Income, Poverty, and

Health Insurance Coverage in
the United States: 2010

Issued September 2011

P60-239

6
1.4
1.6
0.6
1

2 63,6

By
Carmen DeNavas-2
W6a,l1
t 60 64
Bernadette D. Proctor
,
5
3
0
2
6,69
91
Jessica C. S m i t h

Current Population Reports

17.1

12.6
C o0n.7sumer

Income

49 41,25
59 26,89
9

9.2

1.2

0

7.5

1.1

1.0 1

7.6

1.3 * 1.1 11.8

6.7

1.9 * 1.5

9

59,925 40,89
98 27,0
8,979 57,555 40,20
07 2

9.2 0.7
7

0.9

0.7 10.0

1.0
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1.5

1.2 12.7

1.2
2 11.4

.4

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,42
21 19,890 57,783 38,78
89
35,,316 20,538 58,155 39,79
9

1.3

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35 21,977 58,865 39,8

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1.1

6 * 1.2 13.2

1.3
3 12.7

1.4

1

37,,77
73 22,425 59,369 39

0.7 15.2

0.8
8 15.4

0.9

1

37,,913 22,561 59,506

0.9

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9.8 1.1
1

9.8

1.2

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1 10.2

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50 23,355 58

5.6

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1.4

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39,,47
79 23,221

39,,92
23 23,100 57,861
41,,19
95 23,330 56,6

9 27,77
79 71,6
61

1.2
2

1.0 18.8

1.7

79
92 27,79
98 69,8
85

1.7
7

1.3 14.1

0.7 1

9,84
43 28,20
03 70,7
78
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43 27,99
95 71,52
2
6 38,90
00 27,99
95 71,9
96
861 38,76
68 27,69
91 71,4
42
6,6
633 38,53
31 28,42
21 73,7
76

1.9
9 * 1.4 12.9

1.0 13

0.7
7 * 0.6 12.4

1.2 11.7

1.2
2

0.9 10.8

0.8 11.0

1.1
1

1.0 14.3

1.3 13.9

1.3
3 * 1.1 11.8

1.2 11.7

1.9
9 * 1.5
0.9
9

58,7
754 39,52
21 29,30
09 74,16
6
1 58,8
818 40,90
06 29,93
31 73 1

9.2 0.7

1.

9.0

0.7

0.7 10.0

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1.2

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1.2 11.4

1.3

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70
02 60,1
193 41,24
49 29,82
29

2

3,70
08 58,9
922 40,86
61
24,66
61 59,4
441 40
24,47
74 59 66
12 24,312

13

9.2

1.1

9.6

1.3 12.7

1.4

13.8

8 15.4

0.9

15.2

7

1.0

9.1

1.3

2

9.9

1.3
3

81

1.2
2

1

1.4
4

0,213 2
39
U.S. Department of Commerce
Economics and Statistics Administration
U.S. CENSUS BUREAU

Acknowledgments
Carmen DeNavas-Walt, with the assistance of Jessica L. Semega and
Melissa A. Stringfellow, prepared the income section of this report
under the direction of Edward J. Welniak, Jr., Chief of the Income
Statistics Branch. Bernadette D. Proctor prepared the poverty section
under the direction of Trudi J. Renwick, Chief of the Poverty Statistics
Branch. Jessica C. Smith prepared the health insurance coverage
section under the direction of Brett O’Hara, Chief of the Health and
Disability Statistics Branch. Charles T. Nelson, Assistant Division Chief
for Economic Characteristics, and Jennifer Cheeseman Day, Assistant
Division Chief for Employment Characteristics, both of the Social,
Economic, and Housing Statistics Division, provided overall direction.
A special thanks to Matthew Brault and Ashley N. Edwards for developing a new replicate weight statistical testing tool and to Kevin McGee
for testing all poverty estimates for statistical significance using replicate
weights.
David E. Adams, George M. Mitcham, Tim J. Marshall, and
Gregory D. Weyland, Demographic Surveys Division, processed the
Current Population Survey 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplement
file. Donna K. Benton, Christopher J. Boniface, Kirk E. Davis,
and Thy K. Le, programmed and produced the detailed and publication tables under the direction of Hung X. Pham, Chief of the Survey
Processing Branch.
Danielle N. Castelo, Rebecca A. Hoop, and Matthew R. Herbstritt,
under the supervision of David V. Hornick and Kimball T. Jonas,
all of the Demographic Statistical Methods Division, conducted sample
review. Anne T. Kearney, Chief of the Health Surveys and Supplements
Branch, provided overall direction.
Lisa Clement, Tim J. Marshall, and Lisa Paska, Demographic
Surveys Division, and Roberto Picha and Agatha Jung, Technologies
Management Office, prepared and programmed the computer-assisted
interviewing instrument used to conduct the Annual Social and Economic
Supplement.
Additional people within the U.S. Census Bureau also made significant
contributions to the preparation of this report. Willow Burns, Laryssa
Mykyta, John Hisnanick, Len Norry, Judith Waldrop, and Bruce H.
Webster reviewed the contents.
Census Bureau field representatives and telephone interviewers collected
the data. Without their dedication, the preparation of this report or any
report from the Current Population Survey would be impossible.
Linda Chen, Donna Gillis, Janet S. Sweeney, Jamie A. Stark, and
Donald J. Meyd, of the Administrative and Customer Services Division,
Francis Grailand Hall, Chief, provided publications and printing management, graphics design and composition, and editorial review for print
and electronic media. General direction and production management
were provided by Claudette E. Bennett, Assistant Division Chief.

Income, Poverty, and Health
Insurance Coverage in the
United States: 2010

Issued September 2011
P60-239

U.S. Department of Commerce
Rebecca M. Blank,
Acting Secretary
Vacant,
Deputy Secretary
Economics and Statistics Administration
Rebecca M. Blank,
Under Secretary for Economic Affairs
U.S. CENSUS BUREAU
Robert M. Groves,
Director

DC. Mesenbourg. Director Thomas L.S. Bernadette D.Suggested Citation DeNavas-Walt. Income. Social. and Jessica C. Poverty.S. Carmen. Economic. Groves. Blank. Deputy Director and Chief Operating Officer Howard Hogan. 2011. Acting Associate Director for Demographic Programs David S. and Housing Statistics Division . U. Government Printing Office. Chief.S. Washington. Proctor. Smith. U. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010. Current Population Reports. Under Secretary for Economic Affairs U. P60-239. Johnson. CENSUS BUREAU Robert M. Census Bureau. ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS ADMINISTRATION Economics and Statistics Administration Rebecca M.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 14 14 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 20 21 22 22 22 Health Insurance Coverage in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Highlights . . . . . . .Contents TEXT Income. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Families . . . . . . . . Region . State and Local Estimates of Income. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Economic Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Children’s Health Insurance Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Highlights . . . . . . . 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 25 27 27 28 28 28 28 Income. . . . . . . Nativity . . 5 5 5 5 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 12 Poverty in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CPS Table Creator II . Poverty in the First Year After a Recession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Doubled-Up Households . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health Insurance in the First Year After a Recession . . . . . . . . . . . National Academy of Sciences (NAS)-Based Measures . . . . . . . . . . Disability Status of Householder . . . . . . . . . . . . . Income Inequality . . . . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Source of Estimates and Statistical Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Type of Household . . . . . . . . . Equivalence-Adjusted Income Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . Residence . . . . . . Disability Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Census Bureau 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 Income in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Income Deficit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternative/Experimental Poverty Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disability in the Current Population Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ratio of Income to Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depth of Poverty . . . Nativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work Experience . . . . . . . . . Work Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poverty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Health Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Age of Householder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Region . . . . . . . . . . . . Poverty. . . . Disability Status . . . Household Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race and Hispanic Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poverty. . . Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Type of Coverage . . . . . . Supplemental Poverty Measure . . Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race and Hispanic Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dynamics of Economic Well-Being . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work Experience and Earnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race and Hispanic Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What Is Health Insurance Coverage? . . . . Residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . People and Families in Poverty by Selected Characteristics: 2009 and 2010. . . . 13 4. Additional Data and Contacts. . 21 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. . . . 11 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Census Bureau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Change in Poverty During First Year After a Recession: 1961 to 2010 . . . . . 15 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Demographic Makeup of the Population at Varying Degrees of Poverty: 2010 . . . . . . . 24 iv Income. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 9. . Total and Full-Time. 19 7. . . . . . . . . Coverage by Type of Health Insurance: 2009 and 2010. . . . . . . . . . .Comments. People Without Health Insurance Coverage by Selected Characteristics: 2009 and 2010. . . . . . 28 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Income Deficit or Surplus of Families and Unrelated Individuals by Poverty Status:   2010. . . . . . . . . . . Household Income. Number Uninsured and Uninsured Rate: 1987 to 2010 . . . . Race and Hispanic   Origin. . . . . . . . . . . . . Year-Round Workers With Earnings by Sex: 1967 to 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U. . . . . . Age. . . . . . . . . 14 5. . . . . . . . . . . . Female-to-Male Earnings Ratio and Median Earnings of Full-Time. . . . 29 29 TEXT TABLES 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Income Distribution Measures Using Money Income and Equivalence-Adjusted Income: 2009 and 2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Year-Round Workers 15 Years and Older by Sex: 1960 to 2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. 20 7. . . . . . . . . .S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . People With Income Below Specified Ratios of Their Poverty Threshold by Selected Characteristics: 2010 . . . . . . . and Nativity: 2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number in Poverty and Poverty Rate: 1959 to 2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poverty. 29 FIGURES 1. . . . . . . . Uninsured Children by Poverty Status. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Income and Earnings Summary Measures by Selected Characteristics: 2009 and 2010. . . Poverty Rates by Age: 1959 to 2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 8. . Change in the Number and Percent of People Without Health Insurance During First Year   After a Recession: 1991 to 2010. . . . . . . Real Median Household Income by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1967 to 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Change in Real Median Household Income and Earnings and Number of Workers by Work Experience During First Calendar Year After a Recession: 1970 to 2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . 87 32 32 61 61 APPENDIX TABLES A-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . Income and Earnings Summary Measures by Selected Characteristics: 2007 and 2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annual Average Consumer Price Index Research Series (CPI-U-RS) Using Current Methods   All Items: 1947 to 2010 . . . . and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . National surveys and health insurance coverage. . . . . . . . . . 41 A-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race. . . . . . . . . . . . . Year-Round   Workers by Sex and Female-to-Male Earnings Ratio: 1960 to 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Census Bureau Income. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Households by Total Money Income. . Reporting of coverage through major federal health insurance programs. . . . 52 B-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number of Workers With Earnings and Median Earnings by Work Experience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 U. . . . . . . . . . . . . Poverty Thresholds for 2010 by Size of Family and Number of Related Children   Under 18 Years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number and Real Median Earnings of Total Workers and Full-Time. . . . . . . . . . . . Enhancements in 2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sex. Race. . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 A-2. . . . . . . . . . . Estimates of Health Insurance Coverage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 A-6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How Poverty Is Calculated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship. 74 C-1. . . . . . . How Income Is Measured . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1999 to 2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selected Measures of Equivalence-Adjusted Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2010 . . . . . Health Insurance Coverage: 1987 to 2010 . . . . . Weighted Average Poverty Thresholds in 2010 by Size of Family. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health Insurance Coverage by Age: 1999 to 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . Replicate Weights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poverty Status of People by Age. . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 A-3. . . . . . . Quality of Health Insurance Coverage Estimates. . . . . . . . . . . Poverty. . . . . .   and Selected Characteristics: 2002 to 2010. . . . . . . Estimates of Income . . . Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 31 31 Appendix B. . . . . . . . . Estimates of Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cost-of-Living Adjustment. 46 A-5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recessions . . 62 B-2. . . . . . . 68 B-3. . . . . . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . by Type of Family: 1959 to 2010 . . . 61 61 Appendix C. . . . . . . . . . . . . and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . 75 75 75 75 76 Appendix D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 C-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 C-3. . . . . . . .APPENDIXES Appendix A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poverty Status of Families. and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

census.S. island areas include American Samoa.census. and nursing homes. such as prisons. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 INTRODUCTION This report presents data on income. see <www. the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 1 . Students living in dormitories are only included in the estimates if information about them is reported in an interview at their parents’ home.Income. The adjustment is based on percentage changes in prices between 2010 and earlier years and is computed by dividing the annual average Consumer Price Index Research Series (CPI-U-RS) for 2010 by the annual average for earlier years. emigration. are not eligible to be interviewed in the CPS.7 percent. deaths. and Hispanic origin for March 2011. Consumer prices between 2009 and 2010 increased by 1. The data do not represent residents of Puerto Rico and U. and tables) are based on responses from a sample of the population and may differ from actual values because of sampling variability or other factors. For example. • The number of people without health insurance increased between 2009 and 2010.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. The CPS is a household survey primarily used to collect employment data.000 addresses. real median household income declined for Whites and Blacks. The estimates in this report are controlled to independent national population estimates by age. between 2009 and 2010.pdf>. In this report. island areas. U. As a result. Poverty. The sample universe for the CPS ASEC is slightly larger than that of the basic CPS since it includes military personnel who live in a household with at least one other civilian adult. * U.census. long-term care hospitals. All other Armed Forces are excluded.gov/hhes/www /income/data/incpovhlth/2010/p60no239 _appacpitable. Poverty.pdf>. Income. while the 2010 uninsured rate was not statistically different from the 2009 uninsured rate. All comparative statements have undergone statistical testing and are significant at the 90 percent confidence level unless otherwise noted. and immigration. figures. People in institutions.* The data are based on a sample of about 100. while the changes for Asians and Hispanics were not statistically 1 “Real” refers to income after adjusting for inflation. and health insurance coverage in the United States based on information collected in the 2011 and earlier Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplements (CPS ASEC) conducted by the U. The estimates in this report (which may be shown in text. The sample universe for the basic CPS consists of the resident civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States. Census Bureau Source of Estimates and Statistical Accuracy The data in this report are from the 2011 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement (CPS ASEC) and were collected in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. These results were not uniform across groups.S.S. sex. The CPI-U-RS values for 1947 to 2010 are available in Appendix A and on the Internet at <www. The population controls used to prepare estimates for 1999 to 2010 were based on the results from Census 2000 and are updated annually using administrative records for such things as births. Most of the data from the CPS ASEC were collected in March (with some data collected in February and April). All income values are adjusted to reflect 2010 dollars. apparent differences between the estimates for two or more groups may not be statistically significant. Summary of findings: • Real median household income declined between 2009 and 2010.) Further information about the source and ­accuracy of the estimates is available at <www. poverty.pdf>. the variances of estimates were calculated using both the Successive Difference Replication (SDR) method and the Generalized Variance Function (GVF) approach.S. regardless of whether they live off post or on post. and the Virgin Islands of the United States.gov/hhes/www /p60_239sa. Guam. (See Appendix D for a more extensive discussion of this change. race. For further documentation about the CPS ASEC. Census Bureau.1 • The poverty rate increased between 2009 and 2010.

S. Medicare. while the change in the number of unin2 Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race.bls.S. 3. and health insurance coverage of children. to develop a new measure designed to obtain U. The Census Bureau plans to publish preliminary poverty estimates using the new approach in October 2011. the new measure will serve as an additional indicator of economic well-being and will provide a deeper understanding of economic conditions and policy effects. and tables) shows data using the first approach (race alone).1 percent of Black householders who reported only one race. estimates poverty rates by looking at a family’s or an individual’s cash income. Thresholds used in the new measure will be derived from Consumer Expenditure Survey expenditure data on basic necessities (food. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 Since the publication of the first official U. The official poverty measure. Recognizing that alternative estimates of income and poverty can provide useful information to the public as well as to the federal government. The Census Bureau’s statistical experts. The American Community Survey (ACS).S. data in this report for Hispanics overlap with data for race groups. Office of Management and Budget’s (OMB) Chief Statistician formed the Interagency Technical Working Group on Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure. the number of householders is equal to the number of households. Being Hispanic was reported by 13. If a married couple owns the home jointly. the Economics and Statistics Administration. Data users should exercise caution when interpreting aggregate results for the Hispanic population or for race groups because these populations consist of many distinct groups that differ in socioeconomic characteristics. sured was not statistically different from 2009 estimates.9 percent of Asian householders who reported only one race. Supplemental Poverty Measure In 2010. is a better source for estimating and identifying changes for small subgroups of the population. the U. which has been in use since the 1960s. there has been a continuing debate about the best approach to measuring income and poverty in the United States. the rate and number of uninsured increased for Asians. we are unable to detect statistically significant changes from the previous year.gov/cps/ads/adsmain .census. Census Bureau . will be responsible for the measure’s technical design. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Each section presents estimates by characteristics such as race. see <www. Medicaid. either the husband or the wife may be listed as the householder. A group such as Asian may be defined as those who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or single-race concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they also reported another race (the race-aloneor-in-combination concept). the Council of Economic Advisers. Hispanic origin. The small sample size of the Asian population and the fact that the CPS does not use separate population controls for weighting the Asian sample to national totals contribute to the large variances surrounding estimates for this group.gov/hhes/www/poverty/SPM_TWGObservations. The new thresholds are not intended to assess eligibility for government programs. and utilities) and will be adjusted for geographic differences in the cost of housing. culture. two basic ways of defining a race group are possible. and recency of immigration. Instead. nativity. figures. Therefore. family poverty rates. Among Hispanics. such as nutritional assistance. and improvements to the statistic are expected over time. and employer-provided fringe benefits. Their suggestions drew on the recommendations of a 1995 National Academy of Sciences report and the extensive research on ­poverty measurement conducted over the past 15 years. In this report. Use of the single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. and health insurance coverage. The Supplemental Poverty Measure is considered a work in progress.2 percent of White householders who reported only one race. The income and poverty estimates shown in this report are based solely on money income before taxes and do not include the value of noncash benefits. The body of this report (text. and Hispanics while the change for Asians was not statistically significant. 2 Income. while the changes for non-Hispanic Whites and for Blacks were not statistically significant. Since only one person in each household is designated as the householder. public housing. and region. This report uses the characteristics of the householder to describe the household.significant.2 Poverty rates increased for non-Hispanic Whites. Data were first collected for Hispanics in 1972 and for Asians and Pacific Islanders in 1987.htm>.pdf>. the uninsured rate decreased. The householder is the person (or one of the people) in whose name the home is owned or rented and the person to whom the relationship of other household members is recorded. For health insurance. and 1. The appendix tables show data using both approaches.S. and the Office of Management and Budget) issued a series of suggestions to the Census Bureau and BLS on how to develop a Supplemental Poverty Measure. Other topics covered are earnings. with assistance from the BLS and in consultation with other appropriate agencies and outside experts. based on a much larger sample size of the population. an interagency technical working group (which included ­representatives from the Bureau of Labor Statistics [BLS]. the U. Blacks. incorporating additional items such as tax payments and work expenses in its family resource estimates. the term “non-Hispanic White” refers to people who are not Hispanic and who reported White and no other race.census . the Census Bureau. For further information. clothing. Since Hispanics may be any race. Poverty. This group asked the Census Bureau. Additional details can be found at <www. The Supplemental Poverty Measure will be a more complex statistic. poverty estimates in 1964. Department of Health and Human Services. This means that for some estimates for the Asian population. poverty. These results are discussed in more detail in the three main sections of this report— income. shelter. in cooperation with the U. The Census Bureau uses non-Hispanic Whites as the comparison group for other race groups and Hispanics.S.

In general. and Health Insurance The U. The SAHIE program released 2007 estimates of health insurance coverage by age.000 or more by pooling 3 years of data.census. sex. poverty. intercensal population estimates. including census tracts and block groups.000 or more. administrative records. (Since questions on health insurance coverage were added to the ACS in 2008. and housing topics and provides this information at many levels of geography. Estimates derived from SIPP data answer questions such as: • What percentage of households move up or down the income distribution over time? • How many people remain in ­poverty over time? • How long do people without health insurance tend to remain uninsured? The text box “Dynamics of Economic Well-Being” provides more information about the SIPP. Longitudinal measures of income. The key purpose of the CPS ASEC is to provide timely and detailed estimates of income. Estimates for 2009 are available at <www. These estimates are available at <www. comprehensive information on social. race. or household.gov/did/www /saipe/index. Single-year estimates are available for geographic units with populations of 65.html>. Estimates for 2010 will be available later this year. Hispanic origin. and income categories at the county level in 2010. These estimates are based on models using data from a variety of sources. 3-year estimates for health insurance coverage will be available by the end of 2011. and Health Insurance. and other economic characteristics at the state level can be found in forthcoming briefs based on data from the 2010 ACS. the 2010 Census program and has eliminated the need for a long-form census questionnaire. health insurance coverage. Poverty. and personal income data published by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. Census Bureau earnings. sex.S. The ACS is part of The CPS ASEC provides reliable estimates of the net change. Since the CPS ASEC produces more complete and thorough estimates of income and poverty. as well as population and poverty estimates for school districts. Poverty. but it does not show how those characteristics change for the same person. The text box “Supplemental Poverty Measure” provides more information about this initiative. The CPS ASEC is the official source of the national poverty estimates calculated in accordance with the OMB’s Statistical Policy Directive 14 (Appendix B). and income categories at the state level and by age. SAIPE estimates have lower variances than ACS estimates but are released later because they incorporate ACS data in the models. For more information on state and local estimates. poverty. and health insurance coverage by state and other smaller geographic units based on data collected in the American Community Survey (ACS). in the overall distribution of economic characteristics of the population.) The Census Bureau’s Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) program also produces single-year estimates of median household income and poverty for states and all counties. from one year to the next. The CPS is the longest-running survey conducted by the Census Bureau. The Census Bureau’s Small Area Health Insurance Estimates (SAHIE) program produces model-based estimates of health insurance coverage rates for states and counties. Income. SAHIE estimates for 2008 and 2009 will be available later this year. and health insurance coverage estimates based on data from the American Community Survey (ACS). see the text box “State and Local Estimates of Income. an improved understanding of the economic well-being of American families and how federal policies affect those living in poverty.html>. The ACS also produces estimates of income and poverty for counties and places with populations of 20. Poverty.S. poverty. poverty. Five-year health insurance coverage estimates for the smallest geographic units will be available in 2013. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 3 . poverty. economic.” The Census Bureau also reports income. Five-year income and poverty estimates are available for all geographic units.census. such as income and U.State and Local Estimates of Income. and health insurance coverage that are based on following the same people over time are available from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Census Bureau presents annual estimates of median household income. The CPS ASEC asks detailed questions categorizing income into over 50 sources. The ACS offers broad. the Census Bureau recommends that people use it as the data source for national estimates. and health insurance coverage and to measure change in those estimates at the national level.gov/did/www/sahie /index. including current surveys. family. Estimates for income.

(5) dressing or bathing.access.* Six questions were added to the survey which asked whether any civilians aged 15 and older in the household had difficulty: (1) hearing.cgi?dbname=1998_register&docid=fr18mr98-141. 4 Income. see <www. Some specific findings from the 2004 and 2008 panels include: •• The proportion of households in the bottom quintile in 2004 that moved up to a higher quintile in 2007 (30. Bureau of Labor Statistics began asking Current Population Survey respondents about their disability status in order to produce monthly employment statistics in accordance with Executive Order 13078. *The 2004 SIPP panel collected data from February 2004 through January 2008. Disability in the Current Population Survey In June 2008. •• In 2009.9 percent) was not statistically different from the proportion of households in the top quintile in 2004 that moved to a lower quintile in 2007 (32.S.census. •• Households with householders who had lower levels of education were more likely to remain in or move into a lower quintile than households whose householders had higher levels of education.3 percent of the population were in poverty every month in 2009. For more information. Census Bureau is in the processs of reengineering the SIPP.. and health insurance coverage of individuals. See the SIPP Web site for details <www.Dynamics of Economic Well-Being The Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) provides monthly data about labor force participation. 4 years) yields.g. income sources and amounts. residents.S. •• Approximately 31. and households during the time span covered by each of its panels. *See <frwebgate. If respondents reported having any one of the six difficulty types. the American Housing Survey (AHS).census. More information based on these data is available in a series of reports titled the Dynamics of Economic Well-Being.gov/sipp>. Data are also available from the 2008 SIPP panel.1 percent of the population experienced a poverty spell lasting 2 or more months during 2009. 26. The U.2 percent).gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.pdf> for details. or making decisions. (3) remembering. and other national household surveys.S.. the data demonstrate that using a longer time frame to measure poverty (e.sipp.html>.gov/sipp>. •• Chronic poverty was relatively uncommon.sipp. For more information see <www. These six types and their combination as a collective disability measure are consistent with definitions of disability used in the American Community Survey (ACS). concentrating. (2) seeing. 2 months) yields higher poverty rates.census. Census Bureau . The data yield insights into the dynamic nature of these experiences and the economic mobility of U. with 2. a lower poverty rate than the annual measures presented in this report. they were considered to have a disability. The data are currently available to download. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U.g. (4) walking or climbing stairs.gov/hhes/www/poverty /data/sipp/index. the U. (6) doing errands alone such as shopping or going to a doctor’s visit. The redesigned survey is expected to reduce respondent burden and attrition and to deliver data on a timely basis while addressing the same topic areas of the earlier SIPP panels. Poverty. •• More recent data from the 2008 panel show that 23. and around 7.* For example.6 percent of the population had at least one spell of poverty lasting 2 or more months during the 4-year period from 2004 to 2007.1 percent of all people experienced at least 1 month without health insurance coverage. as well as in table packages and working papers.S. families.gpo. while using a shorter time frame (e. on average.2 percent of the population living in poverty all 48 months from 2004 to 2007.

The real median income of native-born households declined between 2009 and 2010. • Since 2007. Business cycle peaks and troughs used to delineate the beginning and end of recessions are determined by the National Bureau of Economic Research.4 Highlights • Real median household income was $49.5 percent were native born.INCOME IN THE UNITED STATES change in the median income of foreign-born households was not statistically significant (Table 1). 86. or the Virgin Islands of the United States or was born in a foreign country but had at least one parent who was a U.77. a 2. Household Income Real median household income was $49. The income of family households declined by 1. as well as in the first year following three other recessions (March 2001 to November 2001.823) and is 7.544.S. The change in median household income in the Northeast was not statistically significant (Table 1).3 percent decline from 2009 (Table 1). • Household income increased the first full year following the November 1973 to March 1975 recession. All other households are considered foreign born regardless of the date of entry into the United States or citizenship status. • Changes in the shares of aggregate household income by quintiles indicated an increase in income inequality between 2009 and 2010. see “What Are Shares of Aggregate Household Income and a Gini Index?” in Bishaw.1 percent below the median household income peak ($53.544. while the change in the Gini index was not statistically significant (Table 3 and Table A-3).252) that occurred in 1999 (Figure 1 and Tables A-1 and A-2). and December 1969 to November 1970) (Table 2).0 percent were foreign-born.S.pdf>. the income of nonfamily households declined by 3. U. • The change in household income was not statistically significant following the two recessions of July 1990 to March 1991 and July 1981 to November 1982 (Table 2).S. Puerto Rico.S. <www. Earnings. the number of men working full time. 4 Native-born households are those in which the householder was born in the United States. nonfamily household income declined by 3.5 • Changes between 2009 and 2010 in the real median earnings of men and women. U. or the U.3 • • • • Both family and nonfamily households had declines in real median income between 2009 and 2010. real median household income has declined 6. Comparing percentage changes in real median household income that occurred during the first calendar year following this recession and the previous six recessions shows that:7 • Median household income declined the first full year following the December 2007 to June 2009 recession.gov/prod/2008pubs /acs-09. Income. Income.2 percent to $61. while the changes for Asian and Hispanic-origin households were not statistically significant (Table 1). South. the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. were not statistically significant. a private research organization. ACS-09. and West experienced declines in real median household income between 2009 and 2010.9 percent to $29. Census Bureau • The Midwest. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 5 . not statistically different from the 2009 ratio (Table 1 and Figure 2).6 million and the number of women working full time. See Appendix A for more information. naturalized citizens. 7 Recessions are analyzed back to 1967. The CPS does not interview households in Puerto Rico.census. and 6. The difference between the 1999 and 2007 median household incomes was not statistically significant. American Community Survey Reports. Real median household income for each race and Hispanic-origin group has not yet recovered to the pre-2001 recession all-time highs (Table A-1). and Poverty Data From the 2007 American Community Survey. In 2010. Alemayehu and Jessica Semega.6 The year 2010 was the first full calendar year after the December 2007 to June 2009 recession. island areas of Guam.445 in 2010. Of all householders.2 percent to $61. median household income has declined 6.9 percent to $29. Since 2007. citizen. Real median income declined for White and Black households between 2009 and 2010. a 2. Family household income declined by 1. the femaleto-male earnings ratio was 0. Census Bureau.4 percent and is 7. • Since 2007.3 percent decline from 2009 (Figure 1 and Table 1). the year before the most recent recession. Type of Household Median income declined for both family and nonfamily households between 2009 and 2010.4 percent (from $52. aged 15 and older who worked full time. 5 For a discussion of these two income measures. August 2008. 7. year round with earnings decreased by 6. American Samoa. Among family 6 The difference between the 2007 to 2010 and 1999 to 2010 percentage changes was not statistically significant.730 (Table 1).5 percent were noncitizens. January 1980 to July 1980. year round with earnings decreased by 2. the first year household income data are available.8 million (Figure 3 and Tables A-1 and A-5).1 percent below the median household income peak that occurred in 1999 (Figure 1 and Tables A-1 and A-2).730 (Table 1). year round. The 3 The difference between the 2007 to 2010 and 1999 to 2010 percentage changes was not statistically significant. Poverty.445 in 2010.

3 1. . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U.257 21.751 32.144 83.3 0. . .1 Type of Household Family households������������������������������������������������������   Married-couple��������������������������������������������������������   Female householder.793 19.029 96.2 1.039 760 849 99. Census Bureau . .686 37.061 8.888 55.7 1.3 2.648 52. .287 425 1.0 Disability Status of Householder3 Residence Inside metropolitan statistical areas ��������������������������   Inside principal cities����������������������������������������������   Outside principal cities�������������������������������������������� Outside metropolitan statistical areas4 ����������������������     See footnotes at end of table.722 1.988 530 1.878 30.2 2.276 28.295 57. .419 83.410 14. .2 *–2.370 21.559 40.585 985 *–1.9 4.772 882 861 1.234 18.489 83.445 45.368 54.7 –1.263 62. sampling error.682 49.276 73.442 18. no husband present��������������   Male householder.9 –0.9 –0. .362 55.270 56. .8 0.244 44. .4 *–3. Poverty.472 59.669 44.069 21.142 1.322 50.872 528 1.843 5. .642 36.308 37. .620 32.479 26.6 4.685 426 1. .gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. .572 21.301 –1.644 62.850 59. .485 56.529 19.730 25.8 1. . .250 24.4 2.784 27. .288 43. .9 4.283 48.833 58.373 45.5 0. .158 14.271 1.2 2.3 98.747 13.028 62.4 *–2.360 33.390 43.pdf) 2009 Median income (dollars) Characteristic Percentage change in real median income (2010 less 2009) 2010 Median income (dollars) 90 percent 90 percent 90 percent Number Number confidence confidence confidence (thousands) Estimate interval1 (±) (thousands) Estimate interval1 (±) Estimate interval1 (±) HOUSEHOLDS         All households ������������������������������������������ 117.421 806 825 1. .759 415 725 814 2.9 *–4. .058 53.871 20. .216 684 986 *–2.2 2.597 26. see www.2 –3.2 –0. . .544 72.3 –1.233 19.431 999 831 1. .4 –1.9 5.3 0.7 *–4.717 55.730 4.3 –2.947 25.016 33.684 46. . .3 Age of Householder Under 65 years ����������������������������������������������������������   15 to 24 years ��������������������������������������������������������   25 to 34 years ��������������������������������������������������������   35 to 44 years ��������������������������������������������������������   45 to 54 years ��������������������������������������������������������   55 to 64 years �������������������������������������������������������� 65 years and older������������������������������������������������������ 92.758 50.408 533 1. .0 –0.127 1. . and definitions. .914 31. . . .2 *–3. nonsampling error.0 2.036 15.550 38.337 44.550 58.081 749 93. .Table 1. not Hispanic ������������������������������������������������ Black �������������������������������������������������������������������������� Asian �������������������������������������������������������������������������� Hispanic (any race)���������������������������������������������������� 95.5 *–8.7 *–3. .387 25.846 54.1 1.665 51.538 50.240 51.268 6.036 8.920 59.100 564 *–2.census.445 534 *–2.031 49.159 52.065 4.059 61.798 426 1.516 40.337 25.266 39.149 716 *–2.456 35. .379 38.2 Households with householder aged 18 to 64 . .   Without disability .215 468 597 760 1.1 0.140 40.401 425 1.736 528 1.   With disability.469 902 *–2.687 13.828 25.705 20.5 *–2.3 *–3.544 576 615 772 *–1.298 52.1 3.599 560 118.5 3.157 56.049 56.122 66. .718 29. .742 31.6 *–9.750 52. .0 2.019 5. 6 Income.827 83.132 8.512 445 576 662 78. Income and Earnings Summary Measures by Selected Characteristics: 2009 and 2010 (Income in 2010 dollars. .036 799 723 1. . .3 Region Northeast�������������������������������������������������������������������� Midwest���������������������������������������������������������������������� South�������������������������������������������������������������������������� West �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 21. .155 613 93.2 3.575 31.492 53.5 2. .949 49.277 7.315 1.5 *–1.068 64.471 15.135 48. .667 412 767 923 2.3 *–1.611 26. 92.331 982 993 102.3 Nativity of Householder Native born ���������������������������������������������������������������� Foreign born ��������������������������������������������������������������   Naturalized citizen��������������������������������������������������   Not a citizen������������������������������������������������������������ 102. .519 24.835 61.4 Race2 and Hispanic Origin of Householder White��������������������������������������������������������������������������   White.S.647 16.0 –2. . no wife present ������������������������ Nonfamily households������������������������������������������������   Female householder ����������������������������������������������   Male householder �������������������������������������������������� 78. . .9 3. .9 *–2. Households and people as of March of the following year.417 51.8 1.1 2.7 2.254 53.714 1.8 2.7 2. .666 51.592 57.4 1.8 4.320 6. .4 –2.834 7.039 15.530 21.3 0.833 36.8 1. . .627 438 796 605 1.4 –0. . .580 38.091 65.140 19.3 1.613 58.499 7.161 26. For information on confidentiality protection.

. Prior years are based on the general variance function. . . Current Population Survey. .608 470 *1. . Statistical significance of the percentage change for 2009 to 2010 is based on standard errors calculated using replicate weights. . 4 The “Outside metropolitan statistical areas” category includes both micropolitan statistical areas and territory outside of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas. About 2. . Before 1989. Women with earnings .gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. .851 1. .pdf>. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 7 . . see www.gov/hhes /www/p60_239sa. . . . . . The use of the single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. .7 *–1. . *Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate. .412 42. 1 Business cycle peaks and troughs used to delineate the beginning and end of recessions are determined by the National Bureau of Economic Research. .pdf>. . . . . . . . . . .887 362 *1. . . . . Confidence intervals shown in this table are based on standard errors calculated using replicate weights instead of the general variance function used in the past. .031 37.277 –24 286 *1. .8 –2. . . . and those reporting two or more races are not shown separately in this table. . . .276 32. . . . 2010 and 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. . sampling error.213 * Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level. .538 *1.census. . . . . . Source: U. . November 1973 to March 1975 .1 0. . . . .1 –0.715 36. . . . Source: U. . . Census Bureau.S. . . 1971 to 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. .4 0. This table shows data using the first approach (race alone). . . . Disability Status Workers without disability. Information for people 15 years and older beginning with 1980 and people 14 years and older for previous years. YEAR-ROUND    WORKERS Men with earnings . .6 0. . .931 735 241 –0. . .1 *1. .5 *–2.census. . .3 *–1. A group such as Asian may be defined as those who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or single-race concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they also reported another race (the race-alone-or-in-combination concept). . . Women with earnings. Table 2. .7 *1.468 *2.217 47.905 36. . . . . . .4 –0.821 *1.census. . . . . . .993 365 230 54. . Census Bureau. . . . January 1980 to July 1980 . U. .Table 1.gov/hhes/www/p60_239sa. .504 1.028 814 237 – 0. . . . Poverty. . the less reliable the estimate. July 1990 to March 1991 . . and definitions. . . Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders. . nonsampling error.696 *995 *2. . . .4 *2. .1 1.053 43.html>. . . . . . . . Current Population Survey. . 1 A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate's variability. . . March 2001 to November 2001 . .pdf) 2009 Median income (dollars) Characteristic Percentage change in real median income (2010 less 2009) 2010 Median income (dollars) 90 percent 90 percent 90 percent confidence Number confidence Number confidence (thousands) Estimate interval1 (±) (thousands) Estimate interval1 (±) Estimate interval1 (±) EARNINGS OF FULL-TIME.085 41. . . . nonsampling error.4 0. . 56.213 41. . Census Bureau Income. . . . Median earnings of full-time.8 1.gov/population/www/estimates/aboutmetro. . age 15 and older3 Men with earnings .census. .4 0. .census.S. . .834 47. . . Income and Earnings Summary Measures by Selected Characteristics: 2009 and 2010—Con . . . . . Workers with disability. Information on people who reported more than one race. For information on confidentiality protection. . 3 The sum of those with and without a disability does not equal the total because disability status is not defined for individuals in the Armed Forces. . . . For more information. .7 *–1. See Appendix A for more information. a private research organization.pdf) Change in first calendar year after the recession ended First calendar year after the recession ended Median household income— percentage change 2010 2002 1992 1983 19812 1976 1971 *–2. (Income in 2010 dollars.692 *1. see “About Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas” at <www. .735 48. .3 0. . year-round workers –0.0 4. Households and people as of March of the following year. . . sampling error. age 15 and older3 Men with earnings . . December 1969 to November 1970. .7 *–1. .0 3. . . . the economy entered another recession in July 1981.1 *2. . such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American. . For more information.9 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2010. . For information on confidentiality protection. . . . .7 *1. . . Therefore. see “Standard Errors and Their Use” at <www. . . . . . . The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. . . Women with earnings. . .6 –0. .gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. .727 1. is available from Census 2010 through American FactFinder. .9 – Represents or rounds to zero.610 41. . yearround workers with earnings— percentage change Change in number of workers with earnings (thousands) Males Females All workers Full-time. . .028 972 –1. . and definitions. . . . .506 31. Change in Real Median Household Income and Earnings and Number of Workers by Work Experience During First Calendar Year After a Recession: 1970 to 2010 (Income/earnings in 2010 dollars. . .2 –0. .877 351 229 56. .053 36. . . . 2 Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. two basic ways of defining a race group are possible. . earnings are for civilian workers only. . 2 While 1981 was the first calendar year after the recession that ended in July 1980.648 1. Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives.S. see “Standard Errors and Their Use” at <www. .4 *1. . . .0 Recession1 December 2007 to June 2009 . . .412 42. . .175 963 1. . . . July 1981 to November 1982 .8 53. . . . For more information. . . . .1 1.8 –0.539 48. . see www.5 0.

3 percent.308 60.759 Hispanic (any race) $32.562 in 2000). In addition.1 percent lower for all races combined (from $53. Asian household income by 7.068 30.S.764. and Hispanic households were not statistically significant.562 income peak in 2000 was not statistically different from their 1999 median of $36. Real Median Household Income by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1967 to 2010 80. not Hispanic All races 40. the $57.S. real median household income has declined for all race and Hispanic-origin groups.8 Since 2007. a 2008 to 2009 change that was not statistically significant. The decline for Black households was 3. The changes for Asian and Hispanic-origin households were not The differences between the percentage decline for households maintained by a female compared with declines for family and nonfamily households were not statistically significant. For all races. U.6 percent lower for Blacks (from $37.000 $64. and 10.252 in 1999 was not statistically different from their 2000 median of $53. Black households have experienced three consecutive annual declines in income. Census Bureau. the difference between the declines for all race and Hispanic households was not statistically significant. Since 2007. Household income 10 Only the difference between the declines for non-Hispanic-White and Black households was statistically significant. Incomes of family households declined by 6. not statistically different from the 1.252 in 1999). the $41.337.000 Recession 2010 dollars 70.781 in 1999).521.000 Asian 50. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 in 2010 was 7. and the 2009 to 2010 decline.11 Black households experienced the largest household income percentage decline among the race and Hispanic origin groups (Table A-2).620 $49.Figure 1. 1968 to 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. 5.445 White. The income of family households maintained by a female with no spouse present declined by 3.000 $37.5 percent. non-Hispanic-White. the $37. 14.000 $54. For non-Hispanic Whites. For Blacks.000 0 1959 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Note: Median household income data are not available prior to 1967.2 percent (Table A-1). real median household income declined for family as well as nonfamily households.2 percent. For Hispanics. Source: U.781 income peak in 1999 was not statistically different from their 2000 median of $57.4 percent.9 percent lower for Asians (from $70.9 Race and Hispanic Origin Real median income declined for both White and Black households between 2009 and 2010 (Table 1 and Figure 1). whereas the experience of White households was mixed— a 2007 to 2008 decline.164. 8.3 percent (Table A-1).595 in 2000). 8 statistically significant. For information on recessions. Current Population Survey. Poverty.1 percent. households.994 in 2000). see Appendix A. Among the race groups.5 percent lower for nonHispanic Whites (from $57.1 percent and of nonfamily households by 6. Census Bureau . the change in income was not statistically significant for either those maintained by a married couple or those maintained by a male with no spouse present.000 10. 9 The difference between the income declines for family and nonfamily households was not statistically significant.994 income peak in 2000 was not statistically different from their 2001 median of $41. 8 Income.7 percent decline for White households. the median household income peak of $53. Black household income by 10. Asian households had the highest median 11 The differences between the decline for Asian households compared with the declines for all race.10 Real median household income has not yet recovered to pre-2001 recession all-time highs.000 Black 20. and Hispanic household income by 7.1 percent lower for Hispanics (from $41. Non-HispanicWhite household income declined by 5.

3 percent). the change in the Black-to-non-Hispanic-White income ratio was not statistically significant.8 million) aged 18 to 64 reported having a disability (Table 1).18. The median income of these households was $25. real median household income declined for all age groups except 65 and older.59. and 55 to 64. Income data for the Asian population was first available in 1987. Oregon. Arizona.17 Since 2007.9 percent decline). households with householders aged 15 to 24 had the largest income decline (15. 45 to 54. In 2010.12 Since 2007. Delaware.3 percent U. and the ratio of Hispanic to non-HispanicWhite income was 0. New York. Georgia. Iowa. Michigan. 9. and 2.068. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 9 .3 percent) and 2008 (5. Florida. The income of households maintained by a householder with a disability declined by 8. households with householders aged 15 to 24 had the largest income decline (9. those with householders aged 35 to 44 had a 5.0 percent between 2009 and 2010—the third consecutive annual decline. The annual change in income of foreignborn households over the past 2 years has not been statistically significant. 13 Social Security recipients received cost of living increases in 2007 (2. Ohio. North Dakota. the ratio of Black to nonHispanic-White income was 0. while the change in the income of households with householders aged 65 and older was not statistically significant. 17 The difference between the median household incomes for the Northeast and West was not statistically significant. Tennessee. Hawaii. The Asian-to-non-Hispanic-White income ratio in 2010 (1.288). compared with a median of $58. Kentucky. Texas. California. New Jersey.3 percent). New Mexico. Poverty. 16 The differences among the regional declines were not statistically significant. This was the third annual decline for the Midwest and West. and Vermont. and for Hispanic households.550 in 2010.759. households maintained by naturalized citizens had the highest income ($52.74 to 0.445) and South ($45. The South region includes Alabama.16 The change in the income of households in the Northeast was not statistically significant.2 percent decline.8 percent). Age of Householder The real median income of households with householders under age 65 declined between 2009 and 2010 (2. In addition. and noncitizen households ($36. Nevada. With the exception of the 35-to-44 and 55-to64 age groups (where the change in household income was not statistically significant). Nebraska.2 percent decline.9 percent. Pennsylvania. Income. Households with householders aged 25 to 34 had a 6.69. followed by the Midwest ($48. Colorado. Region15 Between 2009 and 2010. household income declined for three regions: the 15 The Northeast region includes Connecticut. these households experienced a statistically significant decline between 2007 and 2008. 1. followed by households with householders aged 45 to 54 (4. and West declined by 2. Kansas.13 During the same time period. households with householders below age 65 experienced declines in real median income. The West region includes Alaska. ­Minnesota. The income of this latter group increased by 5. 14 The differences between the decline for households maintained by a householder aged 25 to 34 and the declines for households with householders aged 35 to 44. In 2010.736 for households with a householder that did not report a disability. the differences between the decline for households with householders aged 55 to 64 and the declines for households with householders aged 35 to 44 and 45 to 54 were not statistically significant. The Midwest region includes Illinois. More precisely. South Carolina. The median income for non-HispanicWhite households was $54.5 percent between 2007 and 2010 (Table A-1). ­Mississippi. Maine. Real median income declined for both types of households between 2009 and 2010.142).5 percent. However. Oklahoma. those aged 45 to 54 and those aged 15 to 24 and 25 to 34.14 Nativity The real median income of nativeborn households declined 2. Comparing the 2010 income of nonHispanic-White households to that of other households shows that the ratio of Asian to non-Hispanic White income was 1. Census Bureau decline) and aged 25 to 34 (1. Rhode Island. the Hispanic-to-non-Hispanic-White income ratio declined from 0. Missouri. Louisiana.308). Idaho.401) (Table 1). real median income of households in the Midwest. Washington. and Wisconsin.492). households with the highest median household incomes were in the Northeast ($53.S.7 percent decline. North Carolina. ­Maryland.642).9 percent. West Virginia. South Dakota. Virginia. Indiana.620. The differences between the income declines for households maintained by householders of the following age groups were not statistically different: those under 65 years of age and those aged 25 to 34 and 45 to 54. compared with a 2. a state equivalent. those with householders aged 45 to 54 had a 9. Montana. $32. New Hampshire. Massachusetts.5 percent. and those with householders aged 55 to 64 had a 6. respectively (Table 1).1 percent decline for households maintained by a householder without a disability. Utah. Between 1972 (the first year that income data for the Hispanic and non-HispanicWhite populations were collected in the CPS ASEC) and 2010.6 percent decline. and the District of Columbia.6 percent).income in 2010 ($64. South. followed by native-born households ($50.283) and West ($53.18) was not statistically different from the ratio in 1987. Arkansas. Over the same period. 12 Disability Status of Householder In 2010. for Black households. it was $37.5 percent of householders (8. were not statistically significant. and Wyoming.69.

The income for households inside principal cities declined by 3.7 percent (Table A-1).census.2 percent.1 percent. pp. the real median income of households inside metropolitan areas declined.html>. the income of households inside metropolitan statistical areas declined by 2. Equivalence-Adjusted Income Inequality Another way to measure income inequality is to use an equivalenceadjusted income estimate. while the change in income for households outside metropolitan areas was not statistically significant (Table 1).000 for a family household with two adults 22 Caution should be used in making direct comparisons with years earlier than 1993 because of substantial methodological changes in the 1994 CPS ASEC.736 to $100.735. 10 Income. and the West by 6.20 Income Inequality The Census Bureau has traditionally used two methods to measure income inequality: (1) the shares of aggregate household income received by quintiles and (2) the Gini index. the mean logarithmic deviation of income (MLD).5 percent.1 percent. The Gini index was 0.2 percent to 23.065. Changes in the shares of aggregate household income by quintiles and the MLD showed increases in inequality between 2009 and 2010 (Tables 3 and A-3). December 1977. while the share increased for the fourth quintile (from 23. Except for the 1. The median income of households inside metropolitan areas declined by 6.1 percent.0 percent. The changes for the third and fifth quintiles were not statistically significant.3 percent.000 for a single-person household and a family household similarly. households within metropolitan areas but outside principal cities had the highest median income ($56. which is similar to the Gini index in that it is a single statistic that summarizes the dispersion of income across the entire income distribution.469 in 2010. 7. the change in the 90th-to-10th-percentile income ratios was not statistically significant.4 percent. those in the third quintile had incomes of $38. the South by 6. the earliest year available for comparable measures of income inequality. The MLD increased by 4.066 or more.18 The change for the Northeast was not statistically significant. In that year.Midwest declined by 8.2 percent. “Measures of Inequality. <www. The shares of aggregate income declined for the lowest and second quintiles (from 3. and from 8.140). which measures the gap between median and average income. In addition to these measures.001 to $38. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 significant annual changes since 1993.22 Since 1993.5 percent decline in the Gini index between 2006 and 2007. 865­–880. there were no other statistically 21 An article by Paul Allison.67 between 1999 and 2010.4 percent. 43. Households in the highest quintile had incomes of $100. while the 90th-to-10thpercentile income ratio increased from 10.2 percent for the fifth quintile (Tables 3 and A-3).S. of income percentiles. the Census Bureau also produces estimates of the ratio 18 The differences among the declines in median household income were not statistically significant.gov/hhes/www/income /publications/unrestrict-tables/index. the Gini index is up 3. see Semega. Residence Between 2009 and 2010. the share of aggregate income was 14. respectively). For example.1 percent and 12.000 or less. Census Bureau . and the Atkinson measure. Households in the lowest quintile had incomes of $20. 19 The differences between the percentage declines in household income by type of metropolitan residence were not statistically different. the Theil index. the Census Bureau introduced computer-assisted interviewing and increased income reporting limits.7 percent (Table A-1). (Table A-3 lists historical money income inequality measures. respectively. Between 1999 (the year that household income peaked before the 2001 recession) and 2010.043. those in principal cities by 5.3 percent. which is useful in determining which end of the distribution contributed most to inequality. and those in the fourth quintile had incomes of $61.” American Sociological Review.5 percent. while the decline in income at the 90th percentile was 1. Those in the second quintile had incomes of $20.4 percent to 3. Overall. 23 For further discussion of how high incomes reported in the CPS ASEC affect income distribution measures. the money-income-based distribution treats an income of $30. “Evaluating the Impact of Unrestricted Income Values on Income Distribution Measures Using the Current Population Survey’s Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC). Poverty. 20 The differences between the percentage declines in household income by metropolitan/ nonmetropolitan residence were not statistically different. Jessica and Ed Welniak. In 2010.4 percent).3 percent. and the income for households outside principal cities declined by 2.19 In 2010.000 for a single-person household would be more than twice the equivalence-adjusted income of $30.” April 2007. provides an explanation of inequality measures. while the equivalence-adjusted income of $30.6 percent for the third quintile and 50. U. those outside principal cities but within metropolitan areas by 7.287).044 to $61.21 The change in income inequality between 2009 and 2010 was not statistically significant as measured by the Gini and Theil indexes. Real household income declined for all households regardless of metropolitan/nonmetropolitan residence between 2007 and 2010. Between 2009 and 2010. while households outside metropolitan areas had the lowest ($40. and those outside metropolitan statistical areas by 5. income at the 50th and 10th percentiles declined.6 percent to 8.)23 Comparing changes in household income at selected percentiles shows that income inequality is increasing (Table A-3). which takes into consideration the number of people living in the household and how these people share resources and take advantage of economies of scale.4 percent.42 to 11.

08 0.23 0. P60-232.0 2.51 *–2. March 2007.15 0. On average.5 14.0026 0. 3.90 1.0129 0.0027 0.300 0.292 0.2 *1. This redistribution would be expected because at the lower end of the income distribution there are a higher concentration of single-person households and smaller family sizes in relation to those at the upper end of the distribution.1 percent. Thus.0018 0.190 0.097 0.664 0. the shares of income of the lowest quintile and top 5 percent declined by 2.75��������������������� 2010 Equivalenceadjusted income 90 percent confidence interval2 (±) Estimate Money income 90 percent confidence interval2 (±) Estimate Percentage change1 Equivalenceadjusted income 90 percent confidence interval2 (±) Estimate Money income 90 percent confidence interval2 (±) Estimate Equivalenceadjusted income 90 percent confidence interval2 (±) Estimate 90 percent confidence interval2 (±) 3.3 21.0084 0.190 0.63 – Represents or rounds to zero.468 0. children consume less than adults.06 0. the shares of aggregate household income received by quintiles show higher shares of income in the lower quintiles and lower shares in the higher quintiles for equivalenceadjusted income when compared with money income.2 50.097 0.94 –0. Current Population Survey. expenses do not increase at the same rate.0040 – 0.85 0.300 0.11 0. Census Bureau Table 3 shows several income inequality measures.3 2.97 0.6 23.4 *–3.1 –2.0040 0.8 1.S.1 2.24 24 The three-parameter scale used here is the same as the one used in the report The Effect of Taxes and Transfers on Income and Poverty in the United States: 2005.3 8.96 0.pdf>.13 0. including aggregate income shares and the Gini index.08 0. <www.9 *–1.5 0.0 0.census. using both money income and equivalence-adjusted income for 2009 and 2010. October 2001.1 percent.08 0. Census Bureau. Kathleen. sampling error.10 0.72 1.0031 0.458 0.S. Current Population Reports.S.0016 0.7 2. but there was a redistribution of aggregate income shares.99 1. nonsampling error.0029 0.8 0.census. 2010 and 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.10 0. Poverty. see Short.gov/hhes/www/p60_239sa.84 2.095 0. Experimental Poverty Measures: 1999.1 –1.2 percent and 3.gov/prod/2007pubs/p60-232 . Census Bureau.0027 0. * Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 11 .4 50.0035 0.15 0. U. Census Bureau.9 49.6 14.93 0. the less reliable the estimate.92 0.88 0. As family size increases.0 22.3 9.288 0.2 –0.0035 0.0031 0.0 1.70 –1. 2.403 0. Based on equivalence-adjusted income. P60-216. the Gini index was lower based on an equivalence-adjusted income estimate than on the traditional moneyincome estimate.2 15. middle.04 0.census.1 2.14 0. and definitions.0016 0.05 0.4 –0.08 0. 1 Calculated estimate may be different due to rounded components.pdf>. The three-parameter scale was applied to the incomes of families and unrelated individuals and assigned to each family member or unrelated individual living within the household.35 *–3.094 0.0035 0.4 9.05 1. 2 A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate’s variability. and highest quintiles were not statistically significant.0149 0.pdf>.34 0. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate. None of the other equivalenceadjusted income inequality measures presented in Table 3 showed Income.06 0.30 0. Income Distribution Measures Using Money Income and Equivalence-Adjusted Income: 2009 and 2010 (For information on confidentiality protection.7 0.0082 0.1 –0. For more information.394 0. Current Population Reports.62 2.25���������������������   e=0.Table 3.50���������������������   e=0.191 0. Generally.5 *1.0107 0. The equivalence adjustment used here is based on a three-parameter scale that reflects: 1.55 2. see www.43 1.92 0.7 0. Confidence intervals shown in this table are based on standard errors calculated using replicate weights instead of the general variance function used in the past.4 21. <www. For details on the derivation of the three-parameter scale.0032 0. while the aggregate share of income of the fourth quintile increased by 1.0100 0.572 0.670 0.2 0.0017 0. The increase in expenses is larger for a first child of a single-parent family than the first child of a two-adult family.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.469 0.32 0. U.3 0.39 0.4 8.29 0.census.pdf) 2009 Money income Measure Estimate Shares of Aggregate    Income by Percentile  Lowest quintile������������� Second quintile ����������� Middle quintile������������� Fourth quintile������������� Highest quintile �����������   Top 5 percent����������� Summary Measures Gini index of income   inequality������������������� Mean logarithmic   deviation of income��� Theil����������������������������� Atkinson:   e=0.S.gov /prod/2001pubs/p60-216.385 0. For both 2009 and 2010.1 –0.2 21.0079 *4.85 2.0089 0.189 0.9 –2. see “Standard Errors and Their Use” at <www. respectively. and two children. The changes between 2009 and 2010 in the aggregate shares for the second.3 21.3 0. equivalence adjusting increases the relative income of people living in lower-income groups. Specifically.40 3.550 0.11 0. suggesting a more equal income distribution.457 0. Source: U. no statistically significant change occurred in the Gini index between 2009 and 2010.2 15.41 3.2 49. U.6 0.6 23.1 23.14 0.38 3.399 0.36 1.

