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a Mumbaikar’s heart-throb
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Worli. The temple miraculously escaped destruction during the Muslim & Portuguese rules. Pandurang Shivaji Sonar .The Origin of Mumbai Made up of seven isles: Kolbhat (Colaba). worshipped by the Kolis The Mumbadevi temple was built originally by a Koli in 14th century atop Dongri hill. But British demolished it in 18th century. Mazgaon (derived from Sanskrit word Matsya Gram – fishing village. Palva Bunder (renamed by British as Apollo Bunder). It was rebuilt at Pydhonie by a goldsmith. Parel. Chhota Kolbhat (little Colaba). also constituted of seven other smaller islands. The bigger island in the North of Mumbai islands was Sashti (renamed by Portuguese as Salsette). Mahim. And the other island to the East was Turbhe (called as Trombay by Portuguese) A Kolin selling fish Deep-sea fishermen called the Kolis and salt makers called the Aagris were the chief inhabitants Mumbadevi Mandir The name Mumbai was derived from the form of Maha Amba (Great Mother) Mumbadevi.
Mahakali Caves. then Shaka era AD 415. Banganga Tank. Mandapeshwar caves). Andheri Jogeshwari Caves . Kalachuri dynasty (coins of the Kalachuri king Krishnaraja were found in the village Kavel present day Kalbadevi road) build the Jogeshwari caves dedicated to Lord Shiva 6th – 7th century: Chalukya dynasty (king Pulakeshin) established their capital on Gharapuri island 9th . Ambarnath temple). Traikutaka. The Walkeshwar temple was destroyed by the Portuguese & rebuilt by Rama Kamath in 1715 Gharapuri Caves (called as Elephanta by Portuguese) (900 AD) Mahakali Caves (300 BC).Ancient Period Artifacts found near Kandivali shows evidence of human civilisation since 250 BC 300 BC: Maurya Empire (Kanheri caves. The present Sanjay Gandhi National Park also existing in this era & was earlier called Krishnagiri National Park 185 BC: Satvahanas of Telgu region ruled the islands along with Konkan coast 1st century : Satvahana.12th century : Shilahara era (Elephanta caves. Kanheri is derived from the word Krishnagiri (means black mountain in Sanskrit). Walkeshwar temple.
Raja Bhimdev & his son Pratap Bimb transformed the island into a city of temples & settlements flourishing with plantations. In 1661. Portugal handed over the islands of Mumbai to Britain as dowry. Raja Bhimdev the son of Ramdev (the Yadav king of Devgiri). 15th century: Mohemmedan invader Mubarak Shah destroyed many temples & cities after defeating Raja Nagardev in a battle at Byculla and thus conquered Mumbai.Medieval Period 13th century: When Devgiri was besieged by the invader AllaudinKhilji. during the 13th century. the English East India Company took over the command of these money-minting islands under a lease agreement of 10 Pounds per annum In 1737 Sashti was captured from the Portuguese by the native Marathas. The Haji Ali tomb & the Mahim mosque were built around this time 16th century : Portuguese defeated the Muhameddans in a battle near the Bandra creek. groves & woods. Banganga tank & ancient temple of Walkeshwar . The temple of Walkeshwar & Mahalakshmi were cast down. fishing hamlets & vegetal cover. They imposed their feudal system on the natives. but retained Sashti islands In the year 1668. during the marriage treaty of Infanta Catherine of Portugal with Charles II of Britain. demolished temples & built churches in their place. established his capital Mahikawati on isle of Mahim. and was formally ceded to the East India Company in the 1782 Treaty of Salbai View of the ghat. but finally lost it to the British in 1774.
