5 The Node B The term Node B refers to the base station equipment which communicates with the subscriber’s handset via the radio link (and of course with the main network via a telecoms link). enabling transmission and reception information to and from the mobile terminal. This information is encoded using the W-CDMA scheme. enabling the user terminal to adjust its power (“inner loop power control”) Understanding UMTS 19 ©Informa Telecoms . It provides radio resources for a UMTS network. It provides all the RF processing. A single UMTS channel can be used on adjacent Node B sites and in different sectors of the same Node B antenna system. Each sector can be used as a different cell. although it is possible to configure up to six sectors and up to three UMTS carriers. A typical Node B may support a three sector antenna and one or two UMTS carriers.
NODE B FUNCTIONS • Radio Resource Provider • W-CDMA spreading and despreading • QPSK Modulation • Signal quality & strength measurement • Inner loop power control • May support multiple cells through sectored antenna • Supports Softer Handover • Converts data to/from W-CDMA transport • Forward error correction and frame error rate determination • Rate adaptation Fig. 10 – Node B Functions ©Informa Telecoms 20 .
and hence for specialist vendors for Node B only. and providing critical signalling such as connection set-up. but also includes some functionality of the MSC. Compared to 2G systems.The UMTS Architecture 3. and allocates radio resources and maintains the equilibrium of a live and dynamic network. Compare this with the situation in GSM. It must also interface with the core network to provide access to the network operator services. and is defined thus in order to increase competition between manufacturers in this very costly part of the network. plus switching and traffic routing functionality. to enter the market. and hence the core network. for example. where handover between different BSC areas required involvement of the MSC. even where moving between cells controlled by different RNCs. it enables autonomous Radio Resource Management by the UTRAN by allowing RNCs to directly communicate (via the Iur interface). The Iub is the first example of a fully standardised base-station-to-controller interface within commercial mobile networks. The RNC can manage many Node Bs. managing resources such as allocating capacity for data calls. The key features of the RNC are: • management of radio resources • channelisation code allocation • QoS monitoring • handover of users between cells on the same site (softer handover) • handover of users between cells on different sites (soft handover) • handover of users between different UMTS carriers (hard handover) • handover of users to GSM networks (hard handover) • power control management of user and Node B equipment • network alarm correlation Understanding UMTS 21 ©Informa Telecoms .6 The RNC The RNC controls the operation of multiple Node Bs. it is broadly equivalent to the BSC. In particular. eliminating this burden from the core network. For example it is now possible to source Node B and RNC equipment from different vendors. Internet and gateways to networks such as GSM and PSTN. are kept within the UTRAN. So all handover processes. applications.
• • • • •
Controls functions of multiple Node Bs Radio resource management kept within the UTRAN Interfaces with core network Manages handover Power Control Management
Fig. 11 – The RNC – General Functionality
The UMTS Architecture
3.7 RNC Terminology
The RNC operates in three main modes – Controlling, Serving, and Drift, depending on whether an RRC connection is established, and how it is configured. The descriptions of each mode are with respect to a single User Equipment, since each physical RNC contains all the functionality needed for all three modes and is likely to be acting in different modes with respect to different UE.
When mobiles are in idle mode, no RRC connection exists. Hence this mode simply describes the functionality of the RNC which controls the Node B on which the mobile is camped (i.e. the selected Node B). Any RRC messages relevant to the UE are terminated at the UE and Node B.
Serving and Drift RNC
Once a mobile enters the RRC Connected mode, an RRC connection exists, and RRC messages relevant only to the UE are terminated at the UE and Serving RNC (SRNC). In Soft Handover, the mobile is effectively served by two or more Node B. In the case where the Node B are connected to different RNC, the Serving RNC remains as the only Serving RNC, whilst the new RNC (now called the Drift RNC, or DRNC) simply provides the radio resources necessary for the added radio link, and acts to carry the Radio Resource messages and user data between the SRNC and UE transparently over the Iur and Iub interfaces on the relevant channels. As a result of Soft Handover, the original radio link may be deleted from the "active set" of links, leaving the Serving RNC without any of its Node B in the active set. In this case, the DRNC could become the SRNC by a process called SRNC relocation. This procedure is considered optional. If another RNC is involved in the active connection through soft handover, it is declared a Drift RNC. The Drift RNC is responsible only for the allocation of code resources, with the original Serving RNC continuing to handle control functions such as admission, radio resource control, congestion, handover and so on. It is possible to reallocate the Serving RNC to the former Drift RNC, if this becomes necessary.
Node B "Idle" Mode Node B "Connected" Mode Node B Node B
Core MSC/VLR or SGSN Network
Core MSC/VLR or SGSN Network
Serving RNC Drift RNC
Core MSC/VLR or SGSN Network
Node B Node B "Connected" Mode (After Soft Handover) Node B Node B SRNC Relocation (Optional)
Serving RNC Drift RNC
Core MSC/VLR or SGSN Network
Core MSC/VLR or SGSN Network
Fig. 12 – RNC Terminology
The UMTS Architecture
3.8 Functions of the RNC
3.8.1 Controlling RNC Functions The CRNC controls one or more Node B. In practice, this is likely to be tens of Node B. It is responsible for loading and congestion of cells, as well as allocating codes and controlling admission. System information broadcasts for mobiles in idle mode (or packet switched cell or URA paging modes) are originated from the controlling RNC. 3.8.2 Serving RNC Functions The radio bearers and signalling radio bearers for mobiles in connected mode are terminated here (as well as in the User Equipment). All layer two (data link) processing of information to/from the radio interface is processed here for UE in connected mode (layer 1, the physical layer, is provided by the node B). Outer loop power control is supported as well as the handover decisions. Each User Equipment will have only one SRNC. The Serving RNC will often also be the Controlling RNC for the Node B used by the mobile. 3.8.3 Drift RNC Functions The DRNC is any RNC other than the SRNC which controls cells currently used by the mobile. There may be zero, one or more DRNC at any one time for the specified mobile. The DRNC may itself be performing macro-diversity combining and splitting in support of Soft Handover. No layer 2 processing of the data destined for, or received from, the radio interface is performed in the DRNC.