385. and the Theil index was 0.931 30 Earnings of women 20 10 0 1959 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Note: Data on earnings of full-time. year round in 2010.S.300. Race. For school personnel.html>. and Atkinson measure for income years 1967 to 2010. Table A-4 shows equivalence-adjusted measures of income distribution as well as the Gini index. not statistically different from the 2009 ratio (Table 1 and Figure 2). The Atkinson measure calculated with an e=0. for women the change was not statistically significant. Theil index. all equivalence-adjusted inequality measures increased more than the money income inequality measures.715 Earnings of men 40 $36.931. year-round workers are not readily available before 1960. Census Bureau . the median earnings for men was $47.670. ratio in percent Recession 80 77 percent 70 Female-to-male earnings ratio 60 50 $47. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 increase for men. For detailed information on work experience.25 An estimated 69. see Table PINC-05. the MLD was 0.5 percent of working men with earnings and 59.75 was 0. year-round workers during the first calendar year following recessions shows that: U. year-round worker is a person who worked 35 or more hours per week (full time) and 50 or more weeks during the previous calendar year (year round). a statistically significant change between 2009 and 2010. Current Population Survey. Work Experience and Earnings The change between 2009 and 2010 in the number of both full-time. Comparing the percentage change in the real median earnings of full-time. Year-Round Workers 15 Years and Older by Sex: 1960 to 2010 90 Earnings in thousands (2010 dollars). 1961 to 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. year-round working men and women aged 15 and older with earnings was not statistically significant (Figure 3 and Table A-5). Source: U. summer vacation is counted as weeks worked if they are scheduled to return to their job in the fall.Figure 2. MLD.census. year round experienced a change in real median earnings between 2009 and 2010.gov/hhes/www /income/dinctabs. For information on recessions. year-round workers was 0.4 percent in 2009.457 for equivalenceadjusted income in 2010.715 and for women $36. and calculated with an e=0. from 68. 12 Income. Poverty.S. The Gini index was 0. In 2010. see Appendix A. Neither men nor women who worked full time. Age. the female-to-male earnings ratio of full-time. Over the 1967 to 2010 period.094. “Work Experience in 2010—People 15 Years Old and Over by Total Money Earnings in 2010. This reflected an 25 A full-time. Census Bureau.25 was 0. Hispanic Origin.4 percent of working women with earnings worked full time. and Sex” at <www. Female-to-Male Earnings Ratio and Median Earnings of Full-Time. In 2010.77.

028 for women without a disability. and the number of women working full time. For women. People 15 years old and older beginning in 1980 and people 14 years old and older as of the following year for previous years. Since 2007. Men with a disability had median earnings of $41. lower than earnings of those without a disability (Table 1). and no statistically significant change for the March 2001 to November 2001 recession (Tables 2 and A-5 and Figure 3). compared with $48. increased after four recessions. year round with earnings decreased by 6. For information on recessions. Source: U. on average. Income.8 million (Figure 3 and Table A-5).6 million.506 in 2010. while increases followed the four remaining recessions.6 million). In 2010.851. U. Census Bureau year round with earnings decreased by 2. Census Bureau.Figure 3. data are for civilian workers only.031 for men without a disability.S. 40 year-round workers Female workers 30 20 10 Female full-time. March 2001 to November 2001. earnings of full-time.S. and January 1980 to July 1980 recessions were not statistically significant. the percentage change in real median earnings was not statistically significant following the December 2007 to June 2009 recession and five other recessions (see Tables 2 and A-5 and Figure 2) and increased following the March 2001 to November 2001 recession. compared with $37. yearround workers aged 15 and older with a disability were. the change in real median earnings was not statistically significant following the December 2007 to June 2009 and the December 1969 to November 1970 recessions. the number of men working full time. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 13 . Comparing the changes in the number of all workers with earnings during the first calendar year following recessions shows: • There was a decline following the December 2007 to June 2009 recession (1. year-round workers 0 1959 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Note: Data on number of workers are not readily available before 1967.2 million 80 72. Women with a disability had median earnings of $31. year-round workers with earnings shows: • The changes after the December 2007 to June 2009. Poverty.8 million Male full-time. increases after five recessions. Comparing the changes in the number of full-time. Year-Round Workers With Earnings by Sex: 1967 to 2010 90 Numbers in millions Recession 81. and decreased after the January 1980 to July 1980 recession. • • For men.1 million 70 60 56. Current Population Survey. 1968 to 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.4 million Male workers 50 42. The changes between 2007 and 2010 in the real median earnings of male and female workers were not statistically significant. The 2009 to 2010 changes in the median earnings of men and women with and without a disability were not statistically significant. Total and Full-Time. Before 1989. see Appendix A.

2 million people were in poverty. and for Hispanics (from 25.6 million in 2009—the fourth consecutive annual increase in the number of people in poverty (Table 4 and Figure 4).1 percent—up from 14. in the calendar year following the recessions 28 Since unrelated individuals under 15 are excluded from the poverty universe.4 percent).4 percent 26 OMB determined the official definition of poverty in Statistical Poverty Directive 14.9 percent).S.2 million Number in poverty 40 35 30 25 20 Poverty rate 15 15. • Between 2009 and 2010. up from 43. but was not statistically different for people aged 65 and older (9. see Appendix A. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U. For information on recessions. 29 The increases in the poverty rates and the number of people in poverty in the first calendar year after the recessions that ended in 2009. The poverty rate and the number of people in poverty increased in the first calendar year following the end of the last three recessions.1 percent) was the highest poverty rate since 1993 but was 7. For Asians.0 percent) and people aged 18 27 The poverty rate for Blacks was not statistically different from that of Hispanics in 2010.3 percentage points lower than the poverty rate in 1959. This was the third consecutive annual increase in the poverty rate.8 percent to 27. Poverty. there are 422. 14 Income. Census Bureau. Appendix B provides a more detailed description of how the Census Bureau calculates poverty. from 12. • Between 2009 and 2010.000 fewer children in the poverty universe than in the total civilian noninstitutionalized population.7 percent to 22.0 percent) (Table 4). the first year for which poverty estimates are available (Figure 4). Source: U.1 percent (Table 4 and Figure 4).6 percent). Figure 4.29 On the other hand.7 percent). the 2010 poverty rate (12. Number in Poverty and Poverty Rate: 1959 to 2010 50 Recession Numbers in millions. it is interesting to compare changes in poverty between 2009 and 2010 with changes during the first year after the end of other recessions (Table 5).5 percent to 15.S. to 64 (from 12.POVERTY IN THE UNITED STATES26 to 9. 46.3 percent in 2009. Since 2007.3 percent to 26.27 Highlights • The official poverty rate in 2010 was 15. the poverty rate increased for nonHispanic Whites (from 9. rates in percent 45 46.2 million) is the largest number in the 52 years for which poverty estimates have been published (Figure 4).1 percent) was not statistically different from the 2009 poverty rate (Table 4). • The poverty rate in 2010 (15. the poverty rate increased for children under age 18 (from 20. • In 2010. for Blacks (from 25. • The number of people in poverty in 2010 (46. Census Bureau . 1960 to 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. the poverty rate has increased by 2.28 Poverty in the First Year After a Recession Since 2010 represents the first full calendar year after the recession that ended in June 2009.6 percentage points.1 percent 10 5 0 1959 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Note: The data points are placed at the midpoints of the respective years. 2001 and 1991 were not statistically different from each other.9 percent to 13. Current Population Survey.

015 0.7 11. For information on confidentiality protection.3 0.855 541 16.162 1.3 197.3 45.7 14.6 54.6 0.323 29.6 0.5 22.1 9.0 38. U.944 577 291 120 260 464 12.5 *1.302 35.597 16. .1 48.655 18. .2 0.028 97. .5 73.609 10.410 25.1 Nativity Native born ����������������������������������������� Foreign born ���������������������������������������   Naturalized citizen���������������������������   Not a citizen������������������������������������� 266. .542 329 352 564 391 12.7 0.1 (±) Number Percent PEOPLE         Total ������������������������������������� 303.9 11.1 7. .1 Residence Inside metropolitan statistical areas�����������������������������������   Inside principal cities�����������������������   Outside principal cities��������������������� Outside metropolitan statistical areas4��������������������������������� Work Experience    Total.I. .255 6.9 19.9 0.394 845 690 717 13.650 4. . . .421 1.9 18.7 0. .0 20.7 0.9 *0.3 9.8 13.3 267.1 23. .573 36.772 99.306 55.3 305.5 0.9 *1.4 *2.5 256.6 336 380 *1.8 47.626 727 215 368 205 108 40 69 366 240 225 13.5 11.3 0.7 14.0 21.197 8.313 41.756 4.422 5.I.584 0. .6 0. .613 15.025 0.811 12. .0 0.827 6.028 4.013 0.1 20. .1 (±) Percent 90 percent C.343 751 274 459 12.6 –0.8 25.6 49.973 325 404 572 443 12.5 74.7 1.070 *732 –17 *0.663 7.487 0.3 26.6 10. .983 693 253 423 11.382 10.776 31.6 15.8 10.746 693 589 397 163 12.466 *0.809 *429 *956 *360 58 20 36 *743 *541 202 *0.3 192. . .7 0.7 56. .370 38. .730 6.4 *1.914 567 16.4 Hispanic (any race)����������������������������� 48.9 641 5.729 689 564 406 160 13.I.725 158.3 0.6 4.718 0.678 5.1 238.407 7.096 5.917 0. .855 0.792 1.7 *1. . . .2 14.   55 to 59 years .179 16.774 5. .627 29.3 *2. . People and Families in Poverty by Selected Characteristics: 2009 and 2010—Con.3 0.I.5 0. .2 0.465 18. .820 43.3 *0. .0 0.9 2.3 0.223 38.4 19. .3 *0. . People as of March of the following year.4 6.203 1.085 40.425 739 300 116 275 13.7 27. .9 11.569 801 14.944 1. .5 54.8 12. .830 18. .2 Race3 and Hispanic Origin White���������������������������������������������������   White.7 25.0 24.4 0.9 20.4 39.1 0.860 929 583 738 14.221 15.7 24.655 0.680 2.] in thousands or percentage points as appropriate.024 21.0 *0.S.599 10.4 *950 *1. .980 112.633 0.148 19. .684 6.5 0.556 14.6 17.180 842 15.1 0. . and definitions.8 *893 *1.438 33.650 19. .039 18.1 (±) Total Number 90 percent C.7 *0. .071 6. .8 0.123 4. .867 73. .768 17.6 10.1 10. .006 0. .204 *1.797 1.7 –60 –0.5 922 0.5 0. .0 0.2 13.223 37.183 0.325 19.8 51.0 –6. . .   45 to 54 years .494 0.403 38. .568 7. .164 38.625 10. .7 0.I.7 29.0 9. .5 86.554 0.172 16. .2 11.9 15. .258 6.1 0.6 *1.5 66.906 5. Poverty.9 15.   25 to 34 years .579 190.842 0.2 153. nonsampling error. confidence intervals [C.5 0.4 25.2 239.333 5.6 4.census.8 0.7 12.005 29.3 258.7 0. . .243 419 26. .137 0. not Hispanic ������������������������� Black��������������������������������������������������� Asian��������������������������������������������������� 242.451 24.5 Region Northeast��������������������������������������������� Midwest����������������������������������������������� South��������������������������������������������������� West ��������������������������������������������������� 54. .072 10. year-round ������� Did not work at least 1 week���������������   See footnotes at end of table. . .6 0.8 0.706 794 289 119 264 14.079 26. .6 26.201 0.6 98.7 11.666 2.7 0.1 0. sampling error.5 *1.4 159.165 71.641 8.269 26.755 3.611 *0.6 0.7 14.324 31. .2 12.   60 to 64 years .5 53.651 0.1 (±) Percent Change in poverty (2010 less 2009)2 90 percent C.6 0.0 23.796 6.7 38.954 0.571 65. .5 25. .717 614 280 122 248 490 13.9 27.3 15.Table 4.772 *0. .5 41.507 6.8 4.758 –15 –33 18 *1.650 8. . .608 8.424 723 217 384 185 100 36 64 345 215 239 12.6 0. .047 197. .2 0.1 99. .520 369 556 253 210 184 185 120 107 161 22.6 71.384 78.530 9. .675 1.6 19. . .095 154.3 78.792 14.520 3.141 0.104 1. .9 *1. .670 *1.9 21.3 249.7 47.819 *1. 65 years and older������������������������������� 74.0 2.4 43.1 0.261 17. .9 16.3 0.463 431 0. .227 0.3 Age Under 18 years ����������������������������������� 18 to 64 years�������������������������������������   18 to 24 years .4 0.5 0.6 *1.350 440 25.987 9.3 9.057 20.9 0.430 0.811 31.250 0. .401 26.792 7.3 0.611 1. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 15 .pdf) Characteristic Total Number 2009 2010 Below poverty Below poverty 90 percent C.007 9. . .6 22. Census Bureau Income.7 21.387 19.103 6.161 *450 *169 281 *0.9 49.1 *1. . .965 1.5 *1.1 *2.466 83.1 1.3 243.4 12.0 10.3 0. . . (Numbers in thousands.7 19.869 13.574 *436 210 *272 *240 *180 *235 87 *1.6 0. year-round �����������   Less than full-time.7 *0.972 1.9 0.3 1. . . .5 0.7 *1.5 –6.433 395 496 213 200 170 171 118 99 171 20.447 44. .736 5.0 13.3 0. . .4 –5.4 8.891 0.4 39.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.745 0.8 Family Status In families �������������������������������������������   Householder�������������������������������������   Related children under 18���������������    Related children under 6 ������������� In unrelated subfamilies�����������������������   Reference person ���������������������������   Children under 18 ��������������������������� Unrelated individuals���������������������������   Male�������������������������������������������������   Female��������������������������������������������� 249.6 0.0 9.   35 to 44 years . .3 0.357 521 747 53.8 *0.7 16.8 22.7 21. .6 0. .688 46. . . see www.8 0.0 1. .1 – 0.8 0.662 1.5 42. 16 years and older ������������� All workers�������������������������������������������   Worked full-time.5 *1.5 113.5 0.

html>.I.] in thousands or percentage points as appropriate. see www.047 3. .003 *0. . . . .792 217 11. no wife present������� – Represents or rounds to zero. 2010 and 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. . . .409 139 5. November 1973 to March 1975. . . Current Population Survey.975 25. .S.0 12. . see www.I. Table 5. (Numbers in thousands. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. the less reliable the estimate.663 *2. nonsampling error. .161 26.2 *188 *0.5 21.9 * Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level. . This table shows data using the first approach (race alone). .9 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2010.570 38. . .0 12. .S.574 *510 *1.1 15. . 3 Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. Change in Poverty During First Year After a Recession: 1961 to 2010 (Numbers in thousands. A group such as Asian may be defined as those who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or single-race concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they also reported another race (the race-alone-or-in-combination concept). For more information. sampling error. .pdf>.015 14.1 *–0. Census Bureau.3 *1. For information on confidentiality protection.165 22. . Information on people who reported more than one race. For information on confidentiality protection.I. see “Standard Errors and Their Use” at <www.pdf) Recession1 December 2007 to June 2009. see “About Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas” at <www.1 12. and definitions. . nonsampling error. . July 1981 to November 1982. 2 Details may not sum to totals because of rounding.877 25. .428 3. .0 0.5 –0. a private research organization. .3 *429 *0. .582 4. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate. . Prior years are based on the general variance function. Therefore. Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders.1 (±) Total Number 90 percent C.pdf>. is available from the Census 2010 through American FactFinder. .625 15.1 (±) Percent 90 percent C.684 3.1 *304 –62 *1.2 *1.633 9.857 5.5 0. People and Families in Poverty by Selected Characteristics: 2009 and 2010—Con.048 24. .051 *0.9 1. .398 29. .gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. 1962 to 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. . .907 35. .559 38. . .550 *–902 139 –1. .306 905 *2. the economy entered another recession in July 1981. . . .0 *2.census.9 25. 18 to 64 years��������������������� With a disability����������������������������������� With no disability��������������������������������� 190.gov/hhes/www/p60_239sa. Current Population Survey.3 192. .6 58.627 14.441 942 152 68 29.2 58.I.017 556 193 494 13. April 1960 to February 1961.9 12.1 0. . . .census. 16 Income.3 78. . . Census Bureau. see “Standard Errors and Their Use” at <www.745 880 150 68 31.966 496 169 448 12.644 175.0 0. .1 (±) Percent 90 percent C. Poverty. . .pdf) 2009 2010 Below poverty Change in poverty (2010 less 2009)2 Below poverty Characteristic Total Number 90 percent C.420 39. For more information.8 *0. 2 While 1981 was the first calendar year after the recession that ended in July 1980. Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives.gov/population/www/estimates/aboutmetro. July 1990 to March 1991. . . .8 0.4 *0. . Source: U. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U. .6 0. . Confidence intervals shown in this table are based on standard errors calculated using replicate weights instead of the generalized variance function used in the past.0 0.census. . .9 16. December 1969 to November 1970. About 2. .1 14.3 12. . sampling error. For more information. .3 1. . . .Table 4. . Source: U.census. . . confidence intervals [C. 1 Business cycle peaks and troughs used to delineate the beginning and end of recessions are determined by the National Bureau of Economic Research.708 34. . . .9 0.258 4.272 25.8 12.2 14. .2 0.gov/hhes/www /p60_239sa.569 32.gov/apsd /techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.9 46.935 176. . and definitions.census.   * Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level.7 27.0 11. First calendar year after the recession ended 2010 2002 1992 1983 19812 1976 1971 1962 People below poverty Year in which the recession ended First calendar year after the recession ended Change Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent 43. . .596 148 6. 1 A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate’s variability. Census Bureau . two basic ways of defining a race group are possible. .7 0. .221 215 11. .2 15. and those reporting two or more races are not shown separately. The use of the single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data.822 24.5 FAMILIES         Total ������������������������������������� 78.1 Type of Family Married-couple������������������������������������ Female householder.9 1. . . . such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American. . .4 14.7 14. 4 The “Outside metropolitan statistical areas” category includes both micropolitan statistical areas and territory outside of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas. . .867 8. .S. .3 11.560 4. . . . .014 35. .I.303 31.8 15. .611 *1. . . 5 The sum of those with and without a disability does not equal the total because disability status is not defined for individuals in the Armed Forces.7 *2. .6 15. .0 *–0. . no  husband   present����������������������������������������������� Male householder. See Appendix A for more information. March 2001 to November 2001. . . People as of March of the following year. .0 13. .8 0.3 1.026 5. January 1980 to July 1980 . . . Statistical significance of the changes for 2009 to 2010 is based on standard errors calculated using replicate weights. .655 20. . .628 14.1 (±) Number Percent Disability Status5    Total.9 *0.180 34.7 –1.6 21.

Data for people aged 18 to 64 and 65 and older are not available from 1960 to 1965. For Asians.9 percent in 2010 from 9.S.0 percent 10 18 to 64 years 5 0 1959 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Note: The data points are placed at the midpoints of the respective years.4 percent in 2010. the poverty rate increased to 27. Income. Source: U.5 million.5 percent of the total population. The increase in the number of people in poverty in the year following the recession that ended in 1980 was not statically different from the increases in the number of people in poverty in the year after the recessions that ended in 2009. that ended in 1961 and 1975.4 million from 15. However. up from 25.6 million from 18. but 64.0 percent from 20.8 percent in 2009. Poverty. The poverty rate for non-Hispanic Whites was lower than the poverty rates for other racial groups.8 million.5 percent in 2010 from 20. the poverty rate increased to 13. while the number in poverty increased to 10. 2001.4 percent of the people in poverty.3 in 2009. while the number in poverty increased to 26. 1960 to 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. From 2009 to 2010.4 percent in 2009.0 percent 20 15 13. the poverty rate increased for Hispanics to 26.7 million from 14. while the number of children under age 18 in poverty increased to 16. Poverty rates and the number of people in poverty went up between 1980 and 1981.32 The poverty rate for related children increased to 21. 31 The 2010 poverty rate for Blacks was not statistically different from that of Hispanics. Related children are people under age 18 related to the householder by birth.5 percent of people in poverty. estimates for all children included an additional 1.6 percent in 2010 from 25.7 million. Census Bureau.5 million (Table 4). For people aged 65 and older in 2010 neither the poverty rate (9. The poverty rate for children was higher than the rates for people aged 18 to 64 and those aged 65 and older (Table 4). Census Bureau For Blacks. Poverty Rates by Age: 1959 to 2010 50 Recession Percent 45 40 35 65 years and older 30 25 Under 18 years 22.30 Race and Hispanic Origin For non-Hispanic Whites. marriage. while the number in poverty increased to 19. the poverty rate increased to 9. see Appendix A.4 million. and 1991.3 million from 24.4 percent of the total population.9 million.7 percent. For information on recessions.7 million) were not statistically different from 2009.7 million from 9. the 2010 poverty rate and the number in poverty (12. or adoption who are not themselves householders or spouses of householders.7 percent in 2010 from 12. Current Population Survey. For related children in families with 32 Official poverty estimates for children are compiled in two ways—estimates for all children and estimates for related children. Children accounted for 35. but only 24.31 Age For people aged 18 to 64.1 percent in 2009. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 17 .0 percent) nor the number in poverty (3.5 million) were statistically different from the 2009 estimates (Table 4 and Figure 5). the economy fell back into recession in July 1981. The decreases in the poverty rates in the first calendar year after the recessions that ended in 1975 and 1961 were not statistically different from each other. and the number of related children in poverty increased to 15.2 million from 12. In 2010. 30 U.3 million children.9 percent in 2009. the poverty rate decreased (Table 5).7 percent 9. NonHispanic Whites accounted for 42. The increase in poverty rates in the year after the recession that ended in 1980 was not statistically different from the increases in the poverty rates in the year after the recessions that ended in 2009 and 1991.1 percent and 1. and the number of Hispanics in poverty increased to 13.S.Figure 5. the poverty rate for children under age 18 increased to 22. but while 1981 was the first calendar year after the recession that ended in July 1980.

a female householder, 46.9 percent
were in poverty, compared with 11.6
percent of related children in marriedcouple families.33
For related children under age 6, the
poverty rate between 2009 and 2010
increased to 25.3 percent from 23.8
percent, while the number in poverty
increased to 6.3 million from 6.0
million (Table 4). For related children
under age 6 in families with a female
householder, 58.2 percent were in
poverty, about four times the rate of
their counterparts in married-couple
families (13.4 percent).
Nativity
The poverty rate and the number in
poverty for the native-born population increased to 14.4 percent in 2010
from 13.7 percent in 2009, while the
number in poverty increased to 38.6
million from 36.4 million. Among the
foreign-born population, 7.6 million
people lived in poverty in 2010—up
from 7.2 million in 2009. Their poverty rate (19.9 percent) was not statistically different in 2010 (Table 4).
Of the foreign-born population, 44.0
percent were naturalized U.S. citizens.
For naturalized citizens, the 2010
poverty rate of 11.3 percent was not
statistically different from 2009, while
the number in poverty increased to
1.9 million in 2010 from 1.7 million in
2009. The poverty rate for those who
were not citizens rose to 26.7 percent
in 2010 from 25.1 percent in 2009,
while the 2010 number in poverty
(5.7 million) was not statistically different from 2009.
Region
The South was the only region to
show increases in both the poverty
rate and the number in poverty—16.9
percent and 19.1 million in 2010, up
from 15.7 percent and 17.6 million
33
In the text of this report, families with a
female householder with no husband present are
referred to as families with a female householder.
Families with a male householder with no wife
present are referred to as families with a male
householder.

in 2009. In 2010, the poverty rates
and the number in poverty for the
Northeast (12.8 percent and 7.0 million), the Midwest (13.9 percent and
9.1 million), and the West (15.3 percent and 11.0 million) were not statistically different from 2009. The South
had the highest regional poverty rate
(Table 4).
Residence
Inside metropolitan statistical areas,
the poverty rate and the number of
people in poverty were 14.9 percent
and 38.3 million in 2010—up from
13.9 percent and 35.7 million in
2009. Among those living outside
metropolitan areas, the poverty rate
and the number in poverty were 16.5
percent and 7.9 million in 2010, not
statistically different from 2009.
Between 2009 and 2010, the poverty rate for people in principal cities
increased to 19.7 percent from 18.7
percent, while the number in poverty
increased to 19.5 million from 18.3
million. Within metropolitan areas,
people in poverty were more likely
to live in principal cities. While 38.2
percent of all people living in metropolitan areas in 2010 lived in principal
cities, 50.8 percent of poor people in
metropolitan areas lived in principal
cities. For those inside metropolitan
areas but not in principal cities, the
poverty rate rose to 11.8 percent from
11.0 percent, while the number in
poverty increased to 18.9 million from
17.4 million.34
Work Experience
Among all workers aged 16 and older,
neither the poverty rate (7.0 percent)
nor the number in poverty (10.7 million) in 2010 were statistically different from 2009.
People aged 16 years and older who
worked some or all of 2010 had a
lower poverty rate than those who
34
The number of people in poverty living
in principal cities and the number of people in
poverty living in metropolitan areas but outside
principal cities were not statistically different.

18 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010

did not work at any time—7.0 percent
compared to 23.9 percent (Table 4). In
2010, the poverty rate among fulltime, year-round workers (2.6 percent)
was lower than the rate for those who
worked less than full time, year round
(15.0 percent).
Among those who did not work at
least 1 week last year, the poverty rate
and the number in poverty increased
to 23.9 percent and 20.7 million in
2010 from 22.7 percent and 18.9 million in 2009 (Table 4). Those who did
not work in 2010 represented 66.0
percent of people aged 16 and older in
poverty, compared with 36.2 percent
of all people aged 16 and older.
Disability Status
Between 2009 and 2010, the poverty rate and number in poverty for
people aged 18 to 64 with a disability
rose from 25.0 percent and 3.7 million to 27.9 percent and 4.2 million.
Among people aged 18 to 64 without
a disability, 12.5 percent and 22.0
million were in poverty in 2010—up
from 12.0 percent and 21.0 million
in 2009. People aged 18 to 64 with
a disability represented 15.9 percent
of people aged 18 to 64 in poverty
compared to 7.8 percent of all people
aged 18 to 64.
Families
The poverty rate and the number of
families in poverty were 11.7 percent
and 9.2 million in 2010, compared
with 11.1 percent and 8.8 million in
2009 (Table 4).
The poverty rate and the number in
poverty increased for both marriedcouple families (6.2 percent and 3.6
million in 2010 from 5.8 percent and
3.4 million in 2009) and families with
a female householder (31.6 percent
and 4.7 million in 2010 from 29.9
percent and 4.4 million in 2009). For
families with a male householder,
the poverty rate and the number in
poverty (15.8 percent and 880,000 in
2010) were not statistically different
from 2009.

U.S. Census Bureau

Table 6.

People With Income Below Specified Ratios of Their Poverty Threshold by Selected
Characteristics: 2010
(Numbers in thousands, confidence intervals [C.I.] in thousands or percentage points as appropriate. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection,
sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.pdf)
Income-to-poverty ratio1
Under 0.50

Characteristic
Total
        All people��������������������

90
Num- percent
2
ber C.I. (±)

305,688 20,466

Under 1.25

90
Per- percent
2
cent C.I. (±)

90
Num- percent
2
ber C.I. (±)

Under 1.50

90
Per- percent
2
cent C.I. (±)

90
Num- percent
2
ber C.I. (±)

Under 2.00

90
Per- percent
2
cent C.I. (±)

90
Num- percent
2
ber C.I. (±)

622

6.7

0.2 60,443

991

19.8

0.3 75,291

1,089

24.6

0.4 103,645

7,369
3,404
2,993
2,206
2,001
795
708
991

313
188
146
119
121
78
65
91

9.9
11.5
7.2
5.5
4.6
4.1
4.1
2.5

0.4 20,741
0.6
8,101
0.4
8,203
0.3
6,549
0.3
6,147
0.4
2,513
0.4
2,415
0.2
5,774

431
269
229
211
210
132
127
216

27.8
27.3
19.7
16.4
14.0
12.9
13.9
14.7

0.6 24,853
0.9
9,685
0.5 10,220
0.5
8,196
0.5
7,702
0.7
3,110
0.7
3,052
0.5
8,472

461
283
237
220
234
142
149
261

33.4
32.7
24.6
20.6
17.5
15.9
17.5
21.6

0.6
0.9
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.7
0.8
0.7

243,013 13,315
197,203
8,420
38,965
5,254
14,324
834
49,869
5,460

442
355
295
123
297

5.5
4.3
13.5
5.8
10.9

0.2
0.2
0.8
0.9
0.6

42,298
26,490
13,237
2,219
17,299

838
703
435
183
442

17.4
13.4
34.0
15.5
34.7

0.3
0.4
1.1
1.3
0.9

53,446
34,403
15,715
2,820
20,816

931
796
411
210
466

22.0
17.4
40.3
19.7
41.7

249,855 13,749
78,633
3,964
73,227
6,927
25,096
2,911
1,650
460
54,183
6,257
26,745
3,086
27,438
3,170

540
158
301
163
87
246
174
145

5.5
5.0
9.5
11.6
27.9
11.5
11.5
11.6

0.2
0.2
0.4
0.6
4.2
0.4
0.6
0.5

43,705
12,217
19,990
7,858
875
15,863
7,296
8,568

874
253
428
229
116
429
266
259

17.5
15.5
27.3
31.3
53.0
29.3
27.3
31.2

0.4
0.3
0.6
0.9
4.6
0.6
0.8
0.8

54,587
15,443
24,002
9,207
1,031
19,673
8,908
10,766

933
286
452
231
129
471
298
282

21.8
19.6
32.8
36.7
62.5
36.3
33.3
39.2

90
Per- percent
2
cent C.I. (±)

1,227

33.9

0.4

32,467
12,501
14,141
11,561
10,813
4,315
4,297
13,549

473
296
274
247
264
158
163
324

43.6
42.2
34.0
29.0
24.6
22.1
24.7
34.6

0.6
0.9
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.8
0.9
0.8

0.4
0.4
1.1
1.5
0.9

75,297
50,304
20,005
4,056
27,243

1,065
954
431
235
487

31.0
25.5
51.3
28.3
54.6

0.4
0.5
1.1
1.6
1.0

0.4
0.3
0.6
0.9
4.5
0.6
0.9
0.8

76,733
22,091
31,497
11,796
1,206
25,705
11,666
14,039

1,086
348
470
214
136
523
318
323

30.7
28.1
43.0
47.0
73.1
47.4
43.6
51.2

0.4
0.4
0.6
0.8
3.9
0.6
0.9
0.9

Age
Under 18 years ��������������������������
18 to 24 years����������������������������
25 to 34 years����������������������������
35 to 44 years����������������������������
45 to 54 years����������������������������
55 to 59 years����������������������������
60 to 64 years����������������������������
65 years and older����������������������

74,494
29,651
41,584
39,842
43,954
19,554
17,430
39,179

Race3 and Hispanic Origin
White������������������������������������������
  White, not Hispanic ����������������
Black������������������������������������������
Asian������������������������������������������
Hispanic (any race)��������������������
Family Status
In families ����������������������������������
  Householder����������������������������
  Related children under 18������
   Related children under 6 ����
In unrelated subfamilies��������������
Unrelated individuals������������������
  Male����������������������������������������
  Female������������������������������������

The estimates for people with income below 100 percent of their poverty threshold (under 1.00) can be found in Table 4.
2
A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the estimate. Confidence
intervals shown in this table are based on standard errors calculated using replicate weights instead of the generalized variance function used in the past. For more information, see “Standard Errors
and Their Use” at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_239sa.pdf>.
3
Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. Therefore, two basic ways of defining a race group are possible. A group such as Asian may be defined as those
who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or single-race concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they also reported another race (the race-alone-or-in-combination
concept). This table shows data using the first approach (race alone). The use of the single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census
Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is
available from Census 2010 through American FactFinder. About 2.9 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2010. Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians
and Other Pacific Islanders, and those reporting two or more races are not shown separately.
Note: Details may not sum to totals because of rounding.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.
1

Depth of Poverty
Categorizing people as “in poverty”
or “not in poverty” is one way to
describe their economic situation.
The income-to-poverty ratio and the
income deficit or surplus describe
additional aspects of economic
well-being. While the poverty rate
shows the proportion of people with
income below the appropriate poverty threshold, the income-to-poverty
ratio gauges the depth of poverty and
shows how close a family’s income is
to its poverty threshold. The incometo-poverty ratio is reported as a
percentage that compares a family’s
or an unrelated person’s income with
their appropriate poverty threshold.
U.S. Census Bureau

For example, a family with an incometo-poverty ratio of 125 percent has
income that is 25 percent above its
poverty threshold.
The income deficit or surplus shows
how many dollars a family’s or an
unrelated person’s income is below
(or above) their poverty threshold.
For those with an income deficit, the
measure is an estimate of the dollar
amount necessary to raise a family’s
or an unrelated person’s income to
their poverty threshold.
Ratio of Income to Poverty
Table 6 presents the number and
percentage of people within specified

income-to-poverty-ratio ranges—those
with an income-to-poverty ratio less
than 50 percent (“Under 0.50”), an
income-to-poverty ratio less than 125
percent (“Under 1.25”), an income-topoverty ratio less than 150 percent
(“Under 1.50”), and an income-topoverty ratio less than 200 percent
(“Under 2.00”).
In 2010, 6.7 percent of all people,
or 20.5 million, had income below
one-half of their poverty threshold,
up from 6.3 percent, or 19.0 million
people, in 2009. This group represented 44.3 percent of the poverty
population in 2010.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 19

Figure 6.

Demographic Makeup of the Population at Varying Degrees of Poverty: 2010
(Percent)
Total
population
Population with income
below 200 percent
of threshold
Population with income
below 150 percent
of threshold
Population with income
below 125 percent
of threshold
Population with income
below 100 percent
of threshold
Population with income
below 50 percent
of threshold

24.4
31.3
33.0

62.8

12.8

55.6
55.7

34.3

56.1

35.5

56.9

36.0

59.2

Children under
18 years old

13.1

People 18 to 64
years old

11.3

People 65 years
and older

9.6
7.6

4.8

Note: Details may not sum to 100 percent because of rounding.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

The percentage and number of people
with income below 125 percent of
their threshold were 19.8 percent and
60.4 million, up from 18.7 percent
and 56.8 million in 2009. For children, 9.9 percent and 7.4 million in
2010 lived in families with income
below 50 percent of their poverty
threshold, up from 9.3 percent and
6.9 million in 2009. The percentage
and number of children living in families with income below 125 percent of
their poverty threshold in 2010 were
27.8 percent and 20.7 million, up
from 26.3 percent and 19.6 million in
2009 (Table 6).35
The percentage of the elderly with
income below 50 percent of their
poverty threshold was 2.5 percent,
less than one-half the percent of the
total population at this poverty level
(6.7 percent). On the other hand, the
percentage of the elderly with income
below 200 percent of their poverty
threshold was 34.6 percent, not

35
The number of people who had income
below one-half of their poverty threshold in 2010
and the number of children living in families
below 125 percent of their poverty thresholds in
2010 were not statistically different.

statistically different from the percent
of the total population with income
below this level (Table 6).
The demographic makeup of the
population differs at varying degrees
of poverty.36 Children represented
24.4 percent of the overall population, 31.3 percent of the people with
income below 200 percent of their
poverty threshold, but 36.0 percent
of the people with income below 50
percent of their poverty threshold.
The elderly represented 12.8 percent
of the overall population, 13.1 percent of those with income below 200
percent of their poverty threshold, but
4.8 percent of the people with income
below 50 percent of their poverty
threshold (Table 6 and Figure 6).
36
The estimates referred to in this paragraph
are shown in Figure 6 and can be calculated
using the estimates of the number of people at
each poverty level from Table 6. For example,
the estimate that children constitute 24.4 percent of the overall population can be calculated
by dividing the estimate of the total number of
children (74,494) by the total number of people
(305,688), and the estimate that children represent 36.0 percent of those with incomes below
50 percent of their poverty threshold is the result
of dividing the number of children under 0.50
(7,369) by the total number of people under 0.50
(20,466).

20 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010

Income Deficit
The income deficit for families in poverty (the difference in dollars between
a family’s income and its poverty
threshold) averaged $9,244 in 2010,
which was not statistically different
from the 2009 estimate. The average
income deficit was larger for families
with a female householder ($9,742)
than for married-couple families
($8,660) (Table 7).37
The average income deficit per capita
for families with a female householder ($2,908) was higher than for
married-couple families ($2,179). The
income deficit per capita is computed
by dividing the average deficit by the
average number of people in that type
of family. Since families with a female
householder were smaller on average
than married-couple families, the
larger per capita deficit for femalehouseholder families reflects their

37
The average income deficit of families with
a male householder was not statistically different
from the average income deficit for all families
and from the average income deficit for marriedcouple families.

U.S. Census Bureau

464 48. Source: U. Income Deficit or Surplus of Families and Unrelated Individuals by Poverty Status: 2010 (Numbers of families and unrelated individuals in thousands. 40 The number of doubled-up households did not change significantly between either 2007 and 2008 or 2010 and 2011. Doubled-Up Households39 People may cope with challenging economic circumstances by combining households with other families or 38 The average income deficit per capita for families with a female householder was not significantly different than the average income deficit per capita for families with a male householder.011 206 2.463 31. the number of doubled-up households had increased by 2.554 24.179 51 69 4.000 to $2.450 678 345 954 507 1.786 988 1. and the percent of households doubled-up had increased by 1. Census Bureau.660 167 270 2. For information on confidentiality protection.0 million to 21.292 487 1.751 1.000 $12.447 727 720 105 1.1 (±) Total Under $1.281 266 357 638 624 530 598 536 6.999 $5.census.    no wife present�������������������������������� Unrelated individuals����������������������������   Male��������������������������������������������������   Female���������������������������������������������� Above Poverty Threshold. see “Standard Errors and Their Use” at <www.742 218 2.7 million. March. a person aged 18 or older who is not enrolled in school and is not the householder.pdf>. doubling-up estimates reflect household composition at the time of survey.074 100 – – – 173 – – – 8. the less reliable the estimate. Confidence intervals shown in this table are based on standard errors calculated using replicate weights instead of the generalized variance function used in the past.253 961 1. spouse.024 2.982 deficit for women was lower than the $6. but declined between 2010 and 2011. smaller average family size as well as their lower average family income.052 27. and April of each year.596 665 296 910 432 1.census. While poverty estimates are based on income in the previous calendar year.978 1.247 118 1.999 or more Deficit or surplus per capita (dollars) Estimate 90 percent C.    no husband present������������������������   Families with a male householder.3 percent.0 percent to 18.796 6.307 11. while 69.8 million.221 3.499 $14. see www. Income.470 646 824 89 1.S.389 246 291 10. For more information.745 284 405 634 687 624 474 562 1. 1 A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate’s variability.908 69 880 12.157 48.051 1.276 Below Poverty Threshold.771 994 11.140 411 869 307 1.170 1. The $5.710 340 4.225 in 2010.923 36.225 6.7 million (27.500 to $4.862 31.532 1.504 5. The percentage of doubled-up households as a proportion of all households did not change significantly between 2007 and 2008.209 58.923 36. In spring 2007.417 1.412 54.434 69.I.617 679 997 904 16. deficits and surpluses and their confidence intervals [C.gov/hhes/www/p60_239sa.    no husband present������������������������   Families with a male householder.I.S. sampling error. 39 Doubled-up households are defined as households that include at least one “additional” adult.499 9. 61. By spring 2011. U.000 $1. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 21 .I.500 to to $15.856 886 969 201 2. which is conducted during the months of February.500 $10.026 1.225 6.946 1. the average income deficit was $6.982 154 109 168 131 69.] in dollars. doubled-up households totaled 19.181 1.256 1.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. 41 The number of doubled-up adults did not change significantly between 2010 and 2011.115 453 1.149 77.789 6.000 to $9.582 2.137 894 24.298 1.999 $12. but the number of doubled-up adults increased by 12.813 66 1.074 9. 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplement. The percentage of doubled-up adults as a proportion of all adults did not change significantly between either 2008 and 2009 or 2010 and 2011.8 percent between 2007 and 2011. Census Bureau individuals.731 34.422 5. Poverty.2 percent.7 percent) were doubledup in 2007.057 1.768 2.406 2.291 137 2.3 percentage points from 17. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate.771 13.941 6.2 million (30.1 (±) Estimate 90 percent C.128 559 569 88 4.    no wife present�������������������������������� Unrelated individuals����������������������������   Male��������������������������������������������������   Female���������������������������������������������� 3.576 1.799 552 9.0 percent) lived in doubled-up households in 2011.40 Among adults.244 8.430 659 1.631 690 941 159 3.982 463 109 168 131 2.41 The adult population increased by 3.499 $2.886 1. Note: Details may not sum to totals because of rounding. nonsampling error. The number and percentage of doubled-up households and adults sharing households in the United States increased over the course of the recession that began in December 2007 and ended in June 2009. and definitions. or cohabiting partner of the householder.227 1.38 For unrelated individuals in poverty.681 41.949 20.504 deficit for men.768 968 679 997 904 – Represents or rounds to zero.197 474 724 74 2.650 210 1.000 to $7.504 5. Surplus All families��������������������������������������������   Married-couple families��������������������   Families with a female householder.098 2.761 20.052 27. Current Population Survey.429 741 22.678 195 3.pdf) Size of deficit or surplus Average deficit or surplus (dollars) Characteristic $7.859 1.626 85 1.Table 7. Deficit All families��������������������������������������������   Married-couple families��������������������   Families with a female householder.

3. <www. and an expanded version of the CPS ASEC public-use file that includes estimates of the value of taxes and noncash benefits. Table Creator II can calculate these estimates for 2009. Census Bureau . Both microdata files are currently available for 2009.S. The European Union defines poverty as an income below 60 percent of the national median equalized disposable income after social transfers. 22 Income. see the text box “Supplemental Poverty Measure” on page 2. By spring 2011.gov /hhes/www/cpstc/apm/cpstc_altpov . The money income measure does not completely capture the economic well-being of individuals and families.44 Table Creator II allows researchers to estimate poverty rates using a relative poverty threshold calculated as any percentage of mean or median equivalence-adjusted income. 14. the Census Bureau will release estimates for these alternative measures for 2010. for which the Census Bureau expects to publish preliminary estimates in October 2011.html>.census. variations in medical costs across population groups.1 percent.7 million before the recession. and tax liabilities is released to the public. It is difficult to precisely assess the impact of doubling-up on overall poverty rates. or geographic differences in the cost of living. compared to 4. Many other countries use relative poverty measures with thresholds that are based on a percentage of median or mean income. not including the value of noncash benefits. The tool is available from a link on the Census Bureau’s poverty Web site. Researchers can also estimate poverty rates using alternative poverty thresholds. CPS Table Creator II CPS Table Creator II is a Web-based tool designed to help researchers explore alternative income and poverty measures.42 The NAS-based measures use both alternative poverty thresholds and an expanded income definition. will address many of these concerns. Poverty estimates using the new Supplemental Poverty Measure. available at <www. 44 For example.9 million young adults aged 25 to 34 resided in their parents’ households in 2011. such as food and housing subsidies.gov/hhes/povmeas /data/public-use. quintupling the number of elderly people in poverty. representing an increase of 2.3 percent to 22.gov/cps_ftp . 43 At this time.0 million. The Census Bureau also makes available a research file that provides microdata with variables used to construct the NAS-based alternative measures. Table Creator II allows researchers to produce poverty 42 The Census Bureau will no longer publish the Effect of Benefits and Taxes on Income and Poverty series but will continue to maintain the variables on Table Creator II. In October 2011. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 and income estimates using their own combinations of threshold and resource definitions and to see the incremental impact of the addition or subtraction of a single resource element. Data for 2010 from the 2011 CPS ASEC will be added to Table Creator II later this year when the enhanced CPS ASEC file with estimates of noncash benefits. For more details. The official poverty thresholds developed more than 40 years ago do not take into account rising standards of living or such issues as child care expenses.gov/hhes/www/povmeas/datafiles . Young adults aged 25 to 34 living with their parents had an official poverty rate of 8. other workrelated expenses. Data for 2010 will be released before the end of the year. and their disposable income is determined by both taxes paid and tax credits received. For example. Poverty. Alternative/Experimental Poverty Measures The poverty estimates in this report compare the official poverty thresholds to money income before taxes. available at <www. which can be used to compute these estimates.html>.census. 45.2 percent of young adults lived in their parents’ households.bls. • If unemployment insurance benefits were excluded from money income. U. tax credits.4 percent (when the entire family’s income is compared to the threshold that includes the young adult as an additional adult in the family). and there are many questions about the adequacy of the official poverty thresholds.html#cpsmarch>. Estimates for 2009 for the NAS-based measures can be found at <www.43 For example: • Taking into account the value of the federal earned income tax credit would reduce the number of children classified as poor in 2010 by 3.census . the number of people aged 65 and older in poverty would be higher by almost 14 million if social security payments were excluded from money income. using poverty thresholds based on 50 percent of median income rather than the official poverty thresholds would increase the overall poverty rate in 2009 from 14.census. National Academy of Sciences (NAS)Based Measures The Census Bureau currently computes alternative poverty measures based on the 1995 recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences Panel on Poverty and Family Assistance.An estimated 5.html>.344).4 percentage points since spring 2007. but if their poverty status were determined using their own income.2 million more people would be counted as poor in 2010.3 percent had income below the poverty threshold for a single person under age 65 ($11. Families and individuals also derive economic well-being from noncash benefits. the Organization for ­Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) uses a poverty threshold of 50 percent of median income. • In 2010.

For information on recessions. while the number of insured increased to 256. See <www. 15. Current Population Survey. Number Uninsured and Uninsured Rate: 1987 to 2010 55 Numbers in millions.9 percent and 48.0 Figure 7. • The percentage of people with health insurance in 2010 was not statistically different from 2009. These estimates also reflect the results of follow-up verification questions. at 195. while the number of people covered by private health insurance was not statistically different from 2009. bringing the CPS more in line with estimates from other national surveys. The percentage and number of people covered by The percentage and number of people covered by government health insurance increased to 31. see the text box “What Is Health Insurance Coverage?” For a discussion of the quality of ASEC health insurance coverage estimates.census. 16. The percentage of people covered by private health insurance decreased in 2010 to 64.6 percent and 93.8 million.3 percent in 2010 from 56. Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls occurred for the 2000 ASEC. The number of people covered by employment-based health insurance decreased to 169.3 percent 15 Uninsured rate 10 5 0 1987 1990 1993 19961 19992. The data points are placed at the midpoints of the respective years. 2 Note: Respondents were not asked detailed health insurance questions before the 1988 CPS. were not statistically different from 2009 estimates (Tables 10 and C-1). which were asked of people who responded “no” to all questions about specific types of health insurance coverage in order to verify whether they were actually uninsured.gov/ hhes/www/hlthins/data/revhlth/index.9 million in 2010 from 49.9 million (Tables 10 and C-1).1 percent in 2009. which collected data for 1999.2 million in 2010 from 255.S.3 2002 2005 2008 2010 1 The data for 1996 through 1999 were revised using an approximation method for consistency with the revision to the 2004 and 2005 estimates. Poverty. • The percentage of people covered by employment-based health insurance decreased to 55.HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE IN THE UNITED STATES • Highlights • In 2010.0 million in 2010 from 30.S. 46 The data for 1999 through 2009 were revised to reflect the results of enhancements to the editing process. the percentage of people without health insurance.html> and Appendix C. percent and 95. 3 The data for 1999 through 2009 were revised to reflect the results of enhancements to the editing process. was not statistically different from the rate in 2009. The number of uninsured people increased to 49. The percentage of people covered by private health insurance has been decreasing since 2001.46 • 45 For a brief description of how the Census Bureau collects and reports on health insurance data. • The percentage and number of people covered by Medicaid in 2010. see Appendix A. This change increased the number and percentage of people covered by health insurance.2 million in 2009. Source: U.0 percent.3 percent. 1988 to 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.9 million 50 45 40 Number uninsured 35 30 25 20 16. Census Bureau Income.3 million in 2009. Census Bureau.0 million in 2009 (Table 8 and Figure 7). see Appendix C.6 million. U.3 million from 170.45. rates in percent Recession 49. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 23 .

15.0 increased to 31.999 $75. Asian refers to people who reported Asian and no other race.7 percent) and the number of uninsured for non-Hispanic Whites (23.8 percent). 7. was not statistically 10. In contrast.S. The rate of private coverage has been decreasing since 2001. the uninsured rate increased.6 percent in 2009.1 million. one can compare changes in health insurance coverage between 2009 and 2010 with changes during the first full year after the end of 24 Income.4 lower than the rate in 2009. 47 other recessions (Table 9).000 to $49.0 million in 2010 from 93. the rate of private coverage decreased to 64. Uninsured Children by Poverty Status. were not statistically different from 2009 estimates.2 million in 2009. Medicare increased in 2010 to 14.9 percent and 48.7 percent in 2010 from 31.3 million. not statistically different from 2009 (Table 8).8 .3 million) were without health insurance. The uninsured rate and the number of uninsured Blacks were 20.0 percent in 2010 from 30. 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.47 • In 2010.1 million.5 percent and 44. 15.0 based coverage in 2010 was 5. Household Income.6 million.8 percent and 8. The uninsured rate for children in poverty (15. Census Bureau.1 majority of people (55.5 people covered by direct-purchase insurance (30. from 64.6 95.0 different from the 2009 estimate.6 million.2 9.9 percent and 48.9 percent and 48. The number of uninsured Hispanics in 2010 (15.8 of 2010. were higher than the percentage and number of people covered by Medicare in 2010. 49 The percentage and number of people covered by Medicaid in 2010.4 percent) was greater than the rate for all children (9.7 percent and 23. 9.3 health programs also increased to10. This figure shows data using the race-alone concept.6 million.9 million.5 percent and 44.5 percent and 44.8 percent of children under age 18 (7. Source: U. were higher than the percentage and number of people covered by Medicare in 2010.0 The percentage of people covered 11. The number of people covered by private insurance in 2010. 14.000 to $74.49 Race and Hispanic Origin In 2010. However. Census Bureau 16.8 percent) and the number of9. A 15. not statistically different The percentage and number of people covered by Medicaid in 2010. the percentage and number of people with Medicare coverage in 2010 increased to 14. Current Population Survey. from 2009. Poverty. During the first full year after the most recent recession there was no significant difference in the uninsured rate.3 million. U.6 percent in 2009. The rate of employment10.5 percent in 2009 (Table 10).6 health insurance plan for some or all 13. Race and Hispanic Origin.48 • The rate and number of uninsured for non-Hispanic Whites in 2010 were 11. Similarly.3 million.000 $25. not Hispanic Black Asian Hispanic (any race) Nativity Native-born citizen Naturalized citizen Noncitizen 0 5 15 20 Percent 10 25 30 35 1 Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. Both the rate (9. The percentage and number of people with Medicaid coverage in 2010.000 or more Age Under 6 years 6 to 11 years 12 to 17 years Race1 and Hispanic origin White. the uninsured rate (11. not statistically different from the 2009 estimates (Table 8).1 million) increased 11. For example. 48 The number of uninsured children in poverty in 2010 was not statistically different from the number in 2009.5 percent and 44.0 percent.999 $50.S. • The percentage of uninsured Hispanics decreased to 30.Figure 8. 195. and Nativity: 2010 All children Children in poverty Household Income Type of Coverage Less than $25. 14.3 in 2010. Health Insurance in the First Year After a Recession Since 2010 represents the first full year after the recession that ended in June 2009. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 In 2010.1 million) were not statistically different from 2009 estimates (Table 8). 15.3 percent) were covered by an employment-based 14.3 million) was not statistically different from 2009 (Table 8).5 by government health programs10. Age. The number of people covered by government 9.3 million. in the year following the recessions that ended in 1991 and 2001.