The Hindus (primarily konkanis) who did not succumb to the oppressions for conversions. During the 17th century. Bhandaris. the Vadvals were gardeners The Portuguese had the primary goal of proselytizing rather than development of mumbai. The Parsi community has contributed significantly to the development of the nation. a Parsi trader in 1670 In 1757. Bassein & Thane. Kathiawaris. The region became known as Kamathipura.Major Settlements of Mumbai During the Shilahar era (800-1000AD) GharaPuri (present day Elephanta) was the capital and flourishing trade center was established in sashti island During Raja Bhimdev’s reign the main inhabitants were various Maharashtrian castes viz. The printing press was introducted to Mumbai by Bhimji Parikh. locality of pydhonie physically sperated Hindu & Muslim settlements The Sindhis who were a resident of the state of Sindh. migrated to other parts of Mumbai & thus Konkanis became a part of the oldest inhabitants of Mumbai. These communities spearheaded the development of commerce & trade in the city Almost all settlements were largely along the religious lines. The region was the low-lying area near present day Mahalaxmi. The Bhandaris were originally toddy trappers. Kamathis. Famous Parsis are Dadabhai Naoroji. Parsis were one of the earliest immigrants to move to Mumbai. Ratan Tata. many Gujrathis. Vadvals. Pachkalshis. For e. .g. Jemshetji Tata. thus introducing Christianity in this region. construction workers from Andhra Pradesh arrived here and set up base. lost their homes during the partition since and took shelter in Mumbai & settled in Sindhunagar (Ulhasnagar) & contributed to the progress of trade & commerce. Kutchis & marwaris arrived to mumbai to oversome droughts & famine in their homeland. They carried conversion in the area of Caval. Chaul. Kunbis. Palshis. Bhois. Around the same time. Agris. Pathare Prabhus and Brahmins.
The present day area from Bandra to Dahisar are a part of Sashti island. The channels separating Mumbai and Turbhe islands from Sashti Island were filled in the early 20th century. By 1845 the seven southern islands had been connected to form Old Mumbai. initiated the Hornby Vellard project of connecting the isles. Railway viaducts and road bridges were built in the 19th century to connect Mumbai island to Sashti. The old railway bridges over the Bhayandar & Naigaon creeks can still be seen from the Virar locals. Mahakali caves fall in this region (right): Mumbai after reclamation (left): Fort area after reclamation Fact: It took 60 yrs (17841845) to merge the 7 islands of Mumbai into one landmass . The ancient Kanheri caves. then Governor of Bombay Presidency. Jogeshwari caves.km. and Sashti to the mainland.Greater Mumbai Reclaimed from the Sea In 1782 William Hornby. with an area of 435 sq. despite resistance from East India Company.
1784. when the Hornby Project kept failing to fill the breach at worli. Only then did the Hornby Project work resumed without failures Right: Mahalakshmi mandir Marine Drive. He searched the waters & actually found an idol of the Goddess & built the Mahalakshmi temple in the sea. it was financed by Cotton entrepreneur and banker Premchand Roychand in the late 19th century .British Raj (1700–1947 AD) As per the legend. 1930 Below: Rajabai Towre under construction: Mumbai University Building & Rajabhai tower. the chief engineer. dreamt of Goddess Lakshmi in the sea near Worli. standing 260 ft tall and endowed with amazing sculptures. a Pathare Prabhu.
Some Old Memories Kalbadevi Road Carnac Road. check the Rajabai Tower in the backgrond . now renamed as Tilak Marg – notice the Crawford market in the back ground Oval Maiden.
Some Old Memories Queens Road Church gate station with Marine drive in the background View from Malabar hill Bullock cart on Mumbai streets .