• No layer 2 processing. Executes admission control and code allocation for new radio links. Drift RNC (DRNC) • Any RNC. • Controls handover decisions. • A mobile may have one or more DRNCs. 13 – Controlling. Fig. • Each connected UE has only one SRNC. • May perform macrodiversity combining and splitting. other than SRNC which controls cells used by the mobile.Controlling RNC (CRNC) • • • • Controls one or more Node Bs. • SRNC may also be CRNC for Node B(s) used by the mobile. • Outer loop power control. Serving and Drift RNC Functions ©Informa Telecoms 26 . Controls load and congestion of own cells. Serving RNC (SRNC) • Terminates Radio Bearers and Signalling Radio bearers for the mobile (ie RRC is terminated here in RRC connected mode). unless mobile is using common or shared transport channel. • Performs Layer 2 processing of data to/from radio interface. One Node B will have only one CRNC.
Issues like cell reselection.The UMTS Architecture 3. paging procedures. It also supports handover between cells supporting one or both modes • it performs determination of the location of the mobile terminal The market reality is that UTRANs will likely start as islands in a sea of GSM BSS. renegotiation & clearing of connections with a range of traffic and performance characteristics • it supports radio access bearers for broadcast and multicast applications • it allows a mobile terminal to handle more than one radio access bearer service simultaneously • it permits seamless handover of active radio access bearer services from a single terminal between the cells of one UTRAN. ATM was selected for this in Release ’99. Understanding UMTS 27 ©Informa Telecoms . Iub and Iu interfaces. the main new feature of the UTRAN is the existence of a new modulation scheme (W-CDMA) with two modes of access. asymmetric or symmetric. and is applicable to the Iur. so UMTS is specified to support dual system UMTS/GSM terminals. multimedia traffic which could be circuit or packet. cell selection and paging procedures will accommodate the fact that service areas may be covered by cells supporting just one or both modes.9 Further UTRAN features In addition to the elements just described. Other basic features of the UTRAN are as follows: • it is contained within only one UMTS network • it supports set-up. This handover happens with imperceptible loss of speech and without degrading any QoS requirements for data • it performs monitoring of cells in idle mode (cell reselection) and in active mode (handover) • for UTRANs with different UTRA modes (TDD and FDD). In order to cope with broadband. handover and so on must therefore be supported in both directions between GSM BSS and UTRAN (although the different bearer capabilities mean that some traffic flows may have to be released or renegotiated during handover). FDD and TDD. a suitable upgrade to the transport layer transmission technology was also required.
• W-CDMA • ATM transport • Flexible bearer support & connection management • Handover functions • Location determination • Support for procedure and function interworking with GSM BSS Fig. 14 – Further New UTRAN Features ©Informa Telecoms 28 .
With the same codes used. Combining in this case is achieved entirely within the Node B and the User Equipment. it allows the network operator to control congestion and cell loading by compelling a mobile to hand over between adjacent cells in the overlap region (or even between hierarchical overlaid cells).The UMTS Architecture 3. Hard handovers (as seen in GSM) are needed for handover between different UMTS carrier frequencies and between systems. the mobile will be served by more than one cell or sector operating on the same frequency and provided by the same Node B. or even access network types for reasons of service requirements (data rates. Understanding UMTS 29 ©Informa Telecoms . frequencies. Soft handover provides handover between cells handled by different Node Bs. Alternatively. though. provided by the Node B. Soft and softer handovers can be handled entirely within the UTRAN. is the possibility to hand over between cells. together with the Rake combining of any multi-path components enhances the signal. The Core Network will be involved for inter-system hard handovers. This process. Of increased importance for UMTS. whilst softer handover allows handover between cells handled by the same Node B.1 Softer Handover In around 10% of connections at any time. Only a single power control loop is active per connection. 3. Hard handovers may be handled entirely within the UTRAN for handovers between carrier frequencies. and quality of service issues).10 Handovers A handover primarily allows a moving mobile to remain connected with the network as different coverage areas (cells) are transited. the received signals are simply input into the Rake Receiver as different components of the same signal.10. Different handover types exist. capacity. The process is known as micro-diversity.
Fig. 15 – Softer Handover (Micro Diversity) ©Informa Telecoms 30 .Core Network SRNC Node B Combined signal received via Rake processing • Communication via more than one air interface concurrently • Rake receivers at Node B and mobile station used to combine signal (similar to multipath reception) • Occurs in about 10% of connections • Only one power control loop per connection is active.
Soft handover is generally thought to occur in about 20 – 40% of connections. One of the main reasons for employing the soft and softer handover techniques in CDMA is to mitigate the near-far effect. Hence in all handover cases.2 Soft Handover In the case of the soft handover. minimising overall interference in the system. The process is known as macro-diversity. only one Node B involved). Additional Rake fingers are also required to cope with the increased number of "wanted" paths. where a closer mobile contributes disproportionately to the overall interference levels. Understanding UMTS 31 ©Informa Telecoms .The UMTS Architecture 3. but for soft handover. This does not present a problem since the mobile simply responds to the Node B with the lower power requirement. power control is critical. combining is done in the RNC. and hence increases the overall requirement for transmission capacity in the UTRAN transport network. Soft and softer handover can be used simultaneously. only one power control loop is active (i. For softer handover. more than one power control loop is active (power control is now being provided by more than one Node B). with the different arriving signals being continually assessed and the best signal chosen (every 10 – 80ms) for inclusion in the combined signal.e.10.