S. because health insurance coverage status can change over the course of a year.8 percent from 21.50 Among Hispanics. People who answer “no” to each of the coverage questions are then asked to verify that they were.8 percent) and the number of uninsured for Blacks (8. Medicaid. see Appendix C.census.* People were considered “insured” if they were covered by any type of health insurance for part or all of the previous calendar year. The rate (34. Among those aged 35 to 44. the changes in uninsured rates for Asians are better interpreted when viewed over a longer time period.0 percent and 3.8 percent. the rate and number of uninsured increased for naturalized citizens in 2010 to 20. Similarly. Nativity The rate (13. from 18. for the entire year. was not statistically different from the percentage uninsured in 2009 (Table 8). For reporting purposes.3 million. The uninsured rate for those aged 65 and older increased to 2. was not statistically different from 2009. Among the foreign-born population. Compared with other national surveys.” For a comparison between health insurance coverage rates from the major federal surveys. However. For more information on the quality of CPS ASEC health insurance estimates.S.3 percent from 15. while the number of uninsured in 2010. including cognitive research and field testing to improve the wording of the CPS ASEC health coverage questions.6 percent.0 million in 2009.4 percent. For those aged 25 to 34. For example.4 percent. 50 Due to the small sample size. was not statistically different from the percentage uninsured in 2009.4 percent and 3.0 percent in 2010 from 1.1 million) in 2010 were not statistically different from 2009 estimates.7 million) for noncitizens in 2010 were not statistically different from 2009 estimates. “Estimates of Health Insurance Coverage.1 percent) and number of uninsured (9.0 million) for the foreignborn population were not statistically different from the 2009 estimates. The uninsured rate and the number of uninsured for Asians increased in 2010 to 18. Poverty. some people may report their insurance coverage status at the time of their interview rather than their coverage status during the previous calendar year. the CPS ASEC’s estimate of the number of people without health insurance more closely approximates the number of people who were uninsured at a specific point in time during the year than the number of people uninsured for the entire year.5 percent and 2. Annual retrospective questions appear to cause few problems when collecting income data (possibly because the interview period is close to when people pay their taxes). the uninsured rate decreased in 2010 to 30.6 million from 16. the rate decreased to 27. the U.9 million) for the native-born population were not statistically different from the 2009 estimates (Table 8). 15.3 million.6 percent. the uninsured rate in 2010. Income.1 percent) and number of uninsured in 2010 (13. the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP).8 percent) and number of uninsured in 2010 (36. * Types of insurance are not mutually exclusive. Age The percentage of people under age 65 who were uninsured in 2010. Specifically. the rate increased in 2010 to 21. Both the rate (45. see Changes to the Imputation Routine for Health Insurance in the CPS ASEC: Description and Evaluation at <www. was not statistically different from the rate in 2009. they were not covered by any type of health insurance. the rate increased to 16. people may be covered by more than one during the year. U. The proportion of the foreign-born population without health insurance in 2010 was about two and one-half times that of the native-born population in 2010. Census Bureau broadly classifies health insurance coverage as private coverage or government coverage. They were considered “uninsured” if. answering questions about this long reference period may lead to response errors.the uninsured rate (20.pdf>. and individual state health plans. Among those aged 18 to 24 in 2010.2 percent from 29.7 percent from 31.4 million. 28. and military health care.1 percent and 2. the percentage of children in 2010 without health insurance. in fact.3 percent in 2009. Government health insurance includes such federal programs as Medicare. Census Bureau What Is Health Insurance Coverage? The Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement (CPS ASEC) asks about health insurance coverage in the previous calendar year.7 percent in 2009.gov/hhes /www/hlthins/data/revhlth/SHADAC. And for those aged 45 to 64. the survey asks separate questions about the major types of health insurance. 9. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 25 . Private health insurance is a plan provided through an employer or a union or purchased by an individual from a private company. Research shows health insurance coverage is underreported in the CPS ASEC for a variety of reasons. not covered by any type of health insurance. 18.0 percent. There are several ongoing projects aimed at improving the quality of health coverage data from the CPS ASEC.

. sampling error. .654 Midwest .581 11. .3 117. . . . not Hispanic . . .000 . .3 16.435 8.804 8.011 Hispanic (any race) . . . .1 0. . . .855 304 336 534 357 12. . . .772 6.5 *345 237 88 249 0. .5 0. For information on confidentiality protection. . .434 8. . Poverty. . .7 0. . . . 112.801 1. . . .9 1. . . .884 0.4 0.320 14.400 See footnotes at end of table. . . .384 Householder.104 0. . . .124 22. . . . .1 *–1. . . .5 71.7 10.3 21. .356 9.669 442 422 352 372 26. .613 48. . . .7 1.1 14.5 1. . .2 28.6 0. .132 2.1 0. . . .112 7. .359 0.6 8. . 29.085 35 to 44 years . .1 21.5 8. . . .856 Outside principal cities . . .218 6.110 49. . . . . .606 264 282 516 379 11. . .7 0.999 8. . . 79. .997 9.0 15.624 Asian . . .782 65 years and older . 75. 256. . . .5 57. . 116. . . .I.498 12.5 25. . . . .999 .9 21.166 15.342 7. . .368 21. . .4 0. . . . . . . . . .1 30. . .424 36. .2 0.5 31. . .8 261 378 294 *284 –110 – 0. . .1 0.pdf) 20091 2010 Uninsured Characteristic Total Number         Total  � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 304. . . .855 0.8 38. .838 2. .704 22. .5 54. . . .2 19.2 39. .436 Black . .096 South . . . . .3 258.6 316 *0.450 661 520 245 164 374 15. . 48.680 0. . .213 344 11.774 0. . .I.I. . . . . .2 0. .8 *0.4 8.651 0. . . . . .6 –0. . . . . . .828 8.423 0. . . . 15. . . .550 18. .census.3 249. . 53. 38. 242. . 73. .831 9.4 159.5 54. 266. . . . . . . . .001 791 535 713 16. . . .779 8. .5 *1.3 (±) Percent 708 16�1 Change in uninsured2 Uninsured 90 90 90 percent percent percent C. People Without Health Insurance Coverage by Selected Characteristics: 2009 and 2010 (Numbers in thousands.313 8.S. .999 . . . . . .473 455 418 357 371 26.3 197.313 25 to 34 years . . see www. . .1 14. 21.220 7.931 0. .4 45. 25. . . 78. .5 0. . .323 0.7 27.7 0. 47.5 *809 *551 –32 22 *84 26 0. 29. . . .3 *846 436 –167 –196 0. 197. . . . . . .I. . . . . .5 70. .7 Household Income Less than $25. .4 29. .096 3.867 Related children under 18 . .729 630 377 147 350 13.0 0. .2 9. 14.5 113. . . . . .667 666 379 165 340 13. . .4 13. .383 Inside principal cities . . .093 8. .3 0.0 45.5 3. . .2 – –0.058 9.782 0. 37.Table 8.3 79. .140 0.881 13. . 41.931 16. . .2 0. . . .715 7. . 54.221 8.576 12.9 25.350 0. .340 613 491 266 185 376 15. .3 19. . . .985 90 percent C.4 0. . .8 49. . .104 In unrelated subfamilies . . .3 78.4 0. .8 14. . . . . . . .939 0. . . .4 0.317 15.] in thousands or percentage points as appropriate.6 33.5 0.9 21. . . . . . .2 0.2 0.3 (±) Total Number C. .752 510 16. . .618 11.227 0.2 267.605 37.539 36.4 66.226 0. .600 15.152 23. . . .3 *0. and definitions.3 266. .4 Nativity Native born .1 0.5 98.3 0. .3 (±) Percent C. .0 29.I.1 17. .665 12.000 or more .2 21.3 0. . . . . . . . . . .7 0.1 20. . . . . . .809 11. 58. . . . . . 265.3 0. .8 16.605 21. . . . .846 782 630 660 16.6 1.3 0.040 Under 19 years5 . . .3 28. .018 2.6 0. .674 Foreign born . . .8 *0.159 $25.4 11.0 19.000 to $74. . . .9 16. .7 20. .288 0. .7 – 0.8 15. . . . . . . . .179 49.527 Outside metropolitan statistical areas6. . .3 0. . .650 0.916 0. . . . .236 428 11.3 2. . . . .832 659 226 260 119 55 357 14. 58. . .2 9.2 770 –6 –107 *–393 *–502 274 194 *810 *149 0. . . .8 34. .0 0.305 12. . .2 17. 79.6 0. . . .633 0. .357 Unrelated individuals . . .576 42. . . .760 7. . . . . .3 0. 71.4 *1. . . . . .4 73. . . .3 22. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U. . .153 19. . 158. 16. . .280 48.6 39.951 9. . . . .385 23. 38. . .7 19. .421 643 710 263 274 223 203 266 219 305 67 18. . .5 0.6 0. . .692 0. People as of March of the following year.858 699 234 276 130 66 316 15. . .680 2. .1 15. . . . . . .4 80. . .584 0. . . . .023 3. . . . . .3 *0. . . . .986 2.4 Race4 and Hispanic Origin White . . . . . .6 60. . .972 37. . . . .6 41. . . .2 0. .3 – 7.9 Age Under 65 years .8 25. . . . . .1 0. . . .3 11. . . .5 20. . 66. nonsampling error. . . . . . . .6 *–0.024 Not a citizen .8 0. . .7 0.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. . . .031 1.5 0. . .447 45 to 64 years . . .9 0.3 243.581 36. . . .275 0. . . .4 9. . .000 to $49. .842 0. . . . .3 74. .1 0. .606 Naturalized citizen .340 $50.667 Under 18 years .4 8. . .312 West . . .389 18 to 24 years .4 –0. 40. . 97. . . . .4 14.231 792 736 284 292 248 223 265 233 301 81 18. . . .7 29. 249.6 *–2.0 0.3 (±) Number 0�2 306.6 0. .904 744 16�3 0�2 *919 Percent 0�2 Family Status In families . .317 19 to 25 years5 .901 37.435 494 15. Census Bureau .332 0. .0 9.410 Related children under 6 . .952 8. .307 7.4 0.692 13. 71.949 6.078 11.4 603 448 155 0.8 18.530 8.403 White. .5 0. 1. .6 47.381 $75. . . . . . . . . .5 *0.6 – Region Northeast . . .2 Residence Inside metropolitan statistical areas . . . . . . .897 41. .8 12.0 15.8 0. . . . . confidence intervals [C. . . .5 0. .7 29. . .3 26 Income. . . . .8 10.4 21. . . . .5 39. .8 – –0.2 576 343 *405 –62 0. .7 18.2 31.

26.3 –0. . . . 18 to 64 years old . . . . In 2010.8 17.030 2. . the less reliable the estimate.184 28.443 12. 45. 2 Details may not sum to totals because of rounding.788 Disability Status7  Total. In 2010.3 192. . . 1 The data for 2009 were revised to reflect the results of enhancements to the editing process.8 14.015 0. About 2.pdf) 20091 Uninsured Characteristic Total Number Work Experience  Total. year-round worker is a person who worked 35 or more hours per week (full time) and 50 or more weeks during the previous calendar year (year round).0 28. For more information.3 0.html>. see www. .S.3 *776 *230 546 0. Economic Status The uninsured rate was higher among people with lower incomes and lower among people with higher incomes (Table 8). .000 or more were uninsured. *Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level. . .census. Children under the age of 19 are eligible for Medicaid/CHIP and individuals aged 19 to 25 may be a dependent on a parent’s health plan. 19.000 to $49. 175. See <www. the uninsured rate for people in households with incomes ranging from $25.228 601 146 579 21.3 192.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. 190. the uninsured rates in 2010 were not statistically different from 2009 for households with incomes less than $25. For school personnel. .999 were uninsured.6 *776 –242 216 *–458 *1.census.5 48.9 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2010.I. 14. . is available from Census 2010 through American FactFinder.000 to $49.017 0.161 41. .2 0. year round (71.999 increased to 21. . year-round workers were more likely to be covered by health insurance (85.5 percent). summer vacation is counted as weeks worked if they are scheduled to return to their job in the fall. Therefore.52 Among full-time. People as of March of the following year. Source: U.5 0. . 49. .3 0. .241 Worked full-time. see “About Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas” at <www. A group such as Asian may be defined as those who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or single-race concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they also reported another race (the race-alone-or-in-combination concept). . .015 0. .146 Did not work at least 1 week . .8 percent of people in households with incomes ranging from $25.3 (±) Percent C.3 176.5 19.] in thousands or percentage points as appropriate. The num51 A full-time.9 0. and 8. Information on people who reported more than one race. .I. . 95.627 41. . yearround workers. which were not statistically different from the 2009 estimates (Table 8). 190. 4 Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race.4 576 132 558 21.376 14.682 90 percent C.3 (±) Number Percent 576 450 318 314 307 21. . Current Population Survey.census.gov/hhes/www/hlthins/data/revhlth/index. 52 The 2010 insured rate for those who worked less than full time. . fulltime. . .032 0.html>. .3 22.048 2010 41.1 0.805 2.935 0. 2010 and 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. .8 19. . and definitions.806 601 464 332 308 339 21.I. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 27 . the uninsured rates decreased as household income increased—21. 18 to 64 years old .000. .434 41. Work Experience For people aged 18 to 64 who worked at some time during the year. .3 0. .7 28. incomes ranging from $50.000 had no health insurance coverage. . The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate. .4 percent of people in households with incomes ranging from $50.689 13.2 0. year round (71.2 – 0.5 percent). .999 were uninsured. the percent uninsured in 2010 was not statistically different from the 2009 estimates. For more information see "Standard Errors and Their Use" at <www. People Without Health Insurance Coverage by Selected Characteristics: 2009 and 2010—Con .348 38. .0 22.pdf>. .8 percent from 21.627 With a disability . sampling error.808 14.999. 5 These age groups are of special interest because of the Affordable Care Act of 2010.581 0. .9 percent of people in households with annual incomes less than $25. In 2010.6 28. Census Bureau. 7 The sum of those with and without a disability does not equal the total because disability status is not defined for individuals in the Armed Forces.805 28.3 (±) 90 90 percent percent Total Number C.0 percent in 2009.3 95.5 0. . confidence intervals [C.644 With no disability .030 All workers .5 16. .I.S.000 to $74. For information on confidentiality protection.2 *1. .gov/population/www/estimates/aboutmetro.311 13.51.5 14. . .5 15. two basic ways of defining a race group are possible. year-round .000 14.3 143. This table shows data using the first approach (race alone).census. Poverty. . such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American. Income.3 (±) Percent Change in uninsured2 Uninsured 90 percent C.0 million were uninsured in 2010.5 percent) or nonworkers (71.0 percent) than those who worked less than full time. U. . The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives. Confidence intervals shown in this table are based on standard errors calculated using replicate weights instead of the generalized variance function used in the past. 3 A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate's variability.3 0. . 15.577 39. Census Bureau Among the four household income groups.5 28.gov/hhes/www/p60_239sa. and those reporting two or more races are not shown separately. Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders. 145.095 Less than full-time.I. (Numbers in thousands. In 2010. nonsampling error. and incomes over $75.0 percent of people in households with incomes of $75. .549 0.000 to $74. .3 0. . year-round . . 6 The “Outside metropolitan statistical areas” category includes both micropolitan statistical areas and territory outside of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas.Table 8.6 48.5 percent) was not statistically different from the 2010 insured rate for nonworkers (71. .5 percent and 28. . The use of the single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. .1 0.000. . .2 – Represents zero or rounds to zero.

For more information. 2 Details may not sum to totals because of rounding.196 0.1 million) in 2009 was not statistically different from the number of uninsured less-than-full-time-year-round workers (14. a private research organization. Census Bureau .3 percent and 39. full-year workers (14. respectively.5 percent) was not statistically different from the percentage of uninsured nonworkers (28. was not statistically different from the 2009 estimate (Table 8). 12.1 million.4 percent) was not statistically different from the 2010 uninsured rate for the Midwest (13.S.5 14.1 million) in 2009. Between 2009 and 2010.0 *919 *1. 11. 53 The number of uninsured full-time. both the rate and number of uninsured increased in 2010.1 49. . U. .8 percent). and Hispanic origin. July 1990 to March 1991. .7 million in the South. sampling error. . see “Standard Errors and Their Use” at <www.3 million) in 2009 (Table 8).gov/hhes/www /p60_239sa. Current Population Survey. Prior years are based on the general variance function. Change in the Number and Percent of People Without Health Insurance During First Year After a Recession: 1991 to 2010 (Numbers in thousands. 56 In 2010.4 percent) than all children (9.1 percent (Table 8).3 percent).4 *0.3 million) were not statistically different from 2009 estimates (Table 8).7 million in 2010 from 14. .census. not statistically different from 2009 estimates.census.57 The uninsured rate for the West was 17. Census Bureau.55 Children in poverty were more likely to be uninsured (15.904 39. In 2010.3 percent for Hispanic children. ber of uninsured among full-time. there were no statistical differences in the uninsured rates for any of the regions. For non-workers. . . See Appendix A for more information. to 17.Table 9. In 2010. . see www. . 55 The uninsured rate for children under the age of 6 (9.1 percent) and those aged 6 to 11 (9. .6 million) from 16. Poverty. .0 percent). while the number of uninsured increased to 13.0 percent. and definitions.641 16. .9 * Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 Region The Northeast and the Midwest had the lowest uninsured rates in 2010. Source: U.776 38. .4 percent) than among people living inside metropolitan areas but outside principal 57 The 2010 uninsured rate for the Northeast (12. . 8.3 13. while the uninsured rate for the South was 19. ­nonsampling error. the percent uninsured in 2010 was not statistically different from 2009.4 percent and 13. the uninsured rate was higher among people living in principal cities (19. . For those without a disability aged 18 to 64.985 38. .3 percent). the uninsured rate for 2010 (28.753 *3.S. For information on confidentiality protection. at 12. Statistical significance of the changes for 2009 to 2010 is based on standard errors calculated using replicate weights.8 percent) and number of children without health insurance (7. the rate (9. .5 percent) in 2010.3 percent.9 million in the West.023 35. Figure 8 shows that children aged 12 to 17 had a higher uninsured rate (10.3 million) was not statistically different from 2009. 16. . 2010 2002 1992 Year in which the recession ended First calendar year after the recession ended Change during first ­calendar year after the recession ended2 Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent 48. .8 million in 2010 from 12. and 21.1 13.3 percent (2. while the number of uninsured decreased to 13. the rate and number of uninsured in 2010 were 22. 1 Business cycle peaks and troughs used to delineate the beginning and end of recessions are determined by the National Bureau of Economic Research. . .8 million.9 percent.pdf>. Residence The uninsured rate in 2010 for people living inside metropolitan statistical areas.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.9 percent for non-Hispanic White children.54 Disability Status Among those with a disability aged 18 to 64.2 million.2 *0. 54 The percentage of uninsured less-thanfull-time.1 percent) was not statistically different from the uninsured rate for children aged 6 to 11 (9.53 Among less-than-fulltime-year-round workers. . Uninsured rates for children varied by poverty status. Between 2009 and 2010. .6 million in the Midwest. . Children’s Health Insurance Coverage In 2010. . the uninsured rate for White children was not statistically different from the uninsured rate for Asian children. 1992 to 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.pdf) People without health insurance Recession1 First calendar year after the recession ended December 2007 to June 2009. age. the uninsured rates were 6. full-year workers (28. March 2001 to November 2001. race.9 percent for Asian children. and 16.0 percent (2.0 percent for Black children. . People as of March of the following year. the number of uninsured increased in the Northeast to 6. .9 percent) than those under age 6 (9. .445 16.9 15.5 percent) was not statistically different from 2009. year-round workers in 2010 (14. while there were no statistical differences for the other three regions—8.8 million in 2009. 28 Income. . .56 These 2010 uninsured rates were not statistically different from the respective rates in 2009.

gov/hhes /www/hlthins/hlthins. . .census. . . . . 30. . Medicare alone2 . . . . . .S. . .2 Military health care1. . . . . . .cheeseman. . . while the number of uninsured in 2010.3. . . . . . . . Direct-purchase alone2. . .html> for poverty data. . . .3 *64. . . . . .census.59 Jennifer Cheeseman Day Assistant Division Chief. . . . . Current Population Survey. . Poverty. . . . . . .3 4. . . Any government plan alone2. . . . 16. .S. . . . Military health care alone2. . . Census Bureau Washington. . . . Coverage by Type of Health Insurance: 2009 and 2010 (People as of March of the following year. . .2 15. . . . . .gov> or directly at <www. . 4. . .5 percent. . . . .7 Medicaid1. . . . . contact the Census Bureau’s Customer Services Center at 1-800-923-8282 (toll free) or search your topic of interest using the Census Bureau’s “Question and Answer Center” found at <ask. . .7 *9.3 *Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level. . . . . . . . . .8 3.2 percent from 15. . . and briefings are available electronically on the U. . . 15. please write to: Charles T. . .8 Direct-purchase1 . . U. . 1 The estimates by type of coverage are not mutually exclusive.2 percent). . . . . . 9. . . . . . . as well as care provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs and the military. . .5 53. . . . . . press releases. . Medicaid alone2 . . . . . Census Bureau cities (14.1 16. . . .9 11. . 56. . . .gov/hhes/www /poverty/poverty.gov> 58 The 2009 uninsured rate for people living in metropolitan statistical areas (16. Microdata are available for download by clicking “Data Tools” on the Census Bureau’s home page and then clicking the “DataFerrett” link. . DC 20233-8500 Or send e-mail to: <jennifer. . . . . Technical methods have been applied to CPS microdata to avoid disclosing the identities of individuals from whom data were collected. . . The 2010 uninsured rate for people living in metropolitan statistical areas (16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . If you have suggestions or comments on the income and poverty data. . . . . . . . . . poverty. . . . . . . . .2 percent) was not statistically different from the 2009 uninsured rate for people living outside metropolitan statistical areas (15. .t. 3 Military health care includes Tricare and CHAMPVA (Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veteran Affairs).gov/hhes/www/cpstc/apm/cpstc_altpov . 7.S.gov> If you have suggestions or comments on the health insurance coverage data. . . . . . .pdf) Coverage type 2009 2010 Any private plan1 . . . poverty. . . . the uninsured rate for people living outside of metropolitan statistical areas increased to 16. . . . . . . . . .5 *14. . and <www. or health insurance data. . . . . . .3 4.nelson@census. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 *52. . . . . . Employment-based alone2 . . . 64. . . . . . . . . . . . . .S. . .gov /hhes/www/income. . . . . .6 3.census. . . . . . nonsampling error. .3 percent) was not statistically different from the 2010 uninsured rate for people living outside metropolitan statistical areas (16. . .4 percent). . . .7 Employment-based1. . For assistance with income. . . . . . . . . . . .5 *4. . You can ­generate estimates using your own definitions of income and poverty with CPS Table Creator II <www. . . .8 million. . . . . and Housing   Statistics Division U. . .4 *31. . . .census. 14. Income. . . . . . . . The Current Population Survey (CPS) Table Creator <www. . . .census. . . . .html>. . .html> for health insurance data. and Housing   Statistics Division U. .html> gives you the ability to create customized tables from the CPS Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC). 59 The 2010 uninsured rate for people living inside metropolitan statistical areas (16. . . . . . . . . . see www. . . . Any private plan alone2. people did not have any other type of health insurance during the year. . . . .1 46.day@census. . . . and health Insurance Web sites. . 2 The estimates by type of coverage are mutually exclusive. . .Table 10. . . . Economic   Characteristics Social. . . . . . . Census Bureau’s income. . . . . . . . <www. . . . . . . . . . . DC 20233-8500 Or send e-mail to: <charles. . Census Bureau. . .3 *45. people can be covered by more than one type of health insurance during the year. . . Census Bureau Washington. . . historical tables. . .census.7 Any government plan1. . . . . .7 11. . . . Economic. . . .S. . . . . . . . .58 In 2010. . .3. . . . . . The Web sites may be accessed through the Census Bureau’s home page at <www.html> for income data. . . . . . . . . . . Economic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Uninsured . .6 19. . . . .0 19. . . For information on confidentiality protection. . please write to: Additional Data and Contacts Detailed tables. .gov>. . COMMENTS The Census Bureau welcomes the comments and advice of data and report users. Employment   Characteristics Social. . .gov/hhes/www/cpstc /cps_table_creator. . . and definitions. .5 percent). . . . . . . . . sampling error. . . .census.2 percent). . . . . . . . .6 *55. . .census. . . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 29 . . 2010 and 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.1 1. . . . . . . . . Nelson Assistant Division Chief. .2 1. Source: U. . was not statistically different from the 2009 estimate. . . . . .gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. .3 percent) was not statistically different from the 2010 uninsured rate for people living outside metropolitan statistical areas (16.7 Medicare1. . .

.

Recessions Business cycle peaks and troughs used to delineate the beginning and end of recessions. and goods produced and consumed on the farm. etc. union dues. Public assistance 7. such as food stamps. readers should be aware that for many different reasons there is a tendency in household surveys for respondents to underreport their income. Earnings 2. which often take the form of the use of business transportation and facilities. etc. such as age. Child support 17. Veterans’ payments 8. Other income It should be noted that although the income statistics refer to receipts during the preceding calendar year. Educational assistance 15. Census Bureau who are current residents but did not reside in the household during the previous year. Survivor benefits 9. Income. social security.nber. Supplemental security income 6. money income does not reflect the fact that some families receive noncash benefits. ESTIMATES OF INCOME How Income Is Measured For each person 15 years and older in the sample. the demographic characteristics. Pension or retirement income 11. full or partial payments by business for retirement programs. Medicare deductions. Financial assistance from outside of the household 18. health benefits. The income of the household does not include amounts received by people who were members during all or part of the previous year if these people no longer resided in the household at the time of the interview. Disability benefits Recessions Peak month Year Trough month Year November 1948 October 1949 July 1953 May 1954 August 1957 April 1958 April 1960 February 1961 December 1969 November 1970 November 1973 March 1975 January 1980 July 1980 July 1981 November 1982 July 1990 March 1991 March 2001 November 2001 December 2007 June 2009 Source:  National Bureau of Economic Research Cambridge. The data points in the time series charts in this report use July as a reference. In addition. Census Bureau cover money income received (exclusive of certain money receipts such as capital gains) before payments for personal income taxes. Therefore. and household composition. and that the reported wage and salary income is nearly equal to independent estimates of aggregate income.S. Poverty. Based on an analysis of independently derived income estimates. the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) asks questions on the amount of money income received in the preceding calendar year from each of the following sources: 1. Social security 5. medical and educational expenses. are determined by the National Bureau of Economic Research. Alimony 16. royalties. money income does not reflect the fact that noncash benefits are also received by some nonfarm residents. Moreover.org> 10. are as of the survey date.S. and estates and trusts 14. as shown in the text box above. Dividends 13. Interest 12. Data on income collected in the ASEC by the U. Rents. MA 02138 <www. a private research organization. subsidized housing. labor force status.APPENDIX A. Unemployment compensation 3. The Current Population Survey (CPS) collects income data for people U. the Census Bureau determined that respondents report income earned from wages or salaries more accurately than other sources of income. Data users should consider these elements when comparing income levels. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 31 . Workers’ compensation 4.

0 1981���������������������������� 40.9 2008���������������������������� 97.2 In order to accurately assess changes in income and earnings over time.9 2001���������������������������� 63.3 215.2 315.2 1989���������������������������� 48.7 296.7 2003���������������������������� 68.5 1984���������������������������� 44.4 1998���������������������������� 56.1 225.3 2006���������������������������� 86.6 198.1 210.5 1980���������������������������� 40. Poverty.2 1986���������������������������� 45. Note: Data users can compute the percentage changes in prices between earlier years’ data and 2010 data by dividing the annual average CPI-U-RS for 2010 by the annual average for the earlier year(s).7 1992���������������������������� 50.7 244.” 1 The Census Bureau uses the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Consumer Price Index Research Series (CPI-U-RS) for 1977 through 2010.8 1985���������������������������� 45.3 2000���������������������������� 60.1 1996���������������������������� 52.0 2005���������������������������� 80.7 1988���������������������������� 47.2 270.4 236. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U.5 220.1 304.4 286.7 1983���������������������������� 44.4 1995���������������������������� 52.2 1993���������������������������� 50. an adjustment for changes in the cost of living is required.9 2002���������������������������� 66.9 260.4 2010���������������������������� CPI-U-RS1 index (December 1977 = 100) 114.1 139. The Census Bureau derived the CPI-U-RS for years before 1977 by applying the 1977 CPI-U-RS-to-CPI-U ratio to the 1947-to-1976 CPI-U.5 1979���������������������������� 40.0 264.7 252.0 320.S.7 168.9 1991���������������������������� 49.4 180.5 1990���������������������������� 48.S. Census Bureau . For more information on the CPI-U-RS.8 188.1 277. 32 Income.4 127. provided by the U.5 316.5 1982���������������������������� 43.9 2007���������������������������� 91.4 231. to adjust for changes in the cost of living.7 174.gov/cpi/cpirsdc.9 160. Bureau of Labor Statistics for 1977 through 2010.2 165.htm>.7 1994���������������������������� 51. The Census Bureau uses the research series of the Consumer Price Index (CPI-U-RS).1 1999���������������������������� 58.Cost-of-Living Adjustment Annual Average Consumer Price Index Research Series (CPI-U-RS) Using Current Methods All Items: 1947 to 2010 Year 1947����������������������������� 1948����������������������������� 1949����������������������������� 1950����������������������������� 1951����������������������������� 1952����������������������������� 1953����������������������������� 1954����������������������������� 1955����������������������������� 1956����������������������������� 1957����������������������������� 1958����������������������������� 1959����������������������������� 1960����������������������������� 1961����������������������������� 1962����������������������������� 1963����������������������������� 1964����������������������������� 1965����������������������������� 1966����������������������������� 1967����������������������������� 1968����������������������������� 1969����������������������������� 1970����������������������������� 1971����������������������������� 1972����������������������������� 1973����������������������������� 1974����������������������������� 1975����������������������������� 1976����������������������������� 1977����������������������������� 1978����������������������������� CPI-U-RS1 index (December 1977 = 100) Year 37. see <www.6 153. The indexes used to make the constant dollar conversions are shown in the text box “Annual Average Consumer Price Index Research Series (CPI-U-RS) Using Current Methods All Items: 1947 to 2010.4 239.7 2004���������������������������� 73.0 205.bls.2 147.0 1987���������������������������� 45.7 2009���������������������������� 104.9 1997���������������������������� 54.

567 56.439 36.772 882 861 1.072 58.929 908 807 742 1.105 96. Income and Earnings Summary Measures by Selected Characteristics: 2007 and 2010 (Income in 2010 dollars.510 54.pdf) 2007 Median income (dollars) Characteristic Percentage change in real median income (2010 less 2007) 2010 Median income (dollars) Estimate 90 percent confidence interval1 (±) Number (thousands) Estimate 90 percent confidence interval1 (±) Estimate 90 percent confidence interval1 (±) 116.846 54.663 458 773 819 1.671 6.445 534 *–6.census.4 1.059 61.4 *–7.910 21.644 62.9 2.372 1.494 102.647 16.520 19.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.189 611 93.091 52. A group such as Asian may be defined as those who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or single-race concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they also reported another race (the race-alone-or-in-combination concept).665 37. This table shows data using the first approach (race alone).408 533 1.048 13.456 35.835 61. Current Population Survey.409 31.931 735 241 0.065 4.1 *–7.573 46.585 *–5.778 39.718 29.5 1.062 26.597 26.5 0. sampling error.591 39. Information on people who reported more than one race.714 1.1 4.288 43. not Hispanic ��������������������������������������������������� Black ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� Asian ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 95.068 64.census.802 57.280 1.574 76.S.345 29.8 1.9 Hispanic (any race)������������������������������������������������������� 13. Standard errors in this table were calculated using replicate weights and may differ from the standard errors in other appendix tables that were calculated using general variance formula parameters.673 1.140 19.1 *–8. 2008 and 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.276 28.7 0.4 3.244 44. Census Bureau Income.471 15.472 59.6 101. For information on confidentiality protection. see "Standard Errors and Their Use" at <www.069 1. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. nonsampling error. The use of the single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data.852 60.5 3. see “About Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas” at <www.7 0.html>.049 56.100 564 *–7.9 0. two basic ways of defining a race group are possible.2 3.3 White�����������������������������������������������������������������������������   White.404 5. 3 The “Outside metropolitan statistical areas” category includes both micropolitan statistical areas and territory outside of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas.038 17.1 1. Census Bureau. Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders.445 45.2 3. Poverty. Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives.266 43.250 24.680 7.429 53.401 425 1. Confidence intervals shown in this table are based on standard errors calculated using replicate weights instead of the general variance function used in the past.984 45.613 58.1 *–5.503 46.4 *–10.9 1.216 684 986 *–6.census.036 15. no husband present�����������������   Male householder.9 1.912 382 260 56.8 21. and those reporting two or more races are not shown separately in this table.3 2.322 50. and definitions.536 19.1 77.492 53. For more information.069 21.Table A-1.578 393 1.1 *–4.448 24.620 32.266 39.484 60.909 24.765 14.752 35.116 784 957 99.2 *–6.747 51.136 3.412 42.9 *–8.277 7.5 97.0 *–15.127 1.872 65.417 51.0 0.421 806 825 1.9 *–8.104 15.7 3.9 1. the less reliable the estimate.538 35.669 44.3 1.gov/population/www/estimates/aboutmetro. is available from the 2010 Census through American FactFinder.823 360 118.793 19.469 902 *–6.    Source: U.764 477 871 647 732 1.211 53.140 40. About 2.732 25.828 25.665 69.4 *–5.0 2.4 2.234 18.105 54.S.530 21.572 21.327 68.142 1.6 0.0 2.112 82.715 36.2 *–7.682 49.7 *–5. U.6 *–9. Therefore.0 *–5.254 53.225 22.031 49.485 56.339 40.036 8.627 438 796 605 1.9 4.547 38.7 *–5.406 42.873 58. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 33 .544 576 615 772 *–6.9 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2010.4 62.751 32.834 47.283 48. such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American.192 54.5 4.100 38.709 415 1.2 *5.1 *–5.161 26.3 3.362 55.320 6.gov/hhes/www/p60_239sa. 1 A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate's variability.469 8.301 –3. Households and people as of March of the following year.5 4.758 50.783 52.3 2.626 426 602 581 78.554 19.759 985 *–7.642 36.9 Number (thousands) HOUSEHOLDS         All households ��������������������������������������������� Type of Household Family households���������������������������������������������������������   Married-couple�����������������������������������������������������������   Female householder.3 *–6.6 2.460 33.559 40.1 *–6.613 47.3 *–6.3 –0. see www.869 48.7 1.5 2.494 54. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate. 2 Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race.351 26.750 52.287 425 1. For more information.pdf>.144 83.0 92.575 31.113 59.9 *–3. YEAR-ROUND    WORKERS Men with earnings��������������������������������������������������������� Women with earnings ��������������������������������������������������� *Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level.511 387 618 1.370 14.308 415 725 814 2.730 25.551 4.5 1.969 52.139 21.4 *–6.019 5.8 2.646 65.544 72. no wife present ��������������������������� Nonfamily households���������������������������������������������������   Female householder �������������������������������������������������   Male householder ����������������������������������������������������� Race2 and Hispanic Origin of Householder Age of Householder Under 65 years �������������������������������������������������������������   15 to 24 years �����������������������������������������������������������   25 to 34 years �����������������������������������������������������������   35 to 44 years �����������������������������������������������������������   45 to 54 years �����������������������������������������������������������   55 to 64 years ����������������������������������������������������������� 65 years and older��������������������������������������������������������� Nativity of Householder Native born ������������������������������������������������������������������� Foreign born �����������������������������������������������������������������   Naturalized citizen�����������������������������������������������������   Not a citizen��������������������������������������������������������������� Region Northeast����������������������������������������������������������������������� Midwest������������������������������������������������������������������������� South����������������������������������������������������������������������������� West ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� Residence Inside metropolitan statistical areas �����������������������������   Inside principal cities�������������������������������������������������   Outside principal cities����������������������������������������������� Outside metropolitan statistical areas3 ������������������������� EARNINGS OF FULL-TIME.

0 100.2 14.0 100.1 20. .011 2005. . . . and definitions.018 99.4 20. .845 50.030 74.999 13.0 100. .2 1.2 23.252 51.3 11.000 $100. .5 22. .213 53. .999 $199. . . . . .616 46. . . . .000 and over 49.3 14. .838 62.0 100. 112. . . .2 11. .7 3.7 12.0 13.7 18. . . . 114. .9 11. . .1 2.4 14.2 15.5 1. . 77. .0 1.2 10. .5 7.4 16.8 16. . . . .8 15.783 2006.114 71.2 1. . . . . . .770 Value 209 217 139 147 224 173 226 223 168 159 167 249 307 232 248 280 214 217 221 226 247 270 236 226 245 247 204 198 197 230 229 218 187 167 164 177 171 175 172 168 160 163 154 148 Standard error Median income (dollars) 67.0 100. . .9 12. .3 12.6 10.8 3.6 10. . . .6 13.7 11.0 100. .3 1. .9 20. .5 11.9 12. .0 15.3 10. . . 103. .6 1. .1 11.115 50.0 12.766 51.3 13.9 10.4 1. . . .7 2. . . For information on confidentiality protection. . . . .0 17.297 3 108.1 3.6 15.251 197216 .340 43.646 47. .0 100.1 1. . .2 11.6 12.823 52.8 $200. . .937 46.1 14.6 17.530 69.112 48. .9 15. .5 12.731 54. .9 14. . .9 0.4 12.000 12.6 4. . . .142 197613 . .9 4.9 4.8 1. . 1986. . . . . 1998.5 $25.1 11. .0 10.074 46.181 2007. Race.112 45.3 12. . . . . .789 198411 .5 14. . . . . .1 22.107 19937 . .353 51. . 76.9 11. .3 8. .5 10.1 12. .6 4. . .0 100.137 59. . .2 15. .6 11.5 14. .8 0.5 Under $15.4 14.3 12. . . .2 15.7 13. . . .1 0. .8 18.766 44.9 12. . . .1 12.9 4.5 4. .2 12. .343 2004 . 1978. . .8 4.5 11. . . .6 12.1 12.6 1. . 116. .339 71.164 53.453 43.203 60.4 15.685 72. . . .8 2.8 11. .174 51.487 62.6 10. .3 16. . .5 12. . .9 2.347 1988.9 $35.382 56. .0 100. .5 15. . . . .3 3. .0 12. .7 15.8 12.5 4. . . . .5 10.527 40.3 2. . . .7 12.3 12.8 4. . . . . .0 100. .6 4.5 14.108 42. . .8 18.245 59.7 11. . . .124 51. 96.813 196718 . . 15 . .8 15. . . .7 12.7 17. . Census Bureau Number (thousands) ALL RACES 2010. .0 100. . .2 12. .676 197117 .0 19.6 15.1 11. .746 69. . . .7 11. .000 to $150. 1983. .419 46. . . . . . . .4 14. .5 1. .2 3. 2008. . 93.3 13.023 70.8 21. . . .9 4. .1 20.8 4.124 19879 . Race and Hispanic origin of householder and year 100.4 13.8 22. .6 11.859 68.5 12. . . .7 18.4 2. .0 100.1 18. . .2 10. . . .8 2. . . .1 19.6 14.4 18. .0 100.6 23. . .5 16.6 22.0 12. .3 13.6 12.2 1.0 3. 4 106.0 100. . .076 48.7 23. .7 12. .408 46.0 100. .2 7.2 11.7 0. .1 12.479 88.000 to to $99.0 100.8 11.9 4.201 43. .735 52. .0 100. .3 $50.4 18. 64.758 43.2 18.2 12. . . . . .8 0. .2 11.7 11. .1 4.6 12. . .9 18.7 12.9 12. 71. 1970.988 70. .0 100. . .0 10. . .0 17. . .0 12.278 2001. . . 83. . .4 12.7 14.9 10. .8 11.4 2.5 10.999 10. . .0 10.8 11.0 1.1 3. .0 12. .3 1. 116. . 97. .9 3. .0 100.999 17. . and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2010—Con .8 13. . . . 63. . . . .000 to $74.876 44. .1 20. . .2 8. . . . . . .1 10. . 69. .0 1.5 4. . . .0 0.1 11. .0 1. . .0 11. . .626 69. .196 43.256 45. .209 2000 .1 15. . .095 71. . . . . . . . .1 3. .0 100.0 100.2 14.479 44. . .S.pdf) Households by Total Money Income. . Table A-2.4 12. . .6 12. .0 10.8 2.8 12. . .627 19955 .1 13. . . . .8 11. . . . . .4 9. .0 21. 92. 98.599 Value 234 247 245 248 278 267 263 256 263 286 285 372 374 377 365 349 338 333 248 244 256 270 269 244 237 222 202 198 195 191 194 207 209 161 160 158 163 162 163 158 160 158 154 148 Standard error Mean income (dollars) (Income in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars.9 22. . .795 70. .2 12.000 to $49. .599 50. 117. .0 100.5 12.1 2. . See footnotes at end of table. .5 11.3 11. 72. .1 15. 94. .0 100.202 44.5 1. .9 2.7 15. . .9 14. .2 18.4 12. . . . . .000 2002. . .849 52.5 15. 2003. . . .4 17.0 2. Poverty.4 13.0 100. .9 3. .0 100. .9 12.874 1997.5 15.4 11.778 1969. .669 1990. .407 1982.3 8. .3 3.918 1981. . .7 12.9 12.999 Percentage distribution 11.990 19946 .5 18.2 2.649 46. .9 11. .4 10.0 100. .4 12. . 89.6 22.5 1.1 1.802 43.0 12.7 1. 62.064 54.5 12. .7 12. . .2 8.9 11.7 12.2 14.0 100. .6 14. . .4 4.0 Total 13.6 4.2 8.7 11. . .6 11.3 4. .894 52. Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights. . . .6 21. . .000 to $24.2 11. . .7 11. .9 12.7 18.1 12. . . . .6 1. . .4 11.8 11.750 61.1 5. . .3 14.3 11. . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U.2 7. .999 $149.2 10.2 1. sampling error. .0 13. . .640 44. .6 12. .6 12. . . .1 21. . . .3 10.109 45.9 12. .999 3. . .7 7. .312 1989.0 11.0 100.000 to $34. .8 14.0 16. .9 12. 66.307 65.0 4.1 15. . . . .0 100. . . .8 0. . . .0 8.939 52. 111. .4 2. . .0 100. .368 80. . .census. .771 52. .5 14.7 16. . . .867 197514 . . .1 6. .4 14.290 71.556 59. .0 100.1 15.3 11.9 $15. 1973.0 11.0 14. .0 11. . . .944 50. .2 12.0 100. .2 11.4 11. .3 20.4 14.8 10.384 2 113. . .7 18.2 12.207 63.538 20091 . . . .6 14.324 52. . .3 2.9 17. 83. . .8 9.9 11.8 1.9 $75.9 22.5 11.0 12. .0 100.5 4. .3 20. . .4 7. .398 52. 1991.8 11. .9 20. 109.8 12. . . . . . .0 100. . .6 12. . .739 51. . .0 15. .34 Income. . .5 12.270 67.417 53.0 2.0 0. . . . . .2 11.7 12. .3 11.0 100.032 48.0 4. . . .6 3.1 12.098 69.2 15. .527 1980.401 1968. Households as of March of the following year.2 2.7 11.180 48. . . . .2 3.423 49.5 12.0 100. 85.992 50.0 19.2 10. . .6 12. . .1 11.2 12.6 11. . .505 58.0 100. . .7 15.330 1977.7 9.481 44.0 100.0 11. . .167 54. .426 19928 .gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.1 17.4 16.9 3. . . . .8 12.458 198510 . . . .5 11. .0 100.6 19.2 1.8 12. . . .1 10. .6 12. 101.2 4.8 10.830 91. .1 2. . 118. .682 117. . . 95.3 18.1 6.4 17.848 47. . .0 100. 82. .216 47.602 49.3 11. . .3 10. . . . . . .379 52.003 60.0 20.5 12. .445 50. .3 21.7 17. .0 1.1 3. nonsampling error.8 12.6 15.9 8. .0 100.0 12.123 49. . . . . . . . see www.2 10. . .4 11. .1 6.8 12. .528 1996. .8 12. . . .0 11.434 1999 .8 8. . . . . .5 11.4 14.2 10. 86.005 53. .0 16. . . .0 100. .8 12. .7 15. .163 197414.5 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . .214 60.5 12.776 197912 . 102. . .0 100. .0 17. .6 11. .1 2.

.095 54.0 100. . . .0 3.8 11. . . .1 11. .5 13.3 7. .9 4.9 5. . . . .4 13. . . . . . 20 WHITE 2001.6 2.6 11.1 12. .0 1.6 16.2 13. .7 10. . Race.7 18. . 94. .4 11. . .0 100.2 17.315 61. .8 13.766 1979 . . . . . .0 100.6 1. . .3 1.999 $149. . . . .4 $35. 73.694 48.0 100.6 1.2 10.4 4.4 22.5 11.106 1997. 55. 1968.2 10. . .9 7. . .934 1977.4 13. . .2 11. . . . .7 1. . . .1 12. . .7 14.7 11.8 11.1 13.3 14. .6 $75. 80.8 11. .889 56.227 53.4 14. . .182 1982.0 100.572 71.7 12.2 23.2 12. . 14 64.511 1995 .9 21. .965 1973. .588 2 92.4 14. . 91. .9 13. . .3 1.809 49.3 1.618 197216 .0 100.992 52. . .3 15.2 19. . . .6 1.0 100.0 11. .4 1. .3 13. .1 4. . 74. . . .1 16. .506 51.0 12.5 14. .324 47. .3 13. . .7 11. .2 12.9 21.2 11.pdf) Households by Total Money Income.212 1998.9 8. .2 11. .808 61. .0 12. .188 1967 .999 $199. .9 11. . . .3 21. .2 11.8 11. . . . .0 100. . . . . .300 67.8 4.6 10.3 11.5 12.048 60.7 6. 1981.6 8.0 100. .6 11. . .0 18.6 2.3 11.974 54. . .1 11.4 1. .412 70.307 48.1 17.0 11.8 4. .473 57. .3 2. .2 11.1 22.7 2. . 1989. .737 82. 91. .5 18. Census Bureau Income. .7 15.383 65. .5 11.2 14.000 to $49.0 100.4 10.868 52. .489 20091 . . . .2 1. .3 11. .0 15. .3 10. . . . . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 35 Number (thousands) WHITE ALONE19 96.0 4. .575 1970.1 $25. . .9 13.0 18.7 10.603 55.7 20.5 17.4 13. .1 10.3 1.4 15. .358 47. .0 Total 11.2 19.813 58. .734 9 78.8 18. . .4 11.265 70.669 72. .519 1987 . . .7 12.615 73. .3 11. . .0 100.5 13. . . . .8 13.3 11.957 74.2 1.3 15.0 100. Table A-2. . . . .0 100.2 11.811 46. . . .1 3.7 5. . .7 12. . .5 3.8 13. . . .4 10.0 2. .2 12. .3 23. .4 10.032 44. .846 52. .7 19.9 4. .353 1976 . . . . .7 10.5 4. . .1 4. . . .8 4.1 11. .328 1984 .675 1991.4 18. . . . .2 4.0 100. . .6 13.1 2. . .6 19. . . .968 1990. . .7 15. .972 50.0 100. 2006.8 13.1 5. .2 4.1 3. . .1 12. .3 14. .163 1988. . . . 90.3 19.9 4. . . . .3 18. . . .5 10. .9 13.9 11. .796 66. .705 2005.0 100.0 11. .302 45.158 55.5 10.0 100.6 11. .0 10.516 51. . . 72.3 15.264 45.284 76. . . . . . .9 2. . . . . . .1 19. .8 14.2 12.824 55. . .1 0.9 14.000 to to $99. . .3 11. . . .8 12.0 100.011 72. . . . 71.9 $15. .8 13. . . .2 12.6 12.1 $200.787 51.9 9. . .0 100. Race and Hispanic origin of householder and year 11.0 100. .775 46. .6 12. . . . .000 to $74. . 6 1994 . .9 22.814 62.827 53. 15 .5 12.0 100.9 12. .0 3. .1 12. . . . .0 100.205 56. . . .962 2003.3 15.1 1. . .028 1978. . .1 11.030 46. .2 1.0 10.1 13. .8 13. For information on confidentiality protection. . see www.6 13.0 0. . 66. . . . Households as of March of the following year.8 15. . .9 12.5 4. . .2 13. . . .1 18.7 11.4 14. .642 Value 257 246 280 274 335 266 266 278 285 238 239 231 251 301 253 241 257 238 206 208 214 242 230 212 197 192 166 175 184 182 173 175 168 165 154 163 157 154 162 159 237 211 212 222 Standard error Median income (dollars) 74. and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2010—Con . .504 48. 56.0 100. .8 23.7 14.394 54.2 12. .1 10. . .613 55. .7 12.228 72.999 18.7 15. .0 100.7 11. . . 95. . . . . .5 13.022 74.9 11. . .413 49. .9 12.0 13. . .1 16.4 12. .4 11. 95. .7 16.392 1975 . . .2 11. . .092 73. .9 11.0 1.1 12. . .5 6.000 to $24. . . .gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. .9 10. .000 and over 54. .387 19937 . .645 2002. .7 13. .5 11. .2 13.4 11. . .515 64.4 12. 17 59.7 8.845 1980.9 16. .3 12. . .0 100. .0 11. .3 10. 79.8 23. .1 12. .6 3.0 10. .4 11. . .5 8. See footnotes at end of table.999 Percentage distribution 13. . . . .8 10.1 12. .6 12.6 15. . .857 54.5 11. . . . . . . .927 64. . .332 45. .0 Under $15.042 49.1 21.1 10.059 5 84. . . . . . .7 11.0 10. . . . . .7 11.9 12.795 1992 .802 54. .8 11.0 100. .3 13.census.2 16. .9 10.9 12. . .569 45.2 4. .2 11.0 100. .8 13.9 1.2 1. . .4 23. .384 54. .2 4.999 14. .030 20003 . .2 11.0 100.622 50. .842 47. .703 62. .4 9.3 4.0 100.8 11. .0 100. . .0 100.5 20.9 22. .585 46.8 1. .070 48. 81. . . . .0 100. . . .2 1. 8 81. . 60. .999 4. .7 10.652 52. .1 13. .144 2010.576 198510 .681 48. . . .463 1971 . .6 12.7 10. .7 12. . . .0 12.2 1. .8 1.6 19.9 11.709 72.7 24. . .5 3. Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights.909 54.8 8. .112 2007. .9 0. . .5 12. .0 100.1 12.6 24. 57.2 2.5 18. .0 100.386 54.0 20. . . . . .5 11.1 13.523 75.585 62.9 0. . .732 73. .9 14.717 52. . . .6 11.5 18.9 10.0 12.000 to $150.5 16. 83.7 1.9 10.6 3. .1 15. . 86.4 2. . .2 19. . .5 11. . . 68. 13 65.797 54.7 11. 1996. .8 8.7 7.3 13. .7 16. . 95. . .0 10.7 11.6 22. . 4 88.7 23. . sampling error. 87.4 12.0 100. . .0 100. . .1 3. .2 18.5 10.0 100. .4 12. .0 11. 61.1 12.2 11.2 $50. and definitions.7 20.6 16.2 10. 80.5 13. .3 4.2 2.3 4. . . .3 10.8 8. .S.3 18.4 18. . . . . . . .8 13. .6 13. 93. . . .999 10.2 13. . . . .7 0.5 6. 11 75.8 11.0 4.6 12. .8 12.6 20.469 46.394 18 54.7 1.650 51. .7 13.1 20.0 11.8 1.4 11.4 11.042 54.4 1. . . . . .5 2. nonsampling error.279 42. .3 5. . .1 10. . 77. .2 4. . . . . .2 10. . .9 7. 85. .919 Value 320 322 420 426 428 401 385 381 371 276 269 281 299 296 268 260 245 222 214 215 207 212 227 227 177 174 173 175 175 177 168 170 174 165 160 269 276 277 282 311 305 299 293 297 Standard error Mean income (dollars) (Income in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. .5 13.5 10. . . . .4 13.974 49.041 49. . .2 24. .7 11.1 10. .2 2.0 20. .422 50.4 4.9 12.0 100. . . .0 100.297 2008. .2 11.0 2. . .000 $100.0 13. .0 10. . . .647 54.6 11.648 51. Poverty. . .872 12 70. .0 100.4 3. . .0 100.285 50. . . . . .0 100. .0 100. .4 2.U.2 14.8 20.9 20. .880 2004 . .984 197414. . . .000 100. .6 6.3 3.2 18. . 62. . .5 12.682 90. . . .3 13.0 3. . . .3 3. .147 55.4 12.5 4.3 3. .5 4.415 45. 1986.1 13. .248 1969. .9 0.3 4. . .4 12. . . . . . . . .376 1983. .5 9. . .132 47. . .7 11. .000 to $34.893 1999 .9 11. . .1 11. .8 10.2 12.