Social Reformer Gowalia Tank (The tank has been buried and a ground created over it) . 20 shore establishments and 20.000 sailors. The Mumbai Mutiny of 18th Feb 1946 marked the first and most serious revolt by the Indian military personnel of the Western naval fleet against the British rule. 1885 Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak. “Ahimsa” & “Satyagraha” were introduced in India In 1921 (after the death of Tilak) Mumbai’s citizens contributed over Rs. This is was the last straw that broke the camel’s back and forced the mighty British empire to finally announce India’s independence First Indian National Congress.Mumbai and Indian Independence • • • • • • Indian National Congress was founded in 1885 in a hall overlooking the Gowalia Tank Maidan In the historical trial of Bal Gangadhar Tilak under the Bombay High Court (for charges of sedition put forth by british). Tilak spoke out to the world as to what was in the minds of the Indian people .“Swaraj (independence) is my birthright and I shall have it”. 1942 by the Congress Party in a public meeting at Gowalia Tank Maidan (now renamed August Kranti maidan). 1 crore to “Tilak Swaraj Fund” which gave a immense boost to entire freedom struggle The Quit India Movement took off from Mumbai on August 7. from Karachi to Calcutta and ultimately came to involve 78 ships. This statement aroused a sleeping nation to action making them aware of their political plight under foreign rule Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Editor. From the initial flashpoint in Mumbai. Freedom Fighter. the mutiny spread and found support through India. arrived in Bombay in 1915 after giving a spirited fight against inhuman apartheid in South Africa and thus the concept of “Swadeshi”.
gaum (village) – village at the foot of mountain (Malabar hill). its been buried since then Parel – derived from the Parali Vaijanath Mahadev temple of the 13th century dedicated to Shiva. The britishers made a failed attempt to move take the elephant to British museum (fortunately their crane broke down and the elephant today sits just outside the buyculla zoo) Dhobi Talao – washerman’s pond until 17th century. Adjoining Phanaswadi is Cavel (derived from Koli name Kolwar) is located to the north-east of Dhobitalao near the Chira Bazaar area. The Kolis of this village were converted to Christianity by the Portuguese in the 16th century. Port where sacks are offloaded & stored Old Mumbai . The Portuguuese demolished this & built a Jesuit church & convent in its place Elphinstone circle – original name Amliagal (meaning . Bhandaris (who were toddy trappers). from the Koli name Kolwar. Nearby was the shrine of Gav-devi (the deity of the village). bunder is port. even today a Tamarind land exists) Chinch Bunder (south of Dongri near the shore) – chinch means tamarind in Marathi Bhendi Bazar – derived from a bhendi plantation Umerkhadi – derived from a couple of umbar (Ficus Glomerata) trees which existed along the shore of the entrance to the Gharapuri Caves (Elephanta) in ancient The khadi (creek in Marathi) Some of the earlier most inhabitants were Kolis (whose major occupation was fishing).in front of tamarind tree. Cavel thus became a Christian enclave Bori Bunder – bori means sacks in Marathi. It was founded by a local named Khot who leased plots to east indians Girgaum – gir (mountain in Sanskrit). Agris (salt-makers). days On the shores of Umerkhadi was a hamlet Pydhonie (which means foot-wash in Marathi) A comparatively narrow belt of land to the hills were thickly grown with plantations: Phanaswadi – phanas (jackfruit in Marathi) plantations Kelewadi – plantain (banana) groves in Marathi Khetwadi – khet means farm in Marathi Khotachiwadi – meaning Khot’s place. Thus there were a variety plantations on the islands which gave name to quite a few places in mumbai.Interesting Nomenclature (origins) … Elephanta island – original name was Gharapuri (or Puri. Vadvals or Malis (were gardeners). place of caves). which was called by Portuguese as Elephanta after seeing a monolithic basalt sculpture of an elephant at the entrance.
