Cerberus® Security guide «Fire protection» Introduction and basic principles

Extract of sections 1 to 9 for the «CRP B» manual

Fire & Security Products
Siemens Building Technologies Group

Data and design subject to change without notice. / Supply subject to availability. E Copyright by Siemens Building Technologies AG Wir behalten uns alle Rechte an diesem Dokument und an dem in ihm dargestellten Gegenstand vor. Der Empfänger anerkennt diese Rechte und wird dieses Dokument nicht ohne unsere vorgängige schriftliche Ermächtigung ganz oder teilweise Dritten zugänglich machen oder ausserhalb des Zweckes verwenden, zu dem es ihm übergeben worden ist. We reserve all rights in this document and in the subject thereof. By acceptance of the document the recipient acknowledges these rights and undertakes not to publish the document nor the subject thereof in full or in part, nor to make them available to any third party without our prior express written authorization, nor to use it for any purpose other than for which it was delivered to him. Nous nous réservons tous les droits sur ce document, ainsi que sur l'objet y figurant. La partie recevant ce document reconnaît ces droits et elle s'engage à ne pas le rendre accessible à des tiers, même partiellement, sans notre autorisation écrite préalable et à ne pas l'employer à des fins autres que celles pour lesquelles il lui a été remis. Ci riserviamo ogni diritto relativo al presente documento e sull'oggetto illustrato in esso. La parte che riceve il documento si impegna a non renderlo accessibile a terzi, né per intero né in parte, senza la nostra previa autorizzazione scritta ed a non usarlo per altri scopi di quello per il quale è stato rilasciato.

Section 1 Section 2

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire protection planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 2 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.3 2.4 3 4 4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 5 5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 6 7 Fire protection objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Types of fire protection measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structural fire protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical fire protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire detection and gas warning systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire extinguishing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Smoke control systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emergency and rescue facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire fighting systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire protection management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supporting fire protection measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overall fire protection concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cerberus fire detection systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic design of a fire detection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical requirements of the fire detection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System building and operation requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fixed fire extinguishing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water extinguishing installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sprinkler systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deluge system / water curtain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foam extinguishing system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas extinguishing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FM200 gas extinguishing system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CO2 extinguishing system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special extinguishing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dry chemical extinguishing system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inerting systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire risk assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reducing the risk of arson with an intruder detection system . . . . . . . .

1 3
4 5 5 5 5 6 7 7 8 8 9 10 12 12 12 13 14 15 15 15 16 17 18 18 19 20 20 21 22 23

Section 3

Fire detection systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Basic principle of a fire detection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope of monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AlgoRex) fire detection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AlgoRex fire detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detection intelligence at three levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AlgoRex evaluation and operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The right combination of AlgoRex system versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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26 27 30 30 31 32 33 34 36

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Section 4

Fire detectors and accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 3 4 5 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 8 9 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 Fire phenomena and detector types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detection principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Smoke detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flame detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heat detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sensor signal evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope of monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zones with fixed extinguishing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Choosing a suitable detector system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Choosing a detector for normal applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Choosing the appropriate AlgoRex detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suitability by application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number and arrangement of point-type detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring area per smoke detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring area for point-type heat detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring area for point-type flame detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number and arrangement of manual call points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number and arrangement of linear smoke detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air sampling smoke detection systems (ASD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Duct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Mono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Flex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Modular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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38 39 39 41 43 44 46 48 49 49 50 51 53 54 54 55 56 57 58 59 59 60 61 63

Section 5

Fire detection control units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 2 3 4 4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 5 5.1 6 6.1 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3 6.1.4 6.1.5 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Siting the control unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AlgoControl fire detection system control unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evaluation – Alarm – Operation – Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Configuration and structure of the fire detection system control unit . . . . . . . System overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Product range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarm concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cerberus alarm concept (CAC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire control facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activation of fire control facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activating the external control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test mode of the fire detection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing the fire control facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Safety precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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66 67 67 68 70 71 71 72 74 75 76 76 79 79 79 80 80 80 80

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Section 6

Line network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 2 2.1 2.2 3 Installation of a fire detection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Installation of the detection line network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic information on the detection line network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire detectors in explosion hazard areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electromagnetic environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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82 84 84 85 87

Section 7

Standards and approval institutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 1.1 1.2 2 3 4 5 Standards for fire detection systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . European standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UL standards (Underwriters’ Laboratories Inc. USA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing laboratories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Certification and approval institutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IP protection categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explosion protection types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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90 90 91 92 92 93 94

Section 8

Danger management systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 2 2.1 2.2 3 3.1 3.2 4 4.1 4.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Main functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other important functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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96 98 98 98

System concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 System structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Specific security features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Examples of danger management systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Example 1: DMS7000 danger management system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Example 2: System type LMSmodular (Local Monitoring System) . . . . . . . . . 103

Section 9

Evacuation and voice communication systems . . . . . . . . . .
1 2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3

105

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Main functions of an emergency voice communication system . . . . . . . 107 System concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Autonomous system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Centralized system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Decentralized system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 109 109 110

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IV Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group 07.2001

1 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect1 07.Section 1 Introduction This security guide is intended to: Provide general basic principles. and the capabilities of Cerberus fire detection products. standards and regulations that govern the planning and installation of detection systems take precedence. Assist in the selection of risk-specific fire protection concepts.2001 . The information in this security guide is based on half a century of worldwide experience in the planning and installation of detection systems. section 2. As a means of planning fire detection systems. In all cases. For more detailed information on the general planning of fire detection systems refer to CRP manual. As a work of reference. local and national codes.

2001 .2 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect1 07.

. 2. . . . . Basic design of a fire detection system . . 5.2. . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . 4. 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . Structural fire protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . Fire protection planning Fire protection objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . Reducing the risk of arson with an intruder detection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire protection management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cerberus fire detection systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical fire protection . . Gas extinguishing systems . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overall fire protection concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . 4 5 5 5 8 9 10 12 12 12 15 15 18 20 22 23 2. . . . . . .2. . . . 2. . .2001 . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . Special extinguishing systems . . . . .4. Types of fire protection measures . .2. . . . . . . . 3 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. . . . . . . . Technical requirements of the fire detection system . . . . . . . . Fire risk assessment . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supporting fire protection measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fixed fire extinguishing systems . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .Section 2 1. . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water extinguishing installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Such laws.1 Fire protection objectives The basic objective of effective fire protection measures is to protect human lives. Asset protection is usually governed by insurance companies which publish corresponding guidelines and regulations. Specifically this means: 1. In cases where no laws and ordinances exist. guidelines and standards have in all cases precedence over the recommendations in this security guide and must be conscientiously taken into consideration when planning a fire protection system. ordinances. Preventing danger to life and health (personnel protection) 2. material assets and the environment from dangers and the effects of fire. 4 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07.2001 . Preventing material damage (asset protection) 3. the fire detection system should be planned in accordance with sound fire protection engineering practice. Preventing ecological damage (environment protection) To ensure adequate fire safety most countries have enacted national and regional regulations that allocate the responsibility as follows: Personnel protection is normally governed by laws and ordinances.

2. closing fire doors. Fire compartmentation for limiting the spread of smoke and heat. 2. Lightning protection in areas with high lightning expectancy. 2. miscellaneous supporting measures. particularly heating and ventilation systems and elevators. De-energizing technical systems (installations).2 Types of fire protection measures The purpose of fire protection measures is to prevent fires and to limit the extent of fire damage. Its purpose is to prevent the outbreak of fires and the spread of incipient fires. and the like. and the like. Fire-proof sealing of shafts and ducts. These basically relate to the structural. fire-proof escape and rescue paths. to isolate them from ignition sources. for example. For example: Alarming persons who are in danger. Short. Protective gaps between individual buildings and installations. escape route pressurization. The most important elements of structural fire protection are Accessibility for the fire department. technical and organizational concepts and are summarized below: 2. Storage of combustible materials in separate compartments. Activating fixed extinguishing systems. High fire resistance of the structural elements.1 Structural fire protection Structural fire protection is a fire prevention measure. Controlling building services systems. Activating the evacuation systems. Activating the emergency lighting. Building materials and interior finishes of materials that are non-combustible or self-extinguishing.2001 . 5 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. Calling the fire fighting forces and rescue teams.1 Fire detection and gas warning systems Automatic fire detection systems An automatic fire detection system is designed to detect a fire in its incipient stage and to automatically initiate preprogrammed control functions. Fire walls between adjoining buildings.2 Technical fire protection Technical fire protection includes facilities and systems which in the event of a fire contribute to personnel safety and damage limitation. Activating devices for restricting smoke and fire propagation. fire dampers. Activating smoke and heat venting systems.

pumps and motors. The following system types exist: Water spray systems/irrigation installations Water atomizing system Foam extinguishing system Dry powder extinguishing system. Special cooling and extinguishing systems These extinguishing systems use extinguishing agents in the form of water. A non-automatic fire detection system can also be part of an automatic fire detection system. Calling the fire fighting and rescue squads. When the threshold concentration is exceeded they automatically: Activate audible and/or visual alarm devices for warning persons. They are activated manually or automatically by a fire detection system.2001 . There are two basic types of sprinkler systems: Wet pipe systems for frost-free rooms. The control functions that are initiated in the event of an alarm are the same as for automatic fire detection systems.2 Fire extinguishing systems Sprinkler systems Sprinkler systems are automatic extinguishing systems that respond to flaming fires and spray water within the area of the fire. Limiting the fire spread.Non-automatic fire detection systems In non-automatic fire detection systems the alarm is initiated manually. Their functions are: Preventing the outbreak of a total fire. foam or chemicals. Limiting the heat spread. and systems with foam generators.2. Activation of fire protection equipment. and the like. Dry pipe systems for rooms with frost hazard. 2. This is only possible if a person is on the premises. 6 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. Close valves. For special applications there are also mixed systems as well as host (fire detection system) controlled systems. Gas warning systems Gas warning systems detect hazardous concentrations of combustible gases or vapors in the air. Call intervention squads Reduce the explosion hazard by: Switch on the ventilation Shut off the gas supply.

2. 7 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. Explosion suppression systems Explosion suppression installations are extremely fast responding extinguishing systems.4 Emergency and rescue facilities Emergency lighting The emergency lighting is activated as soon as the normal lighting fails. Evacuation and public address systems Evacuation and public address systems are alarm systems for announcing alarm and evacuation messages through a speaker network. The extinguishing effect is based on oxygen starvation and in the case of halons and „halon replacements” on the inhibition effect that impedes the chemical reaction between the combustion material and the oxygen. Signalization of escape routes and exits Signs and escape route markings make it easier to locate the exits in the event of danger or a malfunction.Gas extinguishing systems Gas extinguishing systems are automatic extinguishing systems that are normally controlled by the fire detection system. To extinguish the fire they use inert gases such as CO2. The light intensity must be adequate so that safe walking though rooms and escape routes and locating of exits is possible. N2. Ar and formerly halons which are now prohibited in most countries. 2. They are controlled either by smoke detectors of the fire detection system or manually. Their function is to prevent dangerously high pressures (explosion pressure) resulting from the ignition of gas or dust in a room that is not of sufficient size. The heat relief also enhances the stability of structural elements. The smoke and heat extraction reduces smoke logging and heat accumulation which simplifies the rescue of persons and the work of the fire fighting crew. Pressurization systems to keep areas free of smoke These systems are used to keep safety staircases. escape routes and rescue zones free of smoke. The equipment comprises a sensor system and an extinguishing system.2001 .3 Smoke control systems Smoke and heat venting systems The function of smoke and heat venting systems is to extract smoke and heat in the event of a fire. 2.2. These systems are controlled either manually or automatically by the fire detection system.

Firemen’s lifts Firemen’s lifts have to fulfil stringent requirements. This equipment can only be used if persons or fire fighting crews are on the premise.2. 8 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. existing fire protection installations.2.3 Fire protection management The objective of fire protection management is to prevent fires through organizational measures and personnel training. Portable fire extinguishers. Emergency communications equipment Communications facility that enables the fire department to communicate with the personnel responsible for the building and the fire fighting. Extinguishing water mains (dry/wet). Good housekeeping. Conducting fire drills. Enforcement of no-smoking regulations or creation of smoker zones. Periodic operational tests and corrective maintenance. behavior in case of fire. 2. Hydrants.2001 .5 Fire fighting systems Extinguishing equipment and extinguishing installations for manual fire fighting Manual extinguishing equipment and installations are the most simple means for combating a fire quickly. This category includes: Wall hydrants. Inspection and maintenance of fire protection and fire detection installations. and the like. Monitoring of repair work. Preparation of an emergency plan. operational fire hazards. Utilization of safe equipment and machinery. Under normal circumstances they are also available for other users. Clearing out all unnecessary removable fire loads. and for evacuating handicapped or injured persons. These include: Normal building maintenance. Instructions to the personnel concerning. fire prevention rules. Conducting evacuation exercises. Keeping all traffic and escape routes free from obstructions. They are used for transporting firemen and their equipment.

4 Supporting fire protection measures These include concepts that prevent arson based on supplementary facilities and systems from intrusion protection applications. For the development of an intrusion protection concept please consult the special Cerberus security guide „Intrusion”.2001 .2. 9 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07.

intercom etc. Fire risks are defined in a multilevel fire protection concept that defines specific protection objectives. unsealed duct openings Pipes blocked. Smoke detection. This means that each likely fire location is to be protected by adequate measures so that no incipient fire can grow up to a serious fire. etc. gets injured Welding during repair work System being serviced Inadequate water supply. Smoking prohibition. Structural fire protection / containment 4. process. A fire protection concept for a specific installation should always take into consideration all available fire protection measures because each individual measure is subject to possible malfunction. Door left open. etc. Automatic extinguishing systems or fire brigade intervention Fire resistive architecture. room. 1 Multilevel fire protection concept Note that fire detection is only one part of a complete fire protection concept. late intervention Off hours. Fire protection measures Area of protection Buildings. Automatic and manual fire detection 1. compartmentation Fig. occupant warning. vacation.3 Overall fire protection concept The overall fire protection concept for any building is based on the following protection objectives: Protection of human life Protection of material assets Prevention of business interruption. Automatic and manual suppression systems 3. fire load reduction. 5. insufficient water supply 10 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. etc. emergency lighting. calling the fire department Exit signs. Evacuation of building occupants 2.2001 . Examples: Protective measure Night watchman Remove ignition source Fire detection system Hose cabinet In-house fire brigade Compartmentation Automatic extinguishing system Risk Falls asleep.