Can be combined with softer handover Fig.Combining/Splitting Node B Core Network SRNC Node B DRNC • • • • • • Node B Communication via more than one air interface concurrently. Signal split/combined at RNC (best frame chosen) Requires additional: – Rake receiver channels in Node Bs – Transmission links Node B <-> RNC – Rake fingers in mobile stations Occurs in about 20 .40% of connections Power control active for each Node B (mobile responds to Node B with lowest uplink power requirements). 16 – Soft Handover (Macro Diversity) ©Informa Telecoms 32 .
and transparent transfer of Non-Access Stratum signalling are all supported by RANAP. paging. NBAP functions are classed as either common or dedicated. security. Radio access bearer management. Understanding UMTS 33 ©Informa Telecoms . access requests. RNC in Controlling. support is provided for both dedicated channel traffic (transparently transferred between SRNC and UE in dedicated transport channels) and common channel traffic (transferred from the SRNC to the DRNC for inclusion in the common channels being supported by that DRNC – which is also acting as the CRNC for the Node B in question). identity management. Basic inter RNC mobility is supported in order to provide soft handover between RNS and to transfer waiting data during SRNS relocations. In addition. depending on whether they are concerned with common or dedicated channels. including paging. The functions are generally concerned with the use or configuration of the radio channels.11 Functions Of The UTRAN Protocols The functions of each of the UTRAN control protocols are outlined opposite. and SRNS relocation. RNSAP provides functions which are split into four modules. Serving or Drift Modes are supported.The UMTS Architecture UTRAN PROTOCOLS 3. radio link measurements. such as Hard Handover. handovers and fault management. RANAP includes those functions needed to manage location procedures which may need Core Network interaction.
FACH & PCH Handling • Reporting Cell/Node B Measurements • Cell Configuration • Fault Management Dedicated • RL Addition. 17 – UTRAN Protocol Functions ©Informa Telecoms NBAP 34 . Release & Reconfiguration for one UE context • Dedicated and Shared Channel Handling • Softer Combining Support • Reporting of RL Specific Measurements • RL Fault Management NODE B Fig.Core Network RANAP FUNCTIONS INCLUDE: • Relocation SRNS & Hard Handover • Radio Access Bearer Management • Paging and ID Management • UE <-> CN Signalling Transfer (Transparently) • Security Mode Control • Location Reporting RNSAP FUNCTIONS INCLUDE: • Basic Inter .RNC Mobility • Dedicated Channel Traffic Support • Common Channel Traffic Support • Global Resource Management (optional) (Implemented in Four Separate Modules Shown Above) RNSAP SRNC RANAP DRNC NBAP FUNCTIONS INCLUDE: Common • Setup First Radio Link of UE • RACH.
and not least suitability for the task at hand were all factors. those between the UTRAN and the Core Network. the transport protocol has been specified separately from the UTRAN protocols themselves. cost. and acceptable error rates are all possible. Hence services with varying data rates. The UTRAN transport network has therefore been specified to support the varying qualities of service required for all the data types. delivery time scales. flexibility. scalability. however the continuing work on IP is bringing it closer to satisfying the requirements (and at an inevitably low cost). delay variance. and those being transferred through the UTRAN from UE to CN or vice-versa. The UTRAN provides the User Equipment (UE) with access to the Core Network (CN) for both Circuit Switched and Packet Switched services as well as providing transport for all signalling interactions. Specifying a protocol especially for UMTS was deemed not necessary since ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) already existed and provided a relatively close match to the requirements. Fortunately. ATM is specified rather than an Internet Protocol (IP) solution.1 Requirements Of The Transport Network As a network of interconnected nodes. reliability. At the moment. hence future flexibility in choice of technology is assured. including those confined within the UTRAN. The W-CDMA air interface has been designed to support services which vary widely in terms of acceptable quality of service. THE UTRAN TRANSPORT NETWORK 4. delay tolerance. Understanding UMTS 35 ©Informa Telecoms .2 The Options In choosing the technology.The UMTS Architecture 4. the UTRAN presents familiar problems to the designer of a transport network. 4.
UTRAN Transport Network SGSN Rest of Network (CS & PS) RNC Packet Switched & Circuit Switched User Data & Signalling MSC Node B RNC RNC S n t ig n a R a d e r lli i o B fa c n g e e C R a d i a re r s ont o Bearers rol In f o r m a ti o n Fig. 18 – UTRAN Transport Network Requirements ©Informa I Node B • ATM Chosen Telecoms 36 .
The UMTS Architecture 4. virtual channels and virtual paths through the network from entry point to exit point can be provided by ensuring that the switches have the relevant identifiers and routing information available. This can allow flexibility in network provision by allowing simpler processing at virtual path switches. This information can be pre-configured. Understanding UMTS 37 ©Informa Telecoms . each switch will have been programmed with the correct identifiers and the overall path or channel will still be valid. and at the channel level. and more in-depth at virtual channel switches. Switching can occur on two levels – at the path level. however. The identifiers will change as the cell passes through the switch. or set up within the switches dynamically by specific signalling messages as a requirement for a path or channel through the network arises.3 ATM Operation Within a network of ATM switches. Each cell is identified at each ATM switch and simply directed on to the next switch in accordance with the routing information held in the switch. ATM physical switches can of course have both levels of switching available. where both identifiers are analysed and the cell routed accordingly. Switching is achieved by the use of fixed length (53 Octet) cells with appropriate identifiers. which may simply switch by analysing only the "virtual path identifier" (irrespective of the "virtual channel identifier").
B A ATM NETWORK B A • Virtual channels/paths through the network are set up by O&M action or dynamically using signalling • Channels and paths identified using VCIs (Virtual Channel Identifiers) and VPIs (Virtual Path Identifiers) in the ATM Cell Header ATM Switch Fig. 19 – ATM Operation ©Informa Telecoms 38 .