.8 8.000 100.716 55. . .5 4. . . . . .4 15.378 63.8 6. . .661 52. .3 11. . .7 10. .5 22. .3 12.9 13. . .005 197216 .6 13. .1 15. .577 1997. .5 12.2 14.5 13.9 10. .5 12.7 11.0 13. .7 11. . . .1 0. .6 7. .955 77. . . . . .2 1.1 22.1 1.9 14.2 1.2 2. .9 21. . . .6 12.2 15.5 13. 64. .0 100. .0 100.0 100.6 1.056 2007. .214 1981.0 100.3 15. .1 12.0 16. .4 15.2 3.879 64.5 5. . . .2 3. . . . . . Race and Hispanic origin of householder and year 11. . . . . .818 80. . .gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.6 16. . .0 11.625 1990. . . . . . . .9 10. . . .2 12. .2 13.1 8. . .3 14. . . . . . . .2 20. . .0 11.9 12.6 14.0 20.2 2. . .8 11.8 4.7 11.004 55. nonsampling error. .8 10.004 19946 . . . . . and definitions.7 15. .2 9.2 4. . .5 8. .2 15. sampling error. .S.4 13.620 55. .9 2.0 Under $15. .6 11.720 47. .495 1988.039 76. . . .3 12.488 55. . . . .0 100. .648 1982. . .6 1.685 53. 82.4 2.757 56.5 10.0 100. . 1998.6 1.883 76. .0 100. . .4 13.3 3. .000 and over 32.0 13. .067 71.2 1.836 1977.4 17. . .399 2 14.0 100.5 1. .6 15.3 13. NOT  20   HISPANIC 2001.360 56. .5 2. . .0 100. . .1 10.619 75.5 10. . .3 12.1 15. .5 3.4 13.9 13.1 11.106 12 67.8 9.158 20091 . .7 1. .9 8.4 11. . .2 1. .8 10.5 5. . .0 100. . . 2003. .5 9.3 10. . .0 13.6 13. .0 7.7 23.5 2.000 to $24. 82. . . . .067 9 73. 80. .0 100. .697 1993 .5 16. .6 16. . .097 63. 2003.2 13.1 13.2 13. . . . . .9 11. . .2 10.3 9. .0 100.0 100. .0 100.000 to $74.5 18.5 11.3 1.9 1. .6 10.282 73. .3 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 14. . . .2 11.747 34. . 14 61.449 75. . .5 16.8 11.8 12. 59.5 4.0 100. 14.811 49.799 50. .6 11.0 12. . .7 12.999 15. .0 11.462 51.1 2.4 13.4 3.1 15. .1 11.1 12. .3 15. .6 14.5 13. .6 3.2 2.709 2005.6 12. . 72. . . . .246 45.4 14. .1 13.0 100.6 23.2 11. .0 9.7 18.9 2. . .999 12. . . .1 1. . .0 8. .2 15.6 4. . . Poverty.3 18.7 13.8 1.8 13.4 4.849 34. .9 7. .246 49. .533 1975 . 75. .8 11.4 $15. .9 10. . .8 13. . .4 13. .3 18.0 100.1 2. .36 Income. 1986. .0 5. 7 75. .692 54. .9 12. .0 100. .2 12.0 100.815 51.6 14.059 55.961 53.5 1. . .9 10.8 2. . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U. . . .3 10. . . .0 100. . . .6 3.7 10.6 4.2 15. .8 3.8 12.9 11. . . . . .7 2.8 4.846 68. .0 100.2 1.4 10. .1 12. . . . .8 13.672 52.4 12.8 2.5 10. . . .987 48. .584 76. .749 48.7 4.5 16. . . .0 11. . . . . .0 100. .0 13.0 100.3 15. .7 11. .7 11. . .8 12. . . . . .2 10. .3 3. .1 8.675 2005.996 1980. . . .9 $75. 8 75. .2 3.8 15. . . .0 100.5 13.148 2002.1 10.4 1.3 10.6 4.365 1976 . . .884 2007.3 2.2 10.5 14. . . . .2 18. .7 23.1 5. . . .5 3. . .4 1.540 198510 . .1 11.999 14.    NOT HISPANIC19 2010.999 $199. . .1 1. . . .212 20091 . .376 51.0 10. 68. see www. . . . . . and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2010—Con .215 48.6 10. . .9 10. . .003 2 81.935 47. .1 11.6 10. . . . . .0 16. .0 10.7 10. .7 20.8 18.236 58.3 9. 11 70.7 23. . .5 14.731 72.196 47.0 12.5 11.0 100.4 19. .628 2004 .4 12. Census Bureau Number (thousands) WHITE ALONE.3 1. . .456 56.2 14.0 100.9 12.8 10.0 10. .721 13 62. .8 16. . . 13.932 1995 .5 10.9 10. .020 59. . .0 21. . .2 11.8 13.4 7.776 50. . Households as of March of the following year. . .269 49.8 13.7 12.6 23. .6 14. . . .4 13.0 100. . . . . . .3 23. . . . . . .7 25. . .026 57.7 3. 15.778 See footnotes at end of table.4 12.4 11.1 9. 77.3 10. .0 100. . . . . . . . . .2 5.976 2006. .4 11.305 76. .361 57. .8 9. . .999 $149. . . .3 10.4 13. .0 13.1 13. .2 10.7 10.0 100.0 12.203 1979 . . .4 13.3 14.765 2006.4 20. .506 54. . 15.7 14. . .4 15. .1 18. . .232 57. Race.3 10. . . .936 77. .3 11. .8 11.9 1. .0 22.733 52. BLACK ALONE OR    IN COMBINATION 15. . .4 10.9 13. . .3 1. .7 10.5 7. .1 13. . . . .1 21. . .0 100. .7 10. .0 100.2 2.9 5. . .6 10. . . . .pdf) Households by Total Money Income.0 22.8 10.2 16. . For information on confidentiality protection.8 13. . .6 8.3 10. .900 35.242 47.3 15.471 83. . 68. . .764 57.740 46.1 10.7 19. .4 18.3 13. . . . 1973. .6 12.2 21. .999 1. . .4 11.1 5.4 10. .4 4. Table A-2.0 100.5 13. . .6 23.579 47.0 100.2 11.120 1987 . 82.321 65.1 2. .5 23. .5 11. . . . . .687 50.8 22.6 2.101 50.2 6.3 12. .151 2004 . 69.9 23. .6 14.6 14.6 13. .3 19. . 13. .904 48. . .8 4.0 9.9 14.093 48. . .2 1.0 2. . .8 5.6 4.7 13.7 15.292 54.027 64.8 10. .2 5.3 11.7 12. . .2 11.0 100. . .6 9. .737 75.240 1996.9 2. .546 57.1 21.8 1.7 11. .3 1. . .6 13.281 Value 469 525 494 538 603 519 500 506 570 349 347 454 457 (NA) (NA) 411 399 394 292 281 291 323 301 294 285 271 260 241 239 230 252 252 245 262 244 258 239 237 247 297 304 307 310 343 338 328 321 320 Standard error Mean income (dollars) (Income in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. .586 1984 . .902 77.639 56.9 1. 63. . 1991.8 100. . . . .6 11. . 75.0 100.0 100.2 12. .1 13.0 100. .718 56. .6 10.0 100.702 47.5 6.5 18. . . .4 21.8 8.196 35. .841 Value 317 425 445 489 257 329 320 442 465 236 232 365 326 287 368 276 271 297 314 248 241 258 308 288 262 251 268 235 234 239 108 271 258 269 275 243 231 228 228 277 284 228 260 203 192 259 274 223 Standard error Median income (dollars) 45. . .8 9.091 54. .9 13. 1978. . 77. . . 82.7 13.2 10. . .0 100.5 19.0 18.1 13. Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights.246 46.000 to $49. . . 2008.613 2010.1 13.2 22.107 1992 .969 2002.027 47. . . . . .8 10. . . . .0 13.5 14. . . 14. .930 57.9 13. .0 8.611 58. 78.152 56.7 11. . 81. . .census. .2 10. . . . . .1 19. . .1 18.1 1.4 16. .3 12.301 55.9 20. .9 6. . . . . . . .2 11.9 4. .1 22. .690 56.779 35. .5 11.8 13.0 10. .184 66. . .6 4. .010 63.752 56. .2 18.044 47. . . .4 $200. .8 24.164 197414. . 14. . .000 to $34. .2 13. .0 100. 4 79. .0 15.2 4.819 1999 .291 34. . .6 15. . .1 8. .0 5.106 33.0 17. . . . . .1 7.0 Total 14.0 100. . .6 7. . .0 100.2 12. . . .0 $35. .000 to to $99.000 $100. 83.794 48. . .6 11.527 20003 .035 1989. 81. .4 10.4 1. .7 10.3 22. .0 100.4 13. 74. . . . . .6 18.2 15. . .2 21. 2008.2 8. . .166 WHITE. . .0 1.0 10.553 69. . 69.3 5.8 1.7 $25.999 Percentage distribution 7. .048 47. . . .9 15.7 8. . . . . 15 . .4 13. 5 76. . .571 34.5 10. . . .4 7.1 17. .9 14. .9 13.000 to $150. . .3 1.0 100. . . 74. . . . 60.548 67.439 74.327 75.6 13.2 $50.0 9. . .812 47. .4 10. . .781 56. . . .9 3. 1983.3 2. .0 100.662 74.5 13.2 3. . .8 13. . . . . . .3 16.0 4.262 62. . .1 13. .0 100.7 14.0 11. .2 1. .

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 37

Number
(thousands)

BLACK ALONE21
2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15,065
14,730
20091 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14,595
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14,551
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14,354
2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14,002
2
13,809
2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13,629
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13,465
20
BLACK
2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13,315
13,174
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
12,838
1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12,579
1997. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12,474
1996. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12,109
5
11,577
1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
11,655
1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11,281
19937 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
11,269
1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1991. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11,083
1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10,671
1989. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10,486
1988. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10,561
9
10,192
1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9,922
9,797
198510 . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
9,480
1984 . . . . . . . . . . . .
1983. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9,236
1982. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8,916
1981. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8,961
1980. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8,847
12
8,586
1979 . . . . . . . . . . . .
1978. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8,066
1977. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7,977
13
7,776
1976 . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
7,489
1975 . . . . . . . . . . . .
7,263
197414, 15 . . . . . . . . . . .
1973. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7,040
6,809
197216 . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
6,578
1971 . . . . . . . . . . . .
1970. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6,180
1969. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6,053
1968. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5,870
18
5,728
1967 . . . . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

Race and Hispanic
origin of householder
and year
25.8
23.3
22.9
23.1
22.9
23.4
23.8
23.1
22.9
21.9
20.1
21.5
24.1
24.2
25.3
25.8
27.3
29.7
30.0
30.0
28.8
27.8
29.6
30.2
29.7
29.3
30.3
31.7
31.0
31.2
29.6
28.5
28.2
27.4
28.1
29.6
27.6
26.9
28.7
29.4
28.2
27.7
28.7
31.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Under
$15,000

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Total

14.2
14.3
14.5
15.1
14.5
16.0
15.4
16.1
15.3
16.1
15.0
14.8
15.0
15.8
15.2
15.8
15.8
17.4
16.7
17.6
17.4
17.4
16.9
17.0
19.4
18.2
17.4
17.9
17.8
17.7
18.3
17.0
18.6
19.9
19.2

14.7
15.3
14.4
13.5
14.8
15.7
14.3
15.0
14.7

$15,000
to $24,999

12.9
13.1
12.4
12.7
13.2
12.0
12.7
12.1
12.6
11.7
11.7
12.4
12.8
11.7
12.5
12.5
13.7
13.0
13.4
13.2
13.8
13.8
14.1
12.9
13.8
13.8
13.3
14.6
13.7
14.7
14.6
15.7
15.6
15.6
16.8

12.7
13.4
13.3
13.0
13.3
12.0
13.2
11.9
12.2

$25,000
to $34,999

15.1
15.2
14.4
14.6
14.6
14.5
14.8
13.7
14.8
14.3
14.4
14.0
14.0
14.4
15.0
14.4
14.1
14.5
14.2
14.3
13.8
14.2
14.0
15.6
15.2
15.0
16.2
16.6
16.7
15.4
16.2
16.2
17.4
16.4
14.7

14.6
14.5
15.6
14.2
14.5
14.1
15.1
15.4
16.2

$35,000
to $49,999

16.4
17.6
16.1
15.3
16.5
15.3
15.9
15.0
13.9
14.6
15.3
15.7
15.8
13.8
13.9
14.7
14.9
13.3
14.1
15.0
14.2
14.5
15.5
14.9
14.6
16.0
15.5
14.2
16.0
14.9
14.0
14.7
14.0
13.2
12.0

15.2
15.2
15.5
16.4
15.4
16.4
15.2
15.6
14.7

$50,000
to $74,999

Percentage distribution

9.3
9.0
9.3
8.5
8.8
8.9
7.8
8.0
7.1
7.2
7.2
7.6
7.1
7.8
7.1
7.2
7.1
6.8
6.0
5.7
6.1
6.7
7.0
7.2
6.0
5.8
5.4
6.6
5.2
5.8
5.1
5.5
4.5
4.3
3.2

7.6
8.8
8.2
8.8
8.5
8.2
8.9
8.5
8.9
7.2
7.4
7.8
6.8
6.0
5.8
5.8
5.6
5.0
4.4
4.8
5.1
5.9
5.1
4.5
4.6
4.0
3.9
3.5
2.6
3.2
3.2
3.5
3.6
3.1
2.6
2.3
2.1
2.9
2.2
2.0
2.3
2.0
1.6
1.8

6.5
6.5
7.0
7.6
7.1
6.9
6.5
7.4
7.0
1.8
2.0
2.9
2.0
1.4
1.3
1.0
1.4
1.2
1.0
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.3
1.0
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.3
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.2
0.5
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3

1.8
1.8
2.2
2.0
2.0
2.1
1.8
1.9
2.0

$75,000 $100,000 to $150,000 to
to $99,999
$149,999
$199,999

1.1
1.2
1.1
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.1

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.1

0.2

1.1
1.3
1.1
1.3
1.5
1.2
1.3
1.2
1.4

$200,000
and over

36,293
37,562
36,521
33,865
33,930
32,493
31,811
30,590
29,023
28,556
29,361
30,202
30,701
29,057
28,774
28,623
28,636
26,925
25,859
25,963
26,014
27,117
28,362
28,864
27,602
27,532
27,296
27,769
28,445
27,676
26,778
27,746
27,824
26,110
24,686

32,068
33,122
34,651
35,665
34,571
34,464
34,738
35,144
35,178

Value

427
498
680
530
584
639
543
569
574
583
617
689
625
606
551
562
557
518
485
417
437
511
518
610
370
341
402
335
443
415
398
381
410
379
411

330
401
447
499
261
336
361
458
474

Standard
error

Median income
(dollars)

48,335
49,604
50,329
45,604
44,648
44,917
43,186
42,566
40,458
38,750
39,097
40,128
40,738
39,807
38,852
38,401
37,363
35,910
34,394
34,161
34,173
35,194
36,392
36,887
35,366
35,177
34,072
34,536
35,323
34,961
33,182
33,879
33,124
31,800
29,663

44,780
46,806
47,122
49,035
48,800
47,415
46,902
47,575
48,492

Value

510
503
722
609
641
877
739
611
672
525
511
542
553
581
534
522
485
442
424
427
414
433
448
482
315
314
302
307
351
373
341
366
352
335
331

462
534
504
547
603
515
508
510
560

Standard
error

Mean income
(dollars)

(Income in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2010—Con .

Table A-2.

38 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010

U.S. Census Bureau

Number
(thousands)

ASIAN ALONE OR 
  IN COMBINATION
5,040
2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4,940
20091 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4,805
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4,715
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4,664
2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4,500
2
4,346
2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4,235
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4,079
22
ASIAN ALONE
2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4,747
4,687
20091 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4,573
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4,494
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4,454
2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4,273
2
2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4,123
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4,040
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3,917
ASIAN AND 
  PACIFIC 
  ISLANDER20
2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4,071
3,963
20003 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
3,742
1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3,308
1997. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3,125
1996. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2,998
5
2,777
1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
2,040
1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2,233
19937 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
2,262
1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1991. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2,094
1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1,958
1989. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1,988
1988. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1,913
9
1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(NA)
See footnotes at end of table.

Race and Hispanic
origin of householder
and year

10.6
11.7
11.5
10.1
9.8
11.0
9.9
12.9
10.2
10.8
11.6
11.7
10.0
9.9
11.1
9.9
12.9
10.0

10.3
9.0
11.0
10.6
11.4
12.1
12.4
11.7
14.3
11.6
11.4
10.6
10.2
10.3
11.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Under
$15,000

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Total

7.6
7.1
6.8
8.5
8.4
8.9
9.8
10.3
9.3
10.3
8.8
9.1
8.3
11.5
11.9

9.7
7.8
8.7
7.9
7.2
7.8
8.3
9.3
8.6

9.7
7.8
8.7
7.9
7.1
7.8
8.2
9.3
8.5

$15,000
to $24,999

8.5
7.9
7.6
8.5
7.9
8.4
7.2
8.0
9.5
8.6
10.2
8.3
8.8
8.2
8.9

7.4
8.1
7.5
7.7
8.3
7.2
8.2
5.2
7.9

7.6
8.2
7.6
7.7
8.2
7.2
8.2
5.4
7.9

$25,000
to $34,999

12.6
11.5
13.3
13.5
12.9
12.2
13.7
13.8
13.5
13.0
14.6
12.2
13.4
12.9
11.3

10.6
11.1
11.5
11.0
11.3
9.8
10.9
11.9
13.6

11.1
11.4
11.7
11.2
11.6
10.1
11.1
11.8
13.6

$35,000
to $49,999

17.5
17.1
16.7
17.3
18.6
19.1
20.0
18.0
15.3
20.5
17.8
20.2
19.5
20.3
18.9

18.0
16.7
15.7
16.9
16.3
18.8
18.2
16.6
17.5

18.0
16.4
15.7
16.9
16.5
18.6
18.3
16.8
17.7

$50,000
to $74,999

Percentage distribution

12.6
15.0
13.5
13.5
13.9
12.7
13.3
13.6
14.0
12.2
13.7
14.1
15.7
11.9
12.5

11.3
11.8
12.3
13.3
13.7
12.5
13.3
13.7
13.0

11.4
11.9
12.5
13.4
13.8
12.6
13.4
13.8
13.1

16.4
16.5
15.0
17.4
16.3
16.5
13.8
14.6
15.8
15.2
14.4
16.0
14.7
16.1
16.3

16.9
17.0
17.8
18.1
16.5
17.5
16.4
16.4
16.0

16.7
16.8
17.7
17.8
16.6
17.6
16.3
16.3
16.0

7.8
9.0
8.1
5.7
6.2
6.2
5.1
5.4
4.9
5.0
5.5
5.7
4.6
5.6
5.4

8.0
7.9
7.9
8.1
9.3
7.1
8.3
8.0
7.0

7.8
7.9
7.8
8.1
9.2
7.1
8.3
7.9
6.9

$75,000 $100,000 to $150,000 to
to $99,999
$149,999
$199,999

6.6
6.9
7.9
4.9
4.5
3.9
4.6
4.7
3.4
3.5
3.7
3.8
4.8
3.2
3.0

7.3
7.9
6.9
7.1
7.5
8.2
6.5
5.9
6.3

7.1
7.9
6.9
7.0
7.3
8.0
6.2
5.7
6.2

$200,000
and over

66,054
70,595
66,683
62,299
61,289
59,883
57,696
58,893
56,978
57,555
56,904
62,180
61,293
57,145
59,167

64,308
66,550
66,467
69,511
69,466
68,233
66,376
66,030
63,781

63,726
66,147
66,396
69,273
69,101
68,181
66,313
65,512
63,367

Value

1,576
1,204
2,350
1,734
1,704
2,146
1,448
2,232
2,802
1,661
1,836
1,842
1,657
2,348
2,200

1,208
1,288
1,404
1,456
1,810
795
1,411
1,297
1,116

1,165
1,459
1,431
1,457
1,749
814
1,337
1,461
959

Standard
error

Median income
(dollars)

90,098
92,169
88,179
80,428
79,766
78,247
78,456
76,467
74,655
71,333
72,249
75,056
76,196
71,445
(NA)

84,828
92,310
87,275
89,402
95,479
89,455
88,323
82,952
84,894

84,078
91,598
87,415
88,921
94,652
89,344
87,877
82,287
84,202

Value

2,127
1,913
2,235
2,323
2,472
2,806
3,165
2,725
3,006
1,961
2,129
2,125
2,217
2,134
(NA)

1,336
1,875
1,522
1,577
2,055
1,578
1,708
1,469
1,656

1,281
1,799
1,506
1,521
1,981
1,559
1,659
1,415
1,601

Standard
error

Mean income
(dollars)

(Income in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2010—Con .

Table A-2.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 39

Number
(thousands)

HISPANIC 
  (ANY RACE)23
2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13,665
13,298
20091 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13,425
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13,339
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12,973
2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12,519
2
12,178
2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11,693
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11,339
2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10,499
3
10,034
2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
9,579
1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9,060
1997. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8,590
1996. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8,225
5
7,939
1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
7,735
1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7,362
19937 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
7,153
1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1991. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6,379
1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6,220
1989. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5,933
1988. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5,910
9
5,642
1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5,418
5,213
198510 . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
4,883
1984 . . . . . . . . . . . .
1983. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4,326
1982. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4,085
1981. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3,980
1980. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3,906
12
3,684
1979 . . . . . . . . . . . .
1978. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3,291
1977. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3,304
13
3,081
1976 . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
2,948
1975 . . . . . . . . . . . .
2,897
197414, 15 . . . . . . . . . . .
1973. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2,722
2,655
197216 . . . . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

Race and Hispanic
origin of householder
and year

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Total

17.4
16.3
16.6
15.3
15.0
15.3
15.3
15.3
14.8
14.7
13.6
14.8
18.0
19.7
19.4
21.9
21.7
21.3
20.4
20.0
19.3
19.1
20.5
21.0
20.4
21.3
21.8
22.7
21.7
19.3
19.3
17.6
17.6
18.2
20.5
20.1
16.9
15.7
16.5

Under
$15,000

14.8
15.2
14.6
14.0
14.6
15.1
15.1
15.3
14.9
14.8
14.6
15.4
15.0
15.3
17.5
16.8
16.2
16.0
17.0
16.3
16.4
14.3
15.3
15.6
16.5
17.0
15.7
16.2
17.2
16.2
16.7
15.1
16.1
16.5
17.3
17.9
18.1
16.6
17.5

$15,000
to $24,999

13.8
14.3
14.3
14.4
13.4
13.9
14.7
13.5
13.7
12.9
13.2
13.6
13.8
13.7
14.7
14.3
13.6
14.0
13.1
13.4
12.9
14.2
12.9
13.3
13.9
13.7
14.0
13.9
14.5
15.2
14.9
15.7
14.9
15.8
15.6
15.3
14.6
16.8
16.3

$25,000
to $34,999

15.7
15.4
16.5
16.1
17.1
16.1
16.2
17.8
17.3
17.4
17.2
17.2
17.3
16.1
15.5
16.6
15.8
17.7
17.3
16.6
17.3
16.1
17.0
16.8
15.9
16.3
16.6
18.3
17.1
17.2
17.6
17.5
18.7
19.2
17.6
19.0
20.0
18.9
21.6

$35,000
to $49,999

17.2
17.4
16.9
18.5
17.6
18.8
17.9
17.1
18.0
17.8
19.2
17.8
16.9
17.9
16.3
14.9
16.3
15.2
16.7
17.7
18.5
17.7
17.7
16.9
17.6
17.3
17.3
16.2
16.7
18.4
17.9
19.5
19.7
18.7
18.7
18.6
19.5
21.2
18.0

$50,000
to $74,999

Percentage distribution

9.6
9.4
9.1
10.2
9.9
9.3
9.5
9.6
9.7
10.7
10.7
10.2
9.0
7.9
8.2
8.3
8.0
8.2
8.3
8.2
7.8
9.8
8.8
8.8
8.3
7.8
8.7
7.4
7.7
8.3
8.4
8.3
7.9
6.9
7.0
6.0
6.7
7.0
6.2

7.7
7.9
7.8
7.8
8.2
7.4
7.5
7.5
7.8
7.9
7.8
7.7
6.9
6.3
5.7
5.1
5.9
5.5
5.3
5.5
5.7
6.2
5.4
5.3
6.0
5.4
4.5
4.3
3.7
4.3
4.1
4.9
4.0
3.7
2.8
2.4
3.3
3.2
3.0

2.3
2.3
2.6
2.2
2.7
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.2
2.4
2.1
2.1
1.9
1.7
1.6
1.2
1.5
1.1
1.2
1.7
1.3
1.5
1.5
1.3
1.1
0.9
1.0
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4

$75,000 $100,000 to $150,000 to
to $99,999
$149,999
$199,999

1.5
1.8
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.7
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.1
0.8
1.0
1.0
0.7
0.7
0.8
1.0
0.8
1.0
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.2
0.5
0.3
0.5
0.5
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.2
0.5

$200,000
and over

37,759
38,667
38,393
40,673
40,856
40,170
39,559
39,118
40,120
41,337
41,994
40,232
37,844
36,067
34,464
32,475
34,073
34,005
34,406
35,425
36,111
37,217
36,056
35,501
34,833
33,750
33,963
33,094
32,927
35,194
34,391
36,504
36,200
34,894
33,341
32,665
35,513
35,722
35,781

Value

474
510
492
547
546
399
554
544
584
525
605
585
729
643
668
707
633
683
711
737
741
722
914
771
907
788
851
838
870
964
932
1,052
877
613
711
722
778
811
699

Standard
error

Median income
(dollars)

51,540
53,091
52,224
53,449
54,691
52,646
52,955
52,716
54,401
54,659
55,681
52,852
51,136
48,603
47,054
44,324
45,945
45,008
43,884
45,075
45,236
47,524
46,034
45,507
43,983
42,171
42,232
40,299
40,637
42,263
42,006
44,167
42,761
41,180
39,400
38,778
41,140
41,503
41,127

Value

556
582
541
563
627
529
648
583
727
691
801
938
1,087
981
1,089
994
1,146
946
690
721
746
817
976
843
723
686
823
774
824
807
836
887
865
636
641
689
670
675
699

Standard
error

Mean income
(dollars)

(Income in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2010—Con .

Table A-2.

Information on people who repor ted more than one race. 5 Full implementation of 1990 census-based sample design and metropolitan definitions.000 to $150. 1968 through 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. Census Bureau. and recency of immigration.000 and over Value Standard error Median income (dollars) Value Standard error Mean income (dollars) – Represents or rounds to zero.999. 2 Data have been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC.999 $25. About 2.000 to $34. Beginning with 2009 income data. The use of this single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing the data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches.000 to to $99. all medians were derived using linear interpolation.500 income intervals. 21 Black alone refers to people who repor ted Black and did not repor t any other race categor y.000 household sample reduction. Questionnaire expanded to show 27 possible values from 51 possible sources of income. data in this repor t for Hispanics overlap with data for racial groups.999 $200.40 Income. 3 Implementation of a 28. 15 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.999.999.000 to $74.000 or more. Source: U. respondents were allowed to choose one or more races.S.999.999. In addition. 12 Implementation of 1980 census population controls.000 to $24. Before this year.S. 8 Implementation of 1990 census population controls. child suppor t and alimony limits decreased to $49. 17 Introduction of 1970 census sample design and population controls. the 1994 ASEC was revised to allow for the coding of different income amounts on selected questionnaire items.9 percent of people repor ted more than one race in Census 2010. Questionnaire expanded to ask 11 income questions.999 $35. White alone refers to people who repor ted White and did not repor t any other race category. 1 Race and Hispanic origin of householder and year . 23 Because Hispanics may be any race. 10 Recording of amounts for earnings from longest job increased to $299. and revised editing of responses on race.000 household sample expansion. 3.000.999.2 percent of White householders who repor ted only one race.000 $15.000 and a plug of “$100.000 $100. 13 First year medians were derived using both Pareto and linear interpolation. Medians falling in the upper open-ended interval are plugged with “$250.999 $50. 7. such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American. 11 Implementation of Hispanic population weighting controls and introduction of 1980 census-based sample design. veterans’ benefits limits increased to $99. social security limits increased to $49. 14 Some of these estimates were derived using Pareto interpolation and may differ from published data. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U. (NA) Not available. Data users should exercise caution when interpreting aggregate results for the Hispanic population and for race groups because these populations consist of many distinct groups that differ in socioeconomic characteristics. Current Population Survey. 7 Data collection method changed from paper and pencil to computer-assisted interviewing. supplemental security income and public assistance limits increased to $24.999 $149. 4 Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls. Median income is calculated using $2. the CPS allowed respondents to repor t only one race group. Census Bureau Number (thousands) Total Under $15. 20 For the year 2001 and earlier.1 percent of Black householders who repor ted only one race. Data were first collected for Hispanics in 1972. 16 Full implementation of 1970 census-based sample design.” Before 2009.999 Percentage distribution $75. 18 Implementation of new CPS ASEC processing system. which were derived using linear interpolation. Full implementation of 1980 census-based sample design. 6 Introduction of 1990 census sample design. and 1. 9 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.9 percent of Asian householders who repor ted only one race.000 to $49. the Census Bureau expanded the upper income intervals used to calculate medians to $250. the upper open-ended interval was $100. is available from Census 2010 through American FactFinder.999 $199. Being Hispanic was repor ted by 13. 19 Beginning with the 2003 CPS. culture. Limits either increased or decreased in the following categories: earnings limits increased to $999.000” was used. 22 Asian alone refers to people who repor ted Asian and did not repor t any other race categor y. Poverty.

. . . .769 173. . 20th/50th . .1 3. . .805 183. . . . . .10 0. . .5 22. . .02 0. . . . . .419 51. .43 11.02 0. . . . . . .032 0.589 21. .02 0.43 10.707 12. . . .286 0. .41 11. . . e=0. . .030 0. . .315 20. . 95th/50th .10 0.633 11. . . .021 0.99 4. . . .census. . . . . . .34 0. .532 0.188 0. .66 2. . . For further explanation of income inequality measures. . .S. . . .515 0. . . .784 51. . . Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2010 (Income in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. . . .825 188. .56 2.0020 0. . . . .0052 0. . . . . . . . .01 4. . .02 0. . . . . . . . .034 28.0017 0. . . . . . .4 8.8 23. .40 11. . . . .084 86 120 173 360 600 1. . . . . 50th (median) . . . . e=0. . .01 4. . . . .009 0. . . . . .06 0. . .40 11. .095 0. . .41 11.063 0.0011 0. . . .089 0.0027 0. . . Third quintile . .743 29. .0018 0. . .10 0.098 0.10 0.0026 Income.514 181.417 0. .0024 0. .090 0.462 0.248 85 120 226 359 567 1. .124 104. . . . . . . . . . .096 0. .003 0. . . . . . . . . .06 0. .003 0.4 8. . . .860 32. . . . .713 51. .0024 0. .174 101. . . . Third quintile . .097 0. . .673 81.011 0. .10 0.091 0. .156 143.69 3. . .0013 0. . . . . . . .4 3. .032 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .34 0. .530 0. . . .011 0. .097 0. . . .003 0.16 0.289 0. . . . .345 13.10 0.0018 0.315 179. . . . .7 23. . . . . . . . . . . .026 0.292 0. . . . . .Table A-3. . . . .52 1. . Second quintile .472 83. .10 0. . . .0001 0. .580 139. . e=0.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. . . .36 8. .010 0. . .0 50. .0020 0. . . . . . .003 0. .06 0. .469 0. . Third quintile .230 11. . . . .5 8.06 0. .0001 0. . . Household Income Ratios    of Selected Percentiles 90th/10th . . . . . .277 12. . . . .067 0. . . . 80th/20th . . . . . . 20th percentile limit . . . .525 141. .463 0. . . . .10 0.4 49. 95th/20th .689 53. .8 0. . . . . . .57 3. .00 0.010 0.334 178. . . . . . . see www. .993 173. Theil . .25 . . . . . .191 0.040 169. . .0054 0.0024 0. . . . .850 30. Shares of Household Income     of Quintiles Lowest quintile . . .050 182.406 0.76 0. .874 81. . 90th percentile limit .404 0. Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights.470 0. . . . . . . 80th/50th .0012 0. .739 102. . . .50 .810 12. . . . . . . . . . . .543 0.490 0. . . . The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998. . . .083 0. .768 12. . . . . . . . . . Highest quintile .04 3. . .543 0.25 . . . . . .069 0. .06 0. . . . .0029 0. . . .16 0. . . . .0027 0. .012 186.54 1. 20th/50th . . . . .75 8. . .50 .572 0.35 0. . . . . . . .0030 0. .0024 0. Series P60-204. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .051 0. . Fourth quintile .599 101. .541 0.6 23.0013 0. . .288 0.803 29.34 0. . . . . . . . . . .0023 0. . .823 105. . . . .003 41 37 48 76 782 43 37 48 77 855 42 36 49 76 837 42 39 49 79 848 44 38 49 80 1. . . Census Bureau 2010 20091 2008 2007 2006 2005 20042 2003 2002 2001 20003 11.939 101.028 0.34 0. .005 102. .125 182. .8 3. . . . . .097 0. . .825 30. . . . . . . .62 2. . . . . . . . .365 52. . . . . . . . . .6 14. . . . . . . . . . . . .98 4.468 0. . . .275 81 110 209 306 565 898 86 109 217 316 649 894 84 108 139 310 590 934 85 118 147 315 620 901 89 119 224 396 611 1. . .78 0.029 0. .070 0.554 51. . . . . . .299 181. . . .42 10. .0051 0. . . . .107 30.062 46 41 51 77 1. . . . . . .791 174. . . .0018 0. . . .83 0. . . . . . . . e=0. . .766 80. . . 80th/50th .413 0.0 50. . . . . . .464 0. . . . . .023 0. . . . . . .16 0. . .186 0.057 85 119 223 378 600 844 86 125 168 278 545 864 90 122 159 298 531 931 91 129 167 304 614 1.003 0. .6 14. . . . . .131 52. . . . . Highest quintile . . .179 0. . . . . . .032 0.542 181. . . .8 14. . . .462 0. . .636 49.02 0. .192 0. U. .187 0.0028 0.4 8. . . . . . .69 3.064 0. . .95 4. . . . . Fourth quintile .338 51.98 4.095 0.0029 0. . . .003 0. .397 12. . . . . . .276 31. . . . Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality . .398 0.37 8. .974 50. . . .37 3.6 8. .0027 0. .0063 0. . .0011 0. .0011 0. . . . . . . . . . .930 143. . . . . . . .0049 0. . . .399 0. . . . . . . .16 0. . . . .003 0. . .063 0.0063 0. .5 8.3 50. . . . . . . . . .38 3. .009 0. . . . . .42 11. . Mean Household Income of Quintiles Lowest quintile . .607 21.091 0. .923 180. .5 3. .632 12. .076 0. .190 0. . .003 0. . . . .666 52. .025 0. . . . . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 41 .0027 0. . .129 3.0025 0.337 52. . .514 0.02 5.063 0.41 11. .789 21.399 12. Fourth quintile . .8 23. .0021 0. .029 0. .285 0.0026 0. . . . . .54 1. . .651 139. . . .34 0.858 11. .02 0. .263 80. . .021 44 39 48 77 956 44 38 50 76 945 43 39 50 78 896 44 39 50 76 940 44 39 50 78 1. . . . . . . . . . .72 3.190 0. .960 52.185 0.090 0. .403 0.7 3.93 0.0026 0. .6 23. . . . . . . .441 51. . . Second quintile . .06 0. . . .359 12. .904 20. . . . 50th (median) . . . . .15 0. .0002 0. .0001 0.84 0. . . .33 0.06 0. . . .03 0. .397 0. . .823 185. . . . . . . . . .281 0. .0064 0. .4 8.289 0. . .8 23. . .0028 0. . .0001 0. .110 53. . . . . . . . . 80th percentile limit . . . .2 50.56 1. .0022 0. . . . . . . . .022 0. . . . . . . . . .6 23.062 0. . . .009 0. .353 102.279 0.065 138. sampling error. . . . .0001 0. . . . . . . . .977 21. . .010 0. .596 174.3 8.0062 0. . . . . . . . . . .06 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .023 0. .025 0.031 0.0 49.469 0.221 12. . .466 0. . . .9 14. . . . . . . .483 31. . .664 11. . . . . .0001 0. . . . .003 0. . . . .283 0. .391 0. .6 14.000 49. . .58 1. 80th percentile limit .50 3. Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality . . . . . .398 22. . .085 0.02 0. . . . .937 185. . . . . . . . . . . .10 0. . .190 176. .098 0. . .148 82. . . . . .8 23.032 0.711 81.797 13.0063 0.2 3.095 0.7 23. . . . . . . . .4 50. . . . . Mean logarithmic deviation of income . . . . . . . . . . . . Mean Household Income of Quintiles Lowest quintile .030 0. 95th percentile limit .4 8. . .4 8.7 14. . . . . . .3 3. 90th percentile limit.58 1. .06 0. .309 79. . . . . .980 140. .0027 0. . .16 0. . . .80 3.023 0. . . . . . . .003 0. .352 79.7 14.35 0.445 100.0067 0. . .16 0.75 . nonsampling error. . . . . . . .189 0. . . . .099 0. .508 140.088 0. .256 51.083 0.900 30.4 8. . . .33 0. . . .18 8. see Current Population Reports.61 2. . . . . . .466 0. . . . . . . . . . . .pdf ) Measures of income dispersion MEASURE Household Income at     Selected Percentiles 10th percentile limit .1 3. . . . .63 8. . . . .08 8. . . . . . . . . . Shares of Household Income     of Quintiles Lowest quintile .904 182.67 9. . .185 0. . .022 0. . . . . .010 0. . . . .16 0. . . . .0063 0.33 0.98 4.06 0.095 0. . . .0011 0.02 0. . . . . . .42 10.4 49.66 3. .490 21.320 51. . . . . . .147 30. . .0013 0. . .3 49. . Household Income Ratios    of Selected Percentiles 90th/10th . . . . . 95th percentile limit .01 4. . . . .029 0.164 103. .550 0. .5 14. .33 0. .2 50.124 180. . .096 0. .466 0.0 3. For information on confidentiality protection.411 0.56 0. .0012 0. . . . .011 0. . .58 8. .833 139. . 80th/20th .0001 0.10 0.175 12.791 50.0001 0. . . . . . .871 21. .7 14. .010 0.0002 0.84 0. . . .7 3. . . . . . .0029 0. . . . . . 20th percentile limit . .75 . . . 95th/50th .0020 0. . . . . . .803 11.15 0. . .0018 0. . . . .6 23. Third quintile . . .03 0. .119 52. . .865 11. . Theil . . . .69 0.99 4. . . . . Mean logarithmic deviation of income . 95th/20th . .15 0. . .890 50. Poverty.282 0. . Highest quintile . . Second quintile . .211 12. . . . . . .08 8. Atkinson: e=0. . . .9 50.499 82. . . and definitions.160 22. . . .0002 0. . .420 140.0014 0.02 0. .544 83. . . . . .6 14.0028 0.0030 0. . Atkinson: e=0.192 0. . . . .89 0. .062 0. . .22 8. . . . .093 0. . .65 0. . . . .069 0. . . . . .17 8. . .126 12. . Highest quintile . . . . .545 0.0014 0.021 0.10 3. . . .320 20. . . . . .06 0.740 50. . . . . . . . .10 0. STANDARD ERROR Household Income at     Selected Percentiles 10th percentile limit . . . See footnotes at end of table.830 174. . .7 14.15 0.0021 0. . . . Fourth quintile . .824 138. .46 1. . Second quintile . .972 12. . . . . . . . .031 0. . . .398 101. . .42 11.98 4. . .398 0.

8 9. . . . . . . .42 8. . . .32 1.17 0. . . . .077 150. . . . . . . . . . .032 0.082 0. . . . . .484 0. Atkinson:    e=0.054 80.11 0.0056 0. .211 150.428 0. . . . . . .0016 0.0 15. . . .75. .0029 0. . . . .022 0.18 0. . . . . .093 0. . . . . 13. . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . .094 0. . .35 0. . .459 0.011 0.095 0.03 0. . .22 7. .42 10. .767 11. . . . . . . . .1 23.03 0. . . . . .0043 0. . 20th percentile limit. Highest quintile . . .589 29.112 94. .356 77.S. .992 176. . .185 46. .261 0. . .0015 0. .480 155. . . . .89 4. . . . . . . .679 19. . .281 28.4 49. Census Bureau . . . . .078 0. .0067 0.0018 0. . .003 44 41 51 79 925 44 41 51 76 964 43 39 49 73 990 40 39 48 71 963 41 38 47 71 906 41 38 47 73 909 40 39 46 71 909 40 40 46 67 504 41 39 45 67 481 42 40 45 68 530 42 41 48 70 586 0.36 0. .8 24. . .488 0. . . and definitions. . . .35 0.36 0.42 10. . . .06 0. .003 0. . . .42 10.022 0. .482 20. . . . . . . . 95th/20th. 20th/50th.9 14. . .22 3.386 0. . . . . .99 7. .65 0. . . . .11 7. . . . Fourth quintile.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. . . .9 23. . . . .090 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215 48. . .252 103. . . . . .0001 0. . .389 0.9 15. .321 118.613 140.2 49. . . .0025 0. . . . . . . .16 1. . . . . .9 24. . . . . . 80th/50th. Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality. . . . .081 0. .2 49. . . .048 27. . . . .42 10. . .0069 0. . . .2 46. . . . . . . Second quintile . . . . . . .408 92. .023 0.35 0. . . .0021 0. 80th/50th. . . . . . . For further explanation of income inequality measures. . . . .0030 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .60 0. . .832 153. .44 0. . . . . . . Third quintile . . . .767 11.03 0. .528 51.010 0.464 0.423 89. . . .16 0. . . . .3 49. .323 0. . . . . . . . .237 0. . . . . .420 19.156 0. .282 171.723 11.0039 0. .0042 0.42 0. . . . . . . Third quintile .03 0. .069 0. . . Shares of Household Income     of Quintiles Lowest quintile. . .116 127. . . . . . .07 0. . . . . .12 7.37 1. .20 3. . . . .17 0. .49 1. .0063 0. . . .0015 0. . . . .467 0.0053 0.385 0. . . .011 0. . .0002 0. . . . .419 19.07 0.396 0. .9 15. .021 0.224 12. . . .0 23.024 0.0029 0. . . .025 93 123 232 429 547 895 87 125 248 328 589 814 88 115 280 348 540 955 81 113 214 298 546 905 82 116 217 336 425 773 81 116 221 292 390 763 84 120 226 322 425 770 91 125 247 343 459 865 90 127 270 284 737 832 0.17 1. . . . . .11 0. .95 4.024 0.86 4. . . . Second quintile . . . .980 12. . Third quintile . .720 46. . . .976 48.021 0. . . . . . . . .6 15. Theil.239 92 124 249 323 591 1.514 124. . . . . . . .458 0. . . . . .034 0. . .222 27.838 20.65 0. . . . . . . . . . .18 3. . . .358 11. . .188 135. .597 121. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 48. . See footnotes at end of table. .065 0. . . .003 0.032 185. . .11 0. . . see Current Population Reports. . .003 0. . . . . . .0002 0. . . .6 9. .937 91.0029 0. . .998 159. . . . . . . .9 3.032 0. . .035 90 131 307 313 513 1.18 0. . .0 15. .18 0. .063 0. . .478 11. . . . . .181 0.411 0.536 49. .0024 0. . . . . . . . . . . .010 0.34 0. . . . . . .874 29. . . . .0027 0. . . . .061 0. . . .0002 0. . . . . . . . Highest quintile . . . . . . . . .92 4.183 0. . .994 166. .944 100.336 47.594 138.35 0. .224 20. .187 122. Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights. . .40 1.0064 0. . Highest quintile . . . . .091 0. .063 0. . . . .    e=0.93 4. . . . .003 0.8 9. .108 74.20 1. .95 4. .064 0. 95th/50th. . . .17 0. .031 0. . .092 0.389 0. .17 0. .17 0. . . . .0007 0. . .313 0. Highest quintile .0001 0. . .465 72.325 20. .2 46.0038 0. .236 0.967 47. .03 0. . .450 74. . .003 0. . . Mean Household Income of Quintiles Lowest quintile.64 8.62 0. 90th percentile limit. . . .428 11.6 8. . . . . . .4 3. . Fourth quintile. . .18 0. . . . Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2010—Con. . . .0012 0.085 0. . . . .42 10. .0013 0.0019 0. .329 20.0024 0. . . .456 0.64 0. . .062 0. . . . .0002 0. . . .031 0. .320 31.859 50. .2 3. . . . .657 47. . . . . . . .009 0. .0043 0. .082 0. .450 0.084 0. . . .12 0. . . . . . .85 3.065 0. . 90th percentile limit.12 0. . .314 154.0053 0. .893 29. . . . .61 0. .067 71. . . . . .03 0. . .915 11. . . . . . . . . .42 9. . .596 12. .682 46. . Poverty. .93 4.8 24. . . . .092 0. . . . . . . .974 31. . . . . . 80th percentile limit. . 42 Income. . .8 0. . Fourth quintile.011 0. . . . . . .419 89.476 0. . .587 19. .07 0. .0 46.0002 0.416 0.855 28. . . . . STANDARD ERROR Household Income at    Selected Percentiles 10th percentile limit. .41 10. . . . For information on confidentiality protection.104 75. . . .07 0.0 23. .282 11.57 8. . .52 0. . . . . . . . .50.158 48.4 15.4 3.583 11. .84 4. .0015 0.88 4. . . . . .323 82. . . . .0042 0. .1 15.276 119.42 10.10 3. . . . . . . . . .543 49.032 88. .40 1. . . . . Series P60-204. Third quintile . .032 0. .5 15. .03 0. .35 0. . .Table A-3. .128 10. . .0007 0. .010 0. . .07 0. . . .66 3. .11 0.080 0.113 73. Mean logarithmic deviation of income.07 0. . . . . . 95th/20th. . . .0 23.456 48.209 3. . . . .175 0. . .0 3. . . . .032 0. . .402 0. . . .10 0. 95th/50th. . . Second quintile . .934 27. . . . . . . . . . .0013 0.033 0.843 11. .087 0.0016 0.431 0. . . . . . .010 0. . .0001 0. . .42 10.0 46. . .271 0. .17 0. . nonsampling error.35 0. . . . .010 0.58 3. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U.087 0. . . . . . . . . 80th/20th. . . . .076 91. 80th percentile limit.0015 0.59 3. . . . . . . . 20th/50th. . .031 0. . . . . . .0 15. . . .0013 0.612 118. . . . .317 0. .12 0. .538 22. . . . . . 95th percentile limit. .0042 0.7 9.093 0. . . .34 7. Fourth quintile. . . . . . .03 0.003 0. . . .022 0. . . . . .6 3.9 3.42 12. . . . 80th/20th. . . . . . . . . . .024 0. . . . .066 0. . . . . . . . .0014 0. .51 0.93 4.161 72. .266 0. .0061 0. . . . . . .123 96. . . . . . 10. . . .6 9. . . . Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality. .423 53. .526 11. .    e=0. . . Mean logarithmic deviation of income. . . .7 3. . .60 8.584 160. . . . . . . . . .0008 0. .44 8. .455 155.0030 0. . . . . .03 0. . .25. . . . . . . . . 50th (median) . . . . . . . .42 1. . 20th percentile limit.    e=0. . .410 12. . . . . .283 145. . .032 0. . . . .06 0.972 29. .0043 0. . . . . . . .452 0.2 23.087 0. .9 24. .35 1. .320 176. Atkinson:    e=0. . .06 0.6 8. .268 0. . .456 0. . . .931 50.03 0. .678 141.454 0.022 0. . .421 123.11 0. . .063 0. .07 0. . . . . . .33 8. . sampling error.91 4. . . .07 3. . . .003 0. . . .41 10. . . .092 0. .272 0. . .pdf) Measures of income dispersion 19994 1998 1997 1996 19955 19946 19937 19928 1991 1990 1989 MEASURE Household Income at     Selected Percentiles 10th percentile limit.813 12. . . . . . . . . 50th (median) .07 0. . .156 0. .003 0. . . . . . .2 49. .433 0. . .029 0. .75. . . . . . . .0059 0. .35 0. .428 0.414 12.446 11.0038 0. . . .162 155. . . . .8 9. (Income in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars.6 15.6 8.0024 0. . .0001 0. . . . .406 0.0028 0. . . .68 0.23 1. . . .180 0. .374 165. . . .471 0. .50. . .080 0. . . . . .0002 0. . . . .083 0.11 0.86 3. . . . .03 0. . . .    e=0. . . . .0055 0.8 9.242 0. .435 49. . . . . .532 46. . . . .846 132. . . . Second quintile .12 0. . . . .180 0.487 159. .0041 0.0061 0. . . .324 0. . . . . . . . . .109 52.0019 Mean Household Income of Quintiles Lowest quintile. .29 3. . . .179 0. .6 9. . .646 88. . .266 0.160 0. .748 137. . . . . . .638 71. . . . . . . .003 0. .0023 0. . . . . .062 0. . . . . .455 0. . . The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998. . see www. . . . . . . . . . .0040 0.958 21.771 Household Income Ratios of     Selected Percentiles 90th/10th. . .021 0. .35 0.499 11. Theil. . . .0018 0.003 0. .078 0. .178 0. .1 23. . . . . . . .268 0. . . . . . . 95th percentile limit.1 3. . . .856 53. .267 46. . . .158 0.468 150. . . . . . .011 0. .387 0. . . . .census. .0007 0.193 49. . .506 170.3 48.0023 0. . .0001 0.25. . . . .010 0. . Shares of Household Income     of Quintiles Lowest quintile. .378 0. . Household Income Ratios of     Selected Percentiles 90th/10th. . . . .

412 0. .831 67. Theil . . . .04 1. . . . . .7 44. . .858 27. . .060 0. . . . 95th/20th . . . . .36 0. .85 4.226 0. . . .16 0.1 4. . . . . . . .685 65. .85 1. .0041 0.1 24. . . . . . . . . . . .216 0.2 46.0006 0. .010 0. . . . . .865 27.032 0. . . . .959 28. . . .451 19. e=0. . . .10 1. .010 0.0055 0. .020 0. .8 9.0006 0. . 20th/50th .297 10. . . . .863 3. . .290 0. . . . .032 0.0055 0. . . . .220 0. .020 0. . . . . . . . . .237 0.0036 0.85 4. .2 4. . Atkinson: e=0. . . .98 1. .210 110. . . . .5 45.13 0. . . . .414 0. . . .663 65.50 . .021 0.351 11. .279 0. . . .387 18.375 0.85 4. Second quintile .619 43. .210 45. . Household Income Ratios of     Selected Percentiles 90th/10th . .337 18. . .155 0.6 16. .179 18.0 9. . . .513 26.401 0. . . . . . .22 6.079 0.450 28.41 9. . . Mean Household Income of Quintiles Lowest quintile . . . .1 10.42 9. . .802 82. . . . .024 44. . . . . .670 11. . . . . . . . .698 117. .03 0. . .003 43 41 48 67 531 42 40 48 68 521 42 40 47 66 492 43 39 46 66 448 42 38 46 66 394 42 37 44 62 381 43 39 43 61 382 44 37 46 60 359 43 40 45 60 388 45 42 48 62 431 46 43 49 61 429 0.36 0.010 0.53 3. . . . .516 10. .35 0. . . . . . . . . .158 48.0055 0. . .8 9. . . .093 0. .0006 0. . . .116 10.981 67. .0016 0.19 0. 80th/50th . . 20th percentile limit . Second quintile . . . . . . . .449 47. .985 10.08 0.140 0. .046 127. .062 139.42 9. . . . . .415 0. Third quintile .069 0. .147 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .018 0.216 0.601 118. . . . .003 0. . .453 139. . . .155 0.0016 0. .223 43. . . Poverty.0038 0. .057 0. . .0011 0. . . .236 0.4 24. . Shares of Household Income    of Quintiles Lowest quintile . . . . .0016 0. . nonsampling error. . . Second quintile . .69 2. .28 0. 95th percentile limit .89 1.13 0. .713 19. .069 0. .9 16. . . .010 0. . . 80th percentile limit . .3 46. . . . . .020 0. . . . . .370 43. .034 0. . . . Household Income Ratios of     Selected Percentiles 90th/10th . .06 1. . . .7 16.86 4. Highest quintile . .795 117.0038 0. .848 88. .25 . . . 20th/50th . . .072 0. . . . .314 0. .15 6. . . . . . .0056 0. .634 68. .21 0.1 4. .333 73.0056 0. . . . . . . Series P60-204.7 24. . . .03 0. . . Highest quintile . Third quintile .258 28.526 64. Census Bureau 1988 19879 1986 198510 1984 198311 1982 1981 1980 197912 1978 11.009 0. .9 16. Mean Household Income of Quintiles Lowest quintile . . .119 116.612 47. . . .0011 0.03 0. . . . Atkinson: e=0.033 0. . . . .04 0. . . .137 130. . . .141 0. . . . Third quintile .08 0. . . . . .003 0. . . .010 0. .097 11. . .138 119. . . . . . . . . .07 0.031 0. .S. . . . .108 0. . .295 43.238 0. . . For further explanation of income inequality measures. . .088 0. .3 24.280 128. . . . .3 3.7 44. . Highest quintile . . .03 0.09 7. . . . . .161 86 114 204 294 374 684 87 117 198 266 464 632 87 117 197 293 399 751 131 120 230 235 386 706 128 123 229 277 438 678 129 134 218 235 423 725 129 135 187 298 347 705 0. . . . .011 0. .302 105. . . . . . .0017 0.52 3. .2 4.311 0. .13 0. . . .288 0. .08 0. . 95th/50th .085 0. . .059 0.08 0. .0 9. .0 10.15 2. . . .028 0. .414 0.86 4. . . .55 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .0006 0. . . . . . . .0001 0.404 0.363 0. . . . . . .08 0. . . . . . . . . .14 0. .78 4. .43 8.032 0. . .976 11. . . . . . . .42 11. .33 0.09 0.072 0. . . Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights.145 148. .030 0. . . . . . . . . and definitions. 50th (median) . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 43 . . . . . .010 0. . 95th/50th . . . . Highest quintile . . . .8 9. . .151 0. . . .15 1.36 0. .084 0. . . .10 3.019 0.077 0. . .20 0. .401 0. . . . . .898 48.0018 0.5 24. . . . . . . . . . . . .0007 0. . . Second quintile . .0001 0.2 24.0 16. . . . . .397 0.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.4 45.402 0.0008 0.003 0.78 2. .070 0. .49 3.226 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .20 0.003 0. . .547 146.073 0. .059 0. (Income in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. .0013 0. . .629 11.213 90 126 236 315 482 942 90 127 226 305 424 692 91 129 245 340 522 611 87 126 247 276 470 1. . . . .593 46. .276 114. . . .758 78. . . . . . .38 0. .13 0. . . . . . .0057 0. . . .406 0. .0 24. . . . e=0.03 0.35 0. .03 0.14 0.979 18. . .86 1.36 0.pdf) Measures of income dispersion MEASURE Household Income at     Selected Percentiles 10th percentile limit . . . . . . . .139 11.409 43. . .0006 0. . . .490 19. . . . . . . .594 65. . . . . . . . 90th percentile limit 95th percentile limit . 20th percentile limit . . .839 44. . . .66 2. .0014 0. . . . . . . .146 0. .41 10. .059 0.6 16. .21 7. . . .914 10.08 0. . . . . .0018 0. . . . . .287 0.0051 0.708 108.0050 0. . . . . .0038 0. . . .031 0. . .627 104. . .08 0.391 26. .0011 0. . . . . . . . . .192 47. Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality .965 104. . . .837 72.403 0. . .658 151. . .2 24.8 24. . . . . .35 0. .643 128. .76 4. .14 0. . .0001 0. . .8 44. . . .0011 0. .829 47.0 4. . . . . . e=0.307 103.416 0. . . . .75 . . . .003 0. . . . . . . .9 9. . . . . . . . .0012 0. . 80th/20th .077 0. . Fourth quintile . . . . . . Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality . . . .21 3. .49 7.90 6.988 44.0039 0. . . . . see Current Population Reports. .216 89. .14 0. . Theil .1 10. . . . . . The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998.176 71. 80th percentile limit .141 0. . .19 0. . . Fourth quintile . . .37 0. . . . . .42 9. . . . . .0010 0. .458 43. . U. .074 81.849 27. .0001 0. . . . . . . . . . . .80 4. . . . .19 0.586 26. .04 0.640 84. . .521 120. . .36 0.077 0. . . . . .310 0. . . . . . . . .141 11. . .030 0.419 0.12 0. . . . .05 1. . . .0006 0. . . . . . .0001 0. . . . . . . .11 1. . . .31 0. 90th percentile limit .0001 0. . . .110 0. .395 19.2 16. . .03 0.0001 0. .0037 0.020 0.8 24.3 4. . .35 0. See footnotes at end of table. .256 87. . . . . 95th/20th . Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2010—Con . . . . . . . .03 0. . . . . . .003 0. .114 0.6 44. . For information on confidentiality protection. . . .69 7.0038 0. . . . .321 10. . . . .18 0.147 0. . . .277 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391 0.308 137. . . .09 6. . .0006 0. . . . . . . . . .387 0. . . .0006 0. . . . .033 0. . . .274 0.61 7. . . . . . . . . .25 . .625 20. . . . . . . . . .616 79. . . . . .0007 0. . . . . .12 0. . . .031 0. . .938 18.159 11.0001 0.009 0. .010 0.8 16.062 0. . . . . . .900 103. . .0037 0. . . .0001 0.0001 0.08 0. .45 0. . . .0057 0. .056 0. .302 27. . .42 10. .010 0. . . . Shares of Household Income     of Quintiles Lowest quintile .6 45. . .1 0.225 0. . .068 134. . . . . . . . . . .059 0. .0001 0. Mean logarithmic deviation of income .88 2.13 0. . . . . . . .19 0. .2 16. . Fourth quintile . .48 0.23 7. . . .0017 0. . . .139 0.0038 0. . . . .213 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 10.484 11.728 10. .0037 0.003 0. . . . . . . . . .164 10. . . . . . .453 80. . . . .889 45. . 80th/20th . . . . . .088 0. . . . . . . . .80 4. . see www.2 3. . .1 16.019 0. . . Mean logarithmic deviation of income . .102 0. .50 . .349 11. . .07 0. . .585 11. . . . . . . Third quintile .063 44. . . .20 0. . . . . . .170 105.848 67. . . .425 0. . .089 0. .6 4. 80th/50th .378 46. . . .43 9. . .426 0. . . . . 50th (median) . . .403 0. . . .003 0.202 80. . .155 0. .census. . .0054 0.003 0.85 4. . . . .066 0. . .0020 0. . .03 0. . .100 132. . . . .512 10. . . .070 131. . . . .75 .492 45. . .075 0. . . . .056 0. . . . .75 4. . .2 10.300 0.354 19.0017 0. e=0.24 3. . . . .369 0. . . . .0017 0. . . .275 0. . . . . . . . . .0016 Income. .526 124. .020 0.20 0.070 0. . . . . . . . . .2 16. . . . . . STANDARD ERROR Household Income at     Selected Percentiles 10th percentile limit . .792 136. . . .426 0. .0011 0. . . . . .0056 0.Table A-3. . .231 0. . . . .064 126. .003 0. . .876 78. .6 45. . .42 9.221 10. . . . . . .79 1. . . . . . .35 0.757 45. . . . . . . .734 118. .1 3. . . . . . . .8 24. .477 121. .49 0. . .21 0. sampling error.3 46. . . .19 0. . . . Fourth quintile .0011 0. . . . . . .0011 0.35 0. . . . . .078 0. .42 9.023 0. . . . . . . .13 0. .