11 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. Chapter 6 „Fire risk assessment” has been provided to the fire protection engineer as an aid in solving this problem. both in evaluating the protection needs and prescribing adequate protection measures.Only by employing a series of different protection measures is it possible to reduce the fire danger to such an extent that the required level of safety is achieved.2001 . Which protection measures and how many of them should be implemented requires great skill on the part of the fire protection engineer.

heat. The requirements can be classified as follows: System requirements and System building and operation requirements 12 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07.2 Technical requirements of the fire detection system The function of a fire detection system is to protect human life and material assets and therefore may not have any weak points. etc. 2 Basic design of a fire detection system 4. flames. When a fire has been detected the system automatically generates an alarm and initiates the preprogrammed control functions. by means of suitable detectors.4 4. As a consequence such a system must satisfy very stringent requirements. Detection of fire phenomena Evaluation and operation Intervention Suppression of deceptive variables F Fig.1 Cerberus fire detection systems Basic design of a fire detection system The objective of a fire detection system is to reliably detect incipient fires based on phenomena such as smoke.2001 .

2001 . The requirements relate to System technology.4. The system technology requires characteristics such as High detection reliability (alarm plausibility). but for its practical implementation. Compliance with standards etc.2. This insight is not new. It is called AlgoRex a completely new fire detection system. 13 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. Product quality. As a consequence fire fighting and intervention squads are frequently confronted with the question: Is it a real alarm or a false alarm? High alarm validity (plausibility) is just as important as quick system response in the event of a fire. Cerberus has found the solution. Functionality. This is one of the principal weaknesses of conventional fire detection systems. an unrealistic ideal? No. AlgoRex is the result of many years of experience and systematic research and development in the field for fire detection and sensor technology. Key requirements are the high detection reliability and immunity to deceptive phenomena. High immunity to deceptive phenomena High system availability Maximum system design flexibility Simple logical operation High installation flexibility Easy service and maintenance etc. Is a fire detection system that is immune to deceptive alarms. no suitable technology has in the past been available. The system is based on state-of-the-art electronics and advanced data processing (see Section 3).1 System requirements All parts of the system must conform to sound engineering principles as well as the relevant standards and safety regulations.

The technical planning of a fire detection system comprises System planning: Defining the detector types. etc. The design of a fire detection system must always be matched to other fire protection measures. 14 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. service. etc.. including fire fighting and intervention crews. Incorporation of other technical fire protection measures as listed in chapter 2. Maintenance. operator terminal. technical.2001 . Operational phase The operational phase comprises Supervision and operation of the system.4. and organizational fire protection measures. system control unit. line routing. controls. etc.2 System building and operation requirements The reliability of the fire detection system is largely influenced by the quality and planning of the installation. repair. Regular re-instruction of the users. Training of all users. This concept is an optimized combination of selected structural. Alarm organization planning: Preparing an alarm concept that is tailored to the utilization and activities on the premises. Fault remedy. Implementation phase This phase comprises Installation of the system. that is.2. inspection. safety and installation regulations is required. monitoring areas and possible sources of interference. etc. For this reason a high quality standard must be applied also in these areas and conformity with the relevant standards. Its purpose is to alert endangered persons and to call the fire fighting and intervention squads. Handover of the fire detection system to the user. Testing and commissioning.2 Installation planning for the detectors. including choice of installation material. detector locations. Planning phase In this phase the designer defines a fire protection concept based on the risk assessment.

1 Fixed fire extinguishing systems Water extinguishing installations Sprinkler systems A sprinkler system is appropriate wherever rapid fire growth and temperature rise are to be expected. Underground garages. Unprotected steel building structures. department stores. In this system the heat generated by the fire activates the sprinkler head (bursts the glass bulb.5 5. In a wet system the pipe network is always filled with water. 4 1 2 3 4 Water supply Control valve (monitored) Valve station Pipe network with sprinkler heads 5 Alarm transmission (often to the fire detection system control unit) 6 External alarm to fire department 7 Audible alarm 5 3 7 6 2 1 Fig.1. for example. Warehouses and factories with a large fire load. Water is released only if the fire grows large enough to activate a sprinkler head. In a dry system there is only compressed air in the pipe network under normal conditions.). Typical applications are: High-rise buildings Large sales rooms. and where the building occupants can escape only with a delay. when a smoke detector has responded.1 5. for example. were fire fighting is difficult. melts the fusible link. Water fills the pipes only after a preliminary alarm. where water is suitable as an extinguishing agent. Water is released as soon as a sprinkler head opens.2001 . This localized application of water controls the fire in such a way that water and fire damage is minimized. Water is released only in the immediate vicinity of the fire. 3 Sprinkler system The system can be „wet” or „dry” (also called pre-action sprinkler). 15 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. etc.

1. Cable ducts. Paint shops.2 Deluge system / water curtain A deluge system is suitable where early and rapid extinguishing with large quantities of water is essential. Covered loading docks with doors that are not fire-resistive. Tanks used for storage of combustible liquids.2001 . The detection system could comprise a pipe network containing compressed air and control sprinklers. These system can be actuated manually and/or by means of a separate detection system. Water curtains for sectioning-off fire compartments.5. 4 1 Water supply 2 Control valve (monitored) 3 Quick-opening valve (electrical actuation mechanism) 4 Pipe network with sprinkler nozzles 5 Manual call point 6 Automatic fire detectors 7 Fire detection system control unit (extinguishing control unit) 8 Alarm remote transmission 9 Audible alarm 5 6 9 8 7 3 2 1 Fig. Possible applications are: Wood chip silos. 4 Deluge system 16 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. In these systems all sprinkler heads are normally open and water flows from all sprinklers heads when the system is activated. or smoke or heat detectors that are connected to a fire detection system from which the control valve can be activated automatically or manually. Transformers. etc.

2001 . 5 2 Low-expansion foam extinguishing system 6 5 2 3 2 2 10 8 9 7 1 Water supply 2 Control valve 3 Main pump 4 Foam pump 5 Non-return valve 6 Mixer 7 Blower 8 Water/foam extract atomizers 9 Foam expansion mesh 10 Foam extract container 4 1 Fig. Aircraft hangars. Internal foam flooding for fixed-roof storage tanks. aircraft hangar. These systems are normally actuated manually unless they are part of a sprinkler system (e.g.5. foam pipe 2 3 9 5 2 2 4 1 Fig. 7 8 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Water supply Control valve Main pump Foam extract container Foam pump Non-return valve Mixer Foam generator. Perimeter ring foam flooding for floating-roof storage tanks. Foam flooding for tanks with a sump Tank storage areas inside of buildings Foam flooding of rooms with foam sprayer. 6 2 High-expansion foam extinguishing system 17 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07.1.). Solvent storage areas (light foam). etc. Typical applications for such systems are: Outdoor tanks containing combustible liquids.3 Foam extinguishing system Foam extinguishing systems are water based systems that combine with foam concentrate for smothering a fire.

Computer rooms and data storage archives. hydrazine. Combustible metals (for example. textiles. certain peroxides. Such fires can be expected in: Hardening plants. nitrocellulose. sodium.2 5. Shops where arcing can occur. uranium. Electrical plant rooms. FM200 is not suitable for locations in which deep-seated fires can be expected.e.2001 . 18 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. magnesium. powder coating systems. potassium. plutonium).2. In these cases the gas cannot completely extinguish the fire before the gas is diluted to the point where the combustion process continues. Cardboard and paper warehouses.5. Gases (provided no ignitable gas/air mixtures can form after the fire has been extinguished). clean and non-toxic extinguishing agent is required (the concentrations of the decomposition products that arise during extinguishing are harmless) that does not damage the material to be protected (no chemical reaction). Such fires include: Liquids and other materials which in the event of a fire behave like combustible liquids.1 Gas extinguishing systems FM200 gas extinguishing system Extinguishing systems on the basis of FM200 are suitable for risks where a dry. smoke detector rather than heat detector). zirconium. Computer and telecommunications equipment. To prevent development of hazardous concentrations of combustion products an FM200 extinguishing system must be activated in the incipient stage of a fire. Metal hydrides. Self-decomposing substances. titanium. foams. Electrical or electronic cables and equipment. Possible applications for FM200: Paintworks. Material that can burn rapidly without supply of air (for example. gunpowder). Examples for which FM200 is not suitable: Deep-seated fires (smoldering fires) involving wood. for example. Telecommunications equipment. drying systems. etc. paint shops. For this reason only sensitive fire detectors should be installed in such fire compartments (i. paper. Oil baths.

However. Furrier’s warehouse etc. Inside storage tanks containing combustible liquids. 8 CO2 extinguishing system 19 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07.2. These systems are normally actuated by hand and/or automatically by fire detectors (or in rare cases by fusible links). 7 FM200 extinguishing system with central gas cylinder manifold 5. Oil baths (dip tanks). CO2 extinguishing systems are suitable for: Electrical installations of all kinds where no personnel is present.9 1 FM200cylinders 2 Electromechanical or pyroelectrical valve actuator 3 Extinguishing nozzles 4 Fire detection system control unit 5 Manual call point 6 Automatic fire detectors 7 Illuminated warning panel 8 Alarm sounder 9 Piping network 6 2 5 1 4 8 3 7 Fig. CO2 is toxic which means that evacuation must take place before the extinguishing agent is released.2001 . 5 2 4 8 9 7 1 3 10 1 2 3 4 6 CO2 cylinder Cylinder valve Balance Electromechanical or pyroelectrical actuator 5 Pipe network 6 Fire detection system control unit (extinguishing control unit) 7 Alarm device 8 Automatic fire detectors 9 Manual call point 10 CO2 nozzle Fig. Paint shops. Rolling mills.2 CO2 extinguishing system In the right concentration CO2 has a smothering effect and can be an efficient fire extinguishing agent.

5. Distillation towers.3. Aircraft hangars. These systems are actuated manually and/or automatically by fire detectors (including fusible links). Oil separators. 9 6 7 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 Dry chemical storage container Compressed gas (nitrogen) cylinder Main valve Actuator Pipe network with nozzles Fire detection system control unit (extinguishing control unit) 7 Automatic fire detectors 8 Manual call point 9 Alarm sounder 10 Pressure reducer 11 Booster valve 12 Filling opening with safety valve 13 Test and rinsing port 4 10 12 2 11 1 3 8 13 Fig. Aircraft engine test bays. The primary extinguishing mechanism is smothering.2001 . Such systems are suitable for: Kitchens (grease fires). and in some cases chemical reaction. Tanker cars/loading terminals.3 5. Certain drying ovens. etc. These systems should not be used where chemical reaction or residues affect the object to be protected. 9 Dry chemical extinguishing system 20 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07.1 Special extinguishing systems Dry chemical extinguishing system In this type of system extinguishing agents in the form of powders are used.

3.2 Inerting systems Like CO2 also inerting systems prevent the build-up of ignitable gas concentrations by displacing the oxygen with inert gas such as nitrogen or Argon. Such systems are used in chemical process systems where an explosion hazard is present.5.2001 . 10 Inerting system 21 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. 6 4 2 2 3 8 1 7 5 1 Inert-gas cylinder 2 Special feeder valve for dosed release of inert gas 3 Control unit 4 Alarm sounder 5 Concentration sensor 6 Open nozzle 7 Explosion hazard room 8 Spare cylinder of inert gas Fig.

12.5) x L (1... 15 4. 2.. 2. 10. For example. 5. 9. The magnitude of the risk can be assessed as follows: For each room (or object) the event probability of an incipient fire and its loss potential is defined based on the following scale: The following table shows how these parameters can be defined: Event probability (E) 1 = highly improbable 2 = improbable 3 = probable 4 = frequent 5 = continuous Loss potential (L) 1 = low or none 2 = medium 3 = large 4 = very high 5 = catastrophic Danger to life and/or property (material or immaterial assets) The magnitude of the risk is calculated as the product of the event probability times the loss potential: Risk = Event probability x Loss potential R = E (1. 25 8. a relative risk of level 8 can be obtained by two different scenarios: 1. They must be assessed individually for each installation. The second scenario is more frequent than the first one. 22 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07.5) In a first step the urgency of the required protective measures can be assessed based on the following risk levels: Risk level 16. whereas low fire safety or high exposure to fire hazard means high fire risk..2001 . 6 1. 20. 3 Description Catastrophic risk Large risk Medium risk Small risk Priority level 1 2 3 4 Urgency of protective measures Immediate Short term Medium term Long term The risk levels that have to be reduced by suitable protection measures depend on the risk that can be tolerated. Low event probability with very high loss potential.6 Fire risk assessment The term fire risk indicates the relative level of the fire hazard: High fire safety corresponds to a low fire risk. Frequent event probability with medium loss potential.

).2001 . Guarding the entrances with security personnel. Entrance doors must be fitted with safety locks. and CCTV system. must be protected against intrusion and projectiles (for example. etc. Building windows that directly overlook public roads and therefore cannot be fenced in. watchdogs. motion-activated lights.).7 Reducing the risk of arson with an intruder detection system In most cases an arsonist has to break into a building before he can start a fire. Burglars often become arsonists in order to destroy evidence. Installations and components that form a vital part of daily operations must be monitored by automatic intruder alarm devices. with wire-reinforced glass. The following countermeasures are feasible as protection against arson: Enclosing the premises or grounds with a fence or wall. steel bars. or out of frustration when they find nothing of value. 23 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. Installation of an access control system. etc. The enclosure must be continuous and not allow intruders to climb over. Surveillance of the premises and grounds by a combination of security patrols. Lighting of the grounds (floodlights.