The cell itself is made up of 48 octets of data (which may include higher layer control information) with 5 octets of ATM header information. Understanding UMTS 39 ©Informa Telecoms . The Cell Loss Priority allows cells to be prioritised in terms of which ones could be discarded first in congestion situations. This information includes: The Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) The Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) Payload Type (PT) Cell Loss Priority (CLP) Header Error Correction (HEC) The VPI and VCI are used in the switching process.4 The ATM Cell On any link between switches. the cells for a single path or channel will be allocated as required (asynchronously) within the overall synchronous cell stream. HEC provides a mechanism for checking for errors within the header (only). The PT identifies the type of payload.The UMTS Architecture 4.
20 – The ATM Cell ©Informa Telecoms 40 .The ATM Cell: 48 Octets 5 Octets HEADER: (VPI/VCI/PT/ CLP/HEC) DATA Contains User Data and Adaptation Information (Quality of service requirements) ATM Cell Streams: Continuous stream of cells A B Asynchronous allocation of cells in synchronious stream Fig.
Between them.The UMTS Architecture 4. In terms of protocol. they provide support for all necessary UTRAN QoS requirements. but the specified adaptation process which occurs between the data to be transported and the ATM cell. and two have been adopted within the UTRAN – AAL2 and AAL5. The adaptation process introduces extra overhead (control data) onto the data to be placed within the 48 octets of data within the ATM cell. The characteristics of each are shown opposite.5 ATM and Quality Of Service It is not the ATM cell itself which provides the necessary control and protocols to support different Qualities of Service (QoS). Understanding UMTS 41 ©Informa Telecoms . the ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) lies directly between the data to be carried and the ATM layer. Four different AALs have been specified for use with ATM.
21 – ATM and Quality of Service ©Informa Telecoms 42 . video etc AAL-ATM Adaptation Layer Fig. packet user.AAL5 • • • • • Variable bit rates Packet type data Segmentation & Reassembly Constant delays not required Suitable for signalling. data transfer etc AAL5 AAL5 ATM NETWORK AAL2 AAL2 AAL2 • • • • • Variable bit rates Circuit type data Segmentation & Reassembly Constant delays required Suitable for multimedia.
control of network services. i. although other public data networks (PDNs) do exist. including Mobitex. In UMTS. The Iu interface is therefore subdivided into IuCS and IuPS in order to support connection of each of these core network domains to the single access network (UTRAN). where each packet can be routed independently of the previous one. i.e. between a circuit-switched and packet-switched domain.The UMTS Architecture 5. In UMTS the CS domain provides data service support of at least 64kb/s. one for which dedicated network resources are allocated at connection establishment and held until connection release.e. and switching & transmission mechanisms for signalling & user information. RAM. PS (packet-switched) Domain This refers to all core network entities for “PS type connection”. Understanding UMTS 43 ©Informa Telecoms . for example the management of user location. PSTN and ISDN are examples of other circuit-switched networks. THE CORE NETWORK 5.1 The Core Network Domain The core network contains the physical entities providing support for the network features and telecoms services. CDPD and so on. the PS domain provides support for data service capability of up to 2Mb/s. The Internet is the most well known example of a packet-switched network. An important logical split is made within the core network for UMTS Release ’99. CS (circuit-switched) Domain This refers to the set of all core network entities offering “CS type connection”. one which transports user information using autonomous concatenation of bits called packets.
22 – The Core Network Domains ©Informa Telecoms 44 .User Domain UTRAN IuPS IuCS CORE NETWORK DOMAIN PS Domain CS Domain PS Networks CS Networks Fig.
GSM core network elements: MSC. New UMTS-specific enhancements. whereas the first two categories above refer to elements within the core network. We have already discussed the basic elements of the UTRAN. in particular the new UTRAN and USIM.The UMTS Architecture 5. VLR.2 Specific Entities in the UMTS Release ’99 Core Network Architecture It is possible to define three categories of network elements in Release ’99: 1. This new UTRAN can be connected to the GSM Phase 2+ core network. GSM enhancements (GSM Phase 2+): – GPRS to support packet-switching – CAMEL (and other toolkits) as a basis for the VHE 3. AuC and EIR 2. HLR. Understanding UMTS 45 ©Informa Telecoms . Release ’00 takes the first steps towards integrating circuit switched domain and packet switched domain transports.
GSM Core Network Elements • circuit switching • databases 2.1. UMTS specific elements • UTRAN • USIM Fig. GSM Phase 2+ Enhancements • packet switching through GPRS • CAMEL and other toolkits 3. 23 – The Concept of Strata ©Informa Telecoms 46 .
at which point the VLR and HLR (Home Location Register – see below) exchange information on the subscriber and his/her service capabilities. VLR The Visitor Location Register is used by an MSC to retrieve information for mobile stations currently in its area. although the HLR will know on which VLR the subscriber is registered. an MSC will interface with several base stations.The UMTS Architecture 5. an IWF provides the functionality to allow interworking of differing networks such as ISDN. which impact the location registration & handover between cells. VLR. As such. protocol conversion). PSTN and PDNs (i. A new element required for the CS part of the core network in UMTS is such an interworking function to provide protocol conversion between the A (GSM) and Iu-CS (UMTS) interfaces where the radio network joins the Core Network. In effect it is an exchange which performs switching and signalling functions for mobiles within its designated area of control. Understanding UMTS 47 ©Informa Telecoms . A mobile terminal registers as it enters the area. after having interfaced with the databases within the home environment. An additional element which is required in UMTS is: Interworking Function (IWF) In generic terms. GMSC.e. albeit with some enhancements to support the higher data rates and other requirements of UMTS services. The entities specific to CS domain are: MSC. Gateway MSC The GMSC provides routing to the appropriate MSC where a mobile terminal is located. performing all necessary functions to handle CS services to and from mobile terminals. It needs to take into account the allocation of radio resources and the mobile nature of users. This requirement is in order to enable the core network to operate with both the existing 2G and new UMTS radio access. It is the VLR which tracks the current location of the terminal. MSC The MSC provides the interface between the radio system and fixed network.3 The Circuit Switched Domain & GSM Core Network Elements The GSM core network elements form the basis for the circuit-switched domain in UMTS.