Trombay given by Portuguese Pydhonie – feet-wash in Marathi – indicating that this was once a creek. This was one of the first piece of land to be reclaimed from the sea Khar – (salty in Marathi) for its vicinity to the sea near Khar Danda Dharavi derived from daar (which means the door of the island) Khumbarwada – kumbhar means potter. Potters from Saurashtra lived here Sewri derived from Sivawadi Versova – original name Vesaave which was a koli hamlet Bandra – original name Vandre (which means Bunder or port) Santa-cruz – named by Portuguese. The Worli creek to the north of this island was called Kshirsagar & the khind in the hills got denigrated to Breach Candy. Local name Shantinagar . gram-village) Bhuleshwar – named after the temple of Shiva (Bholenath) Trombay – original name Turbhe. capital of Shilaharas. It was called as Salsette by Portuguese Thane – derived from Sthan or Sthanaka. since it comprised of group of 66 villages. hence the name Chinchpokli Parel – pronounced as Paral. There were tad (brab) palms below the hills which gave the name to Taddeo (Tardeo) Byculla – derived from Bhaya (Cassia fistula) & khala means at ground level At extreme south of Parel island was a tamarind covered valley. The Portuguese demolished this & built a Jesuit church & convent in its place North of Parel was the boat hamlet Naigaon derived from Nyaya-gaon (nyay means justice).Interesting Nomenclature (origins) l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l Up the Malabr hill was a plantation of babul trees which lend the name to famous Babulnath temple. derived from the Parali Vaijanath Mahadev temple built by the Brahmins of the 13th century dedicated to Shiva. Slabs & copper plates of this era were discovered in Thane Mazgaon – derived from Machchagram (machcha – fish. which was the court of justice in the days of Raja Bhimdev. which gave the name Vadala (vad means banyan in marathi Bamnoli (between Vadala & Parel) derived from Baman-aali (baman is Brahman & aali means row) which was a Brahmin settlement The name of the 7th island was also derived from the rows of banyan (vad) as Vad-ali (aali means row) or Varali (Worli) The northern most main island (present day Bandra-to-Bhayandar) was called Sashti (which means 66). Further north were rows of banyan trees.
The entire Greater Mumbai is made of Deccan basalt flows & their acid & basic variants and also some fossiliferous sediments mainly of tufaceous & partly of fresh water origins rich in fauna Almost 50% of the city area and 23% of the suburban area has been reclaimed from below sea-level by infilling.14 per cent of total area of Maharashtra Greater Mumbai comprises the Mumbai.5 on the Richter scale. & pushing the sea outward through dyke-walls like those of the Back Bay reclamation Greater Mumbai (satellite image) Mumbai lies over more than 10 seismic fault lines.71 sq. upto 7. km. South Sashti and Turbhe Islands. . that constitutes 0. comprising Bombay City 157 km2 and Suburbs 446 km2. The coastal plain to the east of Mumbai is prone to earthquakes of even higher intensity.Geography & Topology of Greater Mumbai Mumbai peninsula is 2 meters above sea-level the area of Greater Mumbai is 603 km2. Greater Mumbai district (smallest in Maharashtra) & covers an area of 437.
Apollo Bunder (area before Gateway of India was erected) Kanheri Caves (300 BC). along the coast of Dockyard Road on the Eastern seafront of Mumbai. The wharf serves as the port for numerous fishermen who bring in their daily catch. Uran to the west. Ferry services link up JNPT.Mumbai’s Harbours The Harbour Bay is studded from south to north with many islands: Kansa or Gull islet (easter side) Karanja islan. Henery and Kenery. (situated opposite the Victoria Dock) Butcher island Elephanta island Oyster Rock Hog island (1km east of Elephanta). Borivali Ferry Wharf is a wharf along the Thane Creek. Cross or Gibbet island. and Rewas and Mandwa to the south Right centre: Mumbai’s Harbours in present days .
Creeks. Dharavi and Rai Murdhe. Lakes. Juhu. and resting on knolls. and drains west to join the Marve creek. are sand bars pushed inland by the sea. Surrounding the central hilly region. the Tulsi. Marshes. with numerous rain torrents washing down its slopes in all directions. to augment the water supply to the city to a small extent. Varsova. and Marve. Today they form together a single land mass. are extensive lowlying . has been blocked to form the Dahisar project. one below the other. The largest of them is the Dahisar river that rises on the southern flanks of the Kanheri hills. Below Powai. so mruch so this valley today accommodates three small fresh water lakes. This river has been dammed in its upper reaches. Tulsi lake Powai lake Harbour in monsoon . Hills The central horse shoe valley in the hills used to be drained south by the Mahim river in the past. The Kanheri hill complex has a radial drainage system. fastly silting up drain of industrial wastes emptying into the Mahim Bay. the river today is mostly a storm drain and a gutter of sewerage. that supply the city with 3 per cent of its domestic and other needs of water supply. off the Ulhas mouth. the Vihar and the Powai. blocked off by the construction of the Santacruz airpoit at its Kurla end. Tidal Swaps. The lower reaches is a shallow. this river. however.