2001 .24 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07.

. . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . Scope of monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detection intelligence at three levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System overview . . . .1. .2001 . . . 26 27 30 30 31 32 33 34 36 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . AlgoRex fire detection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Section 3 1. . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AlgoRex evaluation and operation . . . . AlgoRex fire detectors . . . . . . . . Fire detection systems Basic principle of a fire detection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . 3. . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . The right combination of AlgoRex system versions . 25 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . .

Manual call points allow immediate alarm initiation. The fire detection system control unit – the brain of a detection system – processes the signals it receives from the detectors. and flames. Detection / signaling Signal processing Alarm / intervention Fire detection control unit Automatic fire detector F Manual call point Contacts of extinguishing systems Automatic fire detectors monitor the rooms of a building for fire and respond to the presence of smoke. or heat. Visual and/or audible alarm signals as well as the fire alarm transmission to the fire department are actuated by the control unit. flames. Due to their modular design and individual programming they can be continually adapted to changing system requirements. by transmitting a signal to the control unit. the fire department. In response the fire detection system control unit initiates an alarm and the preprogrammed control functions. The control unit also carries out a number of additional functions such as – Activation of fire control installations. smoke. – Transmission of fault signals Fig. In this way it is possible to alarm the building occupants.2001 . Cerberus fire detection control units incorporate the latest technology. 1 Principle of a fire detection system 26 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07. Contacts of extinguishing systems initiate the normal alarm procedure in the control unit so that additional fire fighting measures can be taken. and to minimize the overall damage. – Activation of fixed extinguishing systems.1 Basic principle of a fire detection system Automatic fire detection systems detect a fire by identifying one of the fire phenomena such as invisible products of combustion. heat.

Fire detector Manual call point Fig. Selective monitoring as illustrated in Figs. that is.2001 . 2 Complete monitoring of all fire compartments Fig. 3. complete monitoring of one or several fire compartments 27 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07. 3 Selective complete monitoring.2 Scope of monitoring Each room in a building should be monitored by a fire detector to ensure early response by the fire detection system. Complete monitoring is always recommended because one can never predict when or where a fire will break out.to 5 should only be chosen in special cases and only with the approval of the fire protection engineer who is responsible for the project. It has been shown that approximately one third of all fires occur in rooms that are seldom frequented.

4 Selective monitoring for property protection.2001 . The dark shaded area must be monitored and the lightly shaded area surrounding it is included in the monitoring concept for greater overall safety.Fig. 5 Selective monitoring for life safety through continuous monitoring of the escape routes. 28 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07. Fig.

Fig. Also in this application monitoring with air sampling smoke detectors is possible (see Section 4. or in the plenum of the raised floor. Chapter 10).2001 . Chapter 10). Plant and machinery monitoring is also possible with air sampling smoke detectors (see Section 4. 6 Plant and machinery monitoring Plant and machinery can be monitored with point-type detectors that are installed in close proximity to the equipment to be protected. in the equipment itself.Fig. 29 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07. 7 Monitoring of important electrical control systems Important electrical control systems can be monitored with detectors that are installed in the room.

This task is getting more difficult because the fire phenomena and deceptive variables from the environment and work processes are increasingly becoming more similar. and this without and significant degradation of the detection sensitivity. With AlgoLogic Cerberus is able to incorporate these technological advances into its new AlgoRex product range of interactive fire detection systems.2001 . and processing. 8 AlgoLogic The outstanding feature of the system is the AlgoLogic. Control unit intelligence ALARM AlgoPilot CT11 Evaluation and detection logic (algorithms) Interactive data exchange Parameter setup (predefined detection behavior) Detector intelligence Fig. However. Cerberus has created a system that discriminates exceptionally well between true fire phenomena and deceptive variables from the environment. 30 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07. evaluation. The term AlgoLogic is a (acronym) contracted form of „Algorithm” and „Signal evaluation Logic”. To the relief of the specialists working in fire protection engineering. Very Large Scale Integration) it is possible to successfully master this critical problem. communication. AlgoLogic combines the entire Cerberus know-how and experience as the bases for an unprecedented detection and diagnostic capability in the AlgoRex system. With the aid of modern communications technology and higher computer intelligence combined with lower space requirement (VLSI. AlgoLogic is distributed in the detectors and in the fire detection system control unit.1 AlgoRex fire detection system Introduction True or false alarm? This is the question that each automatic fire detection system must be able to answer quickly and reliably. It describes the overall function of the system with respect to data acquisition. the alarm reliability is the yardstick by which all fire detection systems are measured.3 3.

already the external design demonstrates that AlgoRex is a totally new development. PolyRex AlgoPilot OptoRex ThermoRex AlgoControl Fig. ThermoRex the system comprises the AlgoControl fire detection control unit and the AlgoPilot operator terminal. control unit and operator terminal remains unchanged. 9 AlgoRex interactive fire detection system with AlgoLogic ALARM AlgoPilot CT11 Detection capability H Detection and evaluation at place of installation H 4 Dynamic danger levels Detection reliability H Correct algorithm at the right place Emergency operation H Detection capability is preserved H Signal checking H Logical combination of signals H Alarm verification H Display H Operation Detection and evaluation Alarm initiation Fig.2 System overview AlgoRex is more than an evolutionary refinement of a conventional technology. Although the basic architecture with detectors.2001 . In addition to the three detector types PolyRex Neuronal smoke detector DOT with AlgoLogic. 10 Distributed data processing and system intelligence 31 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07.3.  Heat detector DT with AlgoLogic. OptoRex  Wide spectrum smoke detector DO with AlgoLogic. The system is based on a comprehensive data base of scientific test results and the application know-how of the world’s most experienced fire detection system manufacturer.

high-quality opto-electric sensor system. Neuronal network in the detector. 11 AlgoRex fire detectors 32 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07. Neuronal smoke detector PolyRexR Equipped with multicriteria sensors that ensure reliable response behavior for all types of fires. °C °C PolyRex OptoRex ThermoRex Fig.3 AlgoRex fire detectors The function of the fire detectors is to reliably detect and signal fires in their incipient stage. Deception-proof response behavior for fast and slow temperature rise.3. Due to the individual programming the 3 standard detectors of the AlgoRex series cover a broad spectrum of possible fire hazards. Selectable. Wide spectrum smoke detector OptoRexR Reliably responds to a large variety of fires. standardized response categories. Heat detector ThermoRexR Reliable heat detector for demanding requirements.2001 . Dynamic analysis of the smoke and heat sensor signals. New. Dynamically analyzes the „smoke” sensor signal within the detector itself.

intelligent signal evaluation. OptoRex R Wide-band smoke detector for dynamic analysis of smoke. that is. addressable and collective versions. AnalogPlus detectors Addressable smoke and heat detectors with multilevel. Ideal for applications where a medium risk level and moderate environmental interference potential coincide. alarm verification and multicriteria logic.3. Interactive AlgoRex detectors are used wherever demanding environmental conditions and high fire risks require maximum alarm validity.4 Detection intelligence at three levels Interactive detectors Detector series with maximum detection reliability achieved through AlgoLogic. Available in interactive. addressable and collective versions. Three detector types PolyRexR Neuronal smoke detectors for dynamic multicriteria analysis of smoke and heat.2001 . 33 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07. Available in interactive and addressable versions. detection reliability and false alarm immunity. the evaluation and detection logic with interactive signal processing based on programmable algorithms. These detectors can be parameterized: they can be optimally programmed to suit the requirements of the installation location. ThermoRexR Heat detector for deception-proof response to fast and low temperature rise. They are suitable for areas with low fire risks and unproblematic environmental conditions. Collective detectors The smoke and heat detectors of the conventional limit comparator technology are mature and reliable products. Available in interactive. AnalogPlus detectors achieve high detection reliability through centrally selectable but detector-specific sensitivity settings.

All events and data are stored by AlgoControl in such a way that they can be retrieved at any time. and the various detector types. Particular attention has been given to: Simple and logical operation Plain text information that is specific to the installation Action text for supporting the intervention squads ALARM AlgoRex  Acknowledge Reset Information Isolation Alarms Faults 7 4 1 8 5 2 0 9 6 3 C F1 F2 ok Premises manned Alarm delay off Detector test mode Alarm device off Remote alarm off Control function off Alarm device active Remote alarm active System on Alarm device fault Remote transmission fault System fault AlgoPilot CT11 Fig. 12 Operating panel 34 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07. In accordance with the program it activates the corresponding fire alarm and control devices. the field of application. AlgoControl is available in several versions that are matched to the size of the installation. It analyzes the incoming signals and compares them with stored values. Through AlgoPilot the system provides information on what it has detected and what measures were initiated.3. System operation The AlgoPilot information and operating panel serves as the display and control unit for the entire system.2001 .5 AlgoRex evaluation and operation AlgoControl fire detection system control unit The AlgoControl communicates in interactive mode with all devices connected to the system.

Alarm and control devices For alarming and informing internal and external intervention squads a number of visual and audible alarm devices is available. Remote diagnosis Password-protected remote diagnosis and parameter setup. fire doors. Interfaces For serial connection to danger management systems. The programmed urgent measures are initiated by corresponding control signals. For example: Alarm sounders Horns. 35 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07. for example. smoke dampers.2001 . Fire control installations Programmable. Remote transmission Automatic communication devices for transmitting alarm and fault messages to various emergency control centers. automatic emergency control facilities. elevators. Signal lamps Rotating and flashing beacons. for controlling ventilation units. sirens and staff paging systems.

algorithmic signal evaluation. High fire risk Strong interference – Fire risk relatively high – Interference factors exist – False alarms with severe effects Interactive system with AlgoLogic A Future oriented technology Medium fire risk Medium interference – False alarm with relatively weak effects – Little interference Standard system AnalogPlus B Latest technology Basic system. adaptable system concept that comprises all three technologies. The most effective solutions is to tailor the fire detection system to the corresponding fire risk and the complexity of the installation. interference factors and individual requirements of an installation. with highly developed organizational intelligence – Comprehensive system configuration capabilities that satisfy all application requirements Applications – – – – Production locations Nuclear power stations Parking garages Areas with high hazard potential – Complex objects – Buildings with mixed utilization – – – – – – Industry Warehouses Shopping centers Hotels Hospitals Administrative buildings – Senior citizen homes etc. But in many cases more sophisticated equipment is required. AnalogPLUS and collective combined – All applications are covered – Can be tailored to specific application requirements 36 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07. collective detector in rooms with high fire risk and strong interference. AlgoRex product concept Product range Technology Special features – Completely modular system concept with highly developed organizational intelligence – High detection intelligence for true fire phenomena and excellent immunity to deceptive phenomena – Completely modular system concept with selected organizational intelligence. collective C Proven technology – Small hotels – Children’s homes etc. Low fire risk Low interference – Low to medium fire risk – First line alarm intervention by internal staff – Little interference Combination system (A+B+C) Future-oriented Interactive. And sometimes only the best is good enough: an interactive detector with intelligent. It certainly does not make sense to install the most intelligent fire detector in rooms with low risk and low interference. for example. and to select the appropriate detectors. With AlgoRex it is possible to configure fire detection systems that are tailored exactly to the risks. For this reason Cerberus has developed the AlgoRex range of detectors.6 The right combination of AlgoRex system versions Sometimes a simple collective detector is adequate for the fire risk involved. designed for efficient system operation – Reliable detection capability and high immunity to interference allow a broad range of applications – Simple system concept for conventional application – Reliable detection – Completely modular. It comprises detectors with different „IQs” that can be combined within the same system. On the other hand it is not logical to install a simple.3. an addressable detector.2001 .

. . . . . . . . . 38 39 44 46 48 49 49 50 51 53 54 54 55 56 57 58 59 59 60 61 63 6. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . Number and arrangement of linear smoke detectors . 37 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. . . . . 7. . 5. . . . . . . . . . Monitoring area for point-type heat detectors . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . Typical applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number and arrangement of manual call points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sensor signal evaluation . Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Flex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .2. . . Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Modular . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Mono . Scope of monitoring . . . 10. .1. . . . . . . . . . . 2. .1. .2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suitability by application . Detection principles . . . . . . . . . . . Zones with fixed extinguishing systems . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Choosing a detector for normal applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Section 4 1. . . . . . . . . . Choosing a suitable detector system . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .3. . Monitoring area per smoke detector . . . . . . . . . . 6. . Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Duct . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . Fire detectors and accessories Fire phenomena and detector types . . . . Air sampling smoke detection systems . 3. 7. . . . . . Number and arrangement of point-type detectors . . . . . . . . 10.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring area for point-type flame detectors . Choosing the appropriate AlgoRex detector .

2001 . fires involving electrical fire.. magnesium. plastics. 2 criteria. oil. alcohol. etc. etc. paper... DOT115. etc. involving wood. wood. etc. Multisensor smoke detector DO11. S24.1 Fire phenomena and detector types Standard detectors Supplementary detectors ASD.. mineral oil products. smoldering for example. plastics. DT11. SMOKE TEMPERATURE INCREASE HEAT RADIATION 38 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. for example. Early stage of a smoke generating fire Heat detector Flaming fire. Flame detector Flaming fire of carbonaceous materials. plastics. but excluding the combustion of phosphorus.. or from visible smoke.. sodium. WideAir sampling spectrum smoke smoke detector detector (scattered light principle) Smoke detectors Smoke and/or Smoldering heat from fire that flaming fires produces light-colored. solvents. for example. Rate of rise/ fixed temperature detector (standard) D24. flaming fire of plastics. hydrogen. fixed temperature detector S. Neuronal smoke detector with dynamic analysis DOT113. involving wood.. etc. for example. mineral oil products. Infrared flame Infrared flame detector detector (standard) (2-channel) The following table lists the fire phenomena and the appropriate detector types. Fire that generates visible smoke. Rate of rise temperature detector..

