Lesson: 1 To be considered true research, a project must: gather and interpret information in a systematic fashion so as to increase understanding of some

phenomenon. Which of the following examples illustrates research the way it is defined in your textbook? : Ian wants to know why the population of songbirds has declined in recent years in the Sutton Wilderness Area. He carefully collects soil and water samples, systematically surveys the entire area for predators, and then sits down to make sense of his findings. Which of the following is defined as an organized body of concepts and principles intended to explain a particular phenomenon? : Theory Which of the following is defined as a reasonable guess, or a logical supposition, for explaining the phenomenon under investigation? : Hypothesis The process of formal research begins with the identification of: a research problem The purpose of formal research is to: support or fail to support the study hypotheses Assumptions come into play: in regard to nearly every aspect of every research study

Well-designed research manages to minimize or avoid: bias Researchers _their phenomenon of interest on the basis of data analysis : make inferences about A primary function of the methodology is to: both a and b (guide and control the acquisition of data. extract meaning from the data that have been gathered.) Three of the following come into play as the researcher analyzes the data. Which one does NOT? Preferences for certain outcomes

A well-designed and well-conducted study: answers some questions and raises other questions.

Reading the professional literature in the field of interest: will enhance an individual’s ability to design and conduct high-quality research. One indication that a piece of information is of high quality is that the information: is found in a juried (or refereed) research report Lesson: 3 Research problems, as defined in your textbook: clearly and completely specify important questions that are currently unanswered in a particular field of inquiry. Basic research is: research intended to enhance basic knowledge about the physical, biological, psychological, or social world or to shed light on historical, cultural, or aesthetic phenomena. Applied research is: research intended to address issues that have immediate relevance to current practices, procedures, and policies. Which of the following represents a well-written basic research problem? “How does the organization of mathematical information in long-term memory differ between 3-year-olds and 13-year-olds?” Which of the following represents a well-written applied research problem? “How do business teams of six or fewer members compare to teams of more than six members in terms of productivity?” Three of the following questions lend themselves well to formal research. Which one does NOT? “Which general education course is more interesting, U.S. History or World Music?”

Three of the following are characteristics of a well-written research problem. Which one is NOT?: The problem statement includes jargon associated with the field. A common weakness of research problems is that they: incorporate a number of subproblems. “What proportion of workers hired by selected factories in the state of Oklahoma between 1995 and 2000 held four-year college degrees?” The chief weakness of this research problem is that: it does not lead to the creation/discovery of new information. “What do underemployed U.S. workers (i.e., those workers who are employed, but not in positions for which they have specialized training or expertise) identify as the primary reason for their inability to find suitable employment?” The chief weakness of this research problem is that: it lacks clarity or completeness in the problem statement & studying the question as stated is not feasible. “What is the correlation between an index of civic-mindedness and years of involvement in local organizations and charities among members of city councils of selected midsized cities in the northeastern United States?” : it implies only description of the data, not interpretation. “Among social workers in selected U.S. urban areas, are the personality characteristics of Need for Structure or In-Group Preference related to prejudicial social judgments about African Americans, Latino Americans, or Asian Americans?” Which of the following is a well-stated subproblem that follows from this research problem? : Which group is more discriminated against by the public at large in each of the selected areas: African Americans, Latino Americans, or Asian Americans? & What is the relationship between an index of Need for Structure and an index of prejudice targeting attitudes about Asian Americans

among the selected social workers? In regard to research questions and hypotheses, a high-quality research study will: articulate either research questions or hypotheses depending on the nature of the study. Which of the following represents a null hypothesis? There will be no difference in rate of skill improvement between college gymnasts who practice meditation and those who do not. Which of the following represents a research hypothesis? : Class A high school basketball teams who employ a sports psychologist will have a higher proportion of wins over the course of the season than comparable teams who do not employ a sports psychologist. The recommended order of tasks in preparing a research proposal is: state the problem and subproblems, note the research questions/hypotheses, note the delimitations, define the terms, note the assumptions. Three of the following comprise the setting of the research problem. Which one does NOT? : A clear definition of all terms related to the research problem that might be misunderstood by a reader Lesson: 5 A good research plan, according to your textbook, includes: includes specific sampling plan, procedures, data sources, and analysis plan. The basic format of the quantitative research process includes (in part), in chronological order: pose the question, pose a hypothesis, search the literature, collect the data. When considering general criteria for high-quality research projects, universality refers to the fact that: a well-designed research project could be carried out by any competent researcher; it does not rely on a specific individual.