24 – Circuit-Switched Domain ©Informa Telecoms 48 .UMTS ME GSM ME UTRAN IuCS IWF GSM/ EDGE BSS A MSC VLR GMSC New in UMTS GSM Phase 2+ PSTN. ISDN. etc… Fig.
It will also contain information enabling charging and packet routing of messages to the area where the mobile is currently registered (for GPRS support). which are carried forward into UMTS with appropriate modifications as required: HLR The Home Location register contains subscriber information. MSC and SGSN as required. In short. it allows the mobile to use the network. plus various location-service related information if that is also supported.The UMTS Architecture 5. and is the register to which a subscriber is assigned. Subscriber information consist of: • the IMSI (international Mobile Subscriber ID) • Mobile Station ISDN numbers • Packet Data Protocol Addresses for GPRS • LMU indicator for location services • information on service access/restrictions Authentication Centre (AuC) The AuC stores data for each subscriber to allow the IMSI to be authenticated and to allow ciphering of communication over the radio path. The data required for these two processes is transmitted via the HLR to the VLR.4 The GSM Location Registers The core GSM elements also include some further databases. grey or blacklisted. Understanding UMTS 49 ©Informa Telecoms . These classify equipment as white. This set of registers can be grouped together for simplicity to define the “Home Subscriber Server” (HSS). Equipment ID Register (EIR) The EIR is responsible for storing the International Mobile Equipment IDs (IMEIs) in the GSM system. and so enable service to be prevented to stolen or uncertified terminals.
ISDN etc… Fig.UMTS ME GSM ME UTRAN IuCS IWF GSM/ EDGE BSS A EIR MSC VLR HLR AUC GMSC HSS PSTN. 25 – Location Registers ©Informa Telecoms 50 .
GPRS is a prerequisite for the introduction of UMTS. which allow direct transmission between mobile terminals and data networks such as the Internet. This information is used to tunnel packet data destined for a GPRS terminal through to the SGSN where this terminal is registered. The GGSN stores subscription information and routing information for each subscriber for which the GGSN has at least one PDP context active.5 The Packet-Switched Domain & GPRS Core Network Elements Since the circuit-switched side of the network is limited to 64kb/s by its ISDN-based switching capability. Entities specific to PS are the GPRS-specific entities. Understanding UMTS 51 ©Informa Telecoms . whereas GPRS allows direct interconnect with data networks of much higher bit-rates. X25 and so on.The UMTS Architecture 5. Intranets. They are IP routers. Once again. The GGSN and SGSN have comparable functions and architectural positions as the GMSC and MSC/VLR in the circuit-switched domain. the SGSN (serving GPRS support node) and GGSN (gateway GSN). a new interworking function is required in order that the SGSN can communicate both with the new UTRAN and the existing GSM BSS. The SGSN includes a location register function which stores subscription information and location information for packet-switched services for each subscriber registered in the SGSN.
26 – Packet-Switched Domain ©Informa Telecoms 52 . X25 etc… AUC GSMC Fig.UMTS ME GSM ME UTRAN IuPS IWF Gb GSM/ EDGE BSS IWF SGSN EIR MSC VLR HLR GGSN HSS Internet.
This is illustrated in Fig 4. MSCs provide the switching functionality and control for setting up.6 Operation in the Core Network CS Domain 5. The VLR also provides support for mobility and is co-located with the MSC. the HLR and SCP provide support for Mobility and Operator Specific Services respectively. and between the GMSC and external network via traffic circuits. In addition. without further protocols being added (although overhead is introduced at the physical level. as well as some support for supplementary services. Understanding UMTS 53 ©Informa Telecoms . User data is transferred between MSCs. tearing down and supervising circuits. and makes use of the lower layer signalling network (which would usually share the same transmission infrastructure as the user data).6.1 User and Control Information in the CS Domain Within the CS Domain of the Core Network. the amount and format being dependent on the transmission system being used).The UMTS Architecture 5. The control information is passed within Signalling System Number 7 protocols.
27 – User and Control Information in the CS Domain ©Informa Telecoms 54 .HLR Signalling (Control Information) Circuits (User Data) SCP 3 4 MSC MSC/ VLR 2 GMSC MSC 1 Cir ata cui rD t ( U se ) Core Network 1 User Data 2 Traffic Channel Set Up. Clear Down and Supervision (includes Supplementary Service Support) 3 Service Control 4 Mobility Management Fig.
such changes are made to the SCP elements within the signalling network. the service control point (SCP). and the circuit-switched user data network is actually separated from the packet-switched SS7 signalling network. the MSC/Switched is termed a Service Switching Point (SSP). Where remote data bases are being accessed. No longer do individual switches need to be modified to introduce a new service. a Signalling Point Relay (SPR) allows the SS7 entity’s unique global address to be translated into the simpler format (point codes) used in the individual SS7 packet-switched networks (called the Message Transfer Port). Understanding UMTS 55 ©Informa Telecoms . are similar in functionality to the SCPs. This may be via direct paths or via signalling transfer points (STPs). such as the HLR and VLR. for example translating a freephone (0800) number into a routing address within the network. The SCPs and MSCs/Switches communicate via a standardised interface. which controls the user data switching performed at the MSCs/Switches. Instead. and the signalling messages needed to control services. is a database which may control information relevant to routing. designed to route packets across this network.2 Signalling in the CS Domain – SS7 Overview In the circuit-switched domain. SS7 is a “commonchannel” signalling system. A third entity. and (if it has this functionality). Location registers. In the UMTS CS domain. providing both basic switching. SS7 operates using a specified stack of protocols. plus access points to supplementary and advanced IN services. the MSCs correspond to the SS7 SSPs. MSCs are switching centres which hold all the switching functions needed to support mobiles in their area.The UMTS Architecture 5. These MSCs are connected to each other and to the HLR and other databases using a variation of the ITU standardised SS7 (signalling system 7).6. routing transmission paths for both the actual user data. They may also hold interworking functions required to interwork with other networks such as the PSTN. as the signalling message is passed from one network to another en-route to its remote destination. and additional service elements such as the CAMEL Service Environment. SS7 provides call control by exchanging control messaging between the MSCs and fixed network switches.