Light receiver Light stop Light source Smoke particles Transmitter optics Fig. Only when smoke particles are present in the labyrinth is some of the light scattered on receiver. The receiver signal is evaluated only if the light pulse frequency is synchronous with the transmitter frequency.1 Detection principles Smoke detector Scattered-light smoke detector The light source. intensive light pulses of a specific frequency into the labyrinth. The light source transmits brief. 1 Principle of the scattered light measurement Light source Labyrinth Labyrinth Light stop Smoke particle Light receiver Fig. the light stop and the light receiver are arranged in such a way that no light is transmitted from the source to receiver along a direct path. 2 Detector design 39 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07.2001 .2 2.

infrared light beam across the optical measuring section. the attenuation of light by smoke is measured.2001 . that is. part of the light is absorbed and part of the light is scattered by the smoke particles. traverses the measuring section again. The incoming light produces an electrical signal in the photodiode of the receiver. Detector Receiver Reflector Transmitter Measuring section Fig.Linear smoke detector The linear smoke detector is based on the extinction principle. Scattering Scattering Light beam Scatter Absorption Smoke particles Fig. that is. The residual light reaches the reflector. The transmitter emits a strongly focused. a large part of the light reaches the reflector and is returned to the point of origin via the same path. the light rays simply change their direction. The signal becomes smaller and the receiver circuit initiates an alarm. If no smoke is present. and is attenuated again. 3 Linear smoke detector without presence of smoke If smoke penetrates the measuring section. 4 Measuring principle of the linear smoke detector with smoke Extinction = Absorption + Scattering 40 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. As a result only a small portion of the light reaches the receiver.

and an alarm is actuated. that are emitted by interference sources (for example.5 3 4 5 6 µm Wave lenght Fig.2 Flame detector Sensor „A” (4.2. A Spectral radiation intensity B A Sensitivity range „A” B Sensitivity range „B” Flames Artificial light Sunlight Hot body 2. no alarm is actuated. hot body (for example. The sensitivity and response integration time can be adapted to local conditions in two steps by means of a switch. The second sensor „B” measures the infrared energy in the wave length region 5 to 6µm. When the infrared energy is emitted by flames. 5 Flame detector S2406 The detector has two pyroelectric sensors that are sensitive in two different wave lengths. radiant heaters). Signals with a typical flame flicker frequency of 2 to 20Hz are compared in the electronic circuit for amplitude and phase coincidence. a vibrating. a nonsynchronous signal is generated on channel „A” which immediately initiates an alarm. 6 Relative spectra of flames and spurious radiation 41 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. sunlight. the signal amplitude of the first sensor is much greater than in the second sensor.7µm) Sensor „B” (5 – 6µm) Fig.2001 . By contrast. motor) produces a synchronous signal in channels „A” and „B”.7µm.1 to 4. If a flame occurs at the same time.1 – 4. artificial light. which is produced by the combustion of carbon containing materials. The first sensor „A” responds to infrared-active flame gases in the characteristic CO2spectral range from 4. Because in this case the signal amplitude in channel „A” is smaller than in channel „B”.

Conditions for alarm initiation: Ratio channel A:B >> 1 (signals synchronous or asynchronous) Ratio channel A:B ≥ 1 (signals asynchronous) Chan.2001 . material + + Fig.Signal strength Radiation source nel (with modulation 2-20 Hz) Artificial light Synchronous signal? Ratio A:B Alarm A B A B A B A B A B A B ~1 ~1 ~1 >>1 >>1 ≥1 no Sunlight no Hot body no Flame with yes carbonac. 7 yes yes Detector logic 42 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07.

Heat detectors detect flaming fires that actuate an alarm when a predetermined maximum temperature is exceeded at the detector. If in the event of a fire the ambient temperature increases relatively rapidly. bimetal strip or expansion fluid. an alarm is actuated when the maximum temperature determined by a third resistor is reached. an alarm is actuated.2001 . Rate-of-rise temperature detectors are designed to operate with a thermistor. the resistance value of NTC1 falls faster than that of NTC2. They frequently do not comply with EN54 standards. If as a result of a very slow rise in temperature the resistance of NTC1 and NTC2 decreases equally. Temperature Alarm threshold Alarm Alarm Alarm threshold Normal No alarm Time Fig. whereas NTC2 is located inside the detector housing. They are suitable for detecting open fires where a rapid increase in the temperature can be expected. and in areas where a faster responding detector cannot be used. Rate-of-rise detectors detect flaming fires that cause a temperature rise within a given unit of time and are. Rate-of-rise temperature detectors Rate-of-rise temperature detectors evaluate the rate of temperature increase per unit of time (°C/min) at which an alarm is to be actuated. 9 Operating principle of a rate-of-rise temperature detector with thermistors (NTC resistors) The detector sensor consists of two NTC resistors which form part of a Wheatstone bridge. NTC1 is exposed to the ambient air immediately in front of the detector.2. 43 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. suited to the detection of flaming fires. a fusible link.3 Heat detectors Fixed temperature detectors Fixed temperature detectors evaluate the maximum temperature at which an alarm is to be actuated. 8 Operating principle of a fixed temperature detector Such detectors are designed to operate either with a thermistor. If a predetermined threshold is exceeded. or expansion liquid. therefore. electrical resistance cable. Temperature NTC1 measuring resistor Alarm No alarm NTC2 reference resistor Normal Time Fig.

10 Sensor signal evaluation Detectors with individually identifiable address Addressable detectors can be equipped with either a single or multiple sensors. The system control unit can identify only the line on which the alarming detector is located. The sensitivity is automatically adjusted to compensate for increasing sensor contamination. fault. that is. Sensor signal Alarm Alarm threshold No alarm Time Fig. The signals are transmitted sequentially. The sensor signal is amplified and if the alarm threshold is exceeded. 11 Signal evaluation principle 44 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. The sensor contains the necessary electronics for evaluating the sensor signal and for transmitting it as an analog value to the system control unit. contamination.3 Sensor signal evaluation Detectors with collective address Collectively addressed detectors are usually designed with a single sensor.2001 . In the control unit the analog signals of each detector are evaluated and compared with preprogrammed values. With individual detector addressing the control unit can determine the status and location of each detector. In this way different detector states can be defined such as prealarm. Alarm (normal sensitivity) Detector signal Alarm (high sensitivity) Danger information Centrally selectable / detector specific H Sensitivity H Alarm verification H Logical combination of multiple detectors Drift signal (contamination) Diagnostic information Warning Normal Fault (defect) Seconds Detector life Years Fig. the alarm is transmitted either directly or with a fixed delay to the system control unit where they are processed. one detector after another on a given line. alarm. The responding detector can be identified only by observing the response indicator on the detector itself. etc.

Neuronal detectors with algorithms A neuronal detector is a multicriteria detector. With the aid of algorithms the phenomena detected by the sensor are broken down into mathematical components and compared with the programmed standard values. The algorithm’s characteristic is defined by means of parameters. By choosing a suitable parameter the detector is specifically adapted to the fire phenomena and environmental influences to be expected. This results in a dynamic detection behavior. The signal response is monitored and compared over the entire period of time during which the fire phenomena are present. The signal response refers to the totality of all measurable variables: Measured value Sensor-signal (amplitude, for example, smoke signal). Gradient Change of the measured value per unit of time (dynamic behavior, ∆ of the smoke concentration). Fluctuation Small but rapid changes, static fluctuations of the measured value (noise, transient phenomena). Algorithms Arithmetic rules adapted to the situation by means of parameters. Each detector is equipped with a microprocessor that controls the signal responses. Traditional sequential data processing is not fast enough for this purpose. For the complex signal analysis large quantities of data must be processed in short intervals. This can be achieved with the aid of a neuronal network. All logical combinations are continually linked to all others which means that the incoming data can be processed simultaneously at many levels. A neuronal detector achieves a high detection reliability and extreme deception immunity.

Sensor signals

Typical characteristics
Signal strength

Analysis, interpretation & sample comparison

Result

%/m

Rate of rise

Optical sensor
t

Smoke density development

Signal fluctuation

Danger level

Signal strength
°C

Diagnostic level
Rate of rise
t

Heat-sensor Temperature development
Signal fluctuation

Algorithms

Fig. 12 Signal processing in the neuronal smoke detector PolyRex

45 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07.2001

4

Scope of monitoring
Basically complete monitoring of all fire compartments should be aimed at. Limiting the monitoring to specific fire compartments (some with complete monitoring) or specific rooms or groups of rooms (partial monitoring) is only sensible in exceptional cases. For complete (or partial) monitoring also the following areas must be monitored: Elevator, transport and light shafts which due to their structure or accumulation of combustible material represent a fire risk. Cable ducts and shafts if these are accessible or if they are located close to other sectors that have no fire seal 1 ). Supply shafts of sanitary and heating installations if these are accessible or if they are located close to other sectors that have no fire seal 1 ). Rooms for ventilation and air-conditioning systems, as well as air intake and exhaust ducts. Chutes and shafts for materials and waste and their collection containers. Cabinets and structures that are large enough that a person can crawl in. Covered loading docks with protruding roof if these have no fire seal to the monitored sector 1 ). Storage areas under a protruding roof if these have no fire seal to the monitored sector 1 ). Areas below galleries. Hollow spaces above suspended ceilings and below raised floors (as shown in the following table). Hollow spaces above suspended ceilings with uniformly distributed openings that make up over 50% of the total ceiling surface and can consequently be regarded as part of the room below. Zones created in rooms by racks and other installations if the remaining clearance to the ceiling is less than 0.5m. Exceptions to the monitoring rules Sanitary installations, washrooms, toilets, if no combustible material or waste is stored there and if the walls are constructed from non-combustible material. Cable shafts with cable seals at each floor, provided no electrical switching elements or emergency-off switches are located in these shafts. Rooms that are protected by automatic extinguishing systems, that have at least a fireresistive insulation, and where no special benefit is gained from automatic monitoring. Hollow spaces above suspended ceilings and below raised floors that are constructed as a zone without monitoring. Depending on the situation (to be decided on a case-by-case basis) the following elements may be precluded from the monitoring: Separate storage tank rooms that are isolated by fire walls. Civil defense rooms which in time of peace are not used for any other purpose. Separate, private living quarters that are isolated by fire walls. Freezing chambers and cold storage rooms with an area of less than 50m2. Separate battery rooms that are isolated by fire walls 1 ).
1)

= Structural compartmentation is considered to be fire-resistive if it can withstand a fire for at least 30 to 90 minutes.

46 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07.2001

Monitoring in hollow spaces
Characteristic of hollow space Inaccessible or accessible but containing no combustible material or source of ignition or few and fire-protected electrical installations (at least self-extinguishing) Accessible, containing electrical installations with cable troughs that are concentrated in a specific location or Built-in electrical equipment (for example, servo motors) Accessible and containing a large number of distributed electrical installations Other/additional hollow-space characteristics that influence the fire hazard Type of monitoring in this secondary area None

Selective monitoring along the electrical installations or Equipment monitoring of the built-in electrical equipment Room monitoring (complete monitoring of the hollow space) To be determined in each case based on the fire risk (probability of a fire break-out and its consequences)

47 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07.2001

5 Zones with fixed extinguishing systems Fixed extinguishing systems should be installed in zones where: Rapid fire development and spread is highly likely (storage areas for solvents and plastics.). 48 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. danger of collapse due to unprotected steel structures). or where costly damage can occur and additional risk-reducing measures are needed (EDP systems. etc. etc.). Depending on the fire development there can be a considerable difference in the time between the response of the fire detection system and the sprinkler system. switchgear. gas extinguishing system etc. In such zones a fire detection systems should also be installed: if the automatic extinguishing system alone cannot achieve the protection objectives. There is a high concentration of valuable property.2001 . The building structure has inadequate fire resistance (for example. if called for by the type of extinguishing system (pre-action sprinkler system. deluge system.. In order to reduce the fire risk and fire damage it is often advisable to employ both systems in such zones.

Monitoring category Projection / monitoring objective Detection of: – Flaming incipient fire Detectors OptoRex w PolyRex l ThermoRex l I II – Flaming incipient fire – Smoldering incipient fire (desired) l l m III – Flaming incipient fire – Smoldering incipient fire l w – l Optimally suited w Suited m Conditionally suited – Unsuited Influence of the room height With increasing room height the influence of the fire phenomena weakens which means that more sensitive detectors must be installed. Room height ≤6m ≤7. 2) Heat detector (cl.2001 . including deceptive phenomena. Room height. 1) Smoke detector Smoke detector with „increased” sensitivity or Linear smoke detector Flame detector l l l l l l Suited – Unsuited Suitability Flaming fire Smoldering fire – – l w l – ≤20m l Optimally suited w 49 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07.1 Choosing a detector for normal applications Normally a smoke detector can be chosen based on the following table.6 Choosing a suitable detector system Which detectors need to be specified where. depends on the Monitoring category or the general monitoring objectives of the fire detection system. 6. provided that disturbance variables are minor and occur only rarely. Environmental conditions. The principal criteria for choosing a detector and parameter set or sensitivity are the monitoring objective and the assessment of the fire risk exposure.5m ≤12m 12–20m Suitable detector type Heat detector (cl.

DS110. electrical and optical interference signals – Individual addressing – Microprocessor controlled electronics – Transmits 4 danger levels – Automatic self test – Remote diagnostic capability – Loop line with T branches – Evaluation of two response sensitivities – Very good detection reliability – Immune to ambient influences – Electronics with integrated circuit (ASIC) – Individual addressing – Drift signal – Detector monitoring – Loop line with module for T branch – One response sensitivity for a wide application range – Good detection reliability – Monitored line – Compatible with existing CERBERUS control units – Electronics with integrated circuit (ASIC) – Stub line – Favorably priced Applications – Demanding system engineering of any size – Where transient or continuous interference is present which could cause a false alarm – With direct alarm link to the fire department – Wherever the prevention of false alarms has top priority AnalogPLUS – Normal system engineering – Large systems – For rarely occurring deceptive phenomena that can cause false alarms – Alerting of the fire department with CAC Collective – Easy system engineering – Small...6.2001 . Interactive detector system AnalogPLUS detector system Collective detector system Each of these systems has its own special characteristics and is suited to specific applications.2 Choosing the appropriate AlgoRex detector Three different detector series are available: DS115. DS113.. System Interactive Characteristics – Freely programmable adjustment of the response behavior – Optimum detection reliability – Also usable under critical ambient conditions – High immunity to soiling – Immune to electromagnetic. easily manageable systems – Few potential interferences that could cause false alarms – No direct alerting of the fire department 50 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07.