When considering general criteria for high-quality research projects, replicability refers to the fact that: another researcher, using the same procedures under the same circumstances to research the same question, would obtain comparable results. Three of the following accurately characterize data. Which one does NOT necessarily characterize data? Data reveal truth. Charlotte, an anthropologist, has been living in an Incan village for three years. During that time Charlotte has become expert in Incan weaving by observing and imitating the master weavers in the community. For Charlotte, observing weaving constitutes: primary data. Charlotte wrote a book about her experience as an anthropologist living in an Incan village for three years and becoming an expert weaver. Her book was widely read by other anthropologists, including Mira, who is an expert in Navaho weaving. For Mira, Charlotte’s book constitutes: secondary data. Sean, a high school wrestler, has agreed to participate in a study of cardiovascular conditioning. He is left somewhat confused when, at the first research session, he is asked to complete a questionnaire about commonly purchased grocery items. Sean’s confusion indicates a lack of _ regarding the task. face validity A researcher decides to use a high school sample to test the relationship between her new measure of empathy and a well-established measure of interpersonal sensitivity. She finds that the two instruments are highly related, which supports the _ of the new instrument: criterion validity A researcher designed a new questionnaire to measure political conservatism. To test out his new instrument, he asks people leaving their polling place on election day to report their degree of political conservatism on a scale of 1 (low) to 10 (high) and then complete his questionnaire.

Results show that people who identified themselves as political conservatives also had the highest scores on his questionnaire. This is an indication of the _ of the new instrument. criterion validity Dick and Jane are studying aggression among preschool children. Separately, they each watch a videotape of four children interacting in a playroom and then rate each child on the level of aggression displayed during the play session. They compare their completed ratings and are pleased to note they are highly similar. This is an example of _ reliability. interrater Dr. Drive is testing a 10-question measure of achievement motivation. He notes that if his respondents agree with the first question, they tend to also agree with the other nine. Likewise, if his respondents disagree with the first question, they tend of disagree with the other nine. This is an indication of good _reliability. internal consistency Professor Pickle is studying civic-mindedness among senior citizens. She administers a survey of civic mindedness to a senior citizens group in early April, then again in early May. By comparing the two sets of scores, the professor can assess the _ reliability of her measure of civic-mindedness. internal consistency Three of the following are associated with quantitative research methods. Which one is NOT? Deductive reasoning is applied to data analysis and interpretation. Three of the following are associated with qualitative research methods. Which one is NOT? No data are gathered as part of this approach. Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the internal validity of a study. Which one is NOT? Make participants fully aware of your expected findings. Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the external validity of a study. Which one is NOT? Allow flexibility in procedures and instruments.

Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the credibility or dependability of a qualitative study. Which one is NOT? Exclude participants who have experiences or opinions that are very different from those of others in the study. The requirement to keep information provided by research participants confidential applies: to all persons under almost all conditions. The altering of data is allowable: under no circumstances. Dr. Davenport wants to conduct a study of whether high school students learn more efficiently while seated at a desk compared to in an easy chair. Participants will be seniors in local high school history classes. She hopes to publish her findings in the History Teacher Quarterly. Does Dr. Davenport need internal review board (IRB) approval for this study? Yes Dr. Davenport wants to conduct a study of whether high school students learn more efficiently while seated at a desk compared to in an easy chair. She knows there is a large research literature regarding similar influences on learning, and she wants to see if the findings hold true with a group of high school history students. Moreover, as a researcher she is uneasy with a lack of structure. You recommend that Dr. Davenport conduct a _ study: .quantitative Dr. Greenhill wants to know how it is that some early adolescents come to make a connection between their personal lifestyle and environmental problems, while others don’t. Furthermore, among those who see the connection, why do some become committed to environmentalism while others do not? Dr. Greenwald looks forward to probing the thoughts of young teens on these issues and trying to see the questions and issues through “14-year-old eyes.” You recommend that Dr. Greenhill conduct a _study.: qualitative

Lesson 7 In qualitative research the _ is the most important instrument. : researcher In qualitative research, the fact that the research methodology may be vaguely described or very general in nature at the outset of the study indicates: a normal and acceptable practice. Qualitative studies typically serve three of the following purposes. Which purpose do they NOT serve? : determining the final truth about a situation or phenomenon In _, a body of material is systematically examined for patterns, themes, or biases : content analysis In _, a particular group of individuals is studied in depth over a defined period of time. ethnography In _, the researcher studies the deep meaning an event or situation holds for other people: phenomenology In _, a particular individual, program, or event is studied in depth over a defined period of time. grounded theory Carl Compost has been living and working on a communal organic farm for the past six months. He wants to understand the political, environmental, and social perspectives shared by the members of the commune. Dr. Compost is probably employing a/an _ methodology. case study Daniel Daring is an emerging playwright whose works have begun to stir great passions in the major U.S. cities where they are staged. Researcher Eugenia Edge is “shadowing” Mr. Daring for six months in an attempt to understand the artistic process. Dr. Edge is probably employing a _ methodology: case study Helen Heartwell flew to New York City a few weeks after the September 11, 2001, bombing of