CSE) 56 . 28 – SS7 within the Core Network CS Domain ©Informa Telecoms User Data Databases (SCP.SS7 NETWORK MSC (SSP) STP STP MSC (SSP) Fig. HLR.
This means a common set of packet protocols can be defined to allow this exchange of information to take place. the GSNs communicate with the HLR and SCP respectively using the standard techniques found within the Circuit-Switched domain. Understanding UMTS 57 ©Informa Telecoms .The UMTS Architecture 5.7 Operation in the Core Network PS Domain 5. For mobility control and provision of operator specific services. The intermediate routers handle the information in the same way. simply routing it on to its “final” destination (the SGSN or GGSN).7.1 User and Control Information in the PS Domain The Packet-Switched domain uses packets of information to carry both user data and the control information for the user data between GSNs.
29 – User and Control Information in the PS Domain ©Informa Telecoms 58 .HLR Signalling (Control Information) Packets of Data (Control and User Information) 4 3 SCP Router SGSN GGSN 1 2 Pa cke ts (U Router s er & C ta) Da rol ont Core Network 1 2 3 4 User Data Control Data Service Control Mobility Management Fig.
The CBC attaches directly to the RNC via the Interface IuBC.1 Some other entities for specific services Although the above are the basic and key components for GSM and GPRS based systems. These connect to the serving MSC/GSN. as an interface between the PLMN and SMSC for the submission of messages. an element of the UTRAN. for which a mandatory logical interface protocol is defined. which acts in reverse. the SMS Gateway MSC acts as an interface between the SMSC (Short Message Service Centre) and the PLMN for the delivery of messages. including Service Control Functions. Firstly. Other entities include: • the Group Call Register Entity.The UMTS Architecture 5. Understanding UMTS 59 ©Informa Telecoms .8 OTHER NETWORK ENTITIES 5. detailed discussion of these further entities is beyond the scope of this overview course. Switching Functions and so on.8. For CAMEL: To support CAMEL features. For Cell Broadcast: The Cell Broadcast Centre (CBC) manages Cell Broadcast messages and determines delivery parameters. Notably For SMS: Two elements are important in the delivery of SMS. For Location Services: The Serving Mobile Location Centre (SMLC) manages the overall scheduling of resources to perform positioning. providing interworking for data/fax calls • various Number Portability entities However. Its counterpart is the SMS Interworking MSC. it should be noted that there are various other network elements which relate to the delivery of specific services. In UMTS this functionality is integrated into the Serving RNC. holding information on Voice Group Call or Voice Broadcast Services • the Shared Interworking Function. the CAMEL Service Environment (CSE) is defined and lies within the Home Network. and hence the basis for the first release of UMTS.
SMS • Short Message Service Centre • Connects to the UMTS Core Network via SMS Gateway/Interworking MSC Location Services • Serving Mobile Location Centre (SMLC) • Located within the UTRAN Radio Network Controller CAMEL • Camel Service Environment • Located within the Home Network Cell Broadcast • Cell Broadcast Centre • Connects directly to the UTRAN Radio Network Controller Fig. 30 – Specific Services and Support Elements ©Informa Telecoms 60 .
calling card and so on. IN/CAMEL IN UMTS 6. SCCP and TCAP. This means that IN offers a route to operator differentiation. by providing intelligence within databases which could translate these dialled numbers into standard routing numbers within networks. and are not themselves standardised. and a standardised protocol layer known as INAP is used to enable interaction between the SSP and SCP. The intelligent applications which control IN services are defined by the operator. or SSPs) to communicate with databases known as Service Control Points (or SCPs). such that to implement any defined “Capability Set” of services. IN separates service intelligence and switching. The application or database must reside in the IN. Understanding UMTS 61 ©Informa Telecoms . Traditionally. These early services were soon followed up by further advanced services based on this intelligence. switching equipment would need to be upgraded each time a new service was required. INAP lies above the internationally standard protocols which form the SS7 signalling system. upgrades to switches are required. thereby increasing vendor competition.1 Intelligent Networks Intelligent Networks originally provided advanced features such as freephone. incorporating MTP. Most INs. use lower layer SS7 protocols to enable the Switches (known as Service Switching Points. including GSM Phase 2+ networks. and that service creation and switching is split into two markets. but equally that in many cases the same services cannot be offered outside the network of that operator. but the addition of the actual services within this capability set do not require switch upgrades. incorporating interaction with the user to further customise services. This means that new services can be quicker and cheaper to install. IN can provide such services only when there is an exchange of data between the switch and an application or database which has knowledge about number translation or other features.The UMTS Architecture 6.
Pre-IN: Switching & Service Control IN: Intelligent Applications Service Creation Tools Service Control Point SS7 (INAP) Service Switching Point Switching Fig. 31 – Intelligent Networks ©Informa Telecoms 62 .