6) w 5. 6) l l l l w 5. tires. small Museum rooms Exhibition halls Restaurants Kitchens Pantries Cold storage rooms Cheese ripening rooms. smoker’s rooms Cleaning closets Corridors Staircases Attics. 6) l l l l w 5. 51 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. etc. 6) l l l l l l l w l w l w 3) Alarm reconfirmation (Pulse memory) required Integration required Switch-off during cold start Recommendation: ThermoRex. 6) w – – – – l – – l – w 1) – AnalogPLUS l w 2) w 2) w 2) w 2) l w 2) l l w 2) w 2) l l w 2) w 4) l w 5. 3) Interactive l l l l l l l l l l l l l l w 4) l w 5. foundry. foodstuffs) Dusty industrial buildings and warehouses (for example. unheated Sales rooms. 6) w w w w w 5. large Sales rooms. 6) w 5. for example. electronics. heat cables. 6) w 5.2001 .6. temperature 80°C Detector heating Other detection systems may possibly have to be used.3 Suitability by application Application Offices Residential premises Conference rooms Hospital rooms Smoker’s corners. cheese cellars Telephone exchanges EDP rooms Switchgear rooms Power supply ducts. max. textile) Dirty industrial buildings and warehouses (for example. moist Heating rooms Print shops Spinning mills Weaving mills Carpentry shops Clean industrial buildings and warehouses (for example. dry Power supply ducts. air sampling smoke detectors. 6) l w w w w l w – l – w 2) w 2. steel) Warehouse with electrical and/or gas operated vehicles Warehouse with diesel operated vehicles Passenger car garages Truck/bus garages Legend: l Optimally suited w Suited – Unsuited 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Collective l w 1) w 1) w 1) w 1) l w 1) l l w 1) w 1) l w – – w w 5. paper.

The following influences are particularly critical for Smoke detectors: Smoke. steam and other aerosols produced by work processes Heat detector: All heat sources Flame detector: Modulated heat radiation.2001 . sunlight 52 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. dust.Examining the environmental influences Detectors may not be exposed to inadmissible environmental influences.

etc. radiation) have different spreading properties. etc. The detector arrangement must be adapted to the prevailing features of the room such as ceiling construction. etc.) Correct testing and replacement 53 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. For this reason the number of detectors required (or the monitoring area per detector) is largely influenced by the spreading characteristics of the corresponding fire phenomena. Flame detectors require a direct line of sight to every likely fire source and are preferably installed high up in the corners of a room.). room division (wall recesses. fittings. This must be given priority in all cases. 13 Different spreading characteristics of different fire phenomena Each room to be monitored must contain at least one automatic detector. furnishings. Other aspects to be taken into account: The corresponding fire phenomenon (smoke/heat/radiation) must be able to reach the detector Foreseeable deceptive phenomena Foreseeable mechanical influences (vibration. heat. Smoke and heat detectors are mounted on the ceiling or wherever the fire phenomena are expected to spread and accumulate. All Detector types The fire phenomena evaluated for an alarm (smoke. Heat (convection) Smoke Radiation Seat of fire Fig.2001 .7 Number and arrangement of point-type detectors In many countries the number and arrangement of point-type detectors is regulated by specific guidelines.

7. no valuable or irreplaceable property is stored in the corresponding room. Typical values are 20m2 to 40m2 per heat detector. no smoke logging. the fire risk is classified as „high”. other fire protection measures virtually preclude fire spread. 54 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. 14 Monitoring area per smoke detector as a function of the room height and fire hazard level Area 2 can be chosen for most applications. Area 1 should only be chosen if all danger to life can be precluded.2001 . in particular by corrosive fission products.1 Monitoring area per smoke detector The monitoring area (AM) is determined as a function of the room height and the fire hazard. Area 3 is recommend if serious danger to life exists. the loss of material property and installations would threaten the economic existence of the owner of the premises. valuable and/or irreplaceable property is stored in the corresponding room. can occur in adjacent areas. Room height h [m] 25 20 15 12 9 7 6 5 4 3 2 3 1 2 1 AM [m2] 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 Fire hazard levels / areas: 1 Low fire hazard 2 Medium fire hazard 3 High fire hazard Monitoring area per smoke detector Fig.7.2 Monitoring area for point-type heat detectors The monitoring area depends on the size of the room to be monitored and the slope of the ceiling. the fire risk is low.

2001 . max. visibility conditions. These are monitored by a detector that is installed in an angle of 45° on a vertical axis. The side length a of the cube depends on the expected conditions such as flame size. For detailed planning please consult your national or regional Cerberus office.7. 15 Monitored cube with side length a 55 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. It monitors a cube with a side length a. The room to be monitored is subdivided into one or several cubes. etc.3 Monitoring area for point-type flame detectors The flame detector should always be mounted in the high corner of the room at an angle of 45°. room height. mounting height = a 45° 45° Fig.

hose cabinets.2001 . Manual call point Hose cabinet ≤40m ≤40m >40m Fig. in corridors. entrance halls. and particularly hazardous areas. for example. staircases.8 Number and arrangement of manual call points Manual call points must be installed in intervals of not more than 40m in clearly visible locations along the escape routes. lift foyers. 16 Arrangement of manual call points along escape routes 56 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07.

Detector 5m . 17 Admissible monitoring distances To ensure that smoldering fires with weak thermal convection can be detected in tall rooms. 100m Reflector Fig.. (m) 20 15 12 10 8 6 4 3 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 (m) Max. 19 Monitoring width as a function of the room height 57 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07.. Detector Reflector Detector 3m up to 60% of room hight Reflector Fig. monitoring width If the monitoring beam is set at a low level so that smoldering fires can be detected. the distance from the floor to the detector rather than the room height is the width controlling factor. 18 Arrangement of detectors at two different levels for detecting flaming and smoldering fires in tall rooms Maximum monitoring width With increasing room height the monitoring width can be increased.2001 . the detector must be installed in such a way that the IR beam is at the height at which the smoke will presumably spread.9 Number and arrangement of linear smoke detectors Between the transmitter and the reflector there must be a continuous line of sight. For higher risks also a smaller monitoring width may be selected. Room height or installation height Fig.

Clean rooms and the like. To stop the spread of fire it often suffices to switch off the equipment.2001 ÌÌ ÌÌ Ó Ó Ó ASD-Mono Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ . 58 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07.10 Air sampling smoke detection systems (ASD) ASD-Duct ASD-Mono HSD ASD-Flex Fig. Other applications include room monitoring. Air sampling smoke detectors are a valuable supplement to conventional room detectors because they are an efficient means for preventing fire damage and interruption of operations. Computer rooms. 20 Application example of an air sampling smoke detection system An air sampling smoke detection system can detect even the smallest fires in equipment before serious damage occurs. Switching and control installations. Possible applications are Telephone exchanges.

It is designed for monitoring existing ventilation systems for traces of smoke. Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ Pipe system Sampling holes Airflow sensor Smoke detector Active detector AD1 Fan Fig. Only one smoke detector can be installed in the ASD Duct. 10. 22 Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Mono (AD1) 59 sect4 07. Only one smoke detector can be installed in the ASD Mono system.10. ASD Mono is an ideal supplement to conventional fire detection systems. However. It is particularly suitable for monitoring individual pieces of equipment and smaller rooms. as well as other not easily accessible rooms and areas with a small volume. The air samples are transported via a fixed pipe network to the sampling chamber. 21 Principle of the air sampling smoke detection unit ASD Duct.1 Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Duct The air sampling smoke detection unit ASD Duct is a passive system without its own fan. Fig. monitoring is only possible as long as the ventilation remains in operation and the air is circulating. For this reason an ASD Duct can supplement but not replace a conventional fire detection system. The preferred fields of application for ASD Mono are individual switching and control cabinets.2001 .2 Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Mono The air sampling smoke detection system ASD Mono is an active unit that is equipped with its own fan. Activation of the extinguishing system and shut-down of the power to the equipment is controlled by the fire detection system control unit. EDP equipment including closed machines and ceiling voids. Due to the strong dilution of the smoke the response sensitivity is usually far below that of a point-type detector.

one of which can be set to a different response sensitivity. This makes the ASD flex a universal detection system with accurate status and fire location indication and differentiated alarm evaluation capability. The suction funnels are connected to the detection unit by a flexible tube. The electrical connection of the detection unit to the system control unit is established via a distribution box and special. The detection unit is equipped with two optical smoke detectors. . BD5 EDP equipment Fire detection control unit 60 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. Due to their flexible design they can be installed without any modification to the equipment to be monitored. The detection unit is installed directly above or on top of the equipment to be monitored. The airflow within the flexible tube is monitored. It is especially designed for the varied requirements of ventilated equipment. computer equipment.10.. Power switch-off to the monitored equipment can be initiated directly by the detection unit whereas the extinguishing system is activated by the fire detection system control unit.3 Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Flex The air sampling smoke detection system is also an active system with built-in fan. 24 Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Flex . under the raised floor Fig. An integrated heat detector (rate of rise and maximum temperature) is available as an option. flexible cables. and similar installations. This system is highly adaptable and can be easily modified if the equipment configuration or location changes. 23 Air sampling smoke detection system ASD flex (BD5) Detection units BD5 Zone distribution box GVK.2001 ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ Fig. Preferred applications are the monitoring of forced ventilated electronic cabinets.

It is a very efficient system that is available in various capacity stages.4 Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Modular The air sampling smoke detection system ASD modular is also an active system with its own fan. 1 Air sampling measurement chamber MP2424 2 3 3 3 3 6 5 ø 25 5 ø 32 4 ∅ 40 4 ∅ 40 6 6 6 5 ø 25 5 ø 25 7 6xø6 1 Display / operation and connections 2 Airtight metal housing with fan 3 Main smoke detector 4 Main tubes 5 Air sampling tubes with suction openings 6 Detection unit BDA2400 with smoke detector 7 Detection unit BDA2410 with smoke detector Fig.2001 . 25 Air sampling smoke detection system ASD modular 61 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. It also allows the automatic extinguishing system to be activated precisely where needed. This makes it easier to locate the seat of the fire which is advantageous for systematic shutdown of power to the monitored equipment. detection equipment can be installed directly in suitable locations of the air sampling tubes. In addition to the fire detectors in the air sampling chamber.10. With this arrangement it is possible to divide large monitoring areas into smaller areas that are easier to keep under surveillance. The air samples are transported via fixed suction tubes to the sampling chamber.

26 Typical monitoring of control cabinets with ASD modular 62 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. electrical distribution systems. clean rooms.2001 ÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍ BDA2400 . For special applications a detection unit equipped with an HSD (high sensitivity detector) can be used. Typical applications are EDP systems and rooms. control and regulation systems. measurement. In each of the four main tubes the airflow is monitored separately. Due to its modular design the air sampling smoke detection system ASD modular is suited to a broad range of applications. that is. In addition smoke detectors with different response sensitivities can be installed in the detection units.A multistage alarm concept can be implemented by installing the detection equipment in different locations. telephone exchanges and control centers. or high-sensitivity smoke detectors. including infrastructure equipment. BDA2400 BDA2400 MP2424 Single detector monitoring Dual detector monitoring BDA2400 BDA2400 BDA2400 Fig. standard smoke detectors with normal or increased sensitivity. etc.

2001 . possibly with own power supply Forced ventilation: Removal of the heat produced by the equipment by means of exhaust fan or positive pressure in the room air-conditioning system 3) In addition to point-type detectors on the ceiling. not ventilated – cabinet/equipment1). textiles. in case of high air change rates 4) If smoke sensitive products are stored such as foodstuffs. printer systems and the like – cabinet/equipment1). circulation ducts of air-conditioning and ventilation systems) Electrical and electronic cabinets. EDP equipment. exhaust air. for example.: – covered courts / buildings with atrium – aircraft hangars – machine rooms (highly sensitive processes) Automatic parking garages High bay storage systems Operating theaters (hospitals) Highly sensitive electrical equipment such as flight simulators. high-performance computers Historic buildings with valuable exhibitions or galleries Archives. for example. e. medicines. with forced ventilation2) EDP installations (medium to large) EDP power supply EDP air-conditioning system EDP rooms (room monitoring) EDP-automated data filing systems Raised floors. control and regulation systems CNC machines / industrial robots Machines / equipment / devices – in closed housings Inaccessible rooms / zones – small volume – large volume Clean rooms. for semiconductor production Tall rooms. suspended ceilings – small volume – large volume Telephone exchanges and control centers Power distribution systems Measurement. etc. warehouses containing valuable works of art or documents Vital installations in nuclear power stations Rooms with electromagnetic sources of interference (EMI) Sterile rooms Rooms with high levels of radioactivity Anechoic rooms (acoustics) Rooms with no possibility of installing point-type detectors Rooms with heavy condensation (possibly with additional equipment) 1) 2) 3) 3) 5) 4) 5) 5) 5) 5) 5) 5) 5) 5) 5) 5) 5) Equipment: Unit within a housing.10.5 Application Typical applications System ASD Duct ASD Mono ASD Flex ASD Modular Standard HSD Ventilation systems (supply air. 5) If point-type detectors cannot be used 63 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07.g.

64 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07.2001 .

. . . . . . . . . . . .Section 5 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . Configuration and structure of the fire detection system control unit . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . Evaluation – Alarm – Operation – Control . . . . . Cerberus alarm concept (CAC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AlgoControl fire detection system control unit . . . . . . . Alarm concept . . Fire control facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. General . . 65 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 67 67 68 70 71 76 76 79 79 4. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . Siting the control unit . . . . Power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire detection control units Introduction . . . . . . . . 4.