The tramcars were of two kinds—those drawn by one horse and those drawn by two. the railway went over the Borghat. Mumbai saw its first bus run on 15 July 1926 between Afgan Church and Crawford Market. By 1870 Calcutta and Madras had been linked with Mumbai by rail. The Bombay Baroda and Central India Railway (BBCI) was started in 1855.. Double deck buses were introduced in 1937 in order to cope better with the growing traffic. 1920.P. The Bombay Electric Supply & Tramways Company Limited started the first electrically operated tram-car appeared on Mumbai’s roads in 1907. In 1865.Old Mumbai’s Transport System The Bombay Tramway Company Limited was set up in 1873. the first in the country. The first motor car appeared on . for short) was established in 1849. Old Churchgate Rlwy Station Its first train. then known as The Great Indian Peninsula Railway Company (G. BEST is now The Brihanmumbai Electric Supply & Transport Undertaking. Mumbai Suburban Railway is the oldest in Asia established in 1847.I. In 1905. ran from Mumbai to Thane on 16th April 1853. double decker trams were introduced in September. The passing years aggravated the problem of rush-hour traffic and to ease the situation. Dadar TT is Dadar Tram Terminus Early Trams Top: BEST’ first bus Left: a gas street lamp.
Tata. He landed with his precious load of mail on a grass strip at Juhu. It was on this day that J. 1932. Karachi.Mumbai and Civil Aviation It all began on October 15. the father of Civil Aviation in India and founder of Air India. . took off from Drigh Road Airport.R.D. in a tiny. light single-engined de Havilland Puss Moth on his flight to Bombay via Ahmedabad.
alienating the more orthodox Dadasaheb Phalke. which is one of the best Social Reformer school of physics in the world Bhau Daji Lad. present day Mahim.Pioneers of Mumbai … Raja Bhimdev became the earliest pioneer of Mumbai in the 13th century who established his capital Mahikawati on one of the isles called Newale or Barad-bet (deserted island. steel. He introduced many fruit-bearing trees. He built his palace & temple of goddess Prabhadevi in Naigaon (between Wadala & Parel). the father of Indian Cinema Dadabhai Naoroji. since 1857. She raised the First Flag of Indian founder of the Indian Atomic Energy Independence at a Socialist Confernce programme. dedicated to Lord Shiva named after the Babul trees which were the main components of a forest covering the low-lying areas of this island. Social Reformer. pioneer of nuclear science. Even today. Educationist. as well as the first Babulnath temple. He founded TIFR. Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade. Freedom Fighter & Founder of the Indian Nation Congress in Mumbai . He built a court of justice in Prabhadevi. the same place is called Bhima Raja’s wadi. electrical power generation. “bet” in Marathi means island). The Tata brand is his tribute to the nation Madame Bhikaji Cama Dr. Homi Bhabha. textile. While India was striving for in Germany & was very active in the independence. he spearheaded the country in Indian freedom struggle an advanced field of science & technology. Founder member of Prarthana Samaj Sheriff of Mumbai. including coconut palms to the island Jamshetji Tata – the first pioneer entrepreneur who strived for economic independence of India during the British rule. He was instrumental in in Mumbai which engaged in a the some of the major reconstruction efforts campaign of reformation without of the city. He started an industrial revolution for swadeshi manufacturing of iron.