the World Trade Center. She wanted to know how the victims of the attack were making sense of what had happened to them. Dr. Heartwell is probably employing a/an _methodology. phenomenological Richard Relic is carefully examining writings from the time of the U.S. Civil War to determine how each side characterized the position of their opponent. Dr. Relic is probably employing a _ methodology: content analysis The constant comparative method of data analysis is most associated with: grounded theory. The technique of participant observation is most associated with: ethnography.

_ is most useful in situations where current theory regarding the subject of investigation is inadequate or nonexistent. Grounded theory When conducting observations to be used as data in a qualitative study, it is: always necessary to obtain informed consent from those being observed. If you interview two people about the same event and their stories diverge at certain points, you can conclude that: the meaning people draw from an event can vary from person to person. Three of the following are techniques that strengthen the objectivity of a qualitative study. \ Which one is NOT? The researcher should rely as much as possible on a single wellinformed respondent. Lesson 9 Observational research, as a form of descriptive research,: involves counting or rating of behavior in as objective a manner as possible. Three of the following procedures or techniques are integral to observational research. Which one is NOT? Observation instruments are intentionally general so as not to constrain the observer.

Correlational research allows the researcher to answer questions such as: what is the relationship between Variable A and Variable B? The scatterplot to the right indicates a _relationship between Variable A and Variable B.: moderate & strong A researcher wishes to study developmental changes in people’s preference for action movies. The researcher locates 50 people at each of the following ages: 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 years. She asks them to rate their preference for action movies in relation to other sorts of movies. This is an example of a _design: cross-sectional A researcher wishes to study developmental changes in the music people prefer to listen to. The researcher locates 50 people who are about 20 years old. She sends these people a questionnaire every year for the next 10 years asking about the types of music they prefer to listen to. This is an example of a _design. Longitudinal Among survey methods, _generally generate the highest response rate, and _ generally generate the lowest response rate: face-to-face interviews; questionnaires Advantages of questionnaires include all of the following EXCEPT: because questions are in written form, they are less likely to be misunderstood by respondents. Regarding the length of questionnaires to be used in survey research, which of the following statements is most accurate? Keeping the survey short makes it more likely people will be willing to complete it. “How unhappy are you with your current salary?” This question violates which rule of good survey writing? It makes an unwarranted assumption The typical return rate for a survey mailed to strangers is about: 50% In descriptive research, the researcher typically studies a_, then draws conclusions about

the_:population; sample Polly Petunia is Chief Horticulturalist for the Southwest region, encompassing Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. She wants to survey amateur gardeners in her region to determine what, if any, water conservation practices they employ in their home gardening. Polly sends her survey to 150 randomly selected gardeners in each state. Polly is using: stratified random sampling. Lesson 11 How are inferential statistics different from descriptive statistics?: Inferential statistics allow one to draw inferences from the sample to a target population. _are characteristics of samples, wheras _ are characteristics of populations.Statistics; parameters In a normal distribution, what percentage of scores falls between one standard deviation below the mean and one standard deviation above the mean? : 68%

Dorothy has been surveying the Munchkins to determine their level of life satisfaction. The possible scores on the life satisfaction questionnaire range from 0 to 100. If Dorothy decides to statistically compare the male and female Munchkins on their level of satisfaction, she should use a _ test.:. parametric Here is a set of scores: 5, 3, 7, 3, 6, 2, 5, 3. The mean of this set of scores is _:4.25 Here is a set of scores: 5, 3, 7, 3, 6, 2, 5, 3. The median of this set of scores is _: 4 Here is a set of scores: 5, 3, 7, 3, 6, 2, 5, 3. The mode of this set of scores is _. 3 The measure(s) of central tendency that is/are appropriate for use with nominal data is/are: the mode only. When summarizing ordinal data, the _ is the most useful measure of central tendency. : median