1 Operation of the fire detection system control unit 66 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07. F Control unit with integrated operating facility F Control unit with remote control console Fig. Due to its modular design the system can be configured to specific application requirements. It has an alarm organization that can be optimally adapted to any situation.2001 .1 Introduction The fire detection system control unit offers a variety of fire control and operating facilities.

line not monitored – With fault signal transmission.2001 . they are usually decentralized in order to keep the line network to the fire detectors and to the alarm and control equipment as short as possible. as well as full operation of the alarm devices for at least 30 minutes. Each control unit functions autonomously. 3 Power supply Two independent power sources must be available and both be calculated in such away that if one source fails. The signals of autonomous fire detection control units can be combined in a danger management system (see Section 8). the other a battery or comparable source. Power from the mains (primary source) must be supplied from a separate. fuse-protected feeder.2 Siting the control unit The control unit should be installed in a room near the main entrance of the area to be monitored. If this is not feasible for technical reasons. full operation of the system and the alarm equipment can be maintained for a specific length of time. The battery autonomy must be sufficient to permit full operation of the fire detection system during the emergency operation time (according to local regulations). the remote display and operating terminals can be used and placed accordingly. One of the two power sources must be a permanent mains supply. due to the system size. or at the entrance used for access by the fire department. several control units are required. In view of the requirements of fault signal detection and troubleshooting we recommend the following emergency power autonomy: Emergency power criterion – Without fault signal transmission – With fault signal transmission. line monitored – Uninterruptible mains connection (for example. If. but with continually staffed in-house signal receiving station – With fault signal transmission. emergency diesel generator for 24 h operation) and fault signal transmission Emergency power autonomy 72 h 12 h 24 h 12 h 4h 67 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07. Equipment that is not part of the fire detection system may not be connected to the system’s power supply.

AlgoRex fire detectors with AlgoLogic. series DS1150 Addressable fire detectors AnalogPLUS.2001 . for example.4 AlgoControl fire detection system control unit The control unit is the interaction point between the operator and the AlgoRex system. only alarm signaling). MS9. Interactive detector bus for fire detectors with AlgoLogic. and performs the decentralized control functions. The detectors have the same highquality sensor system as the other AlgoRex detectors. manual call points. Collective detection line for fire detectors series DS1100 68 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07. Series DS1150 AlgoRex fire detectors AnalogPLUS. comparison and evaluation of signals from several detectors). The allocation of the „competence” between the fire detectors and the control unit is clearly defined in AlgoRex. DS1130 series Addressable detector system with centrally selectable detector sensitivity and intelligent signal processing (alarm verification. and input modules. MS24. DS1100 series Conventional technology with respect to communication and signal evaluation (one address per detection line. DS1150 series AlgoLogic is a unique evaluation and decision logic that is based on algorithms. Via the detector bus or detector line the AlgoControl unit receives the signals from automatic fire detectors. via the output modules. Series DS1130 AlgoRex fire detectors. series DS1130 Collective fire detectors. It achieves maximum detection reliability and is able to clearly distinguish between true fire phenomena and deceptive phenomena. The following detector systems can be connected to the control units of the CS1140 family: Interactive smoke detectors with AlgoLogic. collective. series DS1100 It is also possible to integrate existing system components with detectors of the series MS7. Addressable detector bus for fire detectors AnalogPLUS.

for example. ALARM AlgoPilot control console AlgoPilot CT11 C-Bus Alarm devices CPU Alarm receiving center (for example. at the fire department access road. This data bus between AlgoControl and AlgoPilot consists of a highly fail-save and supervised data transmission channel that is immune to short circuits and interruptions.2001 . 2 Principle of the AlgoControl fire detection system control unit with AlgoPilot control console 69 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07. As an electronic black box it is usually put into the electrical control center or another technical room.AlgoControl „black box” and AlgoPilot terminals In the operation of the AlgoRex system the AlgoControl signal processing unit plays an important role even though it does not have to be installed in a prominent place. Depending on the risk and protection concept more than one AlgoPilot terminal can be connected to the AlgoControl signal processing unit via a communications loop. so that the arriving fire fighting squad can immediately obtain an accurate picture of the situation. The user works with the convenient AlgoPilot terminal which can be installed in the most convenient location. fire department) Fire control installations I-Bus Line module Mains Control module Autonomous extinguishing sector Fire detection control unit AlgoControl FBF FSK HM Service PC Printer Periphery according to VdS: Fire department control panel Fire department key box Main fire alarm box Fig.

A control unit can handle several extinguishing sections. 70 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07. This clear concept of functional segregation greatly increases the reliability and availability of the system. The principal functional characteristics of the control unit are: Parameter driven organization logic Complete freedom in the adaptation of the control unit organization to changing customer requirements is ensured. parameter-driven charging characteristics. Real-time clock Automatic summer/winter changeover by the integrated real-time clock that has its own buffer battery. For this reason each unit can be installed wherever it best fulfils its functions. both are completely autonomous with respect to the functions they fulfil. The main criteria for the design of the user interface of AlgoRex or AlgoPilot were the user and operator requirements. Programmable control outputs For fire control operations user-programmable control outputs are available in the control unit.4. Integrated emergency operation function Emergency operation functions are integrated in the main function modules. Extinguishing section activation An extinguishing section can be activated via the „extinguishing” control module. This means that in the event of a component failure the system is still able to signal a fire alarm. Event memory Up to 1000 events can be stored and retrieved chronologically and by information category.1 Evaluation – Alarm – Operation – Control The AlgoControl fire detection system control unit can be configured either with an integrated or a remotely installed AlgoPilot control console. The concept of decentralized intelligence has also been systematically implemented in the design of the signal processing unit and the operator terminal. Driver and/or relay outputs are available. Reliable emergency power supply Optimum charging and extended life of the emergency power batteries by using manufacturer-specific. Due to the diversity of data and the visualization of the information contents such a man-machine interface requires sophisticated communications capabilities.2001 .

High configuration flexibility.4. 71 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07. Unrestricted address assignment. Manufactured according to ecologically compatible principles. Individual evaluation algorithms. CS1140 Control unit system AlgoPilot PolyRex Communication bus Detector bus DOT11. AlgoWorks Characteristics High selective detection capability. Distributed intelligence.2.2 Configuration and structure of the fire detection system control unit The AlgoControl unit is configured largely in accordance with the logical system structure. Simple maintenance.. Detailed planning and configuration information can be found in the Cerberus control unit manual CS11.1 System overview AlgoRex S11 DS11 Detector system OptoRex AlgoControl DO11. ThermoRex Planning and maintenance DT11. 4. Automatically recognizable detector replacement. High system availability and quality. Menu-driven operator guidance. Independent bus systems (detector bus / communications bus). Parameter downloading.2001 ... Compatibility with existing installations.

g.2 System structure AlgoRex has a logical and a physical structure. DO1151 72 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07.2. collective Device e.4. room 104 Element address point in room e.2001 . Logical structure Area (e. main building) e.g. The display and operation are governed by geographic and organizational aspects and are consequently independent of the actual hardware installation of the detector network. 1st floor Section Zone e. interactive.g.g. The logical structure is completely separate from the physical structure which allows greater flexibility.g.

D-Bus Function unit (e. etc. room utilization.g. usually a building) is the highest logical level. The logical structure is independent of the line routing within the detector network.2001 . This linking determines which physical devices (e. It results from the hardware installation. Area Main building Section Zone Element Warehouse Ground floor 1st floor 2nd floor Reception Room 102 Room 103 Room 104 Canteen EDPRoom Logical structure Physical structure Linking Device (e. line module) I-Bus Physical structure: The physical structure is an image of the hardware.g. Station Operator terminal C-Bus Control unit 73 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07. Geographic features (building structure) 2nd floor 1st floor Main building 1st floor ground floor Room 104 Logical structure: The logical structure is an image of the geographic features of an installation. detector) Linking: The lowest levels of the two structures are logically linked to each other. detectors) are installed in which geographic location.Logical and physical structure As the following example shows the AREA (alarm organization level.g. It can be flexibly adapted to the building structure.

The fire detector series and control unit are selected on the basis of the application requirements and/or the system size. Three different detector series and 2 different fire detection system control units are available. DO1151 DOT1151 DT1152 AlgoPilot CC1141 / CC1142 CT1141 / CT1142 – Single-detector signal – Individual evaluation algorithms – Multicriteria detectors with neuronal network – Automatic application suitability check – Multidetector logic – For small to large systems comprising one or several control units – For collective. Detector series DS11 Collective DS110. DOT1131 DT1131 CI1110 / CI1115 – For small to medium systems – With collective or analog addressable detectors Network compatible – Single-detector signal – Multi-detector logic – Drift signal CS1140 AlgoControl Interactive DS115.4.3 Product range With AlgoRex fire detection systems can be tailored to the user’s requirements. AnalogPLUS or interactive detectors – Remotely installable control console 74 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07. DO1101 DT1101 / DT1102 Control units CS11 Stand-alone AlgoControl CS1110 / CS1115 – Collective-signal – Limit comparator technology AnalogPLUS DO1131 DS113.2001 .2.

Control unit AnalogPLUS Stand-alone CS1110 / CS1115 collective CI1110 / CI1115 Network compatible CS1140 interactive Control console CC1141 / CC1142 CT1141 / CT1142 AnalogPLUS collective Gateway CK1141 / CK1142 CI1141 / CI1142 Danger management system terminal Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group ÉÉ ÉÉ 75 sect5 07. or T-taps are possible. Two types of control units are available: stand-alone and network compatible.2.4 Topology Depending on the detector series either stub lines.2001 . In large systems the data line between the local control console and the danger management system is implemented as a loop line.4. loop lines.

The fire department must be alerted via a direct line that should preferably be monitored. The concept differentiates. Monitored sequences The reaction of the personnel is monitored by 2 independent timer circuits.2001 . Audible and visual alarm devices must generate a signal that is clearly identifiable as a fire alarm.5 Alarm concept General The alarm concept must be defined individually for each installation. The first timer circuit monitors the presence of the personnel. Each detector con- 76 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07. Night organization (personnel absent) When the night organization is active all alarms immediately trigger an „External alarm”. If it is a serious incident the fire department is called immediately from the nearest manual call point.: 1.1 Cerberus alarm concept (CAC) The Cerberus alarm concept prevents calling of the fire department for minor incidents. Responsible personnel is absent ⇒ „Night organization” Day organization (personnel present) When the day organization is active an alarm is initially transmitted to the responsible personnel that investigates the situation. If it is a minor incident the fire is extinguished with the resources available locally and the alarm is reset. If no personnel is present or if the reconnaissance time is exceeded. Responsible personnel is present ⇒ „Day organization” 2. detection algorithms have been created and integrated in the AlgoRex detectors. 5. an „External alarm” is transmitted immediately to the fire department and the preprogrammed control functions are initiated. Additional security provided by AlgoLogic Based on the experience accumulated from a large number of fire tests. Day and night organization When either the day or night organization is active the actuation of a manual call point or the activation of an extinguishing system immediately triggers an „External alarm”. the second circuit the duration of the reconnaissance. The alarm devices must be connected to the emergency power supply of the fire detection system control unit and controlled via the corresponding alarm outputs. Important is the quick transmission of alarm messages to the appropriate group of recipients.

3 77 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07. The detector autonomously evaluates the existing danger level and transmits the result to the system control unit. The latter validates the incoming signals based on stored values and initiates preprogrammed decisions.2001 . The same applies to multidetector zones.tains the data for the algorithm that is optimally suited for fire detection. F Alarm Day / Night Night organization Day organization Algorithms Multidetector zones Supplementary benefit in alarm concept with AlgoRex Highest alarm validity Local alarm Presence yes Acknowledgment no Reconnaissance yes no Investigating no Emergency yes F Reset General internal alarm External alarm Flow diagram „Cerberus Alarm Concept” (CAC) Fig. The result of this technology is an incomparably high alarm validity. In addition the detection behavior of AlgoRex detectors is dependent on the day/night organization state.

intermittent alarm signal. frequently only after careful deliberation. in case trained personnel are present 78 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07. discreet alarm for persons who have to investigate the alarm location Means of alarm – Staff paging system – Audible alarm devices in the rooms where the reconnaissance squad is stationed – Coded bell signal. Alarm Local alarm Purpose specific. e. e. The alarm organization and means of alarm must be recorded in the system log book.g. in order to avoid panic Specific warnings to persons in danger.g. floor-by-floor – Separate evacuation speaker system through which specific instructions are given – Separate evacuation signal.2001 . possibly also via staff paging system – System buzzer on the display and the control panel of the fire detection system – Mobile telephone General internal alarm Specific alarm for calling out the required fire fighting crews – Same as for local alarm – Generally alarm devices that are distributed all over the building through which the members of the in-house fire brigade can be called – Telephonic transmission facilities for alerting the fire department Initiation of the evacuation alarm.Alarm organization and means of alarm The operational constraints must be taken into account when specifying the alarm organization and means of alarm because the group of persons responsible for responding to a fire alarm may vary in each case.

1. In smaller fire detection systems all fire control facilities are normally activated in the event of an alarm.1 Fire control facilities General Equipment that is part of the fire protection concept and which can be automatically controlled by the fire detection system. Activating emergency lighting systems. Switching of machines and equipment of all types. The functions of the fire control facilities must be documented in the system folder. 6. 79 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07. This includes. Commanding elevators to the ground floor and blocking them there.2001 . For example: Fire doors and fire dampers should close. Activating smoke and heat extraction systems. The control of such equipment must not adversely affect the fire detection system. Closing fire doors. Vital installations can be controlled through multidetector zones.6 6. for example: Switching off air-conditioning and ventilation system. In larger fire detection systems the fire control facilities are frequently controlled on a zone-by-zone basis and activated selectively in case of a minor alarm or general internal alarm.1 Activation of fire control facilities The activation of fire control facilities depends on the situation prevailing in the monitored area and must be determined individually for each installation. Closing fire dampers. All controlled facilities should move to their safe position in the event of a power failure.