.10 0. .271 0. . . . . . . . . .504 65.3 10.80 1. . . .5 43. . . . . . . . .0017 0. . . .060 0. . .018 0. . .0001 0. . . . . . . . Fourth quintile . .032 0.21 0.10 0. . . .76 1.43 8.020 96.603 121.21 0. . . . .406 122. .04 0. . .287 0.0061 0.214 0. . . . . .66 3.2 16. .4 17. . . . . . . .006 101.5 24. . . .929 66. . .890 9. . . . . .71 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181 58.143 0. . . . . . .540 11.136 0.0013 0. . .3 24. . . . . . . . . .004 0. . . . . . . Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality . .128 18. .census. . . .0018 0. . . . . . . . . . Highest quintile . . . .04 0. . .74 6. . . . . . . . . . .10 0. . . . .0041 0. . Highest quintile . .0 24.50 . .016 0. . . . .1 17. . 15 1973 197216 197117 1970 1969 1968 196718 11. . . .540 61. 50th (median) .6 0. .018 0.267 0. . .pdf) Measures of income dispersion MEASURE Household Income at    Selected Percentiles 10th percentile limit . . . . . .9 4. .0012 0. . . . .42 8. .40 0. .398 0.068 0. . .3 4. . .0019 0. . .008 0.0 4. Mean Household Income of Quintiles Lowest quintile . 20th/50th . 80th/50th . .207 0. . . . .23 6. .75 . Household Income Ratios of    Selected Percentiles 90th/10th . . . . . . .8 17.357 0. . . Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality .036 0. . . . . . .279 0. . . .58 6. . Fourth quintile .209 0.218 64. . sampling error. . . . . . . . . .33 2.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. 20th percentile limit . . STANDARD ERROR Household Income at    Selected Percentiles 10th percentile limit . . . . . . . .07 0.711 4.011 0.16 0.016 0. . .067 0. . .982 26. .199 62. . . . .652 10.73 1.888 44. . . . 95th/50th . . . . . . . . . . . .04 0. . . .036 0.123 40. . . . . . . .037 0. . . . .096 0. . .0 24. .0001 0. . . . . . . .3 24. For information on confidentiality protection. e=0. . . . .877 10. .022 9.56 2. .208 0.70 6. .983 10. . . Mean Household Income of Quintiles Lowest quintile . .09 0. Household Income Ratios of    Selected Percentiles 90th/10th . . Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights. . .065 0. . .423 43.657 100. . . . .036 0. .97 2. . . . .9 17. .9 24. . . .7 4.04 0. . . . . 90th percentile limit . . .843 108. . . . . .649 77. . . .135 0. . Series P60-204. . . . .30 2.2 11. . . .059 0. .527 69. . .004 0. . .1 10. . . .268 0. .399 115.40 0. . . . . . . .11 0.39 0. . . . .6 24. . . .517 101. . .0012 0. . . . . . . . Atkinson: e=0. . .0007 0. . .370 0. . .64 3. .022 0.0001 0.380 0. . 80th percentile limit . .136 0. . . . . . . .338 18. .75 .0059 0. . . . .137 28.379 44.083 92. .032 0. .196 76. . .0063 0. . . . . .75 1. .04 0. . . . .09 0. . .132 25. . . . . .04 0.00 0.0060 0. . . . . e=0. . . . . .425 43.792 44.797 44. . . . .686 87.071 0. . . . .158 27.43 2.067 0. . . . . . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U.066 0.273 0. 95th percentile limit .115 0.004 0. .010 0. 90th percentile limit . . .136 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . see Current Population Reports.17 0. .43 9. . . . . Shares of Household Income    of Quintiles Lowest quintile .0 4. . .50 .069 0.40 0.400 0.039 43.140 0. . .70 4. .0001 0. . .0001 0. . . . .969 93. . . .2 43.004 0. .0056 0. .138 0. .109 0.393 56. . . . .68 3. . . .3 10. . .391 0. . . . . . . .8 17.0011 0. . .0006 0. . . . . . .068 0.856 64. . .0007 0.22 6. . .42 8. . Second quintile .276 0. . .412 9.017 0. . . .270 0.579 85. . . .832 44. . .919 26. . . .08 0. .6 17. Third quintile . . 80th percentile limit . . . . . . . .0042 0. . . .449 64. . Third quintile .059 0. . . . Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2010—Con .21 0. . . . . . . . . . .09 0. . .876 45.201 76. . . . . .0057 0.43 8. . . . .60 1. . . . . . Shares of Household Income    of Quintiles Lowest quintile .10 0.Table A-3.5 43. .23 0. . .107 0. . .08 6. .070 0. . . . . .2 10. .020 0.0066 0. . .0069 0. . . .108 73. . . . .370 0. .5 43. . . . . . Theil .043 26.77 4. . .040 0. . . .732 114. . . and definitions. . .42 8. .302 40. .224 10.04 0.010 0. .0 24.0044 0. . 95th/20th . . . . .396 0.281 10. . . .0 24. .067 0. . .0020 44 Income. . .99 6. . .0007 0.480 43.312 18. . . . .72 1. .394 0. .1 10. .056 0.16 0.42 8. . . . . .39 0. . .0017 0. . . . .115 0.66 3. . . . . .68 5. . . . .0058 0. . . . . . . .479 75.0011 0. . . . . . . . .0007 0. .0054 0.0019 0. . . .4 17.038 0. . .25 . . . . . .0017 0. . . . . .037 0.244 9.004 0. .321 124. .67 1. . . . . .86 6. . . . . . .213 0.65 1.592 19. . . .446 8. . . .004 0. . .251 42. . . . . .091 99.15 0. . .53 6.113 0.016 0. . . .769 10.23 0. .386 11. .6 4. . .25 .15 0. .102 0.364 0. . . .6 17. . .16 0. . .019 11. . .772 110. . . .3 17. .770 67. . . .4 24.6 4. .0014 0. . .137 0. The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998.171 118.485 44.109 79. Poverty. . . . .0066 0. .580 116. . . .331 43.037 61. . . . . . . . . . . . . .352 0. . . See footnotes on next page.19 0.09 0. . .0060 0.397 0. .4 17. . . . . .828 11. . . . .1 10. . . . 20th/50th . . .003 0. . . . . . Second quintile . . .0001 0. .04 0. .0020 0. . . . .385 107.340 72.060 0. . . . . .S. . .0001 0.068 0. . Census Bureau .21 0. .824 61. . . . . . . . . .6 43. . . . . .395 0. . . . . .41 0. . . .23 0. e=0. .0006 0.135 0. .138 0. . . . . . .930 26. . .184 108. . . . .28 2. . . .389 18.995 18. . . .982 126.1 10. .068 0. .139 0.0006 0. . 80th/20th .397 0. . . . . . . .14 0. .211 0. 1977 197613 197514 197414. . .594 42.271 0. 95th percentile limit .17 0. . . . . . . . . .477 18.7 44. . . .0018 0.010 0.839 102. .897 98. . . .370 0. . . .214 113.273 0. .98 0. . . . . . . . .004 46 43 46 62 439 45 42 45 59 436 44 41 44 59 438 48 44 44 60 443 48 48 48 61 478 47 47 47 61 503 48 43 43 58 475 50 45 45 60 491 47 47 42 58 499 49 44 44 55 467 46 46 40 51 508 0. . . . . Mean logarithmic deviation of income . . . .097 27.097 0. .09 0. . . . . . . .2 10. . . . .0 10. . . .07 0. . . .612 10. . . . . .0039 0. .641 27. (Income in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. . . .216 0. . .401 0.73 4.37 0. . . .0001 0. . . . . . . . .0012 0.210 0. . . . .361 0. .982 27. .099 0. .214 0.39 0. . . . . . . . .38 0. .356 0. . . . . . . . . . . nonsampling error.0013 0.063 0. . Fourth quintile . . .0008 0. .620 10. . . .877 109. . .0058 0.0008 0. . .35 2. . .43 8. . . . . .582 44. . . . . . . . . .355 0. . .58 2. . . . .0060 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .481 78. .0 24. . . . . Second quintile . . .38 0. . . . .020 0. . .374 108.904 44. . .48 2. . . . .287 46. . . . .303 17. . . . .100 0. .0078 0. .0017 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .09 0. . .067 0.220 121 131 167 229 475 610 122 132 164 265 345 704 118 136 177 317 435 637 124 163 171 219 359 805 123 162 175 254 368 579 121 163 172 298 499 778 120 158 168 355 269 466 120 165 160 190 301 576 126 168 163 200 358 710 121 165 154 225 472 489 120 160 148 268 634 462 0. .004 0. . .42 9. . .7 43.064 0.068 0. . 95th/20th . . . . . For further explanation of income inequality measures. . . . e=0. 50th (median) .766 73.514 19.004 0.543 43. .010 0.0001 0. . . . .002 45.009 0. .04 0. . .04 0.021 0.15 0.10 2. .402 0.386 0.0011 0. . . . . .56 1. .74 1. . . 80th/50th . .210 0.95 0. . . .66 1.9 4. . . 80th/20th . . . . . . . .3 10. . . .035 0. .275 18. Third quintile .270 0. .74 4. . .904 98. . . . . . . .004 0. .134 0. . . Theil . . . . . .008 0. . .010 0.737 11. . . 20th percentile limit .0040 0.0007 0.810 123. Fourth quintile . .466 93. . . .0001 0.10 0. .15 0. . . .009 0.196 113.89 0.040 0. .5 4. .0054 0. . .207 116. . .5 43. . .42 10. .22 0. . . . .019 0.37 0.719 26. . . .0007 0. . . . . .0018 0. . . . . .7 43. Third quintile .612 115.242 43. . . .009 0. . . Atkinson: e=0.152 18. . .23 0. .0057 0. . . . . . .98 0. . . .73 3.5 42. . . . Highest quintile . . . . . . .5 4.0014 0. . . . . . Mean logarithmic deviation of income . . . . Highest quintile . . .68 4. . .070 0. . . . . . 95th/50th . . . . . . . . . . .63 2. . .42 9. Second quintile .653 10. . . . . . .15 0.22 0. . . . .5 43.075 118. see www. . . . . . .0013 0. . . . .82 0. . .0001 0.04 0.22 0. . . .361 0. . . .129 10. . . .948 11. . . . . . . . . . .93 6. . . . .

Limits either increased or decreased in the following categories: earnings limits increased to $999. which were derived using linear interpolation. the 1994 ASEC was revised to allow for the coding of different income amounts on selected questionnaire items. 16 Full implementation of 1970 census-based sample design. 10 Recording of amounts for earnings from longest job increased to $299. 7.000” was used. Poverty.000 and a plug of “$100. 1968 to 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.999. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 45 .000. supplemental security income and public assistance limits increased to $24. 3 Implementation of a 28.” Before 2009.000 or more. Before this year. 2 Data have been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC. the Census Bureau expanded the upper income intervals used to calculate medians to $250. all medians were derived using linear interpolation. 7 Data collection method changed from paper and pencil to computer-assisted interviewing. Questionnaire expanded to ask 11 income questions. social security limits increased to $49. 8 Implementation of 1990 census population controls. 14 Some of these estimates were derived using Pareto interpolation and may differ from published data.999. veterans’ benefits limits increased to $99.S. 18 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. Questionnaire expanded to allow the recording of up to 27 possible values from a list of 51 possible sources of income. U.000 household sample expansion. 5 Full implementation of 1990 census-based sample design and metropolitan definitions. 4 Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls. child support and alimony limits decreased to $49.999.500 income intervals. 13 First year medians were derived using both Pareto and linear interpolation.S. 15 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. Medians falling in the upper open-ended interval are plugged with “$250. 6 Introduction of 1990 census sample design. 9 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. Census Bureau. 17 Introduction of 1970 census sample design and population controls.999. Current Population Survey. the upper open-ended interval was $100. and revised editing of responses on race.999.000 household sample reduction.999. Beginning with 2009 income data. 11 Implementation of Hispanic population weighting controls and introduction of 1980 census-based sample design. In addition. Census Bureau Income.1 Medians are calculated using $2. Full implementation of 1980 census-based sample design. 12 Implementation of 1980 census population controls. Source: U.

. .02 0.0014 0. . . . .0018 0. . .0013 0. .10 0. . . . .0024 0. . . . . . .094 0.0015 0. . Series P60-204. .7 9. . .0047 0.02 0.11 0. . . . . .07 0. . . . .589 0. . . . .2 22.0078 0. . . . .8 9.0025 0. . .0008 0.095 0. . . .05 0. . . .3 22. . . . Mean logarithmic deviation of income . . . . . . . .542 0. . .178 0. .0016 0. . . .4 15. . . .7 9. Third quintile .612 0.07 0.0091 0. . .0019 0. . . . .0019 0.0052 0. e=0. For information on confidentiality protection. . .8 48. . . . .092 0. . . .5 2007 0. Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality . .0012 0. . . . .07 0. . .0017 0.07 0.454 0.180 0. .02 0. . . . . . . .280 0.50 . Theil .377 3. .5 15.22 0. . .22 0. . . . .05 0.447 0. . . .575 0. . . . .0 22. . . .0001 0. . . . . . . . .02 0. . The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998.6 15. . .0019 0.7 9. . . .05 0. . . . . .02 0.0018 0. .382 4.0018 0. . . .07 0. . . . . . . . .0008 0.451 0. . . .445 0.0046 0.0017 0. . MEASURES Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted    Income of Quintiles Lowest quintile . . . .6 9. . . Second quintile . .22 0. .371 3. . .449 0. . Mean logarithmic deviation of income . .05 0.0001 0. . .1 22. see www. . .5 15. . .9 9. . . . .0001 0.5 49. . . .6 15. . . . .0 9. . . . . . . . .3 20101 Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality .0018 0. . . .457 0. . . .22 0. .0008 0.0010 0.4 9. . . . .091 0. . .0001 0. .0017 0. .5 15. . . .177 0. . . . . .0017 0.0011 0. .0014 0.0019 0. . . . . .0016 0.1 22.07 0.300 0. . .0009 0. . . . . . . .380 3.10 0. . . . . .S. .0001 0. . . . . .0016 0. Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ except where noted from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights. .04 0. . . . .7 9.288 0.21 0. . . .05 0. . . . . Poverty.0016 0.7 20003 0. . . . . . Fourth quintile . .452 0. .1 2005 0. . . . . . . . . . e=0. .0007 0.9 9. . . .594 0. . . . . . . .0001 0.6 15. . . .10 0. e=0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .577 0.0046 0. . . .279 0. .4 49. . . . . . . . . .095 0. . . . . .7 48. .07 0. .0009 0. . .gov /apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.3 22.07 0. . . . .10 0. . . .0014 0. .0001 0. . . . . .22 0. . . .0021 0. .0010 0. . . . Highest quintile . . .0018 0. . .185 0. . . . .0012 0.178 0. . .0001 0. .05 0.0043 0.545 0. . . .4 48. . . . . . 0. . .620 0. . .25 . . . . .385 3. . . . Atkinson: e=0. . . . .10 0.2 22. .183 0. . .9 48. Third quintile . . . Theil . . .093 0. .281 0.3 22.091 0. . . Fourth quintile . . . . . . . . .443 0. . .3 9. . . . . . .7 9.393 3. . . . . . . .182 0.8 48. . .4 20091 0.2 15. .25 . . .2 22. . . For further explanation of income inequality measures. . . .75 . .07 0.272 0. . .0001 0. .05 0.02 0. . . see Current Population Reports.0046 0. .0018 0.0018 0. . .0048 0. . . .0017 0. . . .608 0.458 0.300 0. .0014 0. .4 15. . . .22 0. .7 15. sampling error. . . . nonsampling error. . .02 0.385 3.pdf) Selected Measures of Equivalence-Adjusted Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2010 Table A-4. . . .04 0. . . . . . .0 2001 0. Second quintile . . . .9 49. .376 3. . . . e=0. . . . .270 0. . .04 0. . . . . Measures of income dispersion (Income in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars.0012 0. . . . . .0047 0.286 0. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U. .05 0. . .10 0. . . . . . . . . .07 0.670 0. . . .190 0.2 15. . .09 0. .0054 0. .289 0. . . . . . . .0009 0. .07 0.1 23. . . . .0009 0. .08 0.9 49.189 0.11 0.46 Income.10 0. .05 0.0013 0. .448 0. . Census Bureau See footnotes at end of table. . .22 0. . .0018 0. .0018 0. . . . . . . . . . .50 . . . .02 0. .0 22. . .394 3. .183 0.371 3.22 0. .75 . . .2 49.8 20042 0. . . . . . . . . .5 19994 0.02 0. . . . . . . .0018 0. . . . . . . . . .22 0.9 48. . . . . . . and definitions. . . .22 0. . . .18 STANDARD ERRORS Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted    Income of Quintiles Lowest quintile . .0001 0. . . . . .389 3. .02 0. .0045 0.277 0.091 0. . .06 0. . . . .0009 0. Atkinson: e=0. .11 0.445 0.090 0.287 0.0041 0. . . . . Highest quintile .614 0. .0043 0. .092 0.2 22. .5 2002 0.8 15. . . .7 49.397 3. . . .175 0. .186 0.census. . .443 0. . . . . . 0.05 0.6 2003 0. . . . . .094 0.089 0.0 2008 0. . . . . . . .4 2006 0. . . .05 0.665 0.

0 1996 0. .073 0. .05 0.11 0.1 1991 0. . . . .075 0. .21 0.05 0. . .264 0. . . . . . . . .456 0. . .11 0. .089 0. . . . . .0015 0. .05 0. . .177 0. .02 0.07 0.22 0. . . . . .23 0.088 0. . . . .1 47. . . . . .05 0. . . Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ except where noted from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights. . . .75 . . .406 0. . . . . .6 19955 0. . .0019 0. . . . . . .6 16. .377 3. . . .0016 0. .2 10. .143 0. . . . . . . . 0.9 9. . . . sampling error. . . Third quintile . . . .3 10. . .8 9. .05 0.8 1988 (Income in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars.3 16. . . Fourth quintile . . . . . .177 0. . .223 0. . . . .02 0.02 0. . .5 22. . . . .8 15. Second quintile .0005 0.20 0. Measures of income dispersion 0. . .5 23. . . .0001 0. .090 0. . Theil . .9 47.0012 0. .0020 0. . . . . . . . . . .366 3. . . . .302 4.08 0. . . . .3 23.0039 0. . .8 15. . . . . .0001 0. . .0010 0. .073 0. . . Third quintile . .11 0. . .173 0.227 0. . .05 0.267 0.50 . see www. .5 16.0 10. . . . .23 0. . . . . . .423 0.0010 0.147 0. Highest quintile .074 0. . . . .0019 0. . . Atkinson: e=0. . . .6 19928 0. . .11 0. . .0001 0.0015 0. .11 0. . . .0053 0. . . .5 1989 0.2 1998 Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality . . . . .0050 0. .S. .02 0. . . . . . Mean logarithmic deviation of income . .08 0.08 0.8 9. Theil . . . .0009 0. . .0010 0. .02 0.0001 0. . Highest quintile . . .07 0.9 15. .02 0. . .152 0. .0016 0. . . . e=0. . . . .25 . .415 0.8 48.0046 0.05 0.0001 0. . . . .303 4. . . . . .8 15.0019 0. .0013 0. .0046 0.08 0. See footnotes at end of table. .08 0.11 0.0005 0. . . .0018 0. . .0001 0. . .50 . .23 0. . .374 3. . .02 0. . . .265 0.0 9. .9 9. .438 0. . . .071 0.0020 0. .410 0. .05 0. . . . . . . . . . .0010 0. .0006 0.05 0. Table A-4. . The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998. MEASURES Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted    Income of Quintiles Lowest quintile . .4 1997 0. . . . . . . . . . .pdf) Selected Measures of Equivalence-Adjusted Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2010—Con .0038 0. . and definitions.0019 0. . . . . . .census. . .0009 0.440 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .08 0. . .08 0. . . . .02 0. . . . . . see Current Population Reports. Second quintile . .0019 0.148 0.0040 0. .0001 0. . . . . . .0018 0. . .12 0. . . . . . . For information on confidentiality protection.7 19937 0. e=0. . . .0001 0. . . . .0009 0. . .0019 0. . . . . .3 10. . . . . . .0010 0.229 0.0010 0. . . .5 23. . .0004 0. . . . . .367 3. . . . . . . . .8 15.274 0. . .404 0. . .07 0.0013 0. . . . .8 15. . . . . Mean logarithmic deviation of income .435 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 48.7 45. . .516 0. .0053 0. . . . . Census Bureau Income. .261 0. . .430 0. . . . . . .6 16.6 22. . .gov/apsd /techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. . . . . . . .090 0. .418 0. .05 0.0016 0.174 0. . . . .0019 0. .4 22. .0001 0. . Poverty. . .23 0.0015 0.442 0. . . . .273 0.0019 0. .U. . .25 . .0008 0. . . . . .0018 0. . . . . .4 22. . . . .0042 0.147 0. . . nonsampling error. . .524 0. . . . . .11 0.22 STANDARD ERRORS Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted    Income of Quintiles Lowest quintile . . . . . . . e=0. .408 0. . . . .438 0. Series P60-204. . . . . . .0005 0. . .75 .02 0. . . . . . . . .12 0.0001 0. . . . . . .360 4. . . . .20 0. Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality . .8 9. . . . .292 4. .9 19946 0.0049 0. . . . . . .0001 0. . . . . . For further explanation of income inequality measures.05 0. . . . . .169 0. .0021 0.22 0. .443 0.5 16. .296 4. . . . .239 0. .4 45.3 10. .3 23. . .2 1990 0.4 23. .08 0. .408 0.0013 0. . . . . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 47 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 48. . .0018 0.02 0. . . . . .0039 0. .11 0. . . . . . . .11 0.513 0. . . . Atkinson: e=0. . . . . . . . . e=0. . .8 44. . . .549 0. . .509 0. . . . . . . .0008 0. . . Fourth quintile . .088 0. .23 0. .02 0. . . . . . . . .379 3. . . .556 0. .6 45.229 0.0019 0. . .172 0. . . .9 47.0019 0. .6 23. .6 22. .086 0.7 45. . .288 4. . . .0014 0. . . . . .

.23 0.377 0. .2 23. .242 5. Atkinson: e=0.286 4. . . . . . . .09 0. . . . See footnotes at end of table. . . .03 0. . . . . . . . .0007 0. . . . .13 0. . . Third quintile . .03 0. . . . . . . .2 44. . .125 0.0007 0.2 17. . . . .3 1980 0. .1 10. . . . . . Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ except where noted from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights. .0038 0. Fourth quintile . .10 0. . .256 4. Series P60-204.1 1978 0. . .0007 0. . . .0007 0.0018 0. . . .0042 0.0004 0. . . . . .0018 0. . . .03 0. . For further explanation of income inequality measures. .0018 0. . .0022 0.401 0. . . . . . .2 24. . Second quintile . .75 .0 44. . . . .283 4.6 11. . . . . . . . . .03 0. . . . . . .0044 0. . . .03 0. .13 0. . .134 0. . . .0018 0. . . . . .0012 0. . . Theil .0007 0. e=0. . . For information on confidentiality protection. .23 0. . . . . .192 0. .6 23.03 0. .070 0.123 0. Atkinson: e=0. . . . .23 0. . . . . .0036 0.233 0.404 0. . . . . .25 . .240 5.147 0.369 0. .462 0. . .200 0.0 24.192 0. . . .0003 0. .065 0. . . . . . . see www. . . Fourth quintile . . . . .143 0. .1 1984 0. .23 0. .145 0. .09 0. .0004 0. . .0019 0. .0004 0. . Poverty. . .6 16. .7 16. . . .221 0.13 0. .7 16. .0004 0. . .369 0.0011 0. Highest quintile . . .06 0.9 44. .0012 0.03 0. . . . . . . . .13 0. . see Current Population Reports. . .06 0. . . . . . . .8 42. . . . . . .2 11. . . . . . . . . .3 23. . .0012 0.10 0. . . and definitions. . .7 198510 0. . . .0042 0.3 24. . . . .6 17. . . . .2 11. .06 0.2 43. . .0011 0. . . . . . . . . . . .10 0. . . . .48 Income. .465 0. . . . . . .8 44. .0036 0. .5 17. . . Mean logarithmic deviation of income . . . . Second quintile . . . . . .2 42.195 0. . .149 0.S. Table A-4. . . . .23 0.070 0. . .23 0. . . . .429 0. . . . .0001 0. . . . . . . .3 23. .0022 0. . . .13 0. . .50 . . . . . . . . . . .4 19879 Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality . .23 STANDARD ERRORS Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted    Income of Quintiles Lowest quintile . . . . . . . .07 0. .23 0. . . . .25 . . .0044 0. .0001 0.0018 0.7 16. .0042 0. . . . . . MEASURES Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted    Incomes of Quintiles Lowest quintile .0021 0. . .230 0.0034 0. . .2 10. . . . e=0.0036 0. . .13 0. . . . . . . .070 0. .gov/apsd /techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. . . . .6 17.0007 0. . . . . . . . . e=0.03 0. .8 16. . . . .13 0.09 0.072 0.0007 0. .03 0. . . . . . . . . . e=0. . . . .07 0.360 0. . . .353 0.400 0.0004 0.0008 0. . . . .9 17. . .1 42. . . .122 0.06 0. . .0004 0. .2 10.06 0. . . . . . . . . .144 0.277 4.384 0.0001 0. . . .396 0. .0001 0. .233 0. . . Census Bureau 0.9 42.pdf) Selected Measures of Equivalence-Adjusted Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2010—Con .23 0.8 1986 0. . .465 0.0001 0. . . . . Mean logarithmic deviation of income . The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998. . . .0043 0. . . . . . 0. . . . . .061 0. .142 0. . . . . . . .9 11.0012 0. . . . .13 0. .2 44. . . . .237 0. . Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality . . . . . . .census. . .451 0.0001 0.0001 0. . . . . .243 4. . .404 0. .352 0. . Theil . .13 0.0011 0. . . .371 0. . . . .06 0. . . . . . . . . .0012 0. .03 0. . . . .3 10. . . nonsampling error. .121 0. . . . .13 0.13 0. . . .07 0.0004 0. . . .0008 0. . .0001 0. . .278 4. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U. .374 0. . . . . . . . . Measures of income dispersion 0. . .0012 0. . .231 0.1 1977 (Income in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars.06 0. .216 0. . .9 42.6 24. . . . . . .293 4.10 0.069 0.1 10.8 24. . . . Third quintile . . . . . .09 0. Highest quintile . .073 0. . . . . . . .400 0. . . . . .09 0.09 0. .7 23. . . . .273 4. . . .239 5. . sampling error. . . . .0011 0. . . .0 10. . . . . . . . .061 0.75 . .0001 0. .0018 0.7 17.2 197912 0. .0013 0.0005 0. .0008 0.23 0.0007 0. . .23 0. . . .0018 0. . .2 198311 0. . . . . .453 0.0004 0.10 0. . . . . . . .0 11. .9 24.03 0. . . .0004 0. . .50 .0001 0.8 1982 0. . . . . . . .407 0. .060 0. .0001 0. . . . .060 0. . .9 1981 0. .07 0.

Mean logarithmic deviation of income . . . .361 0. . .7 17. . . .0012 0. .0004 0.0018 0. . .0036 0. . .0035 0. .5 41.189 0. . .117 0. . .9 17. . .059 0. . .50 .357 0.0005 0.8 17.07 0.0018 0. . . .0001 0. . .185 0. 5 Full implementation of 1990 census-based sample design and metropolitan definitions.058 0.0004 0. . . . .3 11. .190 0. .231 5. . .000 household sample expansion. . . . . . Full implementation of 1980 census-based sample design. . . . . .194 0. .0 17. .061 0. .2 11. . . . . .365 0. . . . . . . . . Census Bureau Income. . . .062 0. . . . .2 23. . . . . Questionnaire expanded to ask 11 income questions. . . . . . . .370 0. .0007 0. . . .121 0. . . . Second quintile . . .0012 0. . . . .999. . . The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998. . . . . . .0018 0.058 0.362 0. 8 Implementation of 1990 census population controls. . . Mean logarithmic deviation of income . .75 .999.185 0. supplemental security income and public assistance limits increased to $24. .0011 0. . . .03 0. .360 0. Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls.124 0.04 0. .0007 0.0005 0. . . . . .059 0. Census Bureau.0037 0.187 0. . . . . . . .25 . .0004 0. .07 0.0011 0. . .8 42. . . 0.14 0. . .75 . . . . . .10 0. . . . .367 0. .0011 0. . . . . .999. Fourth quintile . . .2 23.6 42. .25 . . .0001 4 3 2 Data have been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC. . . . . .3 23. . Limits either increased or decreased in the following categories: earnings limits increased to $999.6 42. .118 0.196 0. 0.0004 0. .8 197613 Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality . . . .0008 0. .9 17. . . 1968 to 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. . . . . . .07 0. . . . . . . . . . .122 0. . . .338 0. .193 0. . . . .0007 0.0008 0. . .0004 0. . .0004 0.14 0. . . . . .0036 0. . . Highest quintile . . . .10 0. .059 0. . . . . . . .0011 Standard errors calculated using replicate weights instead of the general variance function used in the 0. .3 197216 0. . .242 5. .1 197117 0.10 0. .245 5. . .352 0. .07 0. . Theil . . . . . .8 17. . .0012 0. . and definitions. . . .4 11. . . . .0039 0.9 17. . 11 Implementation of Hispanic population weighting controls and introduction of 1980 census-based sample design. . . 7.370 0. .0004 0. . . . .04 0.0012 0. 9 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. . . . . .235 5. . . . . For information on confidentiality protection. . . . . all medians were derived using linear interpolation. . .0018 0. Poverty. . 7 Data collection method changed from paper and pencil to computer-assisted interviewing. . .0039 0. . . . 15 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. . . 0. . MEASURES Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted    Incomes of Quintiles Lowest quintile . . . . . . . . . Third quintile .24 0. . .122 0. . . . . Measures of income dispersion 0. Highest quintile . . . . . . . Atkinson: e=0. 13 First year medians were derived using both Pareto and linear interpolation.14 0.4 12. . . . . . .0008 0. . .pdf) Selected Measures of Equivalence-Adjusted Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2010—Con .6 42.14 0. . .gov/apsd /techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. . e=0. . .14 0. . .04 0. . . .10 0. . . . . . .358 0. 6 Introduction of 1990 census sample design. .236 5. . . . Source: U.0012 0. . . .0 1973 (Income in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars.10 0.0001 0.6 197414.10 0. .6 1969 0. . .03 0. .352 0. . . . . . . . . .1 23. . . social security limits increased to $49. . . . . . .124 0. . . Questionnaire expanded to allow the recording of up to 27 possible values from a list of 51 possible sources of income. . . .365 0. . . . e=0. . . . .337 0. . . .04 0.6 41. .07 0. . . . . . . . .0018 0. Implementation of a 28. .10 0. . . . .0008 0. . . . .24 0.0001 0. . .249 5. past. child support and alimony limits decreased to $49. . .0018 0.S.239 5.14 0. . . .117 0. . .9 1970 0. . . Current Population Survey. . . .361 0.060 0. . .4 12. . . .6 41. . . . . . . . . .1 17. Before this year. . . . .367 0. . .240 5. 15 0. .0001 0.0018 0. . . . . .3 11. . . . . . . . . .07 0. . . .4 23.0018 0. . .0038 0.999.14 0.0036 0. . . . .231 5. . . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 49 0. . . . .07 0. . . In addition. . . . . and revised editing of responses on race.9 41. see Current Population Reports. . . .04 0. . .0039 0. . .238 5. e=0. . . Third quintile . . veterans’ benefits limits increased to $99.0011 0.24 0. . . . .7 17. . . . . nonsampling error. . . .0001 0.3 23. .S.03 0. .5 1968 0.0004 0. . . . . .8 41. . .0036 0. . .359 0. . .3 42.50 .120 0. e=0.196 0. .339 0. . . .367 0. . . .000 household sample reduction.census. . 16 Full implementation of 1970 census-based sample design. . . .999. .0001 0.191 0. . Atkinson: e=0.0001 0. . .0018 0. . .4 23. . . .058 0. . .14 0. 12 Implementation of 1980 census population controls. . . . . . . .23 STANDARD ERRORS Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted    Income of Quintiles Lowest quintile . . . 1 Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality . . 17 Introduction of 1970 census sample design and population controls. . . . . . .10 0.0008 0. . . . . . . .3 11. . . . . .060 0. .0001 0.23 0. .07 0. For further explanation of income inequality measures. . sampling error.0007 0.3 11. . . . . Theil . . . . .U. . .07 0. .120 0. . .24 0. . Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ except where noted from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights. . . . .0001 0. .24 0. .23 0. . . . .25 0. . . . .2 11. .0 197514 0. . . 18 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.0007 0.999. . . see www.4 23.07 0. . . . . . . .0018 0. . .2 11. . .04 0. . . . the 1994 ASEC was revised to allow for the coding of different income amounts on selected questionnaire items. .14 0. . . .339 0. .5 196718 10 Recording of amounts for earnings from longest job increased to $299.2 23. . . . .24 0.7 17. . .10 0. .14 0. . . . . . Table A-4. . . . . . . .04 0. Fourth quintile . . . . . . . . . .10 0. . .4 23. . . which were derived using linear interpolation. . . Series P60-204. . . 14 Some of these estimates were derived using Pareto interpolation and may differ from published data. Second quintile .

544 18.053 68.910 39.437 41.372 71.296 55. .039 50.783 67. .607 (NA) Not available.031 33.766 20. the upper open-ended interval was $100.208 14.565 42.072 59.226 23. 6 Introduction of 1990 census sample design. .873 59. . .978 45.540 34. which were derived using linear interpolation.060 38.679 Standard error 102 95 98 96 165 160 91 96 91 97 Total 56.504 51.215 45.905 46.334 29.485 38. .675 16. . . 2005. 16 Full implementation of 1970 census-based sample design.640 44. . .889 47. .589 0.732 0.821 55.470 38.695 34. Poverty.866 59. .279 36.436 34.232 27.085 25. . .318 56. .837 20.295 73.296 32. . Beginning with 2009 income data.000 or more. . . . .819 36. . 19928 . all medians were derived using linear interpolation.588 0.852 66.088 58.462 31.957 54. and definitions. . .676 36. . 7 Data collection method changed from paper and pencil to computer-assisted interviewing.193 37. . .000” was used.016 (NA) 51.547 33. .412 36.704 60.831 14.932 56.652 0.987 49. 1963.428 31.593 0.355 38.680 13.496 69.667 51.188 31. 197613 .542 28.180 81. 15 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.123 16. .466 25. .651 With earnings 42. . .934 84.026 17. . .218 81. 196718 .617 0.680 35.737 0.557 64.244 28.515 60. 2007.065 47.184 37.602 0.931 36.165 74.554 47. .349 34. .132 37. . . . .382 73.374 15.636 0.063 74.639 49. . .267 37.S.686 56. .454 65. 1997. 10 Recording of amounts for earnings from longest job increased to $299. Source: U.755 0.363 37. .102 59.988 51. .000 household sample reduction.745 32. .712 Value 47. .121 44. .300 With earnings 81.716 0.678 15.053 59. supplemental security income and public assistance limits increased to $24.915 14. . In addition.114 19.155 33. .826 32. .690 26.952 43. .799 38. . .103 58. 198510 .900 41.318 14.545 32. social security limits increased to $49. .999.916 39.360 34. nonsampling error.554 80. . . .402 47.036 39.699 0.854 50.600 74.413 52.591 0. .943 43.217 44. .772 58.386 35. . Implementation of first hotdeck procedure to impute missing income entries.658 59.657 71. . . Number and Real Median Earnings of Total Workers and Full-Time. .639 Value 36.152 12.448 50. .770 25.663 43. .460 25.715 47.659 43.875 63. . 17 Introduction of 1970 census sample design and population controls. .576 0.448 80. the 1994 ASEC was revised to allow for the coding of different income amounts on selected questionnaire items. .861 64.774 58.934 81.211 47. see www.619 74.295 76. .784 97 212 215 146 151 145 191 202 204 195 129 132 140 129 158 182 168 125 121 120 136 143 147 134 139 155 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 59.045 70. . 197216 .145 20.845 23.469 41.606 28.082 37.142 72.450 59. and revised editing of responses on race.031 38. 197912 .637 0. .891 35.736 66. .773 41. .557 57. . . . .974 27. 14 Some of these estimates were derived using Pareto interpolation and may differ from published data.619 47.677 28.861 62.774 56.912 28.411 71.683 36.801 52.362 64. . year-round workers Female Median Number of Median earnings workers earnings (dollars) (thousands) (dollars) Total 81. . . 2006.285 47. . 11 Implementation of Hispanic population weighting controls and introduction of 1980 censusbased sample design. 2003.834 43. .854 41. 1978.682 31.544 72. .897 48.358 35.992 99 190 311 165 170 224 269 195 175 172 165 177 200 266 264 261 190 183 189 198 244 244 181 187 164 192 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 71.233 64.479 23.245 35. .859 22. . .661 65. .999. . . .323 76.503 80.999.214 37. 1970.602 58.336 15.263 38.732 61. .340 31.968 14. .179 21.715 0. .504 36. .596 53. . 1968. . . . . .035 30.137 Standard error 304 149 147 158 95 101 104 107 296 318 Total 42. 19937 .547 16.524 33. .778 0.597 0. 20042 .982 28. .651 19.025 22.758 31.184 36.552 33.481 13. .579 0.972 74. 196221 . .914 19. .380 41. . . .888 49.488 23.491 31.816 58.131 19. 20091 .581 36. . .626 Standard error 119 120 108 111 116 314 186 94 99 97 Total 72. 19946 .156 45.009 47.513 26.232 Value 26.500 income intervals. 196520 .758 71. . . .412 53. .545 68.769 0. .738 (NA) 17.335 13.348 72.253 36. .682 43.694 42.208 28.787 52. .415 33. . 1988.592 55.502 34. .592 0.123 37. .099 15.744 40.999.700 55.333 45.500 80. 7.809 30.439 33. . . . 21 Full implementation of 1960 census-based sample design and population controls.056 31.730 64. .360 38.810 19. . . 2008. .351 42.482 34. . .819 37.581 38.011 18.226 53.340 35.338 60.619 58.660 62.660 24. .163 45. .698 48.467 35. .180 45.099 36.926 42.572 79.274 35.808 62. .532 83. .761 58.770 0.992 40.851 66. . 1969. .951 28.190 73. .637 47. .273 54.866 31. .923 42.153 68. .073 17.013 14.208 47. .370 38.420 27.303 56. .087 32. 2 The 2004 data have been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC. veterans’ benefits limits increased to $99.582 0.701 46.476 71.839 43.770 0.222 47. .596 20.827 65.326 73. .602 0.467 69. . . Number of workers (thousands) Female Median earnings (dollars) Number of workers (thousands) Male Median earnings (dollars) Number of workers (thousands) Full-time.237 29.702 23.439 45.013 45. Medians falling in the upper open-ended interval are plugged with “$250.350 34. .589 0.S. Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights. . .101 61.728 67. .408 61. .931 37. . .070 61.710 32.372 17.642 22.673 26. .Table A-5.719 40.513 65.295 (NA) 33.613 44.549 21. . .135 41.925 19.796 61.730 65.234 36.877 36.088 84. .674 16.786 47. .298 36. 20003 . .769 63.268 59.090 48.687 23.181 49.846 67.108 51.525 45.528 40.737 35. Earnings in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars.000 63.292 36.360 77.120 72.951 54.850 26. 1977.498 19.446 71.500 60. .838 48.797 13.213 36.688 34. . . .744 65. 1982.457 35.805 15.585 71.979 84.476 15. 50 Income.761 72.299 56.594 0.436 31.037 13. Questionnaire expanded to allow the recording of up to 27 possible values from a list of 51 possible sources of income. 1983.548 80. 1973.000. .803 63.785 37.613 16.922 41. .265 55.743 44. .016 71.304 49.430 35.703 59. .264 73. .643 0.912 44.648 62.457 25.141 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 41. . .322 77.818 48.645 35. . .214 47. .414 41. 1991.209 Value 36. . . .971 35. .552 26. . .168 24. . 22 Introduction of 1960 census-based sample design.121 74.595 0.871 38.462 49. .755 46.138 64.313 32. .093 40. . .316 (NA) 39. Questionnaire expanded to ask 11 income questions.945 17. .347 33. . . .093 70.666 22.980 82.380 72.494 79. .868 36. . 4 Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls.820 51.771 0. child support and alimony limits decreased to $49.599 0.002 15.954 47. .551 47.548 40. .876 41.649 34. . .714 0.728 With earnings 56.198 73. Full implementation of 1980 census-based sample design.509 60. 2001.665 12. . . 20 Implementation of new procedures to impute missing data only.760 46. . . 9 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. . Before this year.192 29. . . 196619 .500 71. . Current Population Survey.643 38.105 41.723 39.723 0.238 18. . .353 15.809 66.930 71.566 0.624 68. .838 36.068 36. .008 37.423 36.000 household sample expansion. .959 60.793 27.932 44. 5 Full implementation of 1990 census-based sample design and metropolitan definitions. .675 51.583 39. 198411 . 19955 .470 26. 1960.048 45. 197514 .273 37.729 16.688 16.356 34.118 72.621 48.586 60. . 1996.040 72.395 34.535 61. sampling error.597 49.407 45.197 36.987 81.908 41.334 14.187 39.304 32. .587 25.946 61. 18 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.886 55.999. . .165 47. . .391 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 25. Limits either increased or decreased in the following categories: earnings limits increased to $999.950 67.049 30. . .738 0. .gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.146 32.433 30. . .253 44.508 80. . .241 37. 19879 .903 61.933 53.846 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 34.359 57. Census Bureau . .724 46. .937 46. . 1961 through 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.538 74.666 38.369 42. 2002.715 36.438 57.646 36.742 0. . .720 0.880 47.383 26.550 45.329 22.524 38.055 37.222 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 39.835 40.033 80.419 13. .339 17.381 34.495 37.181 31.216 64. .287 73. 12 Implementation of 1980 census population controls.391 11.766 0.592 0. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U.455 42.493 27. 1989.195 16.999.000 and a plug of “$100.647 20. .959 32. 1974 14.934 11.171 22.398 46. . For information on confidentiality protection.055 61. 1990. 1 Medians are calculated using $2.241 32.161 35. .078 39.424 56.695 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 59.605 35. 19994 . . . .580 49.909 53.708 0. . the Census Bureau expanded the upper income intervals used to calculate medians to $250.248 21. Year-Round Workers by Sex and Female-to-Male Earnings Ratio: 1960 to 2010 (People 15 years old and older beginning in 1980 and people 14 years old and older as of the following year for previous years.” Before 2009.928 44. .303 47.971 25.660 0.682 39. .325 38.589 0.171 49.976 16.687 0. . . . 196122 .588 0.482 83. .452 16.182 33.979 Standard error 107 107 107 107 200 90 91 98 97 203 Femaletomale earnings ratio 0.805 36. 1998.683 72.060 36. Before 1989 earnings are for civilian workers only.549 21. .578 0.219 27. .566 14.646 0. 1981. .992 38.978 51.959 61.288 23. .763 80.584 128 178 178 435 159 163 180 174 174 345 335 190 207 198 205 272 238 208 193 163 237 188 166 226 185 184 203 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 41. . . 3 Implementation of a 28.412 28. 1964. . .912 35. .766 0.212 26.731 76. .064 72. . 15 . .166 23.770 34.645 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 47. .657 64.890 38.984 63.808 41.984 129 148 158 210 230 195 160 143 155 153 205 214 223 145 161 158 174 177 191 115 123 146 159 128 139 140 136 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 0.census. .081 28.725 43.940 51. .706 63.123 34.355 38.479 44.678 48.611 44.928 82. .412 56.935 46.245 47. 1980. 1986.039 84. .836 41.886 45. 19 Questionnaire expanded to ask eight income questions. 8 Implementation of 1990 census population controls.594 0.787 27.026 53. .811 41. . .881 42.694 76.774 0.418 30.082 20.095 54.172 35. . . . .650 27. . .809 31.194 44. Census Bureau.959 21. 197117 . .784 58.pdf) Total workers Male Year 2010.681 74.604 46. 13 First year medians were derived using both Pareto and linear interpolation.129 23.912 44.299 52.194 57. .308 With earnings 72.

Poverty. Census Bureau Income.This page intentionally left blank. U.S. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 51 .

. . . . . . . . . . .948 99 118 37.417 3. .719 132 389 269 138 264 300 386 80. . . .482 63. . High school graduate (including GED) .068 7.999 10.677 11. Government wage and salary workers.039 63. Armed Forces . .167 5. . . . .   45 to 64 years .266 37. .204 22.546 12. . . . . . .148 15 10. . .086 263 216 831 65. .227 3. . .555 3. .098 10.277 4. . .939 36. . and Selected Characteristics: 2002 to 2010—Con. . . .851 27. .551 11. . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U. . .039 29. . .065 8. . . . .474 35.967 586 8. . . see www.961 548 271 197 848 5. . . .533 40. . .207 5. nonsampling error. . . . .630 3.772 1.915 8 10.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.188 205 7.069 7.913 6.621 13. . .289 5. . . .S. . . . . . . . .500 77.745 9.168 10. .096 22. .375 3. . . .448 60.977 80. Management.860 11. . .508 81. . .230 6 10. and forestry occupations. .995 2.740 61. . Number of Workers With Earnings and Median Earnings by Work Experience.743 37. . .074 5. .113 80. .865 11.195 30.315 12. .997 70. . . . . . . . .493 10.639 12. .788 50. .386 12. 99 See footnotes at end of table. .916 8. . .736 6.973 5.779 4. . . . . . . .088 69. . . . . fishing.180 6.159 13. . . .473 31. . . .171 5. . .968 10. 52 Income.028 30. 80. . . 68.347 37. . . . .451 24.316 81. and financial operations occupations. . .016 11.680 11.265 20. .302 (B) 49. .850 12. . .871 21. . .958 67.048 676 7. .389 30. . .581 26.   25 to 44 years . .111 8.pdf.184 80.744 5. Construction and extraction occupations. Installation. . .848 101 213 261 189 805 37. .816 9.939 6. and definitions. . . . sampling error. . .482 80. . (Earnings in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. and repair occupations.890 11. .213 6.517 84. .934 62. . Self-employed workers . . . . .723 746 29.304 37. . . . .321 83. . . .770 68.823 30.118 3. .241 39. . . . .992 36. . .869 22.237 43. Sex.721 22. . .093 10.701 12.111 427 526 40. . . .422 12.197 5.706 2. .448 43. .180 76. Class of Worker of Longest Job Total workers.355 99 37. . .944 12. Less than 9th grade. .290 12.222 5. . .691 71.236 5. . .773 124 342 238 143 242 572 401 44. . . .520 8.130 64. . 15 years and older . .784 8. . .039 79. .census. . . . . . . . . . . Associate’s degree .514 366 931 979 989 958 905 1.128 37. .892 718 7. . . . . . .325 23. .934 61. Private wage and salary workers. .314 8. . . . .355 36. .832 12.442 38. .461 9. .216 3. . . Comparable data for occupation categories not available prior to 2002 due to change in occupation designations and definitions. .846 5. .934 83. . . .894 250 5. . . . . .763 11. .188 5.031 (B) 249 409 (B) Occupation of Longest Job Total.786 4.088 22. . Professional and related occupations.729 47. .431 13.500 80.546 68.445 6.066 (B) 381 1. .346 41. . .251 4. . . .013 4.748 36.974 82.490 72.303 40. . .101 12. . . . . .356 27. . . . . . .936 84.   15 to 24 years .983 10. .719 4. .599 16 10. . . .039 81. .120 3. . .180 60. . .921 72.153 3. . . .180 38. . . . .281 37.449 42.223 24. . . .798 9.664 556 19. . . . . . .558 12. . 25 years and older . . .847 12.297 2. .294 23. .381 30. . . . . . . .364 244 31. .345 84.761 11. . .) Number with earnings (thousands) Median earnings (in 2010 dollars) 2002 Characteristic 2003 Standard error Estimate Standard error 2002 2003 20041 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Estimate TOTAL WORK EXPERIENCE Males Age Total. . . . .990 23. . .664 29. .956 42. . .385 9.512 8 9.928 9. . .357 5. .143 38. . .351 9.477 94 108 9. . .091 4.753 10. .884 4.391 49.159 20.769 20. .405 21. . .737 13. . . .450 692 8.928 84.185 81. .215 7. . . . . . .885 38. .760 13. .903 12. . .709 339 2. For information on confidentiality protection. . Census Bureau . .429 48. . . . . .934 81.397 12. .712 12. . Under 65 years . . . . . . Farming. Bachelor’s degree or more .524 21. 15 years and older . . . . . . Transportation and material moving occupations. Sales and related occupations . . Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights. .657 3. .151 12.226 387 30.366 10. . .700 508 1. 9th to 12th.105 70.635 81. .989 4. .368 8 10. .802 20.934 79. . .370 6. .927 671 8. . maintenance.586 10.915 8.448 82.651 11. . . . .355 38. . Unpaid family workers.508 77. .502 94 94 154 164 184 498 Educational Attainment Total.215 5. .309 5. . .928 80. . .504 82. . .539 752 7. .753 8. .508 60.013 950 962 943 19.992 94 12.898 41.810 11. . . . . .192 12.891 3. . . . . . . . Production occupations.271 37.792 23. . . .214 12. . . .549 83. .264 32. . . .770 8 9.972 11. . . . Some college.414 6. . . .826 21.242 21. . .179 81. . .944 21. .482 84. .936 8.674 5. .680 11. 65 years and over . . Service occupations . . . .239 6.934 77. .999 70.188 35. .180 26. .181 81. . . .119 7. . . .980 1.313 37. . .558 9. .278 8.849 5. .500 60.872 21.857 671 7.197 23.441 28. .928 63. Poverty. business. . .738 10.953 5.574 25 10.320 3. .563 44. . . .074 5. . . .959 11.259 34. . . . Office and administrative support occupations.658 81. .992 38. .949 44. .971 11. .731 5 48. . .923 4. .261 5. . . no degree. . . nongraduate. .Table A-6.187 643 8. . . .801 8. .670 11.717 11.286 5. . .741 789 7.847 12.319 4. . . .714 84. . . .448 77. .287 61. .715 6.311 21. . . .