He spent his whole life fighting against social discrimination. An active member of the Unified Maharastra Movement. He founded many schools. An active supporter of Unified Maharashtra Movement . Finance Minister of India He was member of Board of Governers of IMF & IBRD. Social Reformer Major figure in the Indian Independence struggle. Jurist. Sanskrit library in Mumbai. He was the chief architect of Indian Constitution Dr. Freedom Fighter. He established the first university for women in India in 1916. Deshmukh first Governor of RBI . He was the Pioneer of Women’s Education & Upliftment & the right for widows to remarry in India. he worked for removing the curse of untouchability These are just a few representational pioneers of Mumbai. Though he was a Brahmin. businessman & entrepreneur He was an Indian philanthropist and educationalist. There are many more who had a hand in the making of Mumbai as one of the leading cities of Free India Bharat Ratna Maharshi Keshav Karve. which earned him the title “Senapati” Acharya Pralhad Keshav Atre (Literaturist.Nana Jagannath Shankarshet. Babasaheb Ambedkar. member of Mumbai Education Board Senapati Pandurang Mahadev Bapat. An active leader in many arenas in Mumbai life. C. D. Social Reformer. Scholar. which is currently known as SNDT Women’ University Dr. Social worker).
408 buses.Mumbai’s Life-line Mumbai Suburban Railways’s operate on 2 zones: CR & WR carry a total of 6. ferrying 4.5 million passengers daily over 340 routes .3 million passengers every day BEST runs a total of 3.
Mumbai Today … Juhu Beach Siddhivinayak mandir. Dadar Mumbai’s faithful “night-watchmen” Shoepolish boys Rajabai Tower . Prabhadevi Hutatma Chowk Shivaji Park.
a Parsi visionary .Mumbai Today … Wankhede Stadium Taj Hotel. In retaliation. he set up the Taj Hotel Marine Drive Fact: Nariman Point was named after Khursheed Framji Nariman. Gateway Fact: Jamshetji Tata was denied access to Watson Hotel since he was an Indian.
Malabar Hill Stock Exchange.India’s Business Capital … Hanging Garden. Dalal Street Dadar Flower Market Vidhan Bhavan Nehru Science Center. Worli Mantralaya BMC Haji Ali tomb High Court Central Library Dhobi Ghat. Mahalakshmi .
Mumbai Invincible … Clockwise from right: 1) Dahi handi 2) Women riding bikes during Gudi Padva parade 3) Ganesh Chaturthi festival .
Aamhi Mumbaikar … Master Blaster.Sachin Tendulkar Little Master Sunil Gavaskar A Dabbawala The dutiful BEST bus conductor Dr. Sachin Tendulkar Shubha Raul. Balasaheb Thackeray. Mayor Harish Kapadia Himalayan Explorer . Nitu Mandke. Surgeon Lata Mangeshkar with Amitabh Bacchan.
quickest & most exciting shopping of varied items can be done in the train itself … this is Aamchi Mumbai Language Spoken: Mumbaiyya Staple Food: Vada-pav Staple Drink: Cutting Fact: Vada-paav was born 35yrs back when Ashok Vaidya a snack seller outside Dadar station decided to experiment . terror-attacks Where there is always scope for adjusting one more commuter continuously even in a jam-packed local. Locals. instead of Marathi Which does not rest for a moment even after being hit by worst disasters – riots. even while manouvering around a pothole Where you need to be skilled in jumping off/on a bus/train few secs before it stops. strikes. Mumbai has crossed all limits & adjusted herself to accommodate all those who beseeched her A confluence of many varied cultures of the country – a mini India in the true sense Where two natives (Maharashtrians) tend to speak Mumbaiyya with each other. bomb-blasts.. if you happen to be in the first row near the door while alighting/boarding a bus/train Where 8 people can share a 6ftx6ft kholi & can still make space for more Where you don’t need a reason to play/talk cricket Where you don’t need your own vehicle to commute from one end of the city to another at any time (thanks to the nearly 24hr coverage of BEST buses. defying the laws of Mass & Volume Where distance is measured in minutes/hours .The Mumbaikar Spirit … Like a mother whose heart always has space for any number of children. floods. the distance b/w work-place & home is usually 2hrs Where your driving skill ought to achieve a precision of 0. accidents.5mm (bumper-to-bumper) with 0% tolerance. black-nyellow metered rides) Where the cheapest. For eg.
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