5 OFF indicator + OFF state indication of a fire control facility 6. 6. manual control should be given preference over automatic control. activation of the fire control operation that can have consequences that may possibly negate the benefits of automatic initiation.3 Test mode of the fire detection system If the fire detection system is in TEST mode. The activated facility must be restored to its normal operating state independently of the fire detection system.1.4 Testing the fire control facility It must be possible to test the function of the fire control operation without activating the corresponding facility. in exceptional cases when the audible fire alarm is switched off Fire detection system External control P N Control voltage for ventilation Fig.5 Safety precautions Depending on the type of facility or equipment. the fire control facilities may respond only if an alarm is overriding e.6. opens when the alarm is reset. 80 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07.1.g. Switch-off button External control Initiation – + ON indicator – Fig. In case of doubt.2 Activating the external control On the switch panel of the controlled facility a signal must indicate that the fire control has been activated by the fire detection system.2001 .1. 4 Switching off the ventilation 6.1. from a manual call point. Example: Relay contact closes in alarm condition.

. . . . . . . . . .Section 6 Line network The following section describes the planning of the line network of a fire detection system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electromagnetic environments . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . 1. 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . Installation of the detection line network Basic information on the detection line network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . National regulations must in all cases be followed even if they are not explicitly mentioned here. . . . . . .2001 . . 2. Installation of a fire detection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . 82 84 85 87 81 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect6 07. Fire detectors in explosion hazard areas . . 3. . . . . .

unshielded twisted pairs suffice in most cases. Example: New detector network With H Interactive detectors H Input/output (I/O) modules H Special detectors H Loop lines H Stub lines H T-tabs Lines: unshielded twisted pair I Fig. connection of existing „collective” systems: H Loop line H Stub line H T-tab Existing installations can be integrated. Loop lines. It is also possible to connect different detector types to the same line. stub lines or both are feasible. If existing detector networks are to be integrated or expanded.2001 . Example: Existing detector network Modernization of existing systems with AlgoRex.1 Installation of a fire detection system High installation flexibility AlgoRex allows complete freedom in the design of the line network. 1 O I AlgoRex fire detection system: installation and connection versions 82 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect6 07.

2001 . Ex I I Fig. Very important: If AlgoRex is used to upgrade an existing system. provided the quality of the installation conforms to current standards. Even the old installation wires of 220V detection systems can in most cases still be used. extensions or utilization changes are consequently easy to implement. no new cabling is required. Later additions. This means that the line network can be designed as required by the building structure and based on economic considerations rather than the limitations of the system. 2 I I I/O I Complete freedom in the design of the installation network with interactive detectors 83 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect6 07. AlgoRex requires shielded cables only in very extreme situations.Complete freedom in the design of the interactive detection line network T-taps with individual addresses can be connected to the loop at any time (without additional equipment).

wet.g.). The detector line routing capabilities for the AlgoRex system have been completely redesigned. priority was given to the requirements of the electrical engineer and the installer. Ambient influences The line network (dry. detector lines should preferably be routed separately from other lines and systems in order to prevent electromagnetic influences. are now possible with the AlgoRex system and they are also monitored. This means reliability also in case of line interruptions and short circuits which can occur when building work is performed. Depending on the selected intelligence level.g.2001 . Cable and wiring material As protection against electromagnetic influences twisted cables should be used. lightning protection systems. The assignment of the indicator to the detector is programmed in the system control unit. low-voltage and high-voltage cables. or explosion proof) must conform to the same standard as for electrical lighting. For example parallel branches (T-taps) which were previously not allowed. Also shunt-Zener-diode barriers can be integrated in the detector line so that explosion hazard rooms can be monitored with explosion-proof detectors connected to a normal detector line. etc. pulse controls. 84 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect6 07. With line separators in the detector and other modules the control unit can automatically isolate the injured line segment while maintaining the functionality of the remaining detector network. ring and stub lines can be implemented as desired so that the detector line needs to be installed only in accordance with the building requirements rather than system limitations. multidetector zones). On the two-wire detector bus the microprocessor-equipped output modules supply the decentralized fire control functions. Also new with AlgoRex interactive is that the external (additional) response indicator of the detector does not have to be connected to the corresponding detector itself. it can be installed anywhere on the detector line or be fed by another detector. input modules allow direct connection of collective fire detectors on an interactive line. 2. as well as non-AlgoRex fire detectors and other signal outputs (e. sprinkler contacts).2 Installation of the detection line network Particularly important for the AlgoRex system is the reliable function of the detection network. As a rule neither the output modules nor the input modules require an external power source.1 Basic information on the detection line network Separate line network Fire detection systems must be operated via a separate line network. A response indicator can also be controlled by multiple detectors (e. Separation of signal and power lines Despite the very high immunity of new detector systems. transmitter and high-frequency equipment. (e.g. Commercially available material that is suitable for telephone or low-voltage systems (<1000V) can be procured locally.

Lines to the alarm devices The following factors must be taken into consideration: Maximum load rating of the alarm output in the control unit. operator terminals. The control unit. be installed in accordance with normal regulations. Intrinsically safe installation In general explosion hazard areas constitute only a small part of a fire detection system. The separation between system components that are or are not intrinsically safe requires the installation of shunt-zener-diode barriers that limit the voltage. that is. the line network and all equipment must be intrinsically safe. Principle of intrinsic safety EN50020 defines an intrinsically safe circuit as follows: A circuit in which no sparks and no thermal effects occurring under the testing conditions defined in this standard (which comprise normal operation and certain fault conditions) are able to ignite a certain explosible atmosphere. however. Parallel wiring is only possible for addressable systems (except MS9i). 1 and 2 At least for applications in zones 0 and 1 potential compensation is required.2001 . We differentiate between: Shunt-zener-diode barriers category ib: these are only applicable for zones 1 and 2 Shunt-zener-diode barriers category ia: these are applicable for zones 0. circuits that are intrinsically safe must be separated from those which are not intrinsically safe by means of suitable protective measures that satisfy certain requirements. Shunt-zenerdiode barriers without electrical isolation are to be connected on one side to the potential compensation which in case of multiple grounding can lead to undesirable compensation currents. 3 Detector network 2. Within a system. current. they do not have to be intrinsically safe.2 Fire detectors in explosion hazard areas Fire detection equipment is normally installed in an intrinsically safe version. continuous grounding of all larger construction elements that can be touched. Detection line network The fire detectors of a line are connected in series with a 2-wire line. and power in the intrinsically safe circuit to non-hazardous values. Maximum voltage loss 10%. Within the explosion hazard area. Serial wiring T-taps are only possible in systems with addressable detectors Fig. therefore. and large portions of the system wiring can. 85 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect6 07. etc. that is.

4 Fire detection system in an „Ex” area 86 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group .Often a correct solution is only possible through electrical isolation (line coupler with shunt-zener-diode barrier). 50Ω 1) max. Typical installation of a fire detection system in an „Ex” area Non hazardous area Explosion hazard area Danger zones 1 and 2 Response indicator Ex FD control unit 1) Response indicator Ex Line terminator Ex sect6 07. 57nF / 4mH / 25 fire detectors Depending on the application an evaluation shunt may be needed Fig.2001 – + Shunt-zenerdiode barrier System ground Ex Ex Ex Potential compensation No detectors allowed max.

Earth loops. Care has also been taken that the AlgoRex itself does not emit any inadmissible electromagnetic radiation. Electronic therapy rooms.g. base. Inductive and capacitive coupling. Sources of interference Fire detection systems must be protected against the following sources of interference: Strokes of lightning. substations. laboratories. mains leads to the control unit and terminals. RF interference. Electrostatic charging or discharging.2001 . each Cerberus product (detector. flashover in high voltage lines High-frequency generators Impulse generators Large motors Induction furnaces Induction furnace Motors Assembly of switching devices and radio equipment. trouble-free operation is only ensured if the equipment is installed according to the rules of electromagnetic compatibility. e. snack corners Open-air high-voltage switches High-voltage lines Power stations. On/off switching of large transformers. Interference pulses caused by the switching of inductive loads. especially top floors. In normal situations and in environments without EM pollution twisted conductors suffice. Primary protection Basically. detector base and control unit are designed in such a way that – also in the case of AlgoRex interactive – shielding against EMI (electromagnetic influence) is required only in exceptional cases. transformer stations Electronics industry Metal industry Timber and paper industry High-voltage switchgear. from RF generators. Type of premises Buildings exposed to lightning Hospitals and nursing Source of interference Thunderstorms – Direct strike – Strike via mains Short wave therapy and X-ray Microwave equipment Microwave oven Interference location Complete building. Insulation tests Metal working machines Rolling mills Chipboard production Paper coating 87 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect6 07. etc. By means of the built-in primary protection a large portion of possible sources of interference are eliminated. repair shops Kitchens. The detector. Electromagnetic influences. Particular precautions apply to the immunity of the AlgoRex system to electromagnetic influences which in modern buildings tend to occur more frequently and more strongly. radiology departments.3 Electromagnetic environment Definition Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) means that an electrical or electronic system can be operated within the prescribed electromagnetic environment without interference either from or to other systems. radiology departments. transmitters. therapy rooms. Radio communications. and optimized accordingly. However. control unit) is tested during the development stage for immunity to interference.

88 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect6 07.2001 .

4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . IP protection categories . . . . . Standards for fire detection systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . European standards . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . USA) . . . . . . . . Testing laboratories . . . . . . Certification and approval institutions . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2001 . . . . . . . . . . Explosion protection types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UL standards (Underwriter’s Laboratories Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .Section 7 Standards and approval institutions 1. . . 90 90 91 92 92 93 94 89 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect7 07.

The following member countries support CEN through active participation: – Austria – Belgium – Denmark – Finland – France – Germany – Greece – Ireland – Island – Italy – Luxembourg – Netherlands – Norway – Portugal – Spain – Sweden – Switzerland – United Kingdom The following table lists the standards that have either been published by the European Technical Committee CEN TC72.2001 . M = middle. 90 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect7 07. design.1 Standards for fire detection systems The requirements to be satisfied by fire detection systems are defined in relevant standards. or ionization High temperature heat detectors Fire tests for smoke detectors Flame detectors Will be retracted as soon as the revision of Part 5 is published Revision in preparation M96 EN54–8 EN54–9 Will be retracted as soon as the revision of Part 5 is published Will be retracted as soon as the revision of Part 7 is published – – EN54–10 EN54–11 EN54–12 EN54–13 EN54–14 EN54–15 In preparation In preparation In preparation In preparation In preparation In preparation M96 E96 E97 97 97 97 Manual call points Optical beam detectors System requirements Guidelines for planning.1 European standards In Europe the standards are defined by CEN (European Committee for standardization) and CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization). installation. These EN standards will be adopted by the member states as national standards: ÁÁÁ Á Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á Á Á ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á ÁÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á Á Á ÁÁÁ Á Á Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á ÁÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á Á Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Number EN54–1 EN54–2 EN54–3 EN54–4 EN54–5 EN54–6 EN54–7 Title Status Comments Time schedule E95 B96 B96 Components of automatic fire detection systems: Introduction Control and indicating equipment Audible fire alarm devices Power supplies Published: October 76 Voting Voting Revision in preparation In preparation Published: October 76 Published: Published: July 82 Published: July 82 Published: July 82 Heat sensitive detectors – point detectors containing a static element Revision in preparation M96 – Heat sensitive detectors – rate or rise point detectors without static element Smoke detectors – point detectors using scattered light. In addition to these EN standards there are country-specific standards which must also be taken into consideration. transmitted light. E = end of corresponding year. 1. use and maintenance Point type multi-sensor fire detectors incorporating a smoke sensor in combination with a heat sensor Work done in ISO / TC21 / SC23 / WG9 to be submitted to parallel voting under the Vienna agreement Notes to the table: The dates for the scheduled publications are non-binding approximate values (as of December 1995). B = beginning. or are in preparation or planned. commissioning.

2001 . USA) UL521: UL268: UL268A: UL38: UL864: UL827: UL217: UL985: Heat detectors for fire protection signalling systems Smoke detectors for fire protection signalling systems Smoke detectors for duct application Manual call points Control units for fire protection signalling systems Central stations for watchman. fire-alarm and supervisory systems Single and multiple-station smoke detectors Household fire warning system unit 91 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect7 07.2 UL standards (Underwriters’ Laboratories Inc.1.

(USA) ULC: Underwriters’ Laboratories of Canada FMRC: Factory Mutual Research Corporation (USA) 3 Certification and approval institutions The certification and approval institutions are organizations that work at the national level.V. The major testing laboratories are: ANPI: Association Nationale pour la Protection contre l’incendie (Belgium) CNPP: Centre National de Prévention et de Protection (France) DELTA: DELTA Electronics Testing (Denmark) LPC Lab: Loss Prevention Council Laboratories (UK) VdS-Lab: Verband der Schadenversicherer e. (Germany) ULI: Underwriters’ Laboratories Inc.2 Testing laboratories Adherence to the standards is verified by the fire detection system industry through performance tests in laboratories. 92 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect7 07. On request we gladly supply you with an approval list for Cerberus products and systems.2001 . Their number is correspondingly large.

Large foreign objects IP 10 IP 11 IP 12 Protection again contact and penetration by fo nst p oreign objects max. Dust deposition IP 50 IP 54 IP 55 6.8 0.7 Submersion .2001 .6 Immersion . Dust penetration IP 60 IP 65 IP 66 IP 67 IP 68 93 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect7 07. ø 12 mm 2. ø 50 mm 1. Medium foreign objects max.1 . Granular foreign obj.4 Water jet . ø 1 mm IP 30 IP 31 IP 32 IP 33 IP 34 4. IP 00 max.4 IP protection categories The IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) standard 529 describes the types of protection against penetration of water and solid objects into the housing of electrical devices. ø 2. IP 40 IP 41 IP 42 IP 43 IP 44 5.5 mm IP 20 IP 21 IP 22 IP 23 3.5 Flooding .0 Drip water perpeninclined dicular . No protection Water penetration protection <15° <60° IP protection categories for electrical devices according to IEC 529 Overview Protection against IEC No protection — IP .2 Spray water . The following table summarizes the most frequently specified protection categories IP = International Protection.3 Splash water . Small foreign objects max.

capacitors Sealed devices Squirrel cage induction motors.5 Explosion protection types If fire detection systems are installed in explosion hazard areas. switching devices. but especially for large devices Pressurized enclosure EN50016 p p Sand-filled enclosures EN50017 Encapsulation EN50028 Increased safety EN50015 q m e Intrinsic safety EN50020 i L U C ingnitable atmosphere 94 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect7 07. terminal and connection boxes. lighting units. the equipment to be installed must satisfy certain safety requirements.2001 ÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎ Oil immersion EN50015 o Switching devices. transformers Transformers. Diagrams and applications for the types of protection Types of protection / Standard Flame proof enclosure EN50018 Symbol d Diagram Application Heavy current engineering: (commutator) motors. For this purpose CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization) has published the standards summarized in the table below. measuring and control devices Low-voltage engineering: Measuring and control devices. alarm devices and other sparking devices See above. lighting units. Fire detectors (apparatus and circuits) . transformers. current transformers.