793 12.242 277 1.786 96 198 404 425 203 634 350 41.501 39.959 429 1.899 333 246 40. Comparable data for occupation categories not available prior to 2002 due to change in occupation designations and definitions.766 43.009 10.252 265 304 227 132 598 301 995 44.052 49.576 43.464 23.396 28.098 329 350 38.559 35.067 (B) 446 274 (B) 49.470 45. and financial operations occupations Professional and related occupations Service occupations Sales and related occupations Office and administrative support occupations Farming.767 19.005 39.517 452 217 40.194 60.180 10.318 19.365 40.265 97 411 231 299 454 433 908 Educational Attainment Total. nonsampling error. and definitions. and Selected Characteristics: 2002 to 2010—Con .123 20.144 314 130 170 138 451 646 38.870 111 113 166 336 220 968 37.028 119 120 147 358 544 590 TOTAL WORK EXPERIENCE Males Age Total.732 22.488 766 28.055 363 200 38.350 584 29.169 179 28.689 265 872 28.031 35.123 657 447 173 351 62.495 36.903 36.799 35.007 22.324 111 351 37.899 814 215 39.634 21.363 35.054 280 1.524 36.334 67.234 24.514 95 194 487 451 209 824 207 43.census.612 266 731 183 439 65.799 116 38.837 41.837 43.211 48.479 59. (Earnings in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars.950 32.132 34.367 36.284 744 19.676 35.586 38.561 291 233 479 136 682 500 233 44.005 453 31.969 39.397 59.226 40.765 186 323 163 144 170 537 38.951 45.706 22.004 41.398 120 121 161 346 243 1.961 29.694 48.666 765 17.524 111 37.228 563 16.789 285 369 204 358 68.495 186 38.931 120 36.445 20.247 34.552 12. no degree Associate’s degree Bachelor’s degree or more 37.756 49.588 28.564 25.485 601 31. Sex.031 108 36. 15 years and older Under 65 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 65 years and over 43. see www.) Median earnings (in 2010 dollars)—Con. U.699 1.001 581 17.234 25.019 35.170 334 1.677 (B) 423 384 (B) 48.053 365 160 505 66. Poverty.834 43.269 (B) 332 824 (B) 48.600 (B) 47.128 41.420 (B) Occupation of Longest Job Total.231 36.799 39.745 258 1.858 44.315 263 30.189 12.424 101 406 251 128 208 773 432 41.S.501 116 320 38.140 26.756 34.268 24.152 47. Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights.485 703 205 39.522 324 29.161 58.167 40.306 35. maintenance.107 40.188 511 28.912 327 766 333 658 66.363 314 38. and repair occupations Production occupations Transportation and material moving occupations Armed Forces Class of Worker of Longest Job 119 Total workers 208 Private wage and salary workers Government wage and 590 salary workers 376 Self-employed workers (B) Unpaid family workers See footnotes at end of table.102 47.054 45.562 47.096 186 110 38.681 21.524 38.414 27.932 116 117 143 221 243 1.738 42.229 780 18. fishing.503 44.942 27.337 40.095 38.243 1.152 252 225 375 68. and forestry occupations Construction and extraction occupations Installation. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 53 .372 59.655 38.495 38.375 38.756 23.932 586 694 27.539 260 32.647 66.Table A-6.688 36.254 32.348 63.217 42.527 50.335 11.884 20.139 12.766 45.142 36.931 34.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.795 26.940 21.565 42.676 119 66.496 50.922 21.323 444 19.496 63. For information on confidentiality protection.544 314 107 38.725 47.pdf.535 97 244 354 368 294 497 1.019 34.601 37.493 37.335 (B) 538 385 (B) 48. 2005 2004 1 Estimate Standard error Estimate 2006 Standard error Estimate 2007 Standard error Estimate 2008 Standard error Estimate 20092 Standard error Estimate 2010 Standard error Estimate Standard error Characteristic 37.920 120 341 36.229 680 241 30.767 177 31.589 32. 25 years and older Less than 9th grade 9th to 12th.032 568 29.742 43.348 (B) 319 288 (B) 47. 15 years and older Management.622 344 29.165 25.630 21.885 456 743 179 326 30. business.931 37.059 47.529 66.446 41.510 58.180 67.729 26.188 43.053 35.676 37.989 26. Census Bureau Income.161 22.648 38. sampling error.306 39.031 37.918 66.637 41.336 671 40.788 20.795 (B) 424 1.898 42.690 108 108 149 386 238 920 36.429 376 31.192 36.104 60.363 39.325 616 16. nongraduate High school graduate (including GED) Some college.805 41.080 31.302 29.537 108 144 36.659 32. Number of Workers With Earnings and Median Earnings by Work Experience.

295 70. . . . . .037 74.473 31.646 11. . .318 63.758 71.821 2.557 7. .673 91 92 133 234 160 390 26.452 32.578 2. . .085 25.011 2. . . .941 71. . 71.995 10.census. . .247 8 12.583 62 1. . .538 72. . maintenance.301 7.318 27. . .287 6 13.295 55. .674 38. . 25 years and older . .538 55. .095 72. . .233 17.832 62. .077 11. . .560 9.556 14. .953 17 36.476 69.098 228 307 321 315 281 270 262 275 349 287 12. . .685 24. . .223 71. .581 5. . . . . .596 3. and forestry occupations . . . . .129 14. .046 428 1.510 8.972 69. .972 17.454 64 1. . . .300 74. .796 15. . .412 1.951 15. . . . . . .628 3. . Unpaid family workers . . .167 60. Sales and related occupations . . . .980 15. . . .762 202 2.269 16. Construction and extraction occupations . . see www. . . . . . . .235 24.538 71.368 1. .496 71.133 19. .476 54. .085 96 9. Class of Worker of Longest Job Total workers. . . .868 16.737 15.105 10. .598 1. .812 27. .430 90 19.792 9. Self-employed workers . . . Armed Forces . . . .374 9.866 7. .067 141 28.219 17. . Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights.314 2.807 17.042 1. .709 61.574 62. . . .547 28. .328 24 13. . Farming.832 29. . .145 10 12. . . .483 67 1. .234 15. .482 9.951 14. .288 6 13. . fishing.256 208 3. . . . . . . .972 72. .393 15.033 17. . 15 to 24 years . .382 11. .939 31. . .915 11.295 74. . . Under 65 years .457 72. . .750 30. . .165 11. .529 14. . . . . . . .417 2.930 69. . . .747 1. . and financial operations occupations . . .069 749 9. 54 Income. Service occupations .151 37. . .952 19. . . . .441 6. Professional and related occupations .385 16.pdf. . . . . . and repair occupations . . .476 73. .047 25. .971 26. .990 11. 25 to 44 years . See footnotes at end of table.411 68. . . .768 73.424 215 2.227 13 12.039 9. . . Number of Workers With Earnings and Median Earnings by Work Experience.982 17. . . .031 2. . .600 74 1. . . Private wage and salary workers.654 17.951 18. business. .261 233 3. . .487 28. . . . .449 2.558 25. .707 11. . .856 44. . .493 2. . . .333 24. Some college. . .126 17. . . .101 4. .306 28.688 16.125 96 97 124 148 159 338 Educational Attainment Total. . . . Associate’s degree . .640 26. . .515 10. . . . . . . .085 45.529 18. .738 7.285 1. . . . . .380 19. . . . . .292 5. . . . .573 36. . . . .046 96 103 12. .563 3. . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U.071 21. .186 17. nonsampling error.411 53.305 72. .265 22. . . . . .268 5. .372 71.409 32.245 9.284 32.425 6. . .678 3. . .023 91 98 26. . . .615 16.771 31. . . . .787 16. . .051 16.646 11. . . . . . . . .976 72.972 54.046 301 175 125 414 45.302 13.066 20.676 22. . . . .081 2. .944 9.229 15.165 62.002 1.858 106 496 371 152 327 257 416 71. . . .991 31. .279 446 1. . .426 246 3. Office and administrative support occupations .136 222 2. . . . . . .551 3. . .537 11. . Comparable data for occupation categories not available prior to 2002 due to change in occupation designations and definitions.304 244 3. . .971 25. .630 22.447 98 1. .309 (B) 215 442 (B) Occupation of Longest Job Total.930 54.542 589 180 115 385 16.782 25. . .876 2. . .238 256 3. . .gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. sampling error.783 73.432 72. . .088 1. . .614 11.303 1. .324 (B) 469 (B) 18.706 19. . .793 18. . . . Production occupations . . Installation.971 91 26. .500 9.610 28.455 31.853 72. .333 5. . .453 5.216 172 286 368 133 322 264 207 30. . . Sex. . . . .710 (B) 419 429 (B) 36. Less than 9th grade . .272 230 3.554 1.219 63. . .423 11. 15 years and older . . . .071 14.053 16. . . . .015 25. . .402 17. . . .252 15.028 19.006 17. 65 years and over . .524 7. .118 68.191 31. .545 92 1. . .225 30. .697 19.913 28.Table A-6. . . . . . . 15 years and older . High school graduate (including GED) . . .646 8. Government wage and salary workers . .311 6. . and definitions. .528 4. . . .485 694 243 249 319 279 274 270 236 249 216 22.683 74. . . 60.683 70. . .152 14. . . . .930 72. .315 9. . . . . . . . . . . (Earnings in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. .272 31. . .620 28. .085 26. .885 71.411 71. . . .028 9.118 25. .625 23.220 7. .692 425 39.178 9. .372 53. . . and Selected Characteristics: 2002 to 2010—Con . .922 13. .182 9.839 15. . .504 3. 9th to 12th. Census Bureau .665 9. .454 68 1. .438 5.918 2. . . . . . . . Transportation and material moving occupations . .683 55.899 5. .603 14. .617 44. . Bachelor’s degree or more . . . .376 31.286 8. .096 30. .113 9. . . 45 to 64 years . . .448 92 1. . .295 9.670 3. . . Poverty.S.784 11.432 74. . . . . . . . . . .760 60. . . . .372 68. .272 19.200 17.) Number with earnings (thousands) Median earnings (in 2010 dollars) 2002 Characteristic 2003 Standard error Estimate Standard error 2002 2003 20041 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Estimate TOTAL WORK EXPERIENCE—Con. . .457 11.569 22. . . . no degree.344 14. . . . .220 8 13. .593 3. . . . nongraduate . . . . . .710 74. . . . . . . . . . .751 11.594 29. . . . .128 9. . . . . . .118 54. .027 15. . For information on confidentiality protection. .359 38. . . .316 18.420 8. . . Females Age Total. . Management. . .623 3. .774 23. .928 14 12. .091 3.

499 (B) 219 464 (B) 36. and financial operations occupations Professional and related occupations Service occupations Sales and related occupations Office and administrative support occupations Farming.745 22.279 165 123 197 136 138 437 27.059 15.923 (B) 205 1.224 179 377 223 168 205 217 520 30.519 1.641 91 102 25.620 22.167 17. business.212 96 25.643 13.574 21.015 34. U.580 29.882 29.948 39.537 45.534 16.604 13.870 21.552 102 45.848 21.127 24. see www.583 10.465 18.974 26.337 (B) 217 539 (B) 36.census.554 811 464 36. Number of Workers With Earnings and Median Earnings by Work Experience.759 (B) Occupation of Longest Job Total.552 25.396 23.359 8.562 15.146 37.333 19.521 102 395 367 130 313 334 446 29.pdf.580 26.860 16.552 26.510 28.646 287 29.632 16.565 381 1.554 198 446 237 122 179 204 163 29.170 294 7.506 17.067 380 40.168 20.758 138 27.011 2.350 40.974 98 26.368 8.525 31. and definitions.214 218 38.081 14.996 16.202 553 11.735 40.276 31.650 22.146 1.359 35.213 105 332 290 130 185 510 161 29.648 102 105 175 113 132 672 TOTAL WORK EXPERIENCE—Con.283 266 176 187 223 27.457 165 27. and repair occupations Production occupations Transportation and material moving occupations Armed Forces Class of Worker of Longest Job 102 Total workers 113 Private wage and salary workers Government wage and salary 221 workers 579 Self-employed workers (B) Unpaid family workers See footnotes at end of table.243 21.052 20.077 11. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 55 .237 39.234 18.001 98 99 173 278 129 485 26.047 (B) 35.460 95 26.830 (B) 404 (B) 19.893 22.705 137 27.422 30.666 21.692 129 26.629 20.156 97 475 264 114 173 504 160 31.452 26. 2005 2004 1 Estimate Standard error Estimate 2006 Standard error Estimate 2007 Standard error Estimate 2008 Standard error Estimate 20092 Standard error Estimate 2010 Standard error Estimate Standard error Characteristic 25.830 14.245 1.829 16.310 31.460 26.904 29. and forestry occupations Construction and extraction occupations Installation.153 235 17.690 26. nongraduate High school graduate (including GED) Some college.666 95 96 176 275 137 614 26.760 14.934 22.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. nonsampling error.509 15.232 85 472 235 152 188 196 207 Educational Attainment Total.486 13.631 91 165 125 133 158 306 25.460 25. Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights.210 195 27.312 2.920 29.764 1.137 17.958 45.690 91 25.524 96 97 192 270 130 461 25.974 24.574 32.380 1.042 22.508 14.839 27.584 28.143 2.444 31.774 881 10.620 1.826 324 3.531 14.641 2.130 95 181 26.Table A-6.171 8.859 22.698 14. Poverty.592 437 492 118 403 46. (Earnings in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars.139 160 162 175 142 332 496 26.646 17.982 17.334 217 27.678 17.689 1. Sex. Census Bureau Income.589 16.271 (B) 667 (B) 18.006 20.248 31.927 194 427 357 128 178 208 537 30.848 8.305 1.331 39.363 332 454 201 202 46.459 25. sampling error.457 27.628 98 164 26.058 (B) 193 338 (B) 35.627 25.572 1.892 23.126 44.103 45.588 30.503 16.166 23.486 16.098 29.724 9.171 1.778 31.173 32.580 31.407 31. Females Age Total.615 31.) Median earnings (in 2010 dollars)—Con.459 45. 15 years and older Management.712 16.035 12.629 297 474 209 211 46.314 1.255 44.909 40.532 248 210 190 254 49.169 1.360 14.377 165 148 27.212 25.602 143 27.598 340 323 196 224 46.869 (B) 375 258 (B) 36.185 28.824 1.717 (B) 529 (B) 18.222 15.011 10.299 33.485 210 31.582 9.770 160 26. Comparable data for occupation categories not available prior to 2002 due to change in occupation designations and definitions.210 298 34.965 13.306 32.S.187 15.457 24.670 14. 25 years and older Less than 9th grade 9th to 12th.022 (B) 499 (B) 17.448 35. and Selected Characteristics: 2002 to 2010—Con .575 20. 15 years and older Under 65 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 65 years and over 29.522 890 22.870 96 179 25.212 27.690 24.549 14.208 15.867 21.770 26.455 13.770 24. For information on confidentiality protection.067 8.277 141 10.838 19. fishing.672 39. maintenance.481 160 97 26.621 45.409 334 208 205 231 47.164 (B) 479 288 (B) 36.834 23.356 31.128 32. no degree Associate’s degree Bachelor’s degree or more 25.368 28.220 16.

.244 20. . . Under 65 years .982 3. . .023 10.720 8. .313 8.993 44.866 54. . . . .088 58. .538 61. Some college.903 58. . .020 18. . . .119 7. .095 337 285 3. sampling error. . . . .197 253 920 37.450 49. .231 6. . . . .068 7. YEAR-ROUND WORKERS Males Age Total. . .601 10.053 41. .632 46.851 25. .426 585 5. . .353 31. Number of Workers With Earnings and Median Earnings by Work Experience. . .529 3.840 4. .260 436 316 461 71.487 790 500 503 562 494 506 556 508 442 452 27. .825 52.517 5. . .055 47.798 4. See footnotes at end of table. . .377 41.795 15.007 8. . . . .268 1.696 18. . .852 660 5. . . . Production occupations.605 4. . . . . . . .275 4.122 5.451 17.532 5. . . .110 19. .412 47.946 31. .407 6. .493 5. Sex.302 44.104 8.211 48.436 58.609 4.055 61. Transportation and material moving occupations. Class of Worker of Longest Job Total workers. .291 5. . .544 7. . . . .279 10. .023 6.833 11. see www.861 44. . 58. .021 6. .401 31.253 10.026 2. . . .087 7.255 4.786 296 48. .498 60. . .   25 to 44 years .423 305 1.152 31. .336 5. .001 24.814 649 37. . .872 17. . . . .464 17.303 38.041 6.S.118 16. .952 7.) Number with earnings (thousands) Median earnings (in 2010 dollars) 2002 Characteristic 2003 Standard error Estimate Standard error 2002 2003 20041 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Estimate FULL-TIME. .267 54. .303 6. . . .980 49.029 3. . . . . . . . .325 4.751 703 4. .786 47. .109 2. . . .635 4. Self-employed workers . .653 3 61.829 217 4. .984 60. . . . .500 63.475 696 4. .795 30. .456 38. . . . . .637 30.074 7.Table A-6.823 73. .102 2.479 3. . . .179 1. . . .703 3 63.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.662 8. . . .574 6. .830 62. . . .099 338 211 44.833 7.053 56. . . . Management. . .078 10.283 9. . 25 years and older . .105 7. .810 7.877 48.724 24. . nongraduate. . .206 29. . .353 49.660 5. For information on confidentiality protection.018 50.742 7 56.729 2. .694 4. .837 30. . Less than 9th grade.600 2.373 68. . .761 43. and financial operations occupations. . . . .234 46. .677 16. . Professional and related occupations.366 16.055 62. .861 56.354 55.990 49. and repair occupations.008 59.589 107 269 332 199 216 852 222 58. .224 9.500 59.890 1. . . . . . . . . . . . 9th to 12th.211 45. .271 3.989 3. Installation. .092 3. .861 57.412 54. 15 years and older .183 6.778 121 258 251 377 236 816 244 49.695 6. . . . Construction and extraction occupations.579 (B) 296 199 704 422 (B) 48.668 11. . .550 4.141 47. . . .392 52. .265 5. .867 4. . . . .154 737 5.561 2.393 40. .census. . . .195 9. .651 23. .677 4. . . . .472 7. . . .191 25. . . . . Government wage and salary workers . . . Poverty. .321 48. .297 5. .727 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .270 1. . . . . .609 26.456 3.493 10.186 22.517 591 5. . .695 5. .792 10. .347 56.798 296 297 199 381 301 1. . (Earnings in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. . Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights.713 43. .451 2. . maintenance. .659 69. Service occupations . Unpaid family workers. . . .315 24.092 2 56.613 3.681 6. .640 4.200 600 5.651 17.696 21 59. . . .957 1. .147 2. . .786 31. . .270 6. . . .772 60. .541 5.868 11 62. .974 4.064 249 948 58. .644 23. .801 4.638 50.427 43. . .   15 to 24 years . .708 21. Sales and related occupations . . .521 26.482 2. .906 18.142 3. .643 4. . . .285 (B) 107 351 313 1. Farming. . .972 5. . .528 30. .560 1.087 5. . . . . .402 9.826 10.710 3. Bachelor’s degree or more .708 10.490 6. . . .294 5 60. . . . .218 55.891 72.052 9. .341 5.   45 to 64 years .088 44.254 636 5.736 10.202 456 197 5. .258 9.526 10. .211 107 10.412 41.717 2.868 50. . .421 55. .740 6. . .772 43. . . . . . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U. . . 15 years and older . .772 57.088 61. . .515 5. . .564 3. . . .042 19.657 25. . . .369 9. .395 52.718 25. . . 54. .609 6. . . and definitions. .405 2 58. .002 9.603 4. . .244 49.500 45. . .894 24. . . .632 63. . .571 4.445 1. . . . . . .591 10. . . . . . . . .551 39.939 56.976 4.427 3. .510 51. .154 3.406 8. . . . . Comparable data for occupation categories not available prior to 2002 due to change in occupation designations and definitions.867 5. . . .093 (B) Occupation of Longest Job Total. . . High school graduate (including GED) . . . .190 278 37. 56 Income. . . . .940 74. Census Bureau . . . .655 1. . and Selected Characteristics: 2002 to 2010—Con.228 761 26.948 38.070 6.106 371 38.666 3. .958 7. . . . . .297 6. Private wage and salary workers. . .064 56. .337 4.pdf. . .615 15. . . . Office and administrative support   occupations. .112 7.225 4.875 25. .911 107 109 178 401 542 607 Educational Attainment Total.258 8. . .399 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . .020 19. . . . . .659 30. . . .089 8. . . . business. . . .795 8.786 45.498 4 47. . . . . nonsampling error.496 528 5. . fishing.425 3. . .097 10.820 58. . Armed Forces . . . .761 58. . and forestry occupations. Associate’s degree . . . .761 57. . . . . 65 years and over . .984 46.021 56. . . . . no degree. .633 2.245 2. . .525 3. . .963 1.361 3. . .053 53.633 10. .848 6. . .984 59.792 6. . .474 3. .828 19. .

119 46.120 52.646 204 401 551 385 353 242 243 50.701 44.598 (B) 101 121 524 1.009 192 722 37.375 344 2. Number of Workers With Earnings and Median Earnings by Work Experience.441 53.571 74.055 306 394 43.508 53. business.874 51.017 44.314 54.433 24.031 50.239 56.055 46.053 39.254 37.057 46.620 24.533 37.828 191 38.131 101 102 160 135 157 605 45. and Selected Characteristics: 2002 to 2010—Con .182 46.433 47.725 52.121 337 37.020 45.358 278 38.829 39.412 47.031 137 572 620 427 615 842 253 49.017 48.807 47.821 67.633 24. For information on confidentiality protection.104 (B) 104 335 442 302 (B) 46.645 31.339 31.970 (B) 158 113 222 252 (B) 46.013 67.413 36. and forestry occupations Construction and extraction occupations Installation.678 158 164 365 494 146 2.136 45. and definitions.140 226 35. no degree Associate’s degree Bachelor’s degree or more Occupation of Longest Job Total.435 40.439 47.319 38.630 30.904 40. 15 years and older Management.164 45.573 717 735 44.379 774 278 42.762 351 718 265 358 73.522 46.330 576 40.453 29.954 45.454 304 281 367 194 584 1.788 45.186 48.238 48.939 30.589 50.577 24. 2005 2004 1 Estimate Standard error Estimate 2006 Standard error Estimate 2007 Standard error Estimate 2008 Standard error Estimate 20092 Standard error Estimate 2010 Standard error Estimate Standard error 47.222 46.361 24.778 93 597 684 237 348 245 267 47.340 29.120 24.census.653 147 149 207 191 134 1.808 46.452 68.556 29.715 47. nongraduate High school graduate (including GED) Some college.340 149 151 302 191 135 1.233 272 1.663 (B) 149 173 200 1.465 31.193 421 24.439 158 46.129 343 639 464 404 279 348 239 50. sampling error.592 54.544 47.921 43.543 53.562 30.372 51. 15 years and older Under 65 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 65 years and over Educational Attainment Total.781 95 96 162 129 136 1.954 46.045 47.170 48.722 50.130 47.986 30.131 66.076 47.959 55.225 24.502 46.090 47.439 44. maintenance.836 511 24.026 (B) 47.935 44.984 53.402 50.488 (B) 47.953 403 1.699 335 38.067 35.090 45.277 921 38.158 285 777 37.261 (B) 45. fishing.448 47.746 37.298 410 25. Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights. Sex.437 307 250 42.434 50.698 38.133 72.598 923 613 506 393 71. and financial operations occupations Professional and related occupations Service occupations Sales and related occupations Office and administrative support occupations Farming.374 52.099 48. Poverty.222 44. YEAR-ROUND WORKERS Males Age Total.905 149 47. U.804 1.048 47.145 24.S. Comparable data for occupation categories not available prior to 2002 due to change in occupation designations and definitions.096 566 266 243 290 71.963 45.685 39.941 326 407 218 638 71.353 103 222 269 171 202 1.954 147 47.484 47.849 49.905 46.681 394 36.728 48.499 66.954 31.934 46.382 348 38.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.701 45.992 31.093 738 441 223 742 72.183 426 595 183 543 40.827 52. and repair occupations Production occupations Transportation and material moving occupations Armed Forces Class of Worker of Longest Job Total workers Private wage and salary workers Government wage and salary workers Self-employed workers Unpaid family workers See footnotes at end of table. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 57 .381 145 430 620 177 878 422 374 49.428 24.222 101 45.960 53.243 47.584 54.464 48. nonsampling error.618 65.781 73.715 45.897 410 246 265 157 361 410 398 49.109 443 43.080 48.) Median earnings (in 2010 dollars)—Con.378 24.878 847 1.271 1.829 50.184 605 277 37.156 29.311 47.081 624 40.527 47.693 73.Table A-6.180 54.277 48.502 40.590 50.124 37.963 638 38.367 27.757 52.249 104 106 182 132 403 1.715 304 71.335 41. (Earnings in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars.369 45.137 53.701 95 47.789 (B) 95 112 511 1.108 247 712 36.374 496 260 43.465 499 247 574 416 73.905 47.066 681 37.893 25. Census Bureau Income. 25 years and older Less than 9th grade 9th to 12th.819 24.492 (B) 304 179 660 245 (B) Characteristic FULL-TIME.827 47.401 50.214 51.074 1.861 744 23.282 71.854 (B) 147 467 188 205 (B) 47.090 104 46.275 44.888 25.088 862 48.028 762 24.483 24.903 72.207 282 260 44.366 40.245 72.699 24.342 67.255 34.580 30. see www.738 38.pdf.

. . .866 47.151 138 33.237 20. .671 876 1. . . . . .311 934 1.530 183 2. .761 4. .328 52. . . .281 12. . . . and repair occupations. . .876 31. . . . . . .492 13.354 42.023 16.116 948 42. Sales and related occupations . .603 2 42. . . . .380 41. . . . .749 41. . . .825 1. Professional and related occupations. . . .189 175 2.160 823 19. .733 38. . . . . . . . . . . .837 8. .700 18.439 10.005 900 1. .347 12.447 7. . . Less than 9th grade.583 20. . .659 6 44. .156 43. Census Bureau . . . .514 4 41.712 244 113 96 100 90 105 96 95 140 102 20.663 45.958 101 98 326 136 151 1.347 20. .351 42. .236 53. .744 3 44. . . . .073 2.490 37. .177 45. . . .420 20.106 916 1. .376 776 1. . . . . .025 48. .423 35. Class of Worker of Longest Job Total workers. . . . .048 36. .282 2. . . . .272 10.683 11.336 7.550 8.156 42.641 23. .583 36. .142 10. .277 172 2.608 855 41. For information on confidentiality protection. . . .124 2. . sampling error. Construction and extraction occupations. .638 19. fishing. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U. . no degree. . . .163 185 1. .423 98 6. Armed Forces .S. .863 2. .171 4. . . .434 19. Farming. .568 10.526 40.742 2. .519 3 42. . .273 20. Production occupations.166 18.397 12. .396 6. Private wage and salary workers. . . 15 years and older . .664 2. .395 7.493 1. .197 42. . .876 41. .760 14.736 11. .652 973 43. .351 32. . .451 30. .335 40. .755 41. . .948 101 100 256 132 209 441 Educational Attainment Total.787 11.733 39.979 2.356 4. . .247 1. .999 15. . . . . . .421 7. see www. . . Management. . .100 115 115 162 144 160 160 109 118 138 30. . . . . . . .519 10. . .117 7. . . . .663 33. . .632 38. . .340 4.880 38.334 7. .605 97 36. Females Age Total.914 2. Service occupations .955 15.399 30.009 23. . . . . . . .) Number with earnings (thousands) Median earnings (in 2010 dollars) 2002 Characteristic 2003 Standard error Estimate Standard error 2002 2003 20041 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Estimate FULL-TIME. . . . . .451 4. . . . . .575 3 43. . .183 163 2. . Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights. .   25 to 44 years . .910 35.418 21. .983 221 368 10.028 2. . . Bachelor’s degree or more .283 10. . . . Self-employed workers . . . . . .911 38.586 7. .971 10. . Transportation and material moving occupations.371 10. . .043 22. .481 17. . .613 4. . . . . . . .509 19. . . and financial operations occupations. . . . . . . .380 31.605 34. . .575 4. business. . . . . . . .411 101 360 436 147 362 256 688 37. . . . . . .802 11. . .834 31. .916 4. .520 1.652 7. . .776 19. and forestry occupations. . .380 43. . . .270 1. .813 8.105 10. . . .420 36.606 17.344 2. . 58 Income. .165 156 2.908 42.249 30. . . and Selected Characteristics: 2002 to 2010—Con. .375 2.156 32. . . .Table A-6. . .963 217 311 23. . .684 7.173 7.973 299 716 58 755 81 709 54 741 73 752 48 753 49 767 49 698 62 693 78 27. . .438 7.757 – 43.876 41. 15 years and older .407 3. . .797 11.352 21.715 140 1. . .211 6.341 4. Under 65 years .673 7. . .896 10. .654 39.881 3. Associate’s degree . 38.384 221 44.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. . .613 44. . . . .486 857 1. .351 44. . .170 758 2. .840 11. .412 7.150 4.325 3.352 5 36.960 3. . . . . . . . . . . .217 41. . . .086 24. . . . . High school graduate (including GED) .668 9. . .520 35.037 7. .440 10.751 13. .257 (B) 713 (B) 26. . . . 65 years and over . . . .469 40. 9th to 12th.494 144 1. .372 26.561 10.456 4. .962 7.482 38.069 50. .649 11.021 3.267 187 2.834 36. . . . . . 25 years and older .106 6.census. .322 37. . .370 7. . . . .738 11. .908 40.851 7. .275 8. .232 33. . . .891 15. . . 41.196 823 1.492 (B) 97 227 267 656 (B) 36. .589 9.968 1. . .386 4.217 42.707 11.166 40.607 12. . .422 30. . nongraduate.549 42. . . . . . .197 1. . . . . . .658 33.531 23.217 31. .353 4.196 732 1.027 44. .404 8.pdf. .663 43. . . Poverty. .613 33. . . . . . Office and administrative support occupations. .834 41. .760 36. .278 1. . .729 13 45.179 4. Unpaid family workers.575 258 263 49.944 7. . . Some college.794 30. .247 4. .979 814 1. maintenance. nonsampling error. . . .177 20.043 2. .674 30. . . . . . . Comparable data for occupation categories not available prior to 2002 due to change in occupation designations and definitions. Government wage and salary workers . . . .164 4. . .908 31.826 37.603 32. .840 19.922 9. . . .384 26. Number of Workers With Earnings and Median Earnings by Work Experience. (Earnings in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. . . .413 19. .   15 to 24 years . .683 7. YEAR-ROUND  WORKERS—Con.512 1.773 286 199 6.031 4. .390 21. . .275 43. . .467 7.296 (B) 98 217 223 477 (B) Occupation of Longest Job Total.500 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263 44. .952 8. and definitions. . . . . . . . .616 7.800 7. . .484 101 303 388 140 209 286 345 41.350 3. . .716 8.066 4. . . . . . . .613 44.485 3. Installation.978 38. . . .315 8. .439 30.   45 to 64 years . . Sex.421 8. . . .554 43.924 15.

315 Armed Forces 107 126 576 698 (B) Class of Worker of Longest Job Total workers Private wage and salary workers Government wage and salary workers Self-employed workers Unpaid family workers – Represents or rounds to zero.982 33.187 38.025 92 280 364 134 155 566 263 36.748 42.766 26.879 18.373 345 Production occupations Transportation and material moving occupations 604 9.555 38.773 51.071 2. 2003 through 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.124 30.362 34.039 37.581 35.946 107 107 229 138 152 1. Comparable data for occupation categories not available prior to 2002 due to change in occupation designations and definitions.156 29.369 36.857 33.931 107 48.612 (B) 107 239 196 396 (B) 36.341 36.562 33.264 20.871 7.020 166 295 23.313 (B) 200 102 194 425 (B) 36.644 34.640 22.028 2.231 31.975 43.294 18.231 22.063 35.960 (B) 734 (B) 24.142 107 107 207 148 166 513 36.631 34.025 42. nongraduate High school graduate (including GED) Some college.551 36.664 25.609 21. business.983 40.550 24. Census Bureau. 1 Data have been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC.339 2.576 29.409 31.537 182 33.396 126 33.000 and a plug of “$100.715 (B) 107 142 191 770 (B) 36.928 29.606 122 441 292 147 178 407 477 37.505 30.687 455 44.census.905 52.239 29.913 34.493 36.578 38.060 36.213 37.395 25.663 28. 15 years and older Under 65 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 65 years and over Educational Attainment Total.921 361 198 54.239 20.388 278 34. (B) Base rounds to 75.131 336 40.882 52.444 36.526 30.115 50.028 22.055 39.877 107 36.) Median earnings (in 2010 dollars)—Con.497 41.687 30. Sex. Females Age Total.536 31.851 90 92 172 124 179 809 35.785 21.124 33.768 28.378 693 20. Number of Workers With Earnings and Median Earnings by Work Experience.351 3. the Census Bureau expanded the upper income intervals used to calculate medians to $250.236 49.200 36. Standard errors presented in this table were calculated using general variance formula parameters and may differ from the standard errors in text tables that were calculated using replicate weights. and definitions.883 29.865 22.191 (B) 28.263 46.505 257 612 52.312 27.342 2.003 193 32.060 91 35. nonsampling error.Table A-6.752 34.500 income intervals.235 29.028 123 32.342 38.997 110 485 307 140 436 298 166 37.947 19.313 2. 2005 2004 1 Estimate Standard error Estimate 2006 Standard error Estimate 2007 Standard error Estimate 2008 Standard error Estimate 20092 Standard error Estimate 2010 Standard error Estimate Standard error 36.161 18.877 35.968 (B) 745 (B) 25.161 35.946 31.770 137 289 22.401 37. and Selected Characteristics: 2002 to 2010—Con .455 36.663 251 398 52.000.905 47.000” was used.076 37.856 49. (Earnings in 2010 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars.705 25.328 (B) 959 (B) 25. Beginning with 2009 income data.pdf.370 46.301 (B) 35.159 30.965 (B) 91 106 226 421 (B) 35.161 136 612 23.335 (B) 107 304 190 387 (B) 36.218 31.165 26.790 42. see www. 2 Medians are calculated using $2.650 37.028 39. the upper open-ended interval was $100.964 40.912 34.087 2.473 (B) Characteristic FULL-TIME.302 21.976 1.316 464 41.322 122 33.123 43.361 35.S.310 510 44. Medians falling in the upper open-ended interval are plugged with “$250.161 200 36.133 1.244 23.060 35.225 52.859 33.463 200 298 227 390 176 819 36. and repair occupations 5.778 360 184 52.477 22.964 30.912 107 36.486 Installation.285 29.419 38.246 27.661 2.652 25.530 38.021 53.690 (B) 90 105 335 1.656 53.755 91 91 235 121 451 606 35.533 (B) 809 (B) 24. and forestry occupations 897 Construction and extraction occupations 1.719 47.931 35.827 19.597 36. YEAR-ROUND  WORKERS—Con.877 36.906 30.765 2.871 1.581 90 35.581 34.870 20.434 270 279 306 150 184 555 259 38.833 (B) 1. Source: U. Census Bureau Income.088 299 33.059 110 500 299 287 359 246 147 37.187 107 109 182 147 374 528 36.353 238 226 51.433 135 361 23.484 42.897 48.864 39.S.450 28.099 39. fishing.261 (B) 431 (B) 25. Poverty.912 36. For information on confidentiality protection.679 19. sampling error. U.000 or less.483 742 20.715 43.077 399 41.947 19. 25 years and older Less than 9th grade 9th to 12th.734 109 458 306 278 491 315 172 38.141 246 596 23.197 33. no degree Associate’s degree Bachelor’s degree or more Occupation of Longest Job Total.703 30.940 18.134 23.951 1.477 29.296 1.456 22.741 33. Current Population Survey. and financial operations occupations 266 491 Professional and related occupations 267 Service occupations 323 Sales and related occupations Office and administrative support occupations 315 Farming.942 272 592 334 260 410 588 159 36.032 27.315 269 583 22. maintenance. 15 years and older Management.565 33.000 or more.068 37.197 107 36.968 23.735 31.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.931 36.255 2.” Before 2009.954 107 107 178 147 377 1.900 21. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 59 .197 36.206 234 240 51.161 33.206 52.130 36.659 23.203 21.

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S.137 33.934 45.675 35. represent the needs of families.451 28.009 37.000 0 0 $27.374 22.076 45.218 17.000 Since their total family income. The official poverty thresholds are updated annually for inflation using the Consumer Price Index (CPI-U).805 38. Weighted Average Poverty Thresholds in 2010 by Size of Family (Dollars) One person Two people Three people Four people Five people Six people Seven people Eight people Nine people or more 11.518 31.344 10. their mother.882 22.S. Census Bureau uses a set of dollar value thresholds that vary by family size and composition to determine who is in poverty (see the matrix below). available at <www.190 26.845 42.227 31. Many government assistance programs use different income eligibility cutoffs.030 14. While official poverty rates and the number of people or families in poverty are important.220 Source: U.S.602 13. Fisher. Poverty Measure” by Gordon M.552 22.” the following table provides the weighted average thresholds for 2010.120 40. ESTIMATES OF POVERTY How Poverty Is Calculated Following the Office of Management and Budget’s (OMB) Statistical Policy Directive 14.” For a history of the official poverty measure.gov/hhes/povmeas /publications/orshansky.” While the thresholds.675). Each member of Family A had the following income in 2010: Mother Father Great-aunt First child Second child Total: U.351 35.000 7. Poverty. If a family’s total money income is less than the applicable threshold.000.123 31. see “The Development of the Orshansky Poverty Thresholds and Their Subsequent History as the Official U.133 47. Family A’s poverty threshold in 2010 was $26. Poverty Thresholds for 2010 by Size of Family and Number of Related Children Under 18 Years (Dollars) Related children under 18 years Size of family unit None One One person (unrelated individual):   Under 65 years ����������������������������������   65 years and older������������������������������ 11. Census Bureau $10.458 Two people:   Householder under 65 years��������������   Householder 65 years and older�������� 14. in some sense. Census Bureau.340 25.675.501 48.347 39.023 30.156 Source: U. $27.809 39. Example: Suppose Family A consists of five people: two children. and their greataunt. Income.” and other approaches to setting thresholds and defining resources are discussed in the section.320 36.057 22.314 26. The thresholds do not vary geographically.S. “Depth of Poverty Measures.180 15.197 35. Family A would not be considered “in poverty.000 10.973 Three people������������������������������������������ Four people�������������������������������������������� Five people �������������������������������������������� Six people���������������������������������������������� Seven people������������������������������������������ Eight people�������������������������������������������� Nine people or more ������������������������������ 17. Weighted average thresholds: Since some data users want a summary of the 48 thresholds to get a general sense of the “poverty line.625 29.293 17. was higher than their threshold ($26. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 61 . other poverty indicators are considered in the section.139 14.227 46.census.896 40. they should be interpreted as a statistical yardstick rather than as a complete description of what people and families need to live.146 48.html>.675 30.APPENDIX B. the U. “Alternative Poverty Measures.056 34. then that family and every individual in it are considered in poverty.859 27.527 Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight or more 17.S.491 27.879 44.897 34.439 29.113 26. The official poverty definition uses money income before taxes and tax credits and excludes capital gains and noncash benefits (such as Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits and housing assistance).575 43. The weighted average thresholds are based on the relative number of families of each size and composition and are not used in computing poverty estimates.772 47.568 22.635 37. Census Bureau. their father.591 32.120 35.

926 11.570 32.405 10.288 201.0 14.2 12.072 24.S.297 7.883 5.851 39.303 29.594 233.757 190.623 34.2 45.565 26.710 187.844 22.071 190.Table B-1.708 13.2 38.911 26.376 9.1 21.446 6.057 11.0 203.700 35.630 190.530 240.261 13.3 20.600 11.975 13. For information on confidentiality protection.489 217.893 31.062 19.3 19.8 19. and year Unrelated individuals Families with female householder.9 45.626 13.0 44.110 21.0 11.1 24.6 36.2 20.701 32.7 50.216 5.9 22.580 39.5 54.601 19.5 190.9 35.299 19.199 33.193 188.884 12. nonsampling error.895 14.6 38.5 30.260 16.183 53.8 11.120 9.450 46.771 23.678 10.544 25.515 208.458 6.817 18.964 19.165 21.1 19.632 11.0 39.908 37.205 9.8 42.7 20.5 38.5 36.855 249.6 1970����������������������������������� 1969����������������������������������� 1968����������������������������������� 1967����������������������������������� 1966����������������������������������� 202.845 8.585 23.926 9.3 11.857 6.8 20.1 35.541 25.621 206.834 28.7 39.538 38.276 36.944 37.425 9.027 222.133 26.303 34.330 19.3 36.858 28.6 38.148 11.041 298.7 38.221 32.8 10.672 40.4 40. see www.205 14.4 47.0 10.5 11.699 4.446 34.412 227.609 47.180 43.792 221.907 12.524 7. Race.436 38.646 7.7 12.317 281.503 176.156 46.695 22.5 30.861 34.361 189.577 20.526 48.816 231.278 256.090 4.8 16.0 19.0 10.672 193.907 13.921 233.791 34.9 37.574 36.609 6.252 7.247 8.1 48.636 14.8 45.972 4.1 13.624 43.452 19.1 23.973 24.5 13.413 11.820 301.729 26.131 168.347 23.1 1990����������������������������������� 1989����������������������������������� 19886���������������������������������� 19876���������������������������������� 1986����������������������������������� 248.164 31.422 11.3 13.864 209.277 179.2 38.687 8.371 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 7.7 242.998 4.5 11.007 31.967 209.8 15.580 23.1 25.5 21.585 31.534 23.4 17. Hispanic origin.032 25.170 24.4 20.0 11. no husband present All families Below poverty Below poverty Below poverty Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent ALL RACES 2010����������������������������������� 2009����������������������������������� 2008����������������������������������� 2007����������������������������������� 2006����������������������������������� 305. People as of March of the following year.0 12.6 11.384 248.700 229.272 26.153 8.4 11.554 33.240 7.215 10.7 186.5 38.977 42.1 38.1 14.992 31.157 33.480 266.389 27.2 37.7 39.055 36.435 5.510 12.9 21.2 38.0 34.388 25.2 32.9 49.0 2005����������������������������������� 20041���������������������������������� 2003����������������������������������� 2002����������������������������������� 2001����������������������������������� 293.413 189.338 200.615 165.879 6.878 30.4 20.208 271.475 36.701 11.850 12.4 9.842 36.6 210.673 17.1 22.287 8.7 20.827 5.7 44.0 21.6 1985����������������������������������� 1984����������������������������������� 1983����������������������������������� 1982����������������������������������� 1981����������������������������������� 236.9 13.070 6.232 24.1   See footnotes at end of table.558 181.861 38.6 29.398 31.051 37.8 10.725 24.4 20.4 45.014 46.760 7.189 9.963 195.1 20.392 10.049 28.769 28.797 37.534 51.400 9.7 34.6 12.754 12.517 197.888 10. Census Bureau .7 13.2 10.909 230.459 6.3 10.9 9.204 10.796 28.846 20.844 30.982 238.955 22.7 31.1 38.002 5.1 30.478 8.458 27.271 5.476 35.263 170.831 12.178 8.491 14.5 10.3 11.2 12.147 25.745 32.7 19.000 38.182 11.509 34.3 27.059 268.846 8.9 22.781 7.4 179.351 30.218 31.0 38.559 12.281 177.809 10.927 26.380 14.114 12.789 227.587 11.490 17.9 12.1 13.389 240.830 25.117 20.539 41.143 4.528 31.961 27.926 4.8 196.3 12.2 14.114 7.740 49.823 21.053 41.746 13.9 10.8 14.430 219.699 285.185 34.564 26.3 13.0 33.9 20.674 4.9 9.7 231.657 11.223 15.5 10.2 35.132 12.076 173.5 22.594 47.6 12.812 13.6 38.754 238.628 195. and definitions.2 22.7 30.824 36.926 18.119 4.143 12.8 23.059 39.6 20.1 38.529 11.2 40.8 23.653 176.679 7.420 24.311 40.4 19.315 44.9 22.688 303.265 38.490 21.733 261.501 28.205 13.264 20.618 9.584 10.803 13.963 202.3 12.422 45.370 26.6 10.075 7.811 16.8 28.3 48.773 20.9 1975����������������������������������� 1974����������������������������������� 1973����������������������������������� 1972����������������������������������� 1971����������������������������������� 210. sampling error.944 276.158 27.795 32.229 225.4 12.908 27.056 206.990 6.505 19.1 14.625 39.038 36.740 6.358 30.4 30.617 287.861 36.628 39.027 43.498 33.311 5.549 251.788 17.903 215.1 19.404 24.915 13.795 14.829 37. Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship.344 22.927 28.425 38.714 6.388 8.349 24.226 21.2 10.727 8.088 4.5 15.9 19.004 204.9 20002���������������������������������� 19993���������������������������������� 1998����������������������������������� 1997����������������������������������� 1996����������������������������������� 278.5 33.5 12.5 21.183 199.995 18.227 5.6 12.185 36.6 13.029 36.5 31.154 25.8 14.385 198.1 23.242 20.877 205.699 296.1 11.460 25.3 27.2 11.684 24.789 18.048 24.6 13.079 51.644 245.175 20.562 15. Poverty.census.494 13.5 12.276 181.pdf) All people People in families Below poverty Race.822 14.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.2 222.199 34.9 34.9 21.258 184.8 14.301 245.2 11.8 21.247 7.253 37.8 1995����������������������������������� 1994����������������������������������� 1993����������������������������������� 19924���������������������������������� 19915���������������������������������� 263.460 15.068 26.525 32.014 35.7 20.743 5.938 5.936 212.146 10.9 21.554 25.443 245.340 32.9 42.244 42.2 38.4 1980����������������������������������� 1979����������������������������������� 1978����������������������������������� 1977����������������������������������� 1976����������������������������������� 225.0 20.056 35.0 19. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U.064 33.860 191.3 249.8 13.961 43.581 32.400 8.462 8.933 27.992 243.268 29.013 11.950 37.720 24.362 207.412 38.2 15.832 12.529 39.197 28.234 18. and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2010 (Numbers in thousands.5 37.0 13.569 39.0 14.497 24.478 13.0 31.7 10.4 15.3 1965����������������������������������� 1964����������������������������������� 1963����������������������������������� 1962����������������������������������� 1961����������������������������������� 1960����������������������������������� 1959����������������������������������� 191.867 212.153 12.048 17.985 29.369 223.223 31.653 8.3 13.877 23.557 33.6 46.6 12.6 49.692 184.903 236.3 11.764 12.459 25.898 6.135 290.668 11.725 6.4 11.066 24.928 39.436 189.4 13.578 11.509 25.072 11.8 39.152 12.8 38.370 22.1 35.912 31.1 12.6 24.553 4.5 30.656 213.370 13.1 11.7 11.6 12.8 17.616 259.9 12. 62 Income.217 27.694 4.972 12.723 27.269 9.5 12.891 183.925 34.484 38.375 38.977 22.192 36.0 28.040 35.503 6.825 182.713 9.2 46.710 10.

770 28.918 198.965 20. . .810 41.416 11.094 25. .7 9. . . . .7 8.3 24.972 5.912 191.674 7. 2008. 1994. .739 21. . . . . . . .773 5. . . .2 29. .732 172. . . .947 6.295 15.460 214.988 4. . . . . . . .010 27.7 43. .546 181. .290 5. . . .450 185.376 175. . .0 165. . .9 184.318 4. . . (Numbers in thousands. . .147 15.2 36.171 5.2 11. .2 11. . . . .9 18. . . . . . .4 27. . .125 17. . . . . . . . . . . .675 227.3 198. . .577 3. . .721 5. . . . . .720 13. . . . .955 23.866 6. . . .pdf) All people People in families Below poverty Race. . . . sampling error.0 29.0 25.983 9.133 237.8 32. . .1 18. .349 16. . 1998. .374 6. .4 9. .739 4.577 4. . . . .369 14.740 16.296 24. .2 25. .057 8. .361 222. . and year Unrelated individuals Families with female householder. .450 182.1 40.413 188. . . . .2 13.3 7. .299 18.5 10. . .340 7.4 19. . . . 1984.3 11. .548 239. . .454 6. . 1983.692 15. . . . 1985.062 4.313 165.8 18. . .608 20. .4 15. . . 19876 . .872 25. . .732 167. U. . .092 3.573 (NA) (NA) 3. .407 170.916 15.972 3. . 19886 .5 43. . .839 171. 1968. . .605 23.6 30.860 3. . .364 9. . . .1 10. . . . .247 33.833 29. . .5 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 4.7 42. . . . . .644 11. .857 175.376 181.262 24. .165 183. . . .903 7. . . 2007. .170 6.9 7. see www. .074 190.Table B-1.336 6.463 6.956 26.041 42. . . .718 7.3 20.966 187. .477 10. .4 27. .6 16.9 19. . .164 182. .833 186. . . .348 150.6 29.051 29.0 8. . Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship. .613 23. . . . and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2010—Con .159 27. .458 147. . . . .851 8.430 233. . .386 6. .207 30. . .119 183. . . 170.7 8. .802 22. . . .6 30. . .500 12. . . . .940 4.8 20. . .868 168.1 2005.672 27. . .9 27. .1 1971. 20002 . . . . . .041 19. . . .763 195.063 5.412 12. . .594 17.9 20. .174 18. . . .619 176. . .127 14.6 10. . .2 13.441 35. . . .713 23.7 22. . . .396 9.4 9. . . .9 27. . . . . .272 23. .993 29. . . . . . . . .6 31. .474 18. .334 20. . . 210. .277 193. .2 24.645 22. . .132 29. .306 158. .179 15. . . . . 2002. . . . . .399 32.9 15. . .9 26. . . . .6 8. . . . .4 35. .415 9. . . . . .782 17.732 22.2 43. . . .530 5. .5 14. . .256 18. . .061 21. .0 10. . . .143 27. . .913 23.296 4. .623 13. .5 1966.7 19. .1 10. . . . . . . . .504 175. . . no husband present All families Below poverty Below poverty Below poverty Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent WHITE ALONE7 2010. .424 165.461 9. .6 18.081 165. 1995.7 21. . . .398 177. For information on confidentiality protection. .2 29. . . . . .872 5. . . .7 10. .375 4. .225 7. .161 4. .314 5.1 153.300 5. . . . .0 12. .5 29. .226 25. . .409 17.199 6.656 218.259 11. . .059 4. . . . . . . .890 28. .984 23. 1965. .S.7 12. .303 13.453 7. and definitions.504 192. . .770 15. . .736 15.4 25. .913 38.0 30.621 17.7 31.111 174. .294 37. . .496 24.8 19. . . . .968 18. .5 8.5 8. . . .799 12. 2004 1 .224 22. .261 11.2 11. . . .6 24. .423 25. . . . .013 242.census. . . . .5 12. .6 7.285 12.589 9.9 9.0 11. . . . .6 19.235 203.209 4.779 161.411 6.141 16. . 1979. .015 9. . .845 20.2 8.739 5. . . . . .863 171. . .569 32. . . .195 11.198 5.371 4. . . . . . . . . Poverty. .210 5.989 31. . . . .7 35.3 7.938 197.503 16.6 39. .4 33. . . . .1 17. 1970.941 197.1 29.869 5. 1974. .494 9.553 19. .943 26. . .611 206. . .630 12.508 20. . .7 8. . .067 26. .2 9. .149 9. .5 26.6 10.505 7. . . . . . . . .003 3.5 10.853 205. . .213 3.370 22. .185 180. . .0 8. .2 30. .047 240. . .761 14.4 7. .744 23. .699 17. .184 185. . . .823 16.551 3.169 23. .659 17.877 16.7 15. . . 219.9 18. . . .028 216. . .484 16. . .6 8.433 14.3 14. . . . .3 10. 1973. . .830 26. . .849 4.1 40.105 19. .6 9. .863 156. . .193 165.5 11.226 12.021 6.747 24.353 16. . .gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. . .073 7.9 19. . . 202. .453 30. . .747 22.561 158. . .188 7. .609 5. .043 8.452 4.1 26. . .898 155. .5 9. .9 9.727 19. 1975.950 5. . . .166 23. .913 24.570 11. .0 1962.395 18. . . . .0 11. . .330 180.3 6. .4 177.7 8.742 186. .047 4.3 17. . . .2 194.5 18. . . . . .024 192. .619 24. . .203 9. . 1978. . . 229. People as of March of the following year. . .292 6.385 16.795 17. . . . .4 WHITE8 2001. . . . . . .549 17. . .4 8. . .756 168. . . . . .8 8.858 6. . . . .309 28. . .211 23. . . .517 11.496 195. . . . .0 8.405 9.7 1981. .047 7. nonsampling error. . . .990 25.1 7.785 20. .6 20.183 22.131 4.646 4.9 1996. . . .761 3. . . 162. .024 172.1 23.1 10. 1977. .860 22. . .593 18. . . . .571 165.8 29.1 7.036 3.120 24.6 9. . . . . . 194.099 3.4 18. .051 21.1 10.842 160.2 9. . .294 9. . . . . . 1959.957 25. .050 12. . . . . . .1 29.309 19.268 7. . .3 23. . .495 4.484 16. . .299 5.935 22. 1997. . . . 1963.699 36. . . . . . Race.430 18. . .686 10.0 40.184 163.931 40.955 11. . .010 41. . . .4 11. .133 208. .558 17.232 37.1 See footnotes at end of table. . .8 29. .555 3. . .1 9.259 16.190 12. .9 37. . . .1 38. . . Hispanic origin. . . .061 4.461 165. .463 4.2 19.593 18. .0 19. .8 18. .686 30.4 29.8 31.393 17.060 24. .7 19915 . .650 24. .268 15. .713 17. 1980. . . .214 13.7 31. .9 10.241 4.500 13.944 196.443 6.563 34. . . .200 22. .580 7.001 15.254 21. .8 16. .587 12. .257 19. .2 20. . . . . .3 13. . . .577 15.089 4. . .089 36. . . .362 20. . . .5 9. . 1961. .416 7.8 10.1 19. .7 13. .327 24. . . .5 10. .716 21. . . . . .1 32.038 17. . . . . . . .2 10. . . 1960. 1992 4 . .737 43. . 1967. . . . . 1972.105 8. . . . . . .6 10.566 13.546 14. .7 28. . 2006. . . . .575 7.181 5. .4 28.723 5.017 5.326 20.650 29.163 27. .8 23.454 24. . . .941 15.593 9.7 10. .712 38.1 10. . .139 25.846 225. . 1964. .7 27.189 5. .8 8. . . . . .105 19. . . .323 12. .2 26. .8 10. . .982 7. . . . .112 31. . .0 165.0 27.147 18. .7 18. . . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 63 .154 4.349 173. . . .474 29. . .3 159. . . . .875 162.992 27. . 1982. . .4 9. . . . . .899 213. .9 169. . . . .996 6.5 10. . .584 15.892 6.379 26. . 1969. .748 16.160 31.5 28.8 23.214 16.780 17.536 24. . .244 6. . .661 166. . . .488 17. .214 4. .0 18. . . .040 197. . . .315 28.4 17.760 4. . . .2 16. . .4 17. . .619 31.143 4.2 8. . .8 28.6 18. .228 7. .9 9.7 38.806 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .990 5.8 28.502 13. 179.0 174. . . .142 16. .741 231. .3 1986. . . . . . 243.0 44. . .255 156. . .643 28. .907 29.919 22.587 21.4 25. . .6 20. . . .238 11. . . 235. . 2003. . . . .445 16. . . . . . .730 3. . .495 12.1 12.396 20.9 9.837 221. .934 8. .416 13.1 28. Census Bureau Income.0 190.717 149. . . 184. . .278 4.181 11.258 8. . . .206 24.6 12. . .164 39. .376 24. . .911 4. . 19993 . .2 18. . .642 17. .725 3. . .777 160.8 34. .377 18.6 8. .715 21. . .163 20. . . . . . . . 1993. . .443 14. . . .9 21. .600 4. .1 17. .282 200. .701 18.283 7. .247 168. .866 230.7 11.125 16. 1990. . . 2009. .466 10.290 22. 1989.4 1976. . .