When reporting growth data, the _is the most useful measure of central tendency.: geometric mean When the _is the measure of central tendency, the _ is the most appropriate and informative measure of dispersion.: median; interquartile range An exam was given to two sections of the same course. In Section 1, the exam mean was 51 and the standard deviation was 7. In Section 2, the exam mean was 51 and the standard deviation was 13. Which of the following conclusions is accurate? : Section 1 scores were less variable than Section 2. The percentile rank allows the researcher to determine: what percentage of individuals in the sample scored below the target individual. Danzell is a purchasing agent for a major grocery store chain. He has noticed over the years that the higher the outdoor temperature, the more likely people are to buy fresh fruit. Based on Danzell’s observations, we would say there is _ relationship between outdoor temperature and buying of fresh fruit.: a positive Frank Fitness found a correlation coefficient of –.74 between hours of strenuous exercise each week and a standard measure of body mass. He interprets this to mean that there is a _and _ relationship between hours of strenuous exercise and body mass.: weak; negative Three of the following factors are associated with a relatively small standard error of the mean. \ Which one is NOT? The variance in the sample is relatively large. Seamus has determined that there is a 95% chance that the number of people visiting the Blarney Stone in the month of June will be between 1,760 and 2,025. This is a/an _ estimate. : interval Statistical hypothesis testing involves testing the: null hypothesis.

Lesson 12 When writing the research report, the findings of statistical analyses are typically reported in the section. :results When writing the research report, the descriptions of instruments used for data gathering are typically included in the _section. : method When writing the research report, the interpretation of study findings is typically included in the_ section. :discussion When writing the research report, the research problem is typically described in the _ section. : introduction When writing the research report, information regarding the study design is typically included in the _section. method The reference list is included in the: end matter Copies of the survey instruments are included in the: appendices. The abstract is included in the: front matter. In a quantitative study, the description of participants (subjects) is included in the : method section. The acknowledgments are included in the: front matter. “Johnson eliminated three interviews from the data set due to noncompliance on the part of the respondents.” This sentence is an example of : active voice. “The third subscale was dropped from further consideration due to problems with internal consistency.”This sentence is an example of : passive voice. The style manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) suggests that _tense be used when writing the method section and _ tense be used when presenting conclusions.

:past; present Lesson:2 A _ is a specific mechanism or strategy the researcher uses to collect, manipulate, or interpret data: research tool. Research methodology refers to: a specific device the researcher uses to collect data. Sam wants to find high-quality research reports related to attribution theory that have been published in professional journals. Sam’s best approach would be to: consult an online or electronic database. Sonya is a college freshman who has just been assigned her first research paper, and she doesn’t know how to get started finding information. Sonya should: consult a reference librarian _ allows a researcher to receive news in an area of special interest and discuss that news with others.: A list server. _ allows researchers to personally correspond practically instantly with other users around the world. : A Web browser John wants to begin using e-mail. Which of the following steps is NOT necessary for John to get started as an email user? : Obtain necessary software from the e-mail provider and load it onto a computer. Three of the following statements about measurement in the research setting are accurate. Which one is NOT accurate? : Measurement is applied by researchers only to insubstantial phenomena. An ordinal scale of measurement: communicates greater than and less than relationships. An interval level of measurement:: incorporates equal units of measurement. A ratio scale of measurement: is tied to an absolute zero

The main difference between an interval and a ratio scale is that only one of them: includes an absolute zero. Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report how politically conservative they are. It includes a 7-point scale where 1 is “not at all conservative” and 7 is “extremely conservative.” This is an example of a/an: interval scale. Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report their highest level of education by choosing from these options: “some high school,” “completed high school,” “some college,” or “completed 4year college degree.” This is an example of a/an: ordinal scale. Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report their age in years. This is an example of a/an: ratio scale. Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report whether they are currently living in an “urban,” “suburban,” or “rural” setting. This is an example of a/an: nominal scale. _ refers to whether a measurement tool actually measures what it is intended to measure: Validity _ refers to how consistently a measurement tool will yield the same result when the phenomenon under investigation does not change.: Reliability Kade has spent the past month carefully observing a group of third graders on the playground during recess, taking note of how the students interact with one another. On the basis of

these observations, Kade is drawing conclusions about the interaction styles of boys and girls. This is an example of: inductive logic. Kimberly knows that teenagers often do not make good decisions in areas where they have little knowledge. She also knows that most teens have little knowledge about human sexuality. Therefore, Kimberly believes that teens are likely to make poor decisions about sexual activity. This is an example of: deductive logic. Lesson: 4 Generally speaking, the best time to begin the literature review associated with a specific research project is: before or during the formulation of the research problem. If you want to find information about books available in your local library, _ will probably be your best resource.: the library catalog. If you want to conduct a keyword or author search of research reports published in professional journals, _ will probably be your best resource.: an online database If you want to find statistics on health care spending broken down by state, __ will probably be your best resource.: government publications. If an important reference you want to include in your literature review is checked out to another library patron, you might: obtain it through interlibrary loan.& obtain it by asking the library to recall the reference. If an important recent research article that you want to include in your literature review is not owned by your library, you might: obtain it through an online document delivery service. If an important book that you want to include in your literature review is not owned by your library, your best move would probably be to: obtain it through interlibrary loan. _ is an example of a search engine.: Altavista