GPRS and Circuit-Switched connections are both supported by CAMEL. Understanding UMTS 63 ©Informa Telecoms . although it is still seen as an extension of CS-1.The UMTS Architecture 6. operator-specific IN services). even when subscribers are roaming outside the home network. not a supplementary service.g. Due to different networks being involved. but is a core feature of the Virtual Home Environment (VHE) concept of UMTS. CAMEL is a network feature. the CAMEL standard is more tightly defined than IN capability set 1 (IN CS-1). and subscribers who have access to CAMEL services are marked within each network. The big difference is that the MSC and SCP may well be in different networks (the SCP will be located in the subscriber’s home network for home network operator specific service support). It is specified within GSM Phase 2+. in that it is the MSCs (now termed SSPs within the CAMEL context) which communicate with the SCP. In order for CAMEL to function. information exchange is required between the Home and Visited networks.2 CAMEL CAMEL (Customised Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic) is a feature designed to provide support for services of operators which are not standardised services (e. The concept is basically that of IN.
SCP CAMEL Service Environment HOME UMTS NETWORK Ca me l In ter ac tio ns Serving MSC/GSN (SSP) a Tr ffic Ch SERVING UMTS NETWORK n an el Gateway MSC/GSN Fig. 32 – CAMEL Within UMTS ©Informa Telecoms 64 .
The UMTS Architecture 7. CHARGING Understanding UMTS 65 ©Informa Telecoms .
CS Domain: • Time • Location • Number of Channels PS Domain: • Time • Location • QoS • Data volume Fig. 33 – Charging ©Informa Telecoms 66 .
since it is designed for robust support of packet networks. CORE NETWORK TRANSPORT The CS Domain will in most cases be brought forward directly from an operator’s existing GSM Phase 2+ core network. and provide support for the ATM protocol stack. ATM is a common choice. Equally in the PS domain. Such networks commonly use PDH or SDH. although there is no standard specified for this. Understanding UMTS 67 ©Informa Telecoms . the choice of transport layers remains up to the operator. However currently. ATM is already specified for transport within the UTRAN. no standard transport is specified – any IP network can lie between the GGSN and SGSN. Such an upgrade will require the addition of an interworking function within the MSCs to support ATM-PSTN interworking. It seems likely that both core network domains may also migrate to ATM in UMTS networks.The UMTS Architecture 8. and is not defined in the standards. particularly when operators seek to combine the transport systems of the CS and PS domains. a major goal behind the network architectures proposed in Release 4 and beyond.
CS DOMAIN PS DOMAIN • Any IP Network • Commonly uses ATM Mobility & Service Databases • PDH or SDH UTRAN • ATM Based • Goal is to combine PS & CS Transport Systems (Release 4 Architecture) Fig. 34 – Transport in the Core Network ©Informa Telecoms 68 .
If accessing through this home network.g. The mobile station can answer directly to the other station. it will register its new COA with its HA. However when it accesses through some visited network. meaning that guarantees of service quality. it will therefore just act like any non-mobile station and can be reached through normal IP routing. Any time the mobile station moves to attach via a different IP subnetwork. would not be possible. it is assigned a “care of address” (COA) which belongs to this visited network. LAN). If this were not the case. then active TCP sessions would be broken each time the mobile wanted to access through a different network (e. where the packets are received by a router which is assigned the status of the “home agent” (HA).1 Mobile IP: Basics Mobile IP is an ongoing standardisation project within the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). who are now also a market representation partner within 3GPP. which belongs within its original home network. and a “seamless view” for the application. having previously been provided with the COA by the mobile. Mobile IP provides a mechanism whereby a mobile station is given a permanent IP home address. MOBILE IP 9. The aim of Mobile IP is to enable a mobile to communicate using the same IP address at all times. regardless of the IP network through which it accesses the Internet. although using its home address rather than the COA as the source address for the message. This HA forwards packets onto the mobile station using tunnelling. Since other stations do not know the location of the mobile. and which identifies the current location of the mobile. UMTS vs.The UMTS Architecture 9. they will send packets to its permanent home address. Understanding UMTS 69 ©Informa Telecoms .
Home Agent “Permanent (Home) Address” “COA” Can Answer Direct (Uses Home Address. 35 – Mobile IP ©Informa Telecoms 70 . not COA) Caller Called Visited Network COA – “Care of Address” Fig.
supporting MAP communication with UMTS location registers. IPv6 In the case of IPv4. Messages from the home agent can be tunnelled directly towards the mobile station. and tunnel PDUs from the GGSN towards the user. It is possible to assign mobile stations a direct COA. Overlaying Mobile IP onto a GPRS/UMTS network means enabling the GGSN to have this FA functionality. a COA address will most likely be a router. In effect. A key advantage in moving to IPv6 is that the number of IP addresses available becomes effectively unlimited. able to set up a PDP context for the mobile station. The IGSN would need to support current SGSN functionality. called the foreign agent (FA). If the mobile station has a direct COA. plus of course support Mobile IP and any accounting procedures required by an FA. Understanding UMTS 71 ©Informa Telecoms . Indeed it will be possible to combine the GGSN and SGSN into a single Internet GPRS Support node (IGSN). using some form of automatic assignment mechanism.2 Mobile IPv4 vs. which acts as the FA and marks the end of the UMTSspecific network. A single COA may apply to more than one mobile station. an ultimate scenario is that Mobile IP may handle mobility management and tunnelling within the PS domain core network.The UMTS Architecture 9. since data can be tunnelled directly from source to user. which will have the functionality to enable it to forward messages on to the mobile station. then the core network tunnelling provided by GTP becomes redundant.
a) IPv4 Plus GPRS/UMTS HA PDP/ GTP SGSN PDP/ GTP GGSN/ FA “COA” Visited Network COA – “Care of Address” HA – Home Agent FA – Foreign Agent IGSN – Internet GPRS Support Node b) IPv6 Plus GPRS/UMTS HA “COA” “COA” IGSN Visited Network Fig. 36 – Mobile IP Evolution ©Informa Telecoms 72 .