132 14. . . .412 3.583 196. . . .429 25. .604 19.789 4. . .036 6. . . . . . .8 BLACK ALONE    OR IN COMBINATION 2010.1 22. . . .411 25.5 38.775 5. . . . . .659 4. . . (Numbers in thousands. . . . . .329 4. . .903 17.7 25. .437 14.086 10. . .733 22.189 32.418 6. .4 31. .4 24. .755 13. . . . .3 29.0 7.449 12. .4 6. . .936 17.8 8. . .802 4. . and definitions. . . .665 157. .553 10. . . .7 29.959 3.5 18.130 8. and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2010—Con . .2 33. . . . .0 27.8 23. . . .466 4.4 20. . .799 19. . 20002 .396 13. . . . .484 5. .9 34. . Poverty. . . . .553 9.676 7.525 25. .368 7.144 16. .271 14.448 4. . . . . . .439 5. .059 31. . . . . .702 5.0 24.9 39. . . .935 33.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.394 158. .5 155.2 39. .002 4. . . . . .203 197. . . 1993. . .037 37. . . .7 23. .495 7.539 155. .9 2005. .691 192. . .3 19. .235 172.1 25. . .4 25.706 13. . . .947 17.5 9.756 12. . .1 6. . Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship. . . . .9 31.2 1981. . . . . and year Unrelated individuals Families with female householder. .658 9.9 24. .049 19.664 4. . . .1 7. . 1994. . . Race. . . . .715 2.9 20.157 29.977 8. . .350 4.7 25. .185 24. 1978. .4 17. .545 4.503 37. . . 2002.688 28.3 6. .7 28.7 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . .827 16.301 158. . .8 2005.393 6.055 27.814 174.9 24. .746 3. . .4 23. . . . sampling error. .0 15.369 15.447 27. . .768 7.661 3.763 12. .164 196.3 25.7 6. 2003.9 22.1 8. . .0 22. . .417 171. . . . . .0 17. .138 14. .469 181. . . . .5 14.850 158. . . 195.668 9.3 30. . .001 16.097 39.098 194. . . . .350 17. .1 8. . .261 5. . . . . . .749 16. . . . .106 156. .940 196. 2009. .116 188. . .757 36.6 8. . .8 26.4 23.943 33. .5 21.3 23.599 15. .285 2. . .681 28. . .193 4.078 12. .462 16.2 9. . . . . 20041 .303 5. .703 159. . . . .4 6. . .3 8.552 26. .642 7. . . . .215 28.0 28. .0 6. .029 9.244 17.516 3.951 192.393 181.664 9.609 17. . .7 18.0 157. . . . . .419 13. . .550 159.262 6. 184. .495 40. . . . 1995. . .746 4.8 16.828 16.7 8. . 1983. . .4 9. .818 32.204 159.389 6. . .524 5. .6 6. .427 32. . . .888 4. .013 9.500 5. . . .746 4. . .161 26.3 39. 38. . . . . .390 3. . .735 15. .349 4. 1997. . . . .080 13.0 1976.136 4.626 35. . nonsampling error.754 6. . . . . . .459 190.422 40. . .013 10.7 16.0 6. .335 19.460 6.638 20. .882 5.741 16. . . 180. .6 7.0 14. . .202 8. .3 22. . . .145 39. .455 21. . .183 4.782 5. . .979 185. . . . .903 11. . NOT    HISPANIC8 2001. . .922 3. . . . . . . . 19886 . . . . 1990. . . . . .353 24.764 155.9 24.854 9.2 8. 19993 . .277 6.724 4. . . . . .595 194.7 38.6 1996.300 19. .0 23. .062 159. . . .7 8.543 190.6 23. . .116 3. . . .021 19. .876 40.957 3. 1982. .410 19. 20041 . .2 8.379 3.755 5. . 19876 .4 7.632 17. . .909 35.099 4. . . .8 6.567 8. .4 6.8 40.602 22.671 23. . .538 19. . .7 25. .742 16. . . 191. . .186 5.2 WHITE. . . . . .0 6.8 21. .4 1986.6 21. .988 4.830 4.5 16.599 12. .467 11. . .4 9. .7 21. .622 15.9 8. . .8 19. .3 23. 19924 . .468 31. . . . . .267 18. .663 31. . 197. .3 18. . . .Table B-1.864 8. People as of March of the following year. .261 13.049 5. . .402 161. . Census Bureau .614 6. .9 19. . 2007. . .848 36.5 5.848 6. .809 13. . . .4 17. . . . .323 9.883 13. . . .102 10. . .8 31.573 32.127 157. .719 157.830 13. .155 6. .879 15. . . . . . . . .9 18.7 18. .222 3. . . .141 34. 64 Income. .463 14. .946 6. . .7 8. . .7 24. . .7 See footnotes at end of table. .902 15.909 179.882 18. .961 184.034 2. .912 16. .118 12. .3 6. . . .6 7. .9 38.332 14.798 9.6 159.119 183. .7 17. .075 26. . . 1980. . . . . . 1989. . .474 4. . . 2002.640 23.8 22.411 9.599 18.312 5.968 1.1 5. .908 15.340 18.1 21. . . . .699 3.839 18.323 15. .894 23.603 33. . Hispanic origin.066 11. .787 4. .814 1. . .324 155. .1 19.796 9.pdf) All people People in families Below poverty Race. . . .491 7. . . . .517 9. . . . . .8 7.3 16. . . . . .356 5. .792 18. 2008.410 30. . .2 17. 1998. 2007.4 9.016 4.129 186.2 21.7 158. . . . . . . . . . .474 3. .9 24.5 6.731 3. 2009.278 4.7 24. . .009 18. . .    NOT HISPANIC7 2010. .899 19. . no husband present All families Below poverty Below poverty Below poverty Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent WHITE ALONE. .410 15. . . . . . . . . . . .884 24. .764 9.215 158. . . . .538 193.455 5. . . . . . . .547 18.9 17. . . .802 9. .361 10. .544 2.364 3.2 157. . . .731 173.0 10. .179 19. . . .2 8. .211 10. . . .6 19915 . . .227 16. . 1984. .371 3. . .254 160. 1974.799 16. .838 158.2 6. . . . .6 8.553 195. .census.4 22. . .0 159.740 11.330 32.892 18. .9 19.701 18. .330 156. . . .859 15. 2006. . . . .362 9. .123 7. 189. .551 5. . . .074 4.664 13.668 4. .930 156. . .221 159.046 4.565 192.613 18. . . .013 11.646 159. . . . .8 19. . . . . .5 25. . . . see www.237 6. . . . 1975. . 2008. .6 39. .284 3. . . . .024 16.772 158. .122 8. .6 23.683 34. . .825 20. . . .9 9. .9 9. 41. .6 157. .959 3. . .7 7.3 17. 1985. .1 22.S.7 24.008 7. . . .186 18. . . . . . .564 39.6 7.158 3. . . . .570 5.042 1. . . .739 16.463 170. . .6 25. .114 4.565 16.563 17. . . . . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U. . .459 7. .567 154. . .0 17. . . .882 9. . . .1 15. . .1 8.321 154. . . . . . . .987 16. . . . .2 7. .5 8. . .4 8. .9 9.3 6. . .003 1. 194.6 24. . .207 9. . . . . .344 158. .851 29.586 30. . . . . . . . . .401 5.818 12. . . .366 14. .699 15. .6 23. . .603 33.539 6. .8 18. .544 24. .025 14. . . . .9 17.044 159.8 10. . . 173.339 4.6 159. .798 178. .5 7. .3 18. .4 7. .196 17.532 4. .568 10. .217 12.3 8. . . . . . .194 6. . . 1979. .051 7. . .033 18. . . .998 11. .723 10. .711 8.358 15. . . . .138 9. . . . . . . . .2 7.572 11.0 16. . . .4 15.840 1.015 5.7 5.843 189.7 28. .565 37. .0 35. .2 26. .3 18.365 14.575 9.271 7.352 5. . . 2003. . .488 14. .8 23. .9 18.2 18.633 156.551 38. . .108 8. .7 10.009 9.234 14. . . . . .110 18. .6 7.455 182. .769 4. .4 8.785 11. . .160 16. 1977. . .0 17.184 7. 1973.530 17.604 10.0 6. .330 10.710 4.668 7. . . 2006. . For information on confidentiality protection. .985 23. .412 5. .0 24.4 8. . .597 18.061 10. .754 191. . .608 7.178 158.4 17.570 3.687 157. . .365 18.137 9.179 3.032 16. . . .508 18. . . .162 6. .1 20.0 28.950 22.743 4. . . .

138 23.277 3.0 56.9 30.376 8.140 7.807 6.3 30.2 22.741 13.756 34.0 24.727 29.5 12.059 9.182 7.6 41.342 5. no husband present All families Below poverty Below poverty Below poverty Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent BLACK ALONE9 2010����������������������������������� 2009����������������������������������� 2008����������������������������������� 2007����������������������������������� 2006����������������������������������� 38.064 4.8 42.989 4.173 8.694 4.931 25.5 23.1 7.8 5.944 21.384 10.9 24.675 9.1 30.870 6.378 29.789 54.259 7.387 24.7 35.6 1.3 30.216 8.139 55.5 31.799 46.819 29.7 54.072 26.339 7.724 20.9 29.3 54.491 1.8 37.132 1.816 4.383 12.926 9.399 24.232 5.983 8.483 7.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.132 12.218 4.459 5.7 BLACK8 2001����������������������������������� 20002���������������������������������� 19993���������������������������������� 1998����������������������������������� 1997����������������������������������� 35.8 27.5 58.579 8.1 2.5 34.209 1.677 8.225 3.123 6.091 9.127 2.4 48.4 38.2 34.341 21.296 1.332 29.929 2.2 6.5 30.144 7.6 65.756 4.956 24.388 7.8 53.030 5.6 34.869 29.830 5.557 6.237 9.4 29.2 50.214 9.7 24.303 5.4 35.425 35.471 1.pdf) All people People in families Below poverty Race.501 3.S.034 5.560 6.692 1.011 927 828 870 39.431 1.490 9.089 23.962 6.087 27.897 33.8 33.192 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 6.454 2.2 32.314 1.229 38.590 21.740 33.1 4.604 12.944 24.621 8.650 7.338 1.5 9.196 10.4 7.362 3.4 21.858 1.3 41.486 8.694 9.541 1.013 7.134 27.485 28.642 7.189 8. Race.505 4.7 38.245 6.877 34.3 35.837 9.3 23.6 19915���������������������������������� 1990����������������������������������� 1989����������������������������������� 19886���������������������������������� 19876���������������������������������� 31. and year Unrelated individuals Families with female householder.780 7.7 24.379 9.5 32.154 30.8 23.6 31.777 28.849 29.8 50.0 29.877 10.247 5.7 46.530 6.860 1.112 31.0 48.9 13.667 33.050 7.183 2.005 5.4 53.028 1.678 9.556 37.617 1.5 32. Census Bureau Income.484 25.180 4.180 41.427 5.697 31.9 27.823 13.0 54.8 3.362 10.244 5.591 6.7 31.Table B-1.4 57.565 26.206 18.1 26.106 27.6 24.227 13.7 40.944 9.7 30.933 28.839 7.0 1996����������������������������������� 1995����������������������������������� 1994����������������������������������� 1993����������������������������������� 19924���������������������������������� 34. (Numbers in thousands.649 4.8 23.590 1.3 33.426 35.5 33.499 28.678 27.315 5.965 38.841 30.699 5.312 7.656 3.955 6.1 14.654 37.136 7. see www.982 8.6 39.781 1.353 32.5 29.164 7.2 32. For information on confidentiality protection.5 31.0   See footnotes at end of table.3 30.441 9.6 57.census.802 36.794 10.9 61.118 13.530 5.884 1.926 7.7 39.396 7.190 6.8 29.041 10.1 54.5 24.602 24.984 4.791 1.1 35.504 8.595 56.1 30.774 5.8 42.4 31.8 40.1 29.7 40.8 24.871 35.458 8.679 7.595 7.5 33.848 32.545 2.927 32.423 23.537 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 3.758 7.7 22.977 1.616 8.840 21.834 26.6 32.850 7.671 7.545 7.316 1.255 6.356 9.011 21.3 31.389 6.242 9.390 5.386 21.7 30.188 7.629 5.3 37.365 31.7 58.712 4.7 23.1 39.993 8.1 22.415 4.4 28.338 9.9 28.3 31.313 30.3 39.800 29.059 39.3 55.710 31.0 31.027 21.7 31.9 42.3 21.866 11.666 22.410 7.9 6.926 13.6 49.784 22.1 31.190 10.471 35.3 1981����������������������������������� 1980����������������������������������� 1979����������������������������������� 1978����������������������������������� 1977����������������������������������� 26.222 4.7 39.6 37.0 58.3 38.2 11. and definitions.264 1.898 1.065 29.521 6.302 9.553 6.800 6.504 8.704 7.7 35.355 29.2 32.948 7.689 8.648 13.398 6.4 40.548 7.872 10.095 7.778 30.6 33.2 36.7 53.562 1.2 55.827 28.333 28.3 49.559 2.606 1.666 5.242 9.761 23.520 32.128 8.3 32.551 1.0 31.970 1.873 5.153 6.208 3.6 28.1 20. Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship.244 4.084 22.867 9.4 25. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 65 .447 9.095 3.819 (NA) (NA) (NA) 1.306 30.051 1.726 34.160 2.980 39.0 39.9 54.430 866 865 850 777 809 777 815 46.481 13.168 9.328 21.5 29.8 35.702 1.533 5.5 30.065 8.104 8.9 10.3 70.411 9.9 54.8 55.493 6.6 40.3 46.620 24.601 5.668 5.4 51.1 58.168 4.882 9.287 3.989 35.175 10.116 4.0 30.255 1.4 23.0 2005����������������������������������� 20041���������������������������������� 2003����������������������������������� 2002����������������������������������� 36.306 10.736 5.3 3. Hispanic origin.966 37.8 23. sampling error.625 7.7 34. nonsampling error.550 12.714 3.587 3.116 6.221 6.8 28.416 56.8 13.835 6.7 24.790 7.2 34.4 24.0 1976����������������������������������� 1975����������������������������������� 1974����������������������������������� 1973����������������������������������� 1972����������������������������������� 24.641 3.014 8.910 32.2 58.792 1.683 6.8 32.193 13.410 1.986 30. People as of March of the following year.949 1.217 6.408 25.9 1971����������������������������������� 1970����������������������������������� 1969����������������������������������� 1968����������������������������������� 1967����������������������������������� 1966����������������������������������� 1959����������������������������������� 22.0 29.2 54.4 33. Poverty.225 5.8 42.168 1.312 3.019 1.156 13.359 2.489 6.515 22.710 9.569 32.090 9.752 1.533 6.699 23.910 24.102 6.645 28.698 53.344 7.160 7.871 28.5 39.665 37.1 28.4 26.244 13.960 11.2 31.473 5.110 33.701 6.048 27. and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2010—Con.125 4.402 2.781 8.576 6.116 22.296 25.509 1.0 1986����������������������������������� 1985����������������������������������� 1984����������������������������������� 1983����������������������������������� 1982����������������������������������� 28. U.608 4.115 4.1 31.2 53.1 30.0 4.900 20.1 33.0 38.2 30.806 30.6 26.7 25.885 5.0 37.9 32.687 21.9 33.680 13.512 23.

201 1.8 26.2 9.955 10.742 1.338 1.434 7.112 776 898 787 13.120 1. and year Unrelated individuals Families with female householder.465 12.4 18.891 12.9 23.6 18.039 876 1.258 1.257 13.9 1996����������������������������������� 1995����������������������������������� 1994����������������������������������� 1993����������������������������������� 19924���������������������������������� 10.2 24.3 24.360 1.3 13.256 1.609 6.719 11.6 1.3 1. For information on confidentiality protection.087 1.0 29.6 40.116 8.333 9.1 9.7 11.117 1.223 1.7 25.343 1.312 873 895 1.2 13.024 1.463 1.447 6.017 763 8.1 13.0 1.1 11.672 11.272 14.644 6.447 11.8 7.6 15.6 11.9 7.9 33.013 696 791 828 255 260 179 228 193 22.8 15.6 15.729 1.746 1.3 25. Race.468 10.576 1.1 10.243 10.231 11.5 14.911 10.576 9.9 10.494 1.1 20.467 1.683 475 491 378 391 428 26.826 1.134 393 350 270 257 327 23.900 8.8 12.6 10.507 9.922 1. Census Bureau .899 970 812 1. People as of March of the following year.421 1.2 10.0 1. Hispanic origin.1 1.580 12.613 427 388 375 390 26.415 1.6 17.403 12.2 9.8 24. and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2010—Con.645 1.6 18.588 1.734 10.161 11.0 785 668 712 651 516 209 124 144 160 138 26.6 1.837 1.8 10.3 15.5 9.8 13.pdf) All people People in families Below poverty Race.859 1.401 1.0 19.0 17.0 1.116 816 8.310 13.8 23.1 7.5 26.005 13.014 6.244 1.731 13.9 2005����������������������������������� 20041���������������������������������� 2003����������������������������������� 2002����������������������������������� 13.2 14.1 13.1 12.census. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U.745 11.4 22.353 1.322 996 858 939 1.471 11.8 10.9 1.708 457 417 402 417 25.291 12.019 189 135 242 155 17.617 1.445 12.1 25.7 8.582 5.574 1.599 1.044 10.4 1.0 14.402 1.0 26.5 16.192 930 912 10.6 25.5 17.785 773 712 779 942 875 12.0 22.3 24.028 1.7 7.285 1.901 1.771 1.057 301 250 209 217 187 22.9 12.192 7.543 14.4 ASIAN ALONE10 2010����������������������������������� 2009����������������������������������� 2008����������������������������������� 2007����������������������������������� 2006����������������������������������� 14.527 12. nonsampling error.917 5.7 1.801 501 527 410 426 449 25.0 23.295 1.244 1.5 28.487 1.7 12.2 23. Poverty.184 1.9 9.2 16.2 8.3 17.8   See footnotes at end of table.682 1.654 7.482 1.7 28.767 5.873 10.8 10.686 1. see www.3 19915���������������������������������� 1990����������������������������������� 1989����������������������������������� 19886���������������������������������� 19876���������������������������������� 7.012 984 9. and definitions. (Numbers in thousands.0 11.Table B-1.0 10.324 14.296 11.2 1.1 8.349 1.2 10.275 1.018 919 582 725 729 300 266 137 126 183 29.231 1.856 11. no husband present All families Below poverty Below poverty Below poverty Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent ASIAN ALONE     OR IN COMBINATION 2010����������������������������������� 2009����������������������������������� 2008����������������������������������� 2007����������������������������������� 2006����������������������������������� 15.5 32.3 16.1 9.779 1.353 12.527 1.9 8.0 13.331 1.8 11.9 7.1 24. 66 Income.201 1.673 6.270 1.333 1.817 12.177 1.6 9.146 220 170 294 175 18.134 985 14.6 11.1 17.059 1.590 1.3 12.3 12. sampling error.972 1.190 1.266 1.4 22.4 25.4 12.430 14.300 5.8 23.S.1 6.471 1.367 6.6 14.4 28.454 1.6 20.7 1. Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship.5 11.661 11.4 2005����������������������������������� 20041���������������������������������� 2003����������������������������������� 2002����������������������������������� 12.361 1.707 1.308 1.411 974 1.2 24.1 8.3 28.4 11.3 24.054 9.428 1.472 1.123 932 198 289 275 373 313 14.2 33.541 1.685 15.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.826 1.1 10.1 721 638 614 650 584 177 132 212 263 187 24.5 20.9 15.915 6.931 11.266 10.021 13.5 14.010 1.5 18.720 1.8 25.501 1.210 348 290 228 250 220 21.2 ASIAN AND PACIFIC    ISLANDER8 2001����������������������������������� 20002���������������������������������� 19993���������������������������������� 1998����������������������������������� 1997����������������������������������� 12.172 1.642 13.8 10.673 1.0 10.7 34.539 1.

3 38.6 2005����������������������������������� 20041���������������������������������� 2003����������������������������������� 2002����������������������������������� 2001����������������������������������� 43.605 4.9 33. Hispanic origin.7 1995����������������������������������� 1994����������������������������������� 1993����������������������������������� 19924���������������������������������� 19915���������������������������������� 28.933 44.1 57.6 29.463 2.5 6.9 5.0 27.2 53.795 10.577 2.0 28.201 10.3 18.092 926 972 881 667 37. Beginning in 1979.8 4.491 2.018 1.783 25.880 5.312 9.249 10.395 18.110 7.1 55.598 33.3 23.3 31.637 29.064 19.345 9.163 1.933 1.631 2.830 3.193 11. 8 For 2001 and earlier years. figures are based on Census 2000 population controls.126 7.8 21.527 3.637 7.390 23.349 28.541 29.837 2.S.876 8.8 31.577 1.6 970 991 886 797 716 312 286 264 237 266 32.3 28.005 532 545 457 358 313 33.0 32.5 52.9 2.766 1.451 1.053 1.987 9.248 7.947 2.6 40.184 6.5 22. Census Bureau.1 29.146 1.469 6.674 5.652 4.5 16.806 4.876 6.842 1.3 30.869 48.6 36.055 27.861 2.7 30.702 6.269 10.574 8.433 10.243 26.079 12.421 2.674 20.032 2.614 7.2 22.5 10.584 10.632 31.452 7.444 2.467 26.5 645 617 526 488 236 201 157 162 36.465 55.5 20. 4 For 1992.0 39.554 2.072 2.811 47.020 37.8 29.319 1.0 32.455 5.1 35. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 67 .8 54.759 36. and definitions.864 1.650 25.516 25.474 2.758 6.955 34.3 22.414 26. For information on confidentiality protection.670 1.646 22.269 3. (Numbers in thousands.2 51.216 37.439 22.912 18.2 21.339 30.8 2.052 2.2 5.370 1.901 1.265 8. and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2010—Con.723 1.734 3.6 21.469 26.806 4.077 1.211 29.8 1985����������������������������������� 1984����������������������������������� 1983����������������������������������� 1982����������������������������������� 1981����������������������������������� 18.902 2.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.6 24.764 1. 7 The 2003 CPS allowed respondents to choose more than one race.664 2.837 2.585 39.544 14.488 18.243 12.917 8.9 1.4 27.1 1980����������������������������������� 1979����������������������������������� 1978����������������������������������� 1977����������������������������������� 1976����������������������������������� 13.713 29.659 4.8 21. 1960 to 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.013 6.301 3.678 3.5 3.368 9.8 20. 3 For 1999.357 5.1 20.291 11.997 21.2 28. Source: U.746 20.5 46.254 2. U.602 1.825 7.8 40.4 53.868 7.069 3.344 27.8 34.366 2.592 6.3 1.911 3. The use of this singlerace population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data.6 22. 5 For 1991.0 29.8 37.051 8. is available from Census 2010 through American FactFinder.430 6.099 2.2 25.7 25. 1 For 2004.4 24.070 8.417 5.9 53.4 56.559 25.405 20.5 40. 6 For 1988 and 1987.865 3.364 1. Black.303 8.9 23. 166.S. Information on people who reported more than one race.600 13.053 915 881 733 57.7 34.242 12.9 26.7 28.328 5.806 1.5 3.2 1975����������������������������������� 1974����������������������������������� 1973����������������������������������� 1972����������������������������������� 11.705 7. no husband present All families Below poverty Below poverty Below poverty Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent HISPANIC (ANY RACE) 2010����������������������������������� 2009����������������������������������� 2008����������������������������������� 2007����������������������������������� 2006����������������������������������� 49.209 2.3 27.981 1.4 31.9 22.7 56.4 36. About 2.641 2.983 1.416 8.045 1.515 20.283 9.575 2.718 5.308 8.176 3.561 3.276 15.685 774 634 597 598 553 34.2 30.058 1.075 13. Census Bureau Income.255 1.588 2.751 3.117 11.690 40.978 3.068 1.7 50.5 39.1 60. 9 Black alone refers to people who reported Black and did not report any other race.1 27.045 1.620 4.125 39.481 3. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches.115 1. people in unrelated subfamilies are included in all people but are excluded from people in families.326 3.472 10.1 1990����������������������������������� 1989����������������������������������� 19886���������������������������������� 19876���������������������������������� 1986����������������������������������� 21.920 2.5 21.8 10.340 6.890 9.074 5.916 16.622 1. and Asian and Pacific Islander.438 35.177 11.814 7.991 2.700 2.293 15.364 3.767 7.430 5. see www.607 2.350 10.2 29.4 28.0 50.5 29.2 56.021 5.0 31. figures are revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC.6 25.747 7.1 31.4 20002���������������������������������� 19993���������������������������������� 1998����������������������������������� 1997����������������������������������� 1996����������������������������������� 35.4 28.6 32.7 25.720 42.7 24.643 4.976 2.5 20.006 5.357 6. The reference race groups for 2001 and earlier poverty data are White.398 45.198 7.5 35.718 5.601 1.342 16.7 2.717 2. non-Hispanic White.1 21.534 1.2 55.785 5.113 3.817 1.985 1.732 40.5 51.117 28. and year Unrelated individuals Families with female householder.508 5.527 6.8 29.066 29.000 54.633 4.700 4. Note: Prior to 1979.143 2.3 29.555 7.Table B-1.1 21.374 2.0 27. figures are based on 1990 census population controls.2 7.6 43.9 3.000 household sample expansion.252 26.755 2.1 27.798 2.8 53. the CPS allowed respondents to report only one race group.515 30.9 23.971 4. figures are based on new processing procedures and are also revised to reflect corrections to the files after publication of the 1988 advance report Money Income and Poverty Status in the United States: 1988.046 11.2 35.6 27.020 41. figures are revised to correct for nine omitted weights from the original March 1992 CPS file.442 26.7 56.784 13.7 21.872 28.1 26.422 5.236 4.317 1.census.2 28.097 1. No.pdf) All people People in families Below poverty Race.4 37. nonsampling error. White alone refers to people who reported White and did not report any other race category.8 33.293 1.7 12.4 21.6 52.300 39.075 16.642 2.3 26.469 34.282 52.8 21.8 30.371 12. P-60.3 20.102 17. Current Population Survey.801 1.188 10.3 21. 10 Asian alone refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race.091 4.325 1.761 4.695 19. People as of March of the following year.2 26.5 26.5 22.070 8.468 31.218 2.189 44. Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship.6 55.697 21. Race.2 36.599 2.192 4.122 9.2 31. 2 Consistent with 2001 data through implementation of Census 2000-based population controls and a 28.333 4.9 25.7 28. people in unrelated subfamilies were included in people in families.2 30. such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American.0 21.0 55. Poverty.921 53.2 26.717 41.6 29.9 21.1 34.6 28.547 12.0 28.343 2.481 1.341 7.2 (NA) Not available.922 4.921 2.993 3.700 30.9 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2010.971 4.4 37.490 1.053 2.763 3.2 26.658 7.385 14.165 24.552 3.0 33.9 22. sampling error.139 3.6 19.024 1.017 1.

871 3.5 28.911 11.7 19.774 13. and definitions.005 11.139 12.3 10.9 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 96.665 15.521 13.1 20002�������������������������� 19993�������������������������� 1998��������������������������� 1997��������������������������� 1996��������������������������� 71.241 72.691 10.793 4.052 141.729 11.235 9.9 11.3 18.166 180.5 19.678 12.069 70.028 10.068 20.961 14.803 10.299 21.1 161.9 12.427 13.3 8.028 11.294 14.627 189.468 22.133 11.273 15.7 15.8 10.630 16.792 72.685 71.175 17.566 70.7 19.060 117.0 10.609 15.682 3.257 19.5 70.0 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 15.0 15.3 21.6 26.556 3.625 3.993 9.442 19.327 165.208 157.876 62.727 15.396 144.104 10.4 13.014 11.935 12.9 27.2 14.610 14.736 15.019 61.9 19.001 11.602 20.313 15.185 187.093 29.127 20.8 1995��������������������������� 1994��������������������������� 1993��������������������������� 19924�������������������������� 19915�������������������������� 70.9 192.208 20.739 11.603 3.241 10.1 15.7 21.1 9.980 72.899 18.858 12.722 10.3 25.0 14.592 68.385 65.9 10.948 13.6 16.685 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 16.735 9.275 12.725 11.907 71.181 67.4 31.pdf) Under 18 years All people Race.0 11.815 68.650 11.0 62.761 149.017 10.578 61.477 16.4 33.4 73.041 12.338 71.133 71.715 12.680 154.7 22.100 3.496 15.8 30.313 25.8 17.963 16.332 11.144 63.285 73.3 14.676 16.853 12.686 24.8 21.967 9.3 72.0 15.233 3.906 62.929 4.231 3.681 61.3 21.647 12.9 12.354 3.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.440 65.101 120.041 178.2 12.8 9.8 39.576 3.280 13.520 3.2 10.440 9.502 152.8 153. For information on confidentiality protection.5 10.929 13. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U.453 3.598 16.329 159.7 12.423 62.559 18.7 22.122 122.388 5. Race.634 17.113 14.005 16. and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2010 (Numbers in thousands.827 3.6 10.986 69.554 111.0 10.7 12.505 20.388 15.575 15.6 15.4 12.1 27.590 12.928 3.288 17.9 11.0 29.6 12.3 8.345 182.6 21.455 12.696 72.545 19.329 163.623 18.8 69. and year 18 to 64 years Related children in families Below poverty 65 years and older Below poverty Below poverty Below poverty Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent ALL RACES 2010��������������������������� 2009��������������������������� 2008��������������������������� 2007��������������������������� 2006��������������������������� 74.9 11.996 73.0 21.095 72.6 17.8 14.818 26. 68 Income.0 19.007 9.022 28.477 12.443 18.538 70.9 9.632 5.3 11.323 3.450 20.0 25.411 11.3 21.638 171.4 1990��������������������������� 1989��������������������������� 19886�������������������������� 19876�������������������������� 1986��������������������������� 65.169 128.463 16. nonsampling error.5 20.363 3.2   See footnotes at end of table.6 68.7 10.711 69.7 9. see www.456 10.467 14.430 30.427 12.159 69.913 186.394 32.638 69.146 167.8 15.861 17.909 17.194 23.146 14.473 12.552 21.837 67.389 10.5 10.0 15.5 11.2 16.819 68.9 19.5 26.4 10.587 12.586 11.425 68.410 72.424 70.930 68.4 113.385 70.566 29.079 66.4 11.256 64.345 62.6 10.2 21.1 25.747 63.1 15.918 14.815 16.085 18.024 105.566 33.659 34.6 16.5 10.267 30.433 3.3 15.2 19.792 65.0 24.0 1975��������������������������� 1974��������������������������� 1973��������������������������� 1972��������������������������� 1971��������������������������� 65.823 63.1 18.987 62.179 38.601 64.1 17.394 9.1 11.551 143.8 22.793 17.741 71.0 62.3 17.4 15.9 8.662 21.134 66.3 64.2 11.414 10.420 13.322 26.9 20.914 63.S.816 11.0 21.3 19.8 15.5 17.552 3.999 14.470 18.5 10.6 17.669 9.691 16.788 36.1 10.009 12.684 22.658 31.8 21.1 15.105 20.201 147.8 9.844 69.3 69.2 14.727 16.1 8.999 72.658 20.501 10.1 14.764 15.311 63.376 3.292 68.021 12.284 10.090 70.168 62.114 24. Poverty Status of People by Age.827 22.5 20.528 108.234 33.117 19.7 9.8 24.9 20.040 67.2 26.508 160. sampling error.273 18.082 31.557 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 5.809 15.341 20.6 19.068 13.931 10.954 11.481 3.487 27.316 11.3 16.377 9.137 64.722 66.227 73.638 9.0 20.5 1965��������������������������� 1964��������������������������� 1963��������������������������� 1962��������������������������� 1961��������������������������� 1960��������������������������� 1959��������������������������� 69.451 14.3 16.802 12.9 15.626 67.428 9.656 12.389 15.751 3.0 8.877 3.051 16.457 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 17.5 12.3 17.977 10.7 10.866 12.6 1970��������������������������� 1969��������������������������� 1968��������������������������� 1967��������������������������� 1966��������������������������� 69.334 62.779 30.579 74.4 2005��������������������������� 20041�������������������������� 2003��������������������������� 2002��������������������������� 2001��������������������������� 73.239 13.952 17.738 25.333 130.4 11.6 16.613 37.388 175.058 69.396 20.324 12. Poverty.0 17.209 34.289 17.6 10.5 22.756 12.175 22.995 14.431 12.447 62.Table B-2.781 10.1 14.8 137.4 1985��������������������������� 1984��������������������������� 1983��������������������������� 1982��������������������������� 1981��������������������������� 62.4 15.6 21.869 10.684 107.957 115.438 10. Census Bureau .619 70.7 16.068 73.156 9.7 9.422 13.258 24.800 13.114 9.481 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 35.453 10.688 26.7 25.7 16.760 11.315 14.3 20.408 70.0 23.730 14.882 9.975 3.507 12.790 36.8 173.0 19.565 61.802 66.0 23. Hispanic origin.240 17.010 13.344 16.340 11.631 16.8 184.769 3.456 3.543 10.876 20.082 10.035 3.222 3.911 13.187 9.896 13.288 10.335 12.330 3.132 9.177 3.7 10.684 18.691 16.282 150.1 18.275 63.6 19.6 16.494 74.746 70.646 11.318 3.845 13.464 11.483 12.401 15.386 3.328 139.289 15.175 13.7 12.364 68.2 17.6 18.656 3.449 13.2 10.225 62.738 4. People as of March of the following year.294 62.0 12.750 65.9 16.959 67.121 65.9 16.9 9.4 12.2 22.590 3.035 70.377 32.375 62.474 10.8 10.6 25.428 135.1 21.317 3.6 16.3 19.5 146.262 126.646 61.843 12.081 17.5 63.1 35.2 8.767 17.505 35.685 20.3 1980��������������������������� 1979��������������������������� 1978��������������������������� 1977��������������������������� 1976��������������������������� 62.733 17.781 18.020 69.253 69.577 17.7 8.787 4.000 15.049 64.642 10.1 124.2 16.663 3.4 14.551 17.0 8.0 18.census.563 3.908 63.015 190.950 12.671 17.085 3.107 19.658 3.218 10.755 3.7 22.9 13.

152 55.016 55.028 50.3 8.1 27.1 15. Census Bureau Income.0 9.674 5.483 55. For information on confidentiality protection.814 50.472 8.474 8.514 (NA) (NA) (NA) 4.4 12.590 (NA) (NA) 6.153 56.126 54. Poverty Status of People by Age.8 14.167 54.7 17.4 11.606 55.862 8.654 19.1 13.875 150.627 51.694 12.935 8.563 7.943 14.387 10.826 9.0 20.1 14.325 21.119 58.848 8.1 17.029 152.3 10.863 8.689 2.187 13.833 56.8 12.203 13.0 9.783 144.386 12.062 16.4 27.373 6.790 9.7 11.212 54.6 23.479 26.075 56.053 (NA) (NA) 7.3 14.3 23.450 146.707 2.173 24.9 9.0 9. sampling error.698 2.703 8.909 5.678 16.5 15.097 11.646 19.553 2.920 8.2 10. Poverty.939 2.8 9.0 9.1 30.347 11.978 3.126 55.1 16.001 25.164 139.9 11.982 9.838 8.234 2.4 13.5 15.553 28.061 136.687 51.989 9.4 13.523 51.367 151.927 6.205 10.3 8.680 131.3 13.419 56.464 28.687 10.534 8.034 6.527 7.3 8.1 17.8 28.904 12.223 (NA) (NA) 11.9 14.4 9.221 53.209 8.086 14.9 7.1 7.341 6.579 2.9 8.4 16.1 14.441 8. see www.9 2005��������������������������� 20041�������������������������� 2003��������������������������� 2002��������������������������� 56.5 11.639 8.1 9.633 2.624 7.206 (NA) (NA) 2.7 15.7 10.870 10.574 118.9 14.206 23.7 11.Table B-2.7 7.779 55.652 7. People as of March of the following year.0 6.870 7.6 55.667 6.6 153.4 14.111 51.397 55.0 22.3 12.7 11.021 54.590 2.297 26.186 54.1 14.085 12.181 6.138 5.8 14.1   See footnotes at end of table.1 148.6 12.1 55.253 8.270 2.203 51.5 16.1 9.9 13.5 8.6 16.586 134.346 9.444 55.703 29.8 1971��������������������������� 1970��������������������������� 1969��������������������������� 1968��������������������������� 1967��������������������������� (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 58.1 11.785 7.754 12.694 14.990 13.002 7.262 51.6 (NA) (NA) 20.044 8.0 15.839 31.085 8.614 53.900 7.8 17.7 10.4 (NA) (NA) 33.9 9.784 128.3 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 17.771 2.135 14.7 15.4 15.971 9.7 1966��������������������������� 1965��������������������������� 1960��������������������������� 1959��������������������������� (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 7.020 19.9 6.1 16.9 14.739 8.572 2.0 19915�������������������������� 1990��������������������������� 1989��������������������������� 19886�������������������������� 19876�������������������������� 52.086 6.9 10.9 10.608 2. nonsampling error.602 2.211 57.776 2.929 51.7 12.4 9.405 55.4 120.9 22.414 32.791 22.472 58.590 50.1 110.3 16. and definitions.788 16.752 15.890 8.204 8.9 1976��������������������������� 1975��������������������������� 1974��������������������������� 1973��������������������������� 1972��������������������������� 53.398 16.0 16.714 30.1 13.460 2.282 55.086 8.817 5.164 7.5 17.400 51.105 107.532 54.002 51.426 13.443 8.095 7.289 132. and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2010—Con.940 12.303 29.1 11.766 11. U.8 25.7 11.656 2.980 2.3 8.832 112.4 20.3 33.492 9.052 3.838 8.605 4.215 56.5 9.3 9.189 6.7 130.3 13.192 50.399 16.3 15.834 7.784 11.312 129.704 50.6 9.7 8.539 2.7 13.183 50.634 2.726 50.974 145.320 56.5 8.339 55.696 7.555 11.871 9.759 28.316 2.358 50.911 2.031 50.0 11. (Numbers in thousands.0 50.7 8.4 11.031 126.897 7.6 13.488 8.905 30.456 12.974 138.3 8.893 8.1 14.666 2.846 2.143 18.229 11.6 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 16.1 7.790 29.8 11.079 5.pdf) Under 18 years All people Race.5 6.123 8.599 7.784 12.299 7.980 55.580 27.2 16.553 51.429 6.9 17.700 2.669 52.486 13.704 10.7 8.428 54.584 2.210 7.549 14.266 56.5 9.938 8.922 123.578 (NA) (NA) 6.754 23.5 135.440 8.714 31.5 9.374 10.391 15.285 11.089 55.478 8. Race.5 9.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.053 55.441 12.3 8.752 9.909 11.698 3.985 27.639 54.703 9.5 125.330 9.140 51.4 143.1 55.308 7.1 WHITE8 2001��������������������������� 20002�������������������������� 19993�������������������������� 1998��������������������������� 1997��������������������������� 56.935 117.110 8.653 52.356 50.282 15.178 9.238 55.232 7.193 5.6 10.744 26.0 10.991 12.356 14.898 20.3 11.6 1986��������������������������� 1985��������������������������� 1984��������������������������� 1983��������������������������� 1982��������������������������� 51.2 (NA) (NA) 53.595 11.985 7.3 12.4 54.305 7.869 13.950 20.8 15.0 16.181 6.7 11.873 55.8 14. and year 18 to 64 years Related children in families Below poverty 65 years and older Below poverty Below poverty Below poverty Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent WHITE ALONE7 2010��������������������������� 2009��������������������������� 2008��������������������������� 2007��������������������������� 2006��������������������������� 56.446 2.898 26.011 4.0 14.667 2.6 50.863 7.530 2.2 13.593 2.436 27.307 7.974 128.9 8.3 51. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 69 . Hispanic origin.534 2.2 9.435 7.522 18.194 7.0 10.681 150.258 123.569 8.census.4 10.501 2.876 7.360 8.989 54.535 12.4 1981��������������������������� 1980��������������������������� 1979��������������������������� 1978��������������������������� 1977��������������������������� 51.717 109.6 9.908 18.395 7.042 2.014 121.110 7.035 12.462 5.4 13.583 113.357 (NA) (NA) 4.981 9.796 142.4 29.097 15.714 7.409 52.110 9.2 13.939 4.0 1996��������������������������� 1995��������������������������� 1994��������������������������� 1993��������������������������� 19924�������������������������� 55.729 10.622 13.316 7.8 14.802 2.2 16.473 7.S.3 17.998 125.599 54.579 (NA) (NA) 7.149 133.012 8.791 3.0 10.748 6.549 17.768 33.072 13.629 24.647 10.256 2.831 6.6 10.8 8.555 2.7 17.

4 118.8 115.812 19.554 43.313 4.229 12.243 2.996 3.2 6.074 8.208 25.321 7.442 28.992 22.721 9.638 4.3 11.475 117.964 9.797 44.5 9.2 35.7 2005��������������������������� 20041�������������������������� 2003��������������������������� 2002��������������������������� 12.2 26. sampling error.001 5.518 4.486 2.989 11.154 8.995 2.5 28.0 10.684 26.159 12.1 12.8 14.4 8.819 5.820 9.5 9.206 4.402 22.204 9.745 5.715 3.8 3.745 6.608 9.5 23.0 7.689 46.9 19. For information on confidentiality protection.349 44.598 9.886 44. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U.649 6.973 4.8 13.170 4.215 12.185 4.3 7.850 4.S.8 31.733 33.5 11.7 11.1 27. Poverty Status of People by Age.8 10.018 4.114 4.192 118.4 6.228 119.3 21.116 2.421 50.190 12.989 46.752 44.582 4.316 2.6 7.349 4.208 12.157 7.118 2.8 9.178 4.316 2.494 40.830 45.266 2.504 25.370 24.217 2.754 2.869 40.375 4.1 34.3 106.657 125.1 7.8 19.799 5.6 10.639 5. Hispanic origin.251 18.8 8.7 33.082 7.230 13.819 5. (Numbers in thousands.072 5.482 125.6 8.4 6.724 8.388 12.670 44.963 9.2 8.735 4.520 4.2 12.179 2.441 5.041 44.118 26.834 2.975 12.708 10.523 42.6   See footnotes at end of table.174 4.9 8.908 9.983 116.888 5.978 43.837 8. 70 Income.887 3.461 7.5 BLACK ALONE OR    IN COMBINATION 2010��������������������������� 2009��������������������������� 2008��������������������������� 2007��������������������������� 2006��������������������������� 12.8 12.059 3.789 5.570 44.0 1981��������������������������� 1980��������������������������� 1979��������������������������� 1978��������������������������� 45.4 7.236 44.363 42.018 2.1 14.2 12.053 3.pdf) Under 18 years All people Race.824 49.2 7.201 12.3 7.7 122.319 40.1 1996��������������������������� 1995��������������������������� 1994��������������������������� 1993��������������������������� 19924�������������������������� 45.717 8.7 14.7 7.059 4.563 4.309 41.973 27.3 11.381 6.421 5.3 19.720 7. and year 18 to 64 years Related children in families Below poverty 65 years and older Below poverty Below poverty Below poverty Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent WHITE ALONE.3 23.298 23.022 2.6 11.3 22. People as of March of the following year.847 12.506 44.742 4.6 7.1 9.462 8.714 10.938 43. and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2010—Con.388 12.293 8.2 8.910 43.6 25.3 7.472 9.511 9.431 2.9 7.7 3.946 5.6 7.908 5.3 9.506 12.734 23.950 46.8 6.933 2.088 7.4 11.8 13.5 13.128 636 655 663 748 710 18.8 5.865 2.272 26.335 28.5 19915�������������������������� 1990��������������������������� 1989��������������������������� 19886�������������������������� 19876�������������������������� 45.448 46.9 124.532 5.842 22.977 3.614 4.6 33. Race.0 11.902 12.6 8.1 7.3 10.511 125.4 43.9 7.918 5.779 4.7 9.9 9.732 9.4 10.5 8.811 8.460 110.5 9.2 12.496 101.215 3.665 3.907 5.5 125.244 8.2 44.2 33.0 39.500 3.4 10.894 6.130 8.497 5.663 2.5 11.510 4.9 9.658 10.380 12.    NOT HISPANIC7 2010��������������������������� 2009��������������������������� 2008��������������������������� 2007��������������������������� 2006��������������������������� 40.327 7.977 38.3 WHITE.4 112.6 10.404 5.815 24.499 120.086 38.272 45.4 22.672 117.9 33.277 2.491 4.736 30.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.481 9.236 9.8 23.106 3.867 42.150 43.5 10.670 50.689 48.342 4.846 103.759 8.090 10.5 9.664 5.4 11.005 2.9 20.115 5.Table B-2.0 23.760 21.0 33.5 9.012 11.6 19.051 6.874 45.212 5.364 4.6 10.817 4.558 10.931 3.759 2.445 12.339 20.8 9.4 41.5 33.3 13.461 5.108 3.218 2.930 6.155 4.531 5.714 4.639 28.759 4.9 33.0 12.6 9.194 4.0 7.503 2.1 11.510 5.5 10.2 31.917 41.6 10.405 3.973 45.9 10.1 10.458 4.480 4.233 4.967 46.476 4.590 5. Census Bureau .2 9.6 45.601 49.8 12.2 6.556 2.479 115.380 9.605 45.580 2.244 44.3 6.391 9.506 2.761 9.3 7.104 4.388 5.578 46.census.7 7.817 33.384 2.034 26.717 4.734 10.565 19.2 10.9 10.481 11.952 27.707 41.610 2.7 9.153 2.459 43.106 4. see www.810 2.9 24.922 708 714 688 691 23.9 9.254 4. nonsampling error.7 12.833 4.697 9.948 27.844 44.3 33.033 27.438 44.832 4.664 44.0 2005��������������������������� 20041�������������������������� 2003��������������������������� 2002��������������������������� 42.279 10.149 29.074 4.968 23.823 6.282 119. NOT    HISPANIC8 2001��������������������������� 20002�������������������������� 19993�������������������������� 1998��������������������������� 1997��������������������������� 44.570 113.8 44.4 8.6 7.383 12.822 118.3 8.355 45.969 114.5 47.3 20.373 8.255 4.8 10.625 12.979 42. and definitions.9 11.044 24.410 2.045 43.255 6.039 6.376 20.017 11.063 104.3 9.341 120.002 4.8 8.854 25. Poverty.044 6.8 1977��������������������������� 1976��������������������������� 1975��������������������������� 1974��������������������������� 47.459 48.772 6.338 22.0 12.2 23.2 19.6 9.606 5.0 12.264 2.668 46.8 9.547 43.440 45.386 9.025 2.1 9.1 8.4 44.7 13.6 13.655 12.161 124.2 117.190 3.305 3.335 2.4 11.4 13.5 8.374 45.095 44.930 11.5 8.322 44.326 123.227 12.3 8.962 3.207 7.0 10.412 12.656 4.481 123.760 9.619 8.0 8.0 9.477 116.6 32.822 5.017 3.652 23.2 20.848 9.156 6.6 11.199 44.957 3.990 6.509 107.0 1986��������������������������� 1985��������������������������� 1984��������������������������� 1983��������������������������� 1982��������������������������� 44.566 13.3 19.722 111.972 3.157 114.096 45.470 121.304 41.280 2.202 4.471 2.110 122.492 44.9 7.200 8.6 31.730 4.828 6.6 27.594 4.990 2.4 33.492 2.8 10.404 23.9 11.346 11.355 22.655 2.180 113.704 28.675 4.4 12.110 4.052 30.519 4.017 4.237 21.1 10.5 11.

193 3.856 701 705 680 680 23.012 9.6 42.census.5 19915�������������������������� 1990��������������������������� 1989��������������������������� 19886�������������������������� 19876�������������������������� 10.136 11.8 BLACK8 2001��������������������������� 20002�������������������������� 19993�������������������������� 1998��������������������������� 1997��������������������������� 11.213 22. People as of March of the following year. Race.257 4.852 1.356 9.565 23.426 3.743 3.3 22.3 24.6 19.168 4.1 24.2 36.2 32.906 5.188 4.5 2.151 4.690 39.0 1996��������������������������� 1995��������������������������� 1994��������������������������� 1993��������������������������� 19924�������������������������� 11.155 11.224 12.374 1.3 45.1 46.237 3.9 44.7 13.229 9.774 5.413 4.049 4.596 13.833 3.8 46.387 880 860 763 785 774 33.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.191 18.7 23.616 2.659 22.3 37.3 33.4 34.102 2.467 9.436 2.384 9.170 3.472 43.394 3.2 33.6 23.606 2.7 32.835 3.4 18.411 4.892 19.8 9.794 4.412 4.702 5.374 9.6 32.853 2.425 23.5 23.930 820 783 740 662 701 39.1 36.488 11.3 16.545 9.148 4.025 40.080 11.7 37.253 4.331 2.721 1.172 9.788 3.302 11.277 20.483 4.7 29.478 2.602 4.7 47.841 3.7 23.244 11. For information on confidentiality protection.5 45.176 11.823 4.291 9.8 26.5   See footnotes at end of table.3 2.557 2.224 4.044 10.054 2.755 (NA) (NA) 40.745 3.956 4.4 10.2 22.548 17.956 2.1 10.0 19. and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2010—Con.5 43.162 10.7 39.8 (NA) (NA) 9.7 53.692 4.7 17.9 3.9 46.1 35.6 9.367 11.5 23.163 2.2 33.952 4.1 2.015 39.057 4.0 38.229 3.198 11.4 19.9 1971��������������������������� 1970��������������������������� 1969��������������������������� 1968��������������������������� 1967��������������������������� 1966��������������������������� 1965��������������������������� (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 9.275 4.7 36.361 25.4 20.245 4.581 3.0 50.4 33.836 3.282 11.290 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 3.2 42.6 65.5 20.584 1.904 3.515 4.925 3.311 (NA) 623 683 689 655 715 722 711 39.6 43.422 1.998 11.400 4.936 11.962 11.3 34.273 2.8 44.637 4.822 4.1 47.8 23.865 9.8 21.644 4.8 19.539 (NA) (NA) 3.850 44.2 11. Poverty.0 24.837 20.358 14.5 41.4 1986��������������������������� 1985��������������������������� 1984��������������������������� 1983��������������������������� 1982��������������������������� 9.296 11.777 39.9 3.781 3.795 1.478 3.116 30.8 22.833 17.556 11.106 39.145 11.2 25.855 4.1 32.681 9.1 22.510 2.398 4.570 23.4 26.385 45.405 9.877 3.065 15.919 3.273 4.388 42.4 50.033 3.813 4.341 1.3 20.570 34.787 5.291 9.667 16.550 4.8 22.953 23.226 21. nonsampling error. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 71 .480 11.287 9.884 3.1 40.373 1.030 5.590 5.0 30.417 9.7 43.374 9.245 9.307 9.269 4. see www.052 4.3 1976��������������������������� 1975��������������������������� 1974��������������������������� 1973��������������������������� 1972��������������������������� 9.007 2.7 34.4 41.9 41.980 9.781 3.627 4.847 9.888 45.0 20.4 26.672 1.164 4.6 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1.785 2.8 43.713 3.414 9.961 3.4 27.162 11.315 4.872 12.260 11.368 4.2 33.322 9.338 11.369 16.521 4.7 34.0 38.148 4.730 4.4 39. Census Bureau Income.9 42.546 4. Poverty Status of People by Age.691 626 607 628 718 700 21.133 3.830 3.645 34.448 9.350 10.8 30.519 4.629 9.275 3.073 4.8 36.750 2.5 33. sampling error.137 26.7 34.127 10.906 3.5 41.097 17.6 20.6 11.238 2.0 33.3 25.4 36.4 28.518 20.9 32.439 (NA) (NA) 3.375 4.603 644 652 591 620 640 34.9 18.6 41.607 4.421 9.9 36.124 722 717 710 791 811 31.125 5.037 4.694 4.1 22.0 23.296 4.419 11.5 33.178 9.4 41.746 21.427 4. Hispanic origin.6 15.157 4.495 3.838 3.6 (NA) (NA) 1.2 1981��������������������������� 1980��������������������������� 1979��������������������������� 1978��������������������������� 1977��������������������������� 9.969 10. and definitions.1 46.040 1.2 47.3 24.022 40.320 3.907 5.018 3.6 46.3 2.6 40.787 3.355 18.758 3.000 4.487 2.2 43.113 4.150 3.168 9.8 36.423 3.1 62.9 23.677 4.836 (NA) (NA) 23.282 3.3 23.547 2.2 41.405 9.504 661 629 700 702 838 25.400 4.5 31.8 41.111 3.3 26.272 18.0 31.102 10.368 9.pdf) Under 18 years All people Race. (Numbers in thousands.317 11.415 24.2 35.3 20.3 55.Table B-2.755 4.968 2.367 3.480 9.723 2.774 13.698 4.8 33.7 43. U.761 4.2 31.492 3.225 30.2 46.954 1.117 3.1 39.3 34.9 43.085 612 647 646 731 701 18.483 4.2 47.211 11.911 16.2 42.1 43.234 45.9 21.3 41.6 44.320 4.155 19.884 22.296 4. and year 18 to 64 years Related children in families Below poverty 65 years and older Below poverty Below poverty Below poverty Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent BLACK ALONE9 2010��������������������������� 2009��������������������������� 2008��������������������������� 2007��������������������������� 2006��������������������������� 11.3 48.222 4.558 4.3 19.5 39.197 2.585 19.362 4.369 11.160 21.2 28.4 25.172 11.S.4 22.2 41.878 3.8 2.547 4.702 3.6 46.462 21.987 14.8 25.7 2005��������������������������� 20041�������������������������� 2003��������������������������� 2002��������������������������� 11.750 3.264 4.876 2.922 3.3 10.174 11.