_is an example of an electronic database.: ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) Jane wants to search for information about the variety of attention disorders that are seen in childhood. Which of the following sets of keywords would best get Jane started on an effective and efficient search?: “ADHD,” “ADD,” and “children” If a researcher has completed a thorough search of the World Wide Web: it may also be fruitful to search an electronic database. The main purpose of the review of the literature is to: show how your study is related to, and extends, other work in the area. A well-structured literature review: begins with broad/general information, then narrows the focus to those studies most closely related to the research problem. The review of the literature can be curtailed when: you are no longer encountering new ideas or information. A well-written literature review: emphasizes critique and synthesis of the work of others that is related to your own research problem Typically, the literature review should: emphasize how the studies being reviewed are related to the research problem under consideration.

Lesson:6 According to the textbook, the most effective research proposals: are detailed and straightforward explanations of the research problem and methodology A proposal for a quantitative study typically includes these elements in this order:: a statement of the problem, a review of the literature, an explanation of the means for collecting data, a description of how the study will be conducted.

A proposal for a qualitative study typically includes these elements in this order: a statement of the purpose of the study and its guiding questions, an explanation of theoretical and methodological grounding, an explanation of how the findings will fit with the larger literature, a management plan. Proposals for _ studies include a methodology section.: qualitative & quantitative In _ research proposal(s), the review of literature comes late in the document in conjunction with interpretation of data: a qualitative . In _ research proposal(s), a specific research problem is clearly stated at the outset of the proposal.: both quantitative and qualitative In _ research proposal(s), a specific plan for how the data will be handled is clearly laid out in the document.:both quantitative and qualitative In _research proposal(s), specific hypotheses regarding findings are often stated.:a quantitative In regard to the style you will use for headings and subheadings in the research proposal: disciplines often dictate the use of specific formal styles, so you must find out what the expectations are. Experienced writers of research proposals typically: plan to make revisions to the first draft of the proposal. When writing the proposal, you should assume that the reader:knows nothing about the proposed project, so all the details must be thoroughly explained. When explaining how the data are to be analyzed and interpreted:it is best to be as detailed as possible so all contingencies related to analysis and interpretation can be anticipated. Research proposals that _ are commonly judged to be of higher quality than proposals that do not.: favor straightforward vocabulary.

Three of the following are elements in the proposal revision process. Which one is NOT?: Avoid breaks of 24 hours or more as the material will get too “cold” in your mind. The research proposal is best thought of as: a detailed and firm contract between the researcher and others who are involved in the research project (participants, supervisors, funding agencies, etc.).

Lesson 8 Historical research is chiefly concerned with:the meaning of past events. Historical research may include: both qualitative and quantitative methods. To a historical researcher studying the lives of women pioneers in the late 1880s, letters written by Rebecca Adams, a pioneer woman on the Nebraska plains, to her sister in Philadelphia represent: primary data. To a historical researcher studying the lives of women pioneers in the late 1880s, letters written by Deloris Adams of Philadelphia, describing the life of her sister, Rebecca Adams, a pioneer woman on the Nebraska plains, represent: secondary data. Professor McGrath is studying the history of African Americans in Oklahoma. Three of the following are primary data sources for Professor McGrath. Which one is NOT?:Articles from the Taft newspaper published in the late 19th century In historical research, bias:can be used as an advantage to the researcher. In regard to bias in historical research, the researcher: must be vigilant in regard to bias in both primary and secondary data.

Perry Prose is in possession of a letter allegedly written by President Theodore Roosevelt during his time in office. He has taken the letter to a number of experts, who have examined the paper, ink, handwriting, and content of the letter in an attempt to establish its authenticity. Dr. Prose is attempting to establish ______ regarding the validity of the letter.: external evidence Fran Freedom is trying to determine what the phrase “with liberty and justice for all” from the Pledge of Allegiance meant at the time it was penned. She suspects there were actually some limits on “all.” Dr. Freedom is attempting to establish _ regarding the validity of the letter.:internal evidence The information to the right is an example of:a chronology. _ is/are an appropriate focus of historical research.: Concepts &Ideas & People Historical researchers can count on authoritative sources such as the Anglo-Saxon Chronology or the Cambridge Ancient History as accurate and complete accounts of history.:False In writing a historical research report, it is best to:point out the weaknesses in the arguments or assertions you are making. A historical research report may differ from other research reports in that presentation of data and interpretation of data:may be intertwined in a flowing narrative style.

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