. . . . . . . . 4. 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . System structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions . . .2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . 95 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect8 07. . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 1: DMS7000 danger management system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other important functions . . . . .Section 8 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Main functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . Example 2: System type LMSmodular (Local Monitoring System) . Examples of danger management systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 2. . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 98 98 98 100 100 101 102 102 103 2. . . . . . . System concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specific security features . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Danger management systems Introduction . .

This organizational part of the concept is playing an increasingly important role. Control of a building must be possible also under the most complex conditions with respect to security. historical buildings) Installation with high risk potential (e. This requires better and more comprehensive protection. technical equipment. In most cases larger buildings and infrastructures are equipped with complex security systems which comprise. nuclear power stations. industrial complex) Concentration of persons (e. The following criteria and their combination constitute the basis for deciding on the installation of such a management system: Size and structure of the building (e. high-rise buildings. and maintenance. airports.g.g. computer centers. Extinguishing systems. Gas warning systems. high-rise. CCTV monitoring. but with a minimum of personnel costs. How can this be accomplished? In such cases a master control center or danger management system for the control of all security related equipment is recommended. Security systems.g. for example Fire detection systems. chemical plants) Building operation costs For a comprehensive solution also the organization of the security and service personnel as well as their role in the event of an emergency must be taken into consideration.1 Introduction Due to the growing complexity and size of buildings and the increasing concentration of persons and property.2001 . the building owner is confronted with ever higher risks. road tunnels) Concentration of assets (e. 96 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect8 07.g. Access control.

Each of these buildings contains one or several systems of various sizes. Public telephone network Fig.2001 . For monitoring and operating the entire complex these systems are connected to a central danger management system. 1 Danger management system 97 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect8 07.A typical application of such a danger management system is shown in the diagram below.

Logical and easy-to-interpret representation of the events. etc. police. Control of fire dampers. Interfaces to staff paging systems. evaluation. and resetting of messages by means of function keys. elevators. etc. event location (with structure geographic designations). Execution of pre-programmed control sequences. Control Transmission of alerts to call fire department. service personnel.1 Functions Main functions In order to fulfil the requirements described in chapter 1 the danger management system must perform the following functions: Reception of alarm messages from the systems.2 Other important functions Additional important functions must be available: Display of alarms and other status messages Type of alarm. 2. Interfaces Interfaces to the building automation and management systems. Access to password-protected (multilevel) system operation.. Selection and evaluation of the messages.g. Expanded operation for special events.2 2.. display and process of messages are. The reception. History file Saving the events in a permanent file. Operation of the subsystems Acknowledgment. of course. not limited to alarm situations: The above functions also apply to the processing of fault and status messages output by the subsystems. Printout of the alarm list and texts. or light pen. mouse. acknowledgment and reset of alarms. ventilators. PLCs. 98 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect8 07. Control of the subsystems from the security control center: e. etc. Evaluation of the alarm messages. processing. Control of specific display panels (mimic panels).2001 . Graphic display of the alarm location. date and time. Supplementary text information. video cameras.

Subsystem integration Integration of all subsystems (fire protection. intrusion. gas warning.Logging Chronological recording of all events.2001 . Other functions Software tools for user data such as texts and graphics. security. Access to the danger management system via the public switched telephone network for diagnostic purposes (remote diagnosis). etc. Causes of alarm.) in a security control center. 99 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect8 07. Software tools for configuring the danger management system.

alarm devices.2001 Á Á . 100 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect8 07. etc. The required availability of the danger management system can only be achieved if the satellite control units function completely autonomously.3 System concept CC 1 CC 2 MD MC Gateway or central processing unit MA System console CC 8 Control units Communication Central management station CC 1 CC 2 MC Central processing unit MA System console CC 8 Control units Fig.1 System structure The danger management system is based on clear system structures. activation of the alarm devices. detectors. Subsystem level Describes the subsystems and comprises the satellite control units. control of fire doors and elevators must also be possible in the event of complete communications failure with the security control center. operation. control elements. peripheral devices This level comprises all peripheral devices such as sensors. 2 Central management station Block diagrams of two possible system structures 3. Data acquisition and processing is performed at four levels: Data acquisition level. Their functions such as signal indication.

All system components are monitored and malfunctions are indicated on the corresponding subsystem as well as on the system console.2 Specific security features The security control center is designed specifically for the demanding requirements of danger management systems: The satellite control units are completely autonomous in their function and are independent of the security control center. The security control center consists principally of a gateway. The system console is designed for clear and simple display of the events and provides comprehensive operator prompts. an system console. For adaptation to the physical conditions of the installation. 101 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect8 07. operating and controlling the satellite control units by a security control center. the transmission network can be designed with point-to-point connections or loop lines (CERLOOP) or a combination of both.2001 . 3. The CERLOOP corresponds to wiring class A which due to its immunity to short circuits and interruptions on the data line achieves a high reliability. Clear and easy-to-interpret priority structure of the event display as an aid to efficient processing and intervention. High system availability is achieved by equipping all subsystems with a separate power supply and emergency batteries. they can also be operated locally at any time. Multilevel. password protected operator access prevents manipulations by unauthorized persons. a central processing unit. Although the satellite control units are normally controlled from the system main terminal in the security control center. Management level Includes all functions and equipment required for monitoring. and printers.Communications level The communications level comprises all network components required for data transmission between the satellite control units and the security control center. The system behavior is largely standardized but allows sufficient flexibility for adapting the functions to specific installation requirements.

4 Examples of danger management systems There are various types of danger management systems. and communication interfaces it is possible to build very large systems comprising up to 64 satellite control units. 3 Central management station Example of a typical DMS7000 configuration 102 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect8 07. The DMS7000 is a control system that is developed and manufactured by Cerberus. 4. data concentrators.1 Example 1: DMS7000 danger management system In this system the priorities are largely tailored to the aforementioned security aspects.2001 Á . MA System console Fire protection CC CC Security MC Central processing unit CC Gas Satellite control units Fig. and an LCD screen as a text-only display. Two different operating consoles are available: A color monitor for displaying text and graphics. All of them are based on the principle of central monitoring and control of satellite control units that are used for a variety of functions. the latter is backed up by a 24V emergency operation battery. It is equipped with appropriate interfaces for communication with the satellite units. These offer flexible configuration possibilities for adapting the system to the physical characteristics of a zone. Two possible system types are described below. With supplementary components such as MUX/DMX units.

Evaluation Gateway Fire protection Local area .4. A typical capability of this system is to integrate all Cerberus subsystems as well as various non-Cerberus systems such as CCTV and PLC systems. Since LMS is designed as a danger monitoring system certain functions that can normally be executed under Windows are inhibited by the system. 4 Example of a typical LMS configuration Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group Á 103 sect8 07.2 Example 2: System type LMSmodular (Local Monitoring System) LMSmodular is a monitoring system for the integration of danger detection systems that operates under Windows.. The system architecture supports a so-called „one-level network configuration” and „twolevel network configuration” with different gateways.2001 . Gateway Satellite control units Fire protection Security Gas External area Fig..

2001 .104 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect8 07.

. . . . . . . . Centralized system . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . .Section 9 Evacuation and voice communication systems 1. . . . . . . . . . Autonomous system . Main functions of an emergency voice communication system . . . . . . . . . . . .2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 107 109 109 109 110 105 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect9 07. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Decentralized system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . System concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Reassure the building occupants if there is no (longer any) danger. and establishing contact with the fire fighting squads. As a result of today’s trend to ever larger buildings. conventional alarming methods can no longer be regarded as adequate. To enhance the safety of the building occupants a voice transmission system is installed which distributes a spoken message via loudspeakers in order to: Supply information on dangerous situations and their development. In most cases the evacuation alarm is initiated by means of bells and horns installed in the building. Give instructions on the escape routes to be used in certain building sections.1 Introduction The primary functions of the fire detection system is the timely alert of building occupants in the event of a fire so that safe and orderly evacuation is possible.2001 . Audible signals from alarm devices are often ignored and may possibly be misinterpreted. preventing panic. A much more reliable method is the transmission of a spoken announcement. 106 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect9 07. Evacuate the entire building. provided the responsible security personnel and the evacuation has been properly planned and the building occupants adequately instructed. This method has proven itself and shown to be effective for smaller buildings. Today such emergency voice communication systems are increasingly considered to be an essential addition to fire detection systems in medium to large buildings. A supplementary emergency telephone system installed throughout the building supports the fire brigade in its task of evacuating the building. Cerberus has extensive experience and know-how in the planning and delivery of evacuation and public address (PA) systems.

high pulse frequency) is transmitted via the speakers to those parts of the building that are directly affected by the danger.g. 1 Functional diagram of a voice communications system In medium and larger systems three different signals or channels are normally available: Alert In order to alert the building occupants a pulsed tone (e.g. This signal clearly has a higher priority than the alert signal (depending on the local regulations the evac signal can also be a synthesized voice message). and or manually by the fire brigade. 107 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect9 07. Evac An evacuation signals (e.2001 . If this important function exists the system is a true 3-channel system. low pulse frequency) is transmitted throughout the building. Page Signal Whenever necessary the fire brigade can give specific instructions through the microphone which are transmitted either throughout the entire building or only portions thereof. This signal has a higher priority than the evac signal. The required signal (channels) can be selected automatically (via the fire alarm system). that is. The voice communication system should be designed in such a way that all 3 signals (channels) described above can be simultaneously selected for different areas (zones). all three signals are available throughout the building to each amplifier (audio bus). This signal has the lowest priority (depending on the local regulations the alert signal can also be a synthesized voice message).2 Main functions of an emergency voice communication system Signal generators Alert Microphone Evac Page Audio signals Amplifier Amplifier Selection (automatic and manual) Alert Evac Page 1 Loudspeakers Loudspeakers 2 Zone 1 Zone 2 Fig.

In the future additional independent channels will become necessary.Example: high-rise building with 20 floors ü Fire on the 8th floor Automatic alert signal to all 20 floors. 108 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect9 07.2001 . Automatic evac signal to floors 7. and 9 (the evac signal overrides the alert signal for these 3 floors). for example for transmitting pre-programmed messages for elevators and staircases. After it has become clear that the fire is spreading also to the 9th floor. The control center manager then transmits a page signal (live or prerecorded announcement) to the 10th floor and requests the occupants to immediately leave the building via the staircase. (The page signal overrides the alert signal for this floor). the fire brigade working on this floor contacts the control center via the emergency telephone system and orders the immediate evacuation of the 10th floor. 8.

the panic risk. for larger buildings or objects (distances) a more economical solution should be chosen. A live announcement (page) can be fed through the microphone on the operator console. 109 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect9 07.3 System concepts The practical requirements to be met by such systems can vary considerably. The system selection must be based on the size and structure of the building. from the fire detection system to the corresponding speaker terminals in the building. Three basic concepts are described below: 3. Alarm and warning tones (evac. alert) are synthesized by a special circuit. the speakers are „hardwired”.1 Autonomous system The EVAC systems comprises speaker lines that are distributed throughout the building.2001 . it overrides all other signals (including fire brigade announcements). and the desired convenience. all equipment is installed in a central location and the speaker lines in the building are „hardwired”. For this reason the evacuations and emergency voice communication system will be installed in close proximity to the fire detection system control unit or the security control center. the technology of the fire detection system. The highest priority has the push-to-talk button on the microphone (page). A switching matrix allows the routing of the signals to specific building sections (speaker zones) by pressing the corresponding zone keys on the operator console in the fire protection room. that is. For smaller objects this is certainly a practical solution. Normally the entire system is powered by an emergency battery so that it can be kept in operation also in the event of a general power failure. The speaker system is fed with corresponding signals (alert. page. evac. Such announcements automatically override the alert or evac signal.2 Centralized system The principal advantage of the centralized evacuation and emergency voice communication over the above autonomous system is the automatic announcement control. Manual intervention overrides the automatic operation of the system. As the system designation shows. 3. are installed centrally. see above). In this system all modules. In this system the audio signal as well as the speaker zones are activated automatically by the fire detection system. including the audio amplifiers.

office tracts. 2 Decentralized system 110 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect9 07. the space requirement for the equipment cabinets. hospitals. integrated system is shown in the following diagram: Fig. Other benefits are the lower costs resulting from the optimization of the switching interfaces. The main advantages of an integrated system are the programmable control between a fire detector zone and an evacuation zone. evacuation and speaker system can be operated and controlled from a single location (security control center).2001 . A bus system for the audio signals is installed throughout the entire system so that the fire detection. as well as the autonomous functions of decentralized units. the power supply. Typical applications for such integrated systems are medium to large buildings such as hotels. as well as the lower cabling costs throughout the entire building. airports.3. In this concept the audio amplifiers as well as the supplementary modules are installed in the corresponding satellite control units of the fire detection system.3 Decentralized system In larger buildings a decentralized system is used. etc. The typical requirements of an integrated system is shown in the diagram below. This means that also the loudspeakers of the corresponding zones are connected to the satellite control units which significantly reduces the wiring costs. The typical arrangement of a decentralized.

111 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group Back 07.2001 .

e1490a Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group Edition 07.922 61 11 Fax +41 1 .2001 Section 1 .Siemens Building Technologies AG Alte Landstrasse 411 CH 8708 Männedorf Tel.ch 112 Fire & Document no.922 64 50 www.cerberus.2001 Back Manual CRP-B 07. +41 1 .

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