e. Non IP-native terminals (e. and is involved in signalling and control of the Media Gateway. Whereas Release ’99 is based on re-using and extending the equipment from GSM core networks. both the circuit and packet switched domains).g. signalling & user data transport). so the same IP or ATM based interface can be employed to transport packets between the Radio Access Network and the external PSTN or IP networks. and introduces new multimedia server elements. The advantage of this new approach is in moving towards a scenario needing only a single transport network for both voice and data (i. Release ’00 makes the first move towards implementing a full IP core network. legacy GSM handsets) are handled by the MSC servers. and the MSC server. the first step is that the circuit-switched domain is evolved by splitting the MSC into two entities. which lies within the “control plane”. a Media Gateway which handles actual user data transport (“transport plane”). Release 4 introduces the concept of separation of the control and user planes (i. Understanding UMTS 73 ©Informa Telecoms .e. In particular.1 Release 4 – Control & Data Separation in the CS domain In particular. RELEASE 4 10.The UMTS Architecture 10.
37 – Evolution of Circuit Switched Domain ©Informa Telecoms 74 . Release ’99 – CS Domain UTRAN Iucs MSC Signalling & User Data GMSC PSTN HSS 2. Release 4 – CS Domain UTRAN MGW Control MSC Server User Data MGW Control PSTN Signalling GMSC Server HSS Fig.1.
creating a SIP session to the mobile terminal. or the IP Multimedia Subsystem can of course connect directly into an external IP network via the GGSN. the Multimedia Call Server (CSCF – Call State Control Function). is introduced into the core network. transport continues between the Serving SGN and Gateway GSN. Other new elements include the Media Gateway Control Function (MGCF) and the Media Resource Function (MRF). The use of IPv6 is mandatory within this IP Multimedia subsystem. A Media Gateway takes care of the transformation of user and signalling traffic between this packet-based domain and the PSTN world. and control of the system is centred around a new element. The CSCF is a SIP server.2 The IP Multimedia Subsystem In the packet switched domain. IP-addressable terminals. the IP Multimedia subsystem.The UMTS Architecture 10. but a new subsystem. direct to multimedia. This system is introduced in order to enable support for IP telephony a well as IP multimedia applications. Understanding UMTS 75 ©Informa Telecoms .
UTRAN SGSN GGSN Internet etc… HSS MRF CSCF (SIP Server) Signalling Only User Data MGCF MGW PSTN etc… Fig. 38 – IP Multimedia Subsystem ©Informa Telecoms 76 .
The Radio Access and User Domains remain structurally the same. Understanding UMTS 77 ©Informa Telecoms . with the IP multimedia Core Network subsystem newly added. which can link into each of the core network domains and the IP multimedia subsystem by means of a “service control point” to the Open Service Architecture. For the sake of clarity. It is also useful to define the “service subsystem”.3 New Domain Concept in Release 4 and Beyond Taking the new architectural evolutions into account. not all the elements or interfaces within and between the various elements are shown. it is now possible to summarise the new UMTS. HSS.The UMTS Architecture 10. The Core Network remains divided into circuit and packet switched domains. All these various systems of course must continue to interact with the Home Subscriber Server.
Services Subsystem IP Multimedia CN Subsystem OSA SCP CSCF HSS GGSN MSC Server CS Domain Radio Access SGSN PS Domain User Domain Fig. 39 – Domains in All-IP UMTS ©Informa Telecoms 78 .
will integrate the packet and circuitswitched domains in the core network. This reiterates the major changes as follows. In particular. The phases of standardisation can be summarised as shown opposite.1 3GPP Release ’00/Release 4 Release ’00 (Release 4) and future planned releases of UMTS concentrate on the evolution of the core network architecture defined in Release ’99. and ultimately enabling true IP Multimedia services to be offered. the long-term aim is to move towards an architecture which is “all IP”. and allowed IP services tunnelled directly to ISPs (single media IP). adding new server elements to achieve this. • UMTS Release ’99 added a brand new radio interface.The UMTS Architecture 11. from GSM as the original starting point: • GPRS introduced a packet switched domain into the system. NETWORK EVOLUTION 11. Understanding UMTS 79 ©Informa Telecoms . • UMTS Release ’00/4 and future releases.
IP Multimedia Tunnels to ISPs – PS Single Media Services CS PS Uses GSNs Core Network CS Uses MSCs IP Multimedia Subsystem GSNs Continue Servers Replace MSCs Air Interface GSM GSM EDGE UTRAN GPRS R’99 R’00 (R4) Fig. 40 – Phases of Standards ©Informa Telecoms 80 .
ANNEX 1 DOMAINS ©Informa Telecoms 81 .
where areas of the network are identified as separate entities. The domains are organised hierarchically such that the first split simply describes a User Equipment Domain and an Infrastructure Domain. with each being made up of the physical elements in that part of the network.The UMTS Architecture A.1. Understanding UMTS 82 ©Informa Telecoms .1 DOMAINS IN UMTS Domain Structure The physical architecture in UMTS is modelled using the concept of domains. Standard interfaces connect the different domains together.1 A. and Access Network Domain and Core Network Domain (for the Infrastructure Domain). it is fairly clear what each domain represents. In general. Transit and Home Network Domains. However. these are further broken down into the USIM Domain and Mobile Equipment Domain (for the User Equipment Domain). The Core Network Domain is then further broken down into Serving.
HOME NETWORK Zu Cu Uu Iu SERVING NETWORK Yu Home Network Domain TRANSPORT NETWORK Serving Network Domain Mobile Equipment Domain User Equipment Domain USIM Domain Access Network Domain Transit Network Domain Core Network Domain Infrastructure Domain Fig. A.1 – Domains in UMTS ©Informa Telecoms 83 .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.