7 14.3 9.199 359 329 420 353 10.582 4.044 7.S.956 474 463 446 374 360 14.9 12.680 814 756 807 698 753 9.296 1.7 2.154 1. sampling error.4 14.279 3.908 348 356 368 458 432 17.5 11.4 13.9 11.096 369 420 381 564 628 11.966 3.717 3.8 11.3 11.6 10.pdf) Under 18 years All people Race.Table B-2.6 14.268 3.2 8.056 2.8 12.3 11.3 3.352 8.9 9.5 11.0 11.406 3.2 9.0 3.937 360 374 392 474 455 17.0 14.6 15.350 1.8 12.842 2.367 3.871 2. (Numbers in thousands. Race.4 9.1 9.7 1.225 4.271 3.378 1.6 16.871 5.052 2.7 12.265 1.098 1. and definitions.9 17. Poverty.983 1.6 12.951 6.961 9.159 352 311 406 338 10.182 213 213 157 143 142 14.5 14.0 2005��������������������������� 20041�������������������������� 2003��������������������������� 2002��������������������������� 2.294 8.854 2.4 10.823 2.218 571 564 318 375 363 19.067 821 757 589 680 568 12.4 8. Poverty Status of People by Age.946 3.7 11.9 18.899 2.9 11.3 8. Hispanic origin. see www.4 3.500 7.3 13.2 12.4 14.3 11.3 1996��������������������������� 1995��������������������������� 1994��������������������������� 1993��������������������������� 19924�������������������������� 2.0 9.043 1.678 3.945 1.2 647 622 513 503 494 63 89 67 79 53 9.7 10.898 9.5 18.472 3.061 2.0 18.2 10.9 8.7 1.census. People as of March of the following year.118 1.9 12.0 20.6 17.4 1.7 4.1 12.9 10.0 13.3 11.454 1.2 11.4 15.2 12.104 1.970 1.0 9.1 11.573 547 531 494 431 408 13. and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2010—Con.726 2.012 9.719 2.591 8.484 6.7 11.5 19.7 8.558 3.6 19. For information on confidentiality protection.2 9.932 2.0 11.126 1.7 555 514 465 442 375 70 62 34 60 56 12.879 6.924 2.5 15.881 941 774 907 764 11.2 16.3 12.061 353 407 367 542 608 11.1 14.123 4.0 9.016 2.573 9.115 8.980 2.0 9.5 17.010 565 422 512 583 510 12.6 12.6 13.0   See footnotes at end of table.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.052 977 143 146 151 82 12.036 2.035 4.553 1.7 9.4 12.0 15.8 9.4 1.8 13.8 24.5 22.311 3.4 ASIAN AND PACIFIC    ISLANDER8 2001��������������������������� 20002�������������������������� 19993�������������������������� 1998��������������������������� 1997��������������������������� 3.949 1.915 459 444 430 345 351 14.4 12.212 3.401 4.7 12.3 11.7 ASIAN ALONE10 2010��������������������������� 2009��������������������������� 2008��������������������������� 2007��������������������������� 2006��������������������������� 3.5 19.8 2005��������������������������� 20041�������������������������� 2003��������������������������� 2002��������������������������� 3.4 13.1 11.5 17.435 3.759 2.5 12. nonsampling error. and year 18 to 64 years Related children in families Below poverty 65 years and older Below poverty Below poverty Below poverty Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent ASIAN ALONE OR    IN COMBINATION 2010��������������������������� 2009��������������������������� 2008��������������������������� 2007��������������������������� 2006��������������������������� 4.648 312 265 331 302 11.4 2.3 14. 72 Income.858 1.8 19915�������������������������� 1990��������������������������� 1989��������������������������� 19886�������������������������� 19876�������������������������� 2.683 317 281 344 315 11. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U.293 1.3 9.606 3.3 18.029 2.137 3.344 8.7 12.100 1.039 1.297 3.1 17.316 3.1 18.780 8.031 892 897 10.3 9.205 213 216 162 144 142 14.178 3.319 1.012 3.256 3.2 3.5 2.6 13.530 525 507 476 402 398 13.9 11.0 6.531 9.2 9.292 999 819 956 804 11.199 553 532 308 358 352 19.739 2.4 12.996 3.483 1.1 23.065 995 144 147 152 86 12.4 10.144 1. Census Bureau .1 7.2 11.294 3.900 1.3 10.3 11.9 23.510 8.7 12.169 3.099 3.3 13.507 9.3 899 878 864 785 705 92 82 96 97 87 10.215 3.083 1.069 974 832 851 10.1 12.5 12.190 9.375 4.2 9.

2 21.505 1.Table B-2.413 37.143 4.4 36.765 4.563 1.561 3.519 12.3 915 819 782 596 568 219 176 173 159 146 23. is available from Census 2010 through American FactFinder.3 12.2 37.8 40.881 5.311 27. and definitions.7 23.7 2.181 1.148 1.011 9.6 26.4 2005��������������������������� 20041�������������������������� 2003��������������������������� 2002��������������������������� 2001��������������������������� 14.324 24. Beginning in 1979.443 (NA) (NA) (NA) 30.056 11.422 33.9 17.698 22.501 2.210 12.8 6.896 460 403 406 439 413 19.3 41.2 28.173 13.865 2.9 24.276 5.428 1.5 23.4 30. and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2010—Con.3 37.068 6.031 28.5 37.S. For information on confidentiality protection.8 16.907 5.1 39.8 21.3 28.637 3. Poverty Status of People by Age.535 1. The use of this single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data.844 3. Black.912 10. 3 For 1999.5 40. Census Bureau.631 2.440 2.254 2. 1960 to 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.7 35.843 3.9 6.084 2.653 3.251 2.1 (NA) (NA) (NA) 464 (NA) (NA) (NA) 128 137 117 95 27.606 2.576 29.346 5.971 12.5 22.364 30.5 21. figures are based on 1990 census population controls.9 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2010.730 13.511 3.452 4.384 1.697 8.9 35. 1 For 2004.925 40.255 3.4 27.621 9.188 8.5 21.718 11.8 1990��������������������������� 1989��������������������������� 19886�������������������������� 19876�������������������������� 1986��������������������������� 7.0 7.6 28.708 15.S.3 39. Source: U.6 38. Hispanic origin.921 10. see www. The reference race groups for 2001 and earlier poverty data are White.4 21.428 514 516 525 438 472 18.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.857 12.985 3.625 10.5 1985��������������������������� 1984��������������������������� 1983��������������������������� 1982��������������������������� 1981��������������������������� 6. White alone refers to people who reported White and did not report any other race category.536 12.138 15. No.668 3. People as of March of the following year.458 1.5 20.685 10.620 4.213 9.655 16. non-Hispanic White.696 1.763 4.734 20.9 21. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches.908 6.5 1.192 15.9 33.473 3. Census Bureau Income.012 5.3 1.653 4.6 29. 2 Consistent with 2001 data through implementation of Census 2000-based population controls and a 28.034 (NA) (NA) (NA) 1.873 3.9 29.291 2.500 1.4 1995��������������������������� 1994��������������������������� 1993��������������������������� 19924�������������������������� 19915�������������������������� 10. 7 The 2003 CPS allowed respondents to choose more than one race.090 27.750 2.9 17.673 16.568 4.792 6.910 1. U.896 4.315 2.482 4.782 3.3 34.802 10.390 1.587 3.217 17.3 5.018 3.693 3.8 16. the CPS allowed respondents to report only one race group.5 30.952 22.555 2.642 22.117 1.8 20.4 21.837 3.6 29.4 39.8 24.972 5.616 2. and year 18 to 64 years Related children in families Below poverty 65 years and older Below poverty Below poverty Below poverty Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent HISPANIC    (ANY RACE) 2010��������������������������� 2009��������������������������� 2008��������������������������� 2007��������������������������� 2006��������������������������� 17.668 18. 8 For 2001 and earlier years.0 18.963 1.7 38.399 12.212 (NA) (NA) (NA) 20.1 28.654 14. figures are based on new processing procedures and are also revised to reflect corrections to the files after publication of the 1988 advance report Money Income and Poverty Status in the United States: 1988.496 2.5 22.5 22.3 19.771 (NA) (NA) (NA) 1.census.2 24.406 22. people in unrelated subfamilies were included in people in families.475 6.194 2.896 2.490 23.211 5.959 34.740 7.029 9.6 36.5 32.9 18.865 4.619 1.317 2.000 1.522 3.956 3.414 1.3 17.115 11.3 26.3 38.5 22.342 3.6 27.972 4.6 25.815 2.433 27.888 4.7 1.539 3.822 1.7 32.5 20.188 11.143 342 323 297 287 237 23.9 40.098 1.874 39.024 1.9 582 574 539 518 179 154 125 113 30.4 26.098 4.951 4.268 13. nonsampling error.576 2.300 7.7 1980��������������������������� 1979��������������������������� 1978��������������������������� 1977��������������������������� 5. 9 Black alone refers to people who reported Black and did not report any other race.670 3.9 37.9 20.3 17.7 18.5 35.0 22.3 28.010 4.6 22.1 19.0 27.7 7.1 26.617 1.376 2. Poverty.334 4. 10 Asian alone refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race.857 2.7 21.9 1976��������������������������� 1975��������������������������� 1974��������������������������� 1973��������������������������� 4.6 21.375 14.956 3.8 20002�������������������������� 19993�������������������������� 1998��������������������������� 1997��������������������������� 1996��������������������������� 12. About 2.939 4.279 4.237 28.003 6.206 2.014 18.938 3.1 12.606 2.731 27. figures are revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC. 6 For 1988 and 1987.9 (NA) Not available.977 39.4 36.081 7.0 41. (Numbers in thousands.9 24.008 24.4 19.314 6.9 21.4 21.5 28.411 2.436 5.1 17.080 4.354 1.435 16.717 2.2 18.929 13.091 1.7 18.298 1.4 19.209 6.982 3. people in unrelated subfamilies are included in all people but are excluded from people in families.4 10.527 5.7 37.749 1.8 25.186 7.512 2.516 381 340 356 384 370 20.977 3.0 33. figures are based on Census 2000 population controls.402 33. 4 For 1992. such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American.077 3.6 28.2 (NA) (NA) (NA) 4.0 27.419 4.965 16.051 25.718 1.2 28.051 16.6 22.977 5.000 household sample expansion.1 30.0 39. 166.647 15. Current Population Survey.5 20.670 2. Note: Before 1979.262 8.8 26. and Asian and Pacific Islander.666 3.507 38.1 33.2 27.066 5.2 16. figures are revised to correct for nine omitted weights from the original March 1992 CPS file.361 13.3 2.040 6.164 20.8 17.782 18.232 1.426 4.462 9.9 39.4 22.075 3.829 7.110 5.094 40.0 40. P-60.736 4.153 4.877 3.7 27.224 5.0 14.7 28.0 23.457 7.509 2.369 2.8 23.147 6.424 1. sampling error.527 6.6 39.970 4.080 2.646 2.370 15. 5 For 1991.312 2.348 3.483 5.603 2.1 20.9 20.3 18.6 29.648 4.619 6. Race.089 17.pdf) Under 18 years All people Race.053 1.6 28.005 885 906 245 211 225 243 204 22.1 39. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 73 .152 10.028 1.570 28.661 1.6 28.511 2.692 6.822 9.072 35.982 5.7 28.610 5. Information on people who reported more than one race.4 10.2 38.

4 13.210 1.7 33.123 3.6 29.458 8.962 3.434 3.278 47.5 32.7 8.977 3.914 3.0 10.9 7.436 46.0 16.182 1. no husband present Below poverty Below poverty Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent Total Number Percent 78. Hispanic origin.8 13.944 3.9 17.911 3.510 2.320 11.216 67.409 3.445 1.733 1.6 5.181 53.3 5.847 2.220 12. 74 Income.8 8.833 2.221 8.450 4.311 5.4 27.822 1.277 4.1 13.648 41.616 74.8 9.9 11.4 34.748 2.654 2. Census Bureau.474 2.1 42.710 56.0 12.1 11.0 32.739 44.217 5.804 57.0 26.500 1.435 45.Table B-3.866 76.6 32.296 52.609 4.067 5.0 36.903 12.303 5.3 33.292 42.311 5.6 12.430 2.4 10.784 6.4 31.657 7.189 57.1 13.3 12.778 54. unrelated subfamilies are excluded from all families.414 2. 4 For 1992. 1960 to 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.1 18.044 3.4 5.090 52.0 9.828 5.112 47.482 7.7 10.321 53.831 3.095 13.census.624 39.821 3.3 28.6 5.9 10.640 2.202 1.026 14.2 13.3 5.514 12.278 3.4 9.4 5.908 49.2 11.272 3.2 5.3 28.023 7.708 7.916 1.452 1.3 10. No.6 33.6 12.082 8.385 3.9 28.005 7.9 32.100 1.206 71.3 4.1 10. 5 For 1991.3 34.5 10.7 30.5 36. Source: U.6 9.335 3.161 3.597 69.216 3.560 5.400 6.255 5.403 9.418 76.053 54.6 5.7 10.081 49.236 7. Poverty Status of Families.570 53.8 5.626 13.090 65.230 6.0 10.497 47.8 13.087 4.411 12.995 4.3 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 5.441 5.554 8.7 32.4 42.232 75.874 7.327 56.8 29.713 7.3 10.075 5.9 5.2 10.146 12.4 35.992 5.280 5.077 8.1 6.226 880 942 723 696 671 669 657 636 564 583 485 485 476 507 531 493 549 488 484 392 349 348 336 340 287 311 292 268 290 205 213 176 152 177 162 116 125 154 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 15.228 2.232 4.0 15.006 4.6 35.016 1.9 31. see www.647 7.7 11.741 4.393 61.171 4.7 10.896 9.1 10.543 2.598 56.706 62.3 11.394 3.309 59.163 4.5 4. Families as of March of the following year.147 52. nonsampling error.6 32.129 9.745 4.952 1. 1 For 2004.373 53.4 42.S.341 45.835 48.6 13.211 10.7 33.1 9.5 32.pdf) All families Race.245 55.9 4.428 59. figures are based on 1990 census population controls.972 2.594 1.532 8.441 4. 166.712 7.481 3.954 1.5 6.243 8.340 73.0 13.835 7.019 60.318 47.789 3.098 6.791 13.107 41.2 9.812 46.8 6.964 58.3 9.668 7.8 9.293 1.796 12.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.8 8.698 55.8 15.3 5.8 6.103 5.818 12.931 2.0 34.191 6.2 34.9 4.268 10.3 28.9 15. no wife present Married-couple families Below poverty Below poverty Female householder.186 7.7 28.7 4.482 14.193 2.8 9.4 40.0 5.411 14.7 6.606 2.3 33.564 3.158 2.721 7.607 7.100 51. Census Bureau .488 3. Beginning in 1979.654 1.313 68.454 77.4 6.393 8.069 46. figures are revised to correct for nine omitted weights from the original March 1992 CPS file.385 47.047 58.2 5.675 51.4 25.065 3.2 10.884 70.8 12.4 11.0 10.474 2.469 9.424 4.215 56.511 49.0 13.652 12.275 4.693 11.137 58.0 10.904 2.6 6.1 32.755 1.591 5.901 4.5 26.160 7.053 8.4 12.512 6. figures are revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC.324 2.4 10.553 42.933 50.865 53.559 3.353 1.890 10.010 2.4 34.440 4.054 9.837 65. 6 For 1988 and 1987.815 3.8 13.642 3.2 33.7 5.2 5.6 32.721 1.243 1.1 9.1 11.470 3.752 44.986 1.9 11.790 12.1 18.842 43.907 2.849 2.705 8.613 3.158 2.923 40.322 66.696 10. figures are based on new processing procedures and are also revised to reflect corrections to the files after publication of the 1988 advance report Money Income and Poverty Status in the United States: 1988.933 1.4 32.654 3.436 43.551 70.879 2.1 5.261 2.827 1.981 13.3 11.922 4.792 7.3 9.2 18.2 9.582 5.9 13.2 32.910 2.847 3.5 5. 3 For 1999.S.001 5.851 6.474 3.836 47.884 2.228 2.0 12. figures are based on Census 2000 population controls.0 11.717 4.610 2.813 6.4 11.633 78.867 78.667 5.498 3. P-60.1 6.1 5. For information on confidentiality protection.524 2.3 11.774 1.604 53.613 3.784 6.874 77. 2 Consistent with 2001 data through implementation of Census 2000-based population controls and a 28.908 78.147 7.596 3.000 household sample expansion.445 10.6 7.760 2.424 14.314 45.175 66.333 5.461 5.047 5.6 34.2 11.955 1.856 3.391 8. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U.607 6.1 38.643 4.2 5.857 14.981 2.482 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 6.290 54.645 2.179 1.897 3.558 62.015 61.294 49.277 7.252 2.725 57.311 40.4 36.144 7.491 63.998 46.032 2.011 3.057 4. by Type of Family: 1959 to 2010 (Numbers in thousands.061 11.0 13.0 17.882 4.513 3.5 58.334 1.134 4.559 1.260 5.6 6.4 31. sampling error.078 4.506 68.395 58.008 5.438 3.537 50.637 2.5 6. and year Male householder.025 2.663 4.487 1.804 6.983 57.3 9.438 1.921 48.038 2.586 50.9 10.890 10.6 35.9 13.8 11.9 5. and definitions.167 4.692 47.405 39.8 16.778 73.504 3.241 69.3 10.229 6.550 57.228 1.099 3.7 28.399 1.6 ALL RACES 2010�������������������������� 2009�������������������������� 2008�������������������������� 2007�������������������������� 2006�������������������������� 2005�������������������������� 20041������������������������� 2003�������������������������� 2002�������������������������� 2001�������������������������� 20002������������������������� 19993������������������������� 1998�������������������������� 1997�������������������������� 1996�������������������������� 1995�������������������������� 1994�������������������������� 1993�������������������������� 19924������������������������� 19915������������������������� 1990�������������������������� 1989�������������������������� 19886������������������������� 19876������������������������� 1986�������������������������� 1985�������������������������� 1984�������������������������� 1983�������������������������� 1982�������������������������� 1981�������������������������� 1980�������������������������� 1979�������������������������� 1978�������������������������� 1977�������������������������� 1976�������������������������� 1975�������������������������� 1974�������������������������� 1973�������������������������� 1972�������������������������� 1971�������������������������� 1970�������������������������� 1969�������������������������� 1968�������������������������� 1967�������������������������� 1966�������������������������� 1965�������������������������� 1964�������������������������� 1963�������������������������� 1962�������������������������� 1961�������������������������� 1960�������������������������� 1959�������������������������� (NA) Not available.972 2.792 8.197 1.3 11.0 11.7 9.982 3.9 42.317 52.623 7. Poverty.204 64.755 56.034 1.0 8.630 49. unrelated subfamilies were included in all families.227 51.8 14.350 50.493 4. Note: Before 1979.223 7.8 12.768 3.5 12.916 31.324 7.2 8.457 52.052 2.2 14.115 3. Current Population Survey.7 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 15.

and all duplicate person records.cfm?index=4210>. Individuals who received Medicaid services during the reporting cycle tended to report coverage more often than individuals who had not received services.1 Because the CPS is largely a labor force survey. In addition. if not all. 2 For consistency purposes across the MSIS and the CPS. Families with lower incomes tended to report coverage more frequently. underreporting of health insurance coverage appears to be a larger problem in the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) than in other national surveys that ask about insurance. Also. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 75 . While underreporting affects most.census. Census Bureau Reporting of coverage through major federal health insurance programs. Reports from all four phases of the research project are available from the Census Bureau’s Web site at <www. During Phase 2. Census Bureau. and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) on a research project to evaluate why CPS ASEC estimates of the number of people with Medicaid are lower than counts of the number of people enrolled in the program from CMS.gov/did/www/snacc/>. a database of Medicaid and Medicare enrollment was built using the CMS Medicaid Statistical Information System (MSIS) 1 CMS is the federal agency primarily responsible for administering the Medicare and Medicaid programs at the national level. represent the actual number of people who have enrolled or participated in these programs. not health insurance. Health insurance coverage is likely to be underreported on the Current Population Survey (CPS).cbo. see How Many People Lack Insurance and for How Long? (Congressional Budget Office. ESTIMATES OF HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE Quality of Health Insurance Coverage Estimates National surveys and health insurance coverage. surveys. The report from Phase 2 showed a gap between CPS ASEC estimates and MSIS files of 2. the ASEC collects health insurance information in February through April but asks about the previous year’s coverage.9 percent of people with an MSIS record indicating Medicaid coverage reported in the CPS ASEC that they were uninsured. is the main focus of the ASEC questionnaire. on the other hand. files from the MSIS were linked with the CPS ASEC files.S. Compared with other national surveys. Income. U. CMS data. Asking annual retrospective questions appears to cause few problems when collecting income data (possibly because the interview period is close to when people pay their taxes). During Phase 1.2 The report found that Medicaid subscribers with longer and more recent enrollment were more likely to report coverage. The State Health Access Data Assistance Center (SHADAC) of the University of Minnesota has worked with the U. all State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) enrollees were removed from the MSIS count. The quality of the database was evaluated using two Census Bureau files: the Master Address File/Auxiliary Reference File (MAFARF) and the Person Characteristics File (PCF). May 2003) at <www. For a comparison of health insurance coverage rates from the major federal surveys. The CPS ASEC data underreport Medicare and Medicaid coverage compared with enrollment and participation data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS).8 million Medicaid enrollees. but may be less than ideal when asking about health insurance coverage.APPENDIX C. Additionally. Reporting differences were also apparent among states. Some reasons for the disparity may include the fact that income. Poverty. the CPS estimate of the number of people without health insurance more closely approximates the number of people who are uninsured at a specific point in time during the year than the number of people uninsured for the entire year. SHADAC removed all MSIS enrollees who received only partial coverage. A key finding indicating survey response error in the CPS ASEC was that 16. files merged with CMS Medicare Enrollment Database (EDB) files. CMS.S. those who had died before the CPS reporting cycle.gov /doc. many people may not be aware that a health insurance program covers them or their children if they have not used covered services recently. interviewers receive less training on health insurance concepts than labor concepts. Respondents for children enrolled in Medicaid were more apt to report coverage for those children than for enrolled adults within the household. and the individual records were compared.

MSIS counts all people. This research will make it possible to compare and contrast CPS ASEC underreporting rates with other surveys. For more information. had higher incomes. which collected data about coverage in 1997. and also had private insurance. 4 See <www.census. those on other benefits programs. SHADAC has also done research to improve the CPS ASEC imputation and allocation processes. but noted that the NHIS added questions in 2004 and these results may not apply to more recent data. and those who had recently used Medicaid services. Enhancements in 2010. to 1. this methodology will be used and is now incorporated into the approved historical series from the 2000 to 2010 CPS ASEC Supplements. This research includes: 1) cognitive research and field testing to improve the wording of the CPS ASEC health coverage questions. There are several ongoing projects aimed at improving the quality of health coverage data from the CPS ASEC. 2) editing and imputation research. The Census Bureau has not evaluated the methodology.shadac. 76 Income.S.0 million.4 After evaluating the ­methodology.shadac. allowing Census Bureau analysts to better understand the nature and impact of CPS ASEC health coverage underreporting. Falsenegative reporting was lower for very low-income enrollees. see <www. the Census Bureau decided to implement these changes for data from the 2000 to 2010 CPS ASEC Supplements. Poverty. The purpose of this was twofold: to provide explanations for the differences found between NHIS data and MSIS files and to examine how differing survey designs and methodologies affect the survey data and estimates. U. 3 See <www.html>. After consulting with health insurance experts. regardless of their living situation). Phase 4 consisted of repeating the Phase 2 process using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data instead of CPS ASEC data.org/publications /medicaid-under-reporting-in-cps-and-one -approach-partial-correction> for more information. SHADAC released an imputation adjustment for public use CPS ASEC microdata through its Web site to help researchers interested in partially adjusting for CPS ASEC Medicaid underreporting. The effect of these changes on the overall estimates of health insurance coverage was negligible.3 percent in 2001 and 21. This modification was later incorporated into the revision of data from 1999 to 2009. These steps focused on determining the number of enrollees who were out-of-scope for the 2001 March CPS interview (people living in institutions and other group quarters are not eligible for CPS ASEC interview.org/publications/are -current-population-survey-uninsurance -estimates-too-high-examination-imputation -pro>.3 This is an experimental imputation and was produced for interested parties to use in their research. In 2009. The report found higher false-negative reporting for enrollees who were older. Census Bureau . the Census Bureau modified the definition of the population without health insurance in the supplement to the March 1998 CPS. people with no coverage other than access to the Indian Health Service were counted as part of the insured population.gov/hhes/www /hlthins/data/usernote/index. From this point forward.Phase 3 of the research project was further broken down into three steps that attempted to account for discrepancies found in Phase 2 between the MSIS records and the CPS ASEC files. the Census Bureau has counted these people as uninsured. such as the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the American Community Survey (ACS). Subsequently.7 percent in 2002. and users should be aware that this is not an official data product. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 including additional research on the use of models that attempt to account for Medicaid underreporting.8 million Medicaid enrollees. and 3) expanding the number of studies that match administrative Medicaid data to current survey data to include other surveys. Previously. The report found that the dynamics of false-negative reporting was similar in the NHIS and CPS ASEC. Health insurance experts informed the Census Bureau that all foster children were eligible for Medicaid. Phase 3 narrowed the gap between CPS ASEC estimates and MSIS files by 1. The report found that the NHIS Medicaid undercount was 27. a modification to the estimates of uninsured foster children was made.

5 24.135 183.825 70. Census Bureau Income.082 279.326 31.005 210. The effect of this change on the overall estimates of health insurance coverage is negligible.147 80.414 11.747 8.495 30.055 34.1 3.903 203.590 35.8 9.1 62.3 14.5 73.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. 5 Beginning with the 1998 CPS ASEC.9 4.2 3.9 85.2 13.224 185.3 23.3 24.739 30.1 10.9 11.680 31.752 41.4 14.535 171.4 72.925 30.7 12.3 70.9 13.375 182.census.gov/prod/2006pubs/p60-231.0 4.165 9.610 182.4 86.000 69.826 29.1 12.S.762 177.161 195.536 192.5 10.077 150.1 13.245 87.824 293.1 13. see www.0 10.7 13.8 27.282 Percent 2010��������������������������������������������������������� 2009��������������������������������������������������������� 2008��������������������������������������������������������� 2007��������������������������������������������������������� 2006��������������������������������������������������������� 20052�������������������������������������������������������� 20042 ������������������������������������������������������ 2003��������������������������������������������������������� 2002��������������������������������������������������������� 2001��������������������������������������������������������� 20002 ������������������������������������������������������ 19993.9 13.416 26.9 15.031 41.799 249.1 60.850 56.102 233. and definitions.4 26.554 66.877 31.0 100.526 8.167 39.287 28. as well as care provided by the Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs and care provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs and the military.298 26.510 9.5 4.5 3.087 66.4 ������������������������������������������������������ 1999��������������������������������������������������������� 1998��������������������������������������������������������� 19975�������������������������������������������������������� 19966�������������������������������������������������������� 1995��������������������������������������������������������� 19947�������������������������������������������������������� 19938�������������������������������������������������������� 19929�������������������������������������������������������� 1991��������������������������������������������������������� 1990��������������������������������������������������������� 1989��������������������������������������������������������� 1988��������������������������������������������������������� 198710 ������������������������������������������������������ 100.230 32.245 202.026 15.261 21.419 30.018 251.1 24.4 24.2 11.655 33.847 42.4 13.375 11.937 8.7 83.105 166. they are considered to be uninsured.2 4.1 4.093 40.901 33.719 33. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 77 .6 84.2 3.874 196.0 14.922 9.014 42.965 57.387 220.453 159. U.419 164.4 85.9 14.087 271. sampling error.2 24.1 13.8 85.9 86.census.3 26.955 188.645 31.9 9.359 37.147 29.2 13.1 11.749 29.7 60.1 64.4 13.0 100.2 68.6 10.445 34.3 10.244 63.0 100.820 9.5 9.1 3.702 255.2 14. nonsampling error. Source: U.2 9.8 9.6 70.942 203.332 246.6 62.191 38. Poverty.387 40. Overall coverage estimates were not affected.227 34.8 15.6 61.787 36.8 12.6 13.1 73. 7 Health insurance questions were redesigned.848 12.096 161.830 251.023 36. 1 Military health care includes Tricare and CHAMPVA (Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs). Current Population Survey.7 14.1 27.105 10.5 61.586 37.2 3.870 10.014 201.940 149.854 28.431 28.359 41.9 57.3 56.330 68.9 86.188 31.4 24.0 100.932 239.7 12.933 282.6 13.0 100.971 178.6 70.7 15.161 28.191 243.021 196.0 64.pdf) Covered by private and/or government health insurance Private health insurance Year Government health insurance Total people Total Total Employment based Number 2010��������������������������������������������������������� 2009��������������������������������������������������������� 2008��������������������������������������������������������� 2007��������������������������������������������������������� 2006��������������������������������������������������������� 2005��������������������������������������������������������� 2004��������������������������������������������������������� 2003��������������������������������������������������������� 2002��������������������������������������������������������� 2001��������������������������������������������������������� 20002 ������������������������������������������������������ 19993.0 100.2 13.5 13.728 20.7 85.166 28.3 84.314 262.Table C-1 Health Insurance Coverage: 1987 to 2010 (Numbers in thousands. 4 ���������������������������������������������������� 1999��������������������������������������������������������� 1998��������������������������������������������������������� 19975 ������������������������������������������������������ 19966 ������������������������������������������������������ 1995 �������������������������������������������������������� 19947 ������������������������������������������������������ 19938 ������������������������������������������������������ 19929 �������������������������������������������������������� 1991��������������������������������������������������������� 1990��������������������������������������������������������� 1989��������������������������������������������������������� 1988��������������������������������������������������������� 198710 ������������������������������������������������������ 306.382 56.8 61.5 3.098 28.2 13.984 181.349 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 95.507 189.280 285.6 84.800 226.434 43.391 177.6 61.0 9.9 62.110 304. see Table C-1 in Income.0 100.949 39.336 40. instead.283 79. Increases in estimates of employment-based and military health care coverage may be partially due to questionnaire changes.432 28.8 25.7 61.073 228.6 9.584 10.0 10.0 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 31.626 203.831 39.880 24.census.5 8.284 38.7 3.9 59.187 256.000 household sample expansion.3 13. people with no coverage other than access to the Indian Health Service are no longer considered covered by health insurance.562 10.9 26.035 41.7 9.8 70.9 12.3 15.0 100.106 296. Census Bureau.0 100.0 100.1 12.3 60.2 10.059 242.7 70.7 11.094 266.2 10. For information on confidentiality protection.4 3. Respondents were not asked detailed health insurance questions about direct-purchase coverage before the 1995 Current Population Survey (CPS) Annual Economic and Economic (ASEC) Supplement.7 3.4 12.880 178.5 86.563 179.9 13.955 10.513 28.6 8.7 15.6 14.327 43.040 218.990 36.1 71. however.019 182.003 214.7 13.206 255.2 69.0 100.0 100.7 85.0 83.776 70.886 246.0 100.3 70.0 84.2 10. the decrease in the number of people covered by Medicaid may be partially due to this change.142 205.8 25.8 11.6 87.3 3.0 100.892 9.1 85.560 9.166 288.780 44.0 30.1 61.0 100.164 10.7 72.4 61.543 178. See <www.2 13.862 177.580 8.211 44.9 10.4 86.8 60.1 64.pdf>.3 12.2 10.295 256.318 148.0 85.8 3.575 202.0 100.934 30.398 28.260 31.881 184.103 66.0 100.003 93. Poverty.414 246.6 3.183 67.0 15.907 32.7 3.351 181.641 35.6 29.807 211.157 244.0 100.8 13.1 58.753 256.580 47. 10 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.370 38.5 14.924 177.2 68.9 Direct purchase Total Medicaid (NA) Not available.582 39.0 100.2 10.870 37.176 66.6 15.4 15.5 67.699 223.3 16.6 74.163 204.757 39.980 29.466 181.713 38. 2 Implementation of a 28.1 57.7 10.1 86. 6 The data for 1996 through 1999 were revised using an approximation method for consistency with the revision to the 2004 and 2005 estimates.S.205 203.5 23.9 13.458 12.214 43.167 212.1 12.542 49.0 4.0 100.264 170.685 38.062 27. 3 Estimates reflect the results of follow-up verification questions and implementation of Census 2000-based population controls.343 80.9 10.2 74.0 100.097 33.4 13.1 9.362 179.182 27.066 35.160 169.3 Medicare Military health care1 Not covered 48.4 15.530 8.9 24.6 3.163 68.5 55.1 86.3 84.6 4.989 204.0 12.543 11.733 222.882 60.776 38.8 84.2 84.8 3.6 13.792 264.165 27.1 3.185 20.5 13.2 15.943 42.7 8.4 25.451 31.033 28.385 32.804 274.7 75.904 48.280 301.0 100.500 29.0 71.887 35.8 65.610 250.483 299.634 148.189 216.5 9.124 9.html>.0 13. 4 The data for 1999 through 2009 were revised to reflect the results of enhancements to the editing process. 8 Data collection method changed from paper and pencil to computer-assisted interviewing.517 276.480 76.586 83.796 150.8 63.985 44.527 8.692 170.6 13.2 70.3 3.088 45.4 73.318 182.735 225.105 259.9 59. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2005 at <www.890 27.644 150.7 70.gov/hhes/www/hlthins/data/usernote/index.685 241.1 14.8 26. People as of March of the following year.956 31.353 27.3 14.0 100.834 291.8 12.718 39.116 72.447 248. 9 Implementation of 1990 census population controls.712 9.3 27.1 27.3 23.7 69.685 69.0 100. 1988 to 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.5 62.4 12.4 16.743 269.215 151.4 85. To see the original series.702 41.4 25.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359 37. . . . .5 73. . .103 48. . . . .448 53. . . . . . .2 10. . . . . 2004. . . .607 Percent 2010. . .4 13. . . . . .584 10. 2006. . . . . .326 31. . . .4 24. . 20002 . . . . .088 45.294 21.4 87.5 12.7 61. . . . . . . . . . .0 83.634 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 26. . .0 11. People as of March of the following year. . . . . .924 177. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3.7 14. . . .142 205. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .634 197.0 100. . . . .7 14. . . . . .059 242. . .6 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .933 282. . .9 24.9 10. .702 255. . . . . . . .4 64.336 40. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 100. . . . . . . . and definitions. . . .2 11. .199 32.1 14. . .884 171.1 10. .949 39.0 9. .182 95. . .0 13. .762 177. .6 86.7 74.938 205. . 2001. . . . . .014 26. .6 13. . . . . . .847 42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 13. . . . . .086 206. .971 178. . and year Private health insurance Employment Direct based purchase Government health insurance Military health care1 Not covered 44. . . .5 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .751 31. . . .4 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . .624 10.098 28. . .8 WHITE5 Number 2001.175 203.903 25.270 24. . .1 75. .4 25. . . . . .776 38. 2005. . . . . . . . .414 11. . . .8 27. .469 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208 225. . . .6 3. 230. . .262 168. . . . . .391 177.054 24. 2004.0 24. . . .8 63. .287 28. . . . . 2008.2 11. . .801 36.186 162. . . . . . . . 2001. . . . .414 246. . . .033 28. . . . . . . . . .252 7. . .2 68. . .513 28. . . . . . .6 75. . . . . . . . . .280 301.166 28. . . . . . .0 9. . .3 14. . Hispanic origin.365 200. . .9 59. . . . . . .6 13. . . .8 65. . . .1 3. . . . . . .0 86. . .984 181. . .351 24. . . . . . . . . . . .7 10.543 178.3 13.440 147. . 2005. . . .123 34. . .2 WHITE ALONE4 Number 2010. . . . . . . . .6 84. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 66. . . . . .343 80. . .082 279. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . .722 203. . .4 14. . .8 67. . . . .0 100. . . . . . . . .4 15. .3 84.027 65. . . . . .3 14. . .894 29. .167 39. .930 37. . . . . 2009. . . . .7 13. . . . . . .585 26. . .5 67.403 240. . . 2007. . . . . .702 15. . . . . . .102 195. . . . 2008.0 100. . . . . . 2003.4 3.124 33. . . . . .483 299. . . . . . .787 36. . .399 237. . . . . . . .0 76. . . .0 100. .616 9.878 32.0 55. . 2009. . . . .751 32. . .6 13.4 11.809 205.5 14. . . .5 28.626 203. . . . . . . . . . . .3 60.517 276. . . . . . . . .563 179. .862 177. .850 24. . . . . .1 85. .5 9.1 27. . . . . nonsampling error. . .264 170. . . .803 52.161 28. . . .7 3.021 169. .6 29. . .124 9. .831 39.385 37. . . . . 20023 . . . .7 13.3 8. . . . . 19993 . . . . .Table C-2. . . . .0 100. .0 84. . . . . .0 100. . . . . . .8 11. . 2003.292 8.1 61. .5 86. . . . . .8 60. . 2005. . .757 39.332 246. . . . .0 100. . . . . . .306 32.9 85. . . . . 2007. .9 26. .350 27. . .586 83. . Census Bureau . . . . . . .147 80. . . . . .752 41. . . .035 41. . . . .685 38.6 3. . . . . . . . . . . .6 13. .955 10.726 27. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 86. . . . . .506 146. .824 293. . . . . .097 33. . . . . .1 86. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 10.064 147. . . . . .3 3.3 4. . . . . .5 24. . . . . . 19993 . .3 26. .003 93. . . . . . .147 29.1 14. .071 228. . . . . . .880 178. . . . .2 69. .0 62. . .1 30. . . . .387 40.6 61. . . . . . .110 304. . . . . . . . . . .3 15. .1 57. . . . . 19993 .504 18. . .111 Percent 2001. . .4 4. . . . . . . . . . .4 10. . . . . .3 12. .990 12. . . . .7 83. .7 86. 78 Income.6 66. . . . .2 10. . . .323 242. . . . . . . 2003. .1 71. . . . . . . . . . .852 8. . . . .874 196.9 14. . . . . . . 2009.6 12. . . . .0 60.234 169. . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 10.1 16. . . . .9 11.362 179. . . . . . . .101 10. . . .825 70. . .0 100.035 152. .157 244. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 9. .245 87. . . . . .6 23.0 100. . . . . .7 13. Poverty.4 8. . . . . . .794 201. . .610 250.170 61.480 76. . .1 27. . .318 34.4 72. . . . .4 64.6 14.7 15. . . . . . . .9 8. . . . . .gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.370 38. .8 63.0 10. . . . . .734 59. . .0 100. . . . . . . . .113 25. . . . . .1 58. . . . . . . . . 243. . . . . . . . . .055 34. .269 56.8 Total Medicaid Medicare ALL RACES   See footnotes at end of table. . .9 13. . For information on confidentiality protection.327 43. .062 27. . . . .4 85. . . . . . .576 67. . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 11. .684 62. . .295 256. .8 85. . . .564 64. . . . .023 36. . . .526 49. . . . . .932 239. . . .S. .137 23. . . .2 31. . . . . . . . . . .1 12. . . . .0 100. . . . . . .3 14. . . .1 13. . . .7 71. . . . . . . .817 168. . . .4 26. . . . . . . . . . .1 23.206 255.5 14. . . . . .4 13. . .8 9. . .892 235. . . . . .1 3.027 147. . . . .353 Percent 2010. .925 25. . . . . . . . .5 62. . .942 203.8 66. . . .652 33. sampling error. . .169 32. . . . 2007. .1 72. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 10. . . . . . .826 29. .234 202. .9 3. . . .767 33. . . .580 8.970 71. . .345 200. . .434 43. . . .4 10. .2 4.398 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 72.821 28.254 230.153 25.924 25. . . . . . . .8 13.2 15. .0 100. . .3 10. .0 87. . . . 100. . . . . .767 172.051 6. . .567 171. . . .280 285.8 3. . . . . .2 69. . . . . . .014 201.705 33. .2 10. .106 296. . . . . . . 2002.801 7. . . . . .414 34. . . . . .580 47. .6 72. . . . . . . . .607 29. . . . .7 3. . .7 85. . . . . . . . .500 29.387 149. . . . . . Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1999 to 2010 (Numbers in thousands. . .4 73. . . . . .0 100.0 10.6 9.1 64. . . . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U. . . . . . . . 2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .275 26.3 58. .279 207.2 13. 2005. . . . . . . . . .799 249.647 201. . . . . . . . .283 79. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 30. . . 2004.0 100. . . . .6 12.163 204. . . . . . . 2009. . . . . . . 306. .3 14. .0 100.8 11. . . .4 15. . . . . . . 19993 . . . . .052 24. . . . . .776 20. 2002.5 87.191 38. . .8 13. . .208 7. . . . .214 43. . . . . . . .870 37. . . . . . . .6 3. .0 100.988 9. . . . .5 15. . . . .2 14. . . . .164 10. . . . . . . .834 291. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 13. . . . . .301 9. see www. . . . .1 14. . . .6 10.8 9. . . . . .327 147. . . . . . .780 44.3 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .019 8. . . . .3 56.9 86. . . .9 14. . . .284 38. . . 2004. . . .9 14. . . .852 239. . . . . . . .562 10. . . . . .7 69. . . 100. . .8 151. .0 64. .0 13. . . . .1 11. . . . . 2008. .4 3. . . . . . 2006. . 20002 .116 232. .420 37. . . .934 30. . . .1 85.3 26. . . .2 71. . .pdf) Covered by private and/or government health insurance Race. .848 12. 20002 . . . . . . . . .574 28. . .2 86. . . . . .1 3. .224 34. . . . .888 168. . . . . . .669 31.174 25.0 100. . . . . . . .6 3. . . .892 9.0 12. .7 70.2 68. .5 14.6 14. . .2 4. . . .9 87. . . . . . . . . . .508 8. . .116 72. .804 256. . .5 13. .9 15. . .0 29. . . .0 100. . .903 234.386 140. . .031 41. . . . . . . . . . . .5 3.985 44. . . .980 29. . . . . . . 20023 . . .5 62. . . . .901 55.989 204. . . .508 162. . .8 3. 20002 . .484 62. .5 24. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Total people Total Total Number 2010. . . . . . . . . . . .8 70.census. . .018 251. 2008. . .166 288. . . .3 16. . . . . . . . . . .937 8. . . .480 26.432 28. . . .4 86. . . . . .5 10. .245 202. . . . . . 2006. . . .092 139. . . . . . . 2003. . . .6 13.348 147. . . . . . . . . . . .535 30. . . . . . . . .1 10. . .479 173. . . . . . . . . .0 100. . . .586 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 3. . . . . . . . . . .543 11. . . . . . . . . . .575 202. . . . . .5 62. . . .183 67. . . . . . . . . . . .5 13. . 100. . .330 68.988 18. . 2006. .205 203. .107 169. . . .903 203.904 48.0 100. . . . . .888 168.241 149.5 3.

4 3. . . .188 2. . . .819 151. .3 6. .016 4.591 22. .1 10. . . . . .0 79. . .3 25. . . . . . . .402 16. . . . .070 32. . . . . .507 8. .5 82. . . . . . . .500 8. . . . . . .858 177. 19993 . 2003. . . . . . .2 25. .0 100. . . . . .421 174. 2007.159 196. . . . . .893 195. . nonsampling error. . .615 19.459 19.0 18. . .885 21. . . . .786 130.7 3.3 3. . . . . . . . . .2 16.4 WHITE. .7 66.829 31.095 9. . . . . .7 65. . . . . .9 8.8 11. .7 28. .6 23.412 20. . .580 21. . . . .093 2. . . . . . . . . . . and year Private health insurance Government health insurance Employment Direct based purchase Military health care1 Not covered 34. . . . . . .732 4. . 20023 . . . . .6 11. .4 68. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20023 .3 8. . . . . . . . . . 2007. .947 135.938 43.589 51. . .0 55.1 12. . .619 19. . . .2 23. . . . . 197. . .439 17. . .7 11.1 26. . . . . . .768 9.8 4. .2 26. . . . . . .404 4. . . . . . .0 100. . . . . . . . . . . . .8 62. .0 10. .0 61. . . 2006. . .3 23. . . 2007. . . . . .695 30. . . . . . . . . .957 40. . . . . . . .317 21. .0 100. . .6 73. . . . . .140 7.5 45. .0 54.861 31.5 16. . . .4 39. . . .810 12. .5 20. . . . . . .350 33.715 20. . . . . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 79 . . . . 2009.5 19. . . .704 1. . . . . . . . .0 100. .132 46. . .5 70. . . . 2003. . . . . . . . . 19993 . .207 2. . . . . . . . . .1 15. . . . . . . . Hispanic origin. . .395 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .442 31. . .0 24. .4 7. . . . . . . .2 16. . . . .838 128. . 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .445 31. . . .3 69. .631 121. . .180 129. . . . .453 1. . . . .806 1. . . . . . .416 31. . . .3 4. .123 4. . . .0 100. .352 21. . .790 6. 100.3 29. . . . . . . . . .033 19. . . . . . . . . . 2003. . .8 4. . . .8 76. .353 33. . . . . . . . 2005. . 2008.252 195. . . .817 32. . .866 17.4 27. . . .7 89. . . . .9 50. .093 22. . . . .230 4. . . .3 11.562 16.416 19.275 7. . .5 28. . . . .569 148.609 153. . . . .0 100.380 10. . . . . . .3 49. . . . 2008. . . . . .524 23. .142 143. . . . . . . . . . .211 14.990 1. . . . 20002 . . . .389 30. . .1 53. . . .684 4. . .0 12. . .183 4.0 32. 20023 . . . . . 2006. .013 54. . . . . . . . . . . .4 11. . . . .420 177. . . . .8 79. .008 13. . . .471 23. . .651 37. . . . .423 197. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 10. . .9 11.1 4. . . . . . .0 16. . . . . . . . . . .2 24. . . 2009. . . . . . .2 4. . . . . . . .931 192. . . . . . . .2 77. . . .0 100. . . . . . . .402 24. . . . . . . . . . . . .663 1. . .gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. . .2 81.347 194. . . . . . . . .4 91. . . . . . . .733 14.8 17.0 90. . . .6 26. . . . .444 19. . .0 10. . . . . .902 32. .836 17. . . . . . . .9 3. .445 9. . . . . .1 3. . . . . . .822 193. . .5 37.820 1. . . . . .7 80. . . . . . . . . .094 2. . . .4 47. . .366 23. . . .215 20.859 175. . . . . . 194. . . . .397 12. . . . . . . . . . . .324 176. . . 20023 . .824 11.664 150. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .468 30. . . . Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1999 to 2010—Con . see www.314 13. . 2004. . . . . . . . 2008.4 17. .577 40. . .7 23. . . . . . . . . . . . 41. . . . . . . . . .635 9. . . . .8 80. . . . . . . .5 69. . For information on confidentiality protection. . .590 19. . . . . . . NOT HISPANIC Number 2010. . . 2005. .3 34.768 196. . . . . .8 BLACK ALONE OR IN COMBINATION Number 2010. . . . . . . . .258 20.3 4. . . . . .9 51. . .3 3. . . . . . . . .4 Total Medicaid Medicare   See footnotes at end of table. .0 79. .925 123. . 2004. . . . . . . . .2 4. . . . .030 3. .7 3. . .330 174. . 2009. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .census. .505 2. . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . .314 7. .0 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 11.3 52. . . .018 45. . .223 11. . . . .5 15. . . . . . .439 131. . . . . . . .994 175. . . . . .652 23. . .130 12. . . . 2007. . .7 12. . 2004. . . .1 9. .132 7. . . . .162 6.9 35. . . . .9 5. . . . .961 23. . Poverty. . .0 100. . . .7 9. . . . . . . . . .137 18. . . . . .7 3. .1 7.2 12. NOT HISPANIC Number 2001. . . . . .124 13. . . .4 48. Census Bureau Income. . . .4 76. .4 4. . .129 21.366 130. .547 47. . . . .6 4. .5 10. . (Numbers in thousands.0 4. .683 39. . . . .pdf) Covered by private and/or government health insurance Race.4 66. . . . . . . . . . . . .9 27. . . . . .8 90. .300 2. . . . . . . . .8 18.329 22.678 17.900 6. . . . . .2 82. . . . . .8 39. . . and definitions. . . . . . . .238 49. . .4 17. . . .445 1. .435 23. . . . . . .877 194.7 11. . . . . . . . People as of March of the following year.461 155. . . . . . . . . .729 38. . . . .671 7. . . . . . .3 76. . . . . . . . . .300 7. . . .599 130.8 15. .464 12. . . . . . . . . . .7 80. . .8 67.999 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .574 150. . . . . . . . . . .279 10.444 32. .119 14.1 3. . . .0 90.514 21. . . .2 4. . . . . . . . . . .866 8.6 90. . . . . . . . . .0 100. . . . . . . . . .6 35.0 100.438 1. . . . . . . . .6 11.373 52. . . . .873 19. . . .267 7.8 3.0 66. . . . .2 50. . . . . . . .8 6. .706 30. . 100.0 89.4 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table C-2.1 48. .2 16.639 6. . . .9 5. . . .216 39. . .422 Percent 2010. .072 20. . . . . . . .0 88. 2006. . .3 88. . . . . . . .8 15. . . .673 4. . . . . 100. . . . . . .3 33. . . .4 5. . .163 15.913 7. .1 50. . . . . . .4 10.432 156. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 81. . . . . .5 17. .689 9. . . . .553 18. .6 Total people Total Total WHITE ALONE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U. . . . . .2 50. . . .959 23. . . . . . . . . . 2003. .768 15. . . . . . . . . .083 38. . . . .128 150. .2 24. . . . .0 66.896 58.1 17.3 19. . . .337 30. . . . . . . . 2005.0 100. .5 10. .020 16. . . . . .9 4.4 54. . .8 10. . .1 81. . . .499 51.219 51. .6 5. .253 175. . . .694 134. .097 18. . . . .0 5.9 77.709 31. .592 154. .512 23.6 55. . . . .569 177. . .6 12. 2004. . . . .0 100. . . .6 3. . .2 18. .309 133. . . . . .703 8.425 144.724 33. . . . . . .6 9. .962 22.956 6. . .179 37. . . . . . . 2005. . . . . . . .199 57. . . . .2 5. . .8 26. . . . .493 Percent 2001. . . . . . .2 75. . . . . .0 100.081 Percent 2010. . .708 30. .340 23. .6 9. . . . . . . . . .314 17. . .429 21. . . . . . . . .5 89. sampling error. . . . .7 5.418 9. .0 100. . . . . . .0 9.899 13. . . . .6 35. . . .290 1. .721 176. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 80. . . . .3 10.656 19. .S. . . .281 1. . . . . . . . .6 11.5 10. . .044 175.9 18. . . .017 1. .8 81. . . . . 2009. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. .1 91. . . . . . . .421 136. . . . . . . . . .5 18.9 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000. . .0 100. . . .7 10. . . .0 91. . . . . .436 197. .304 19. . .123 8. . .6 55. . . . .790 17. . . . . . . . . .0 100. . . . 2006. .728 175.6 72. . . . .9 11. .482 6.736 150. . . . .5 56. .663 31. . . . . . . .9 9.0 100. . .0 100. . . . . . .1 22. . . . . . . .724 20. .321 8. . . .300 21.7 26. . . . .

20002 . . . . . 2007. . .064 2. .5 20. .093 1. . .395 10. . . . . .7 Total Medicaid Medicare   See footnotes at end of table. . .4 22.742 6. . .9 2. . . . .934 12.018 7.624 38. . . . . . . . .662 1. . . . . .176 12. . . .2 21.187 10.886 2. .3 3. . . .6 ASIAN ALONE OR IN COMBINATION Number 2010. .3 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .867 19.5 55. . . . . . .014 8. . . . . . .4 20. .0 100.7 2. . . . . . .458 13. . . . . . .893 18. . . . . . .1 33.7 16. . . . .pdf) Covered by private and/or government health insurance Race. . . . . .564 1. . . .377 15.450 10.5 18.8 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Census Bureau .census.2 69.868 10. .225 1. .7 31. .9 9. . .330 1. . . . . . . .3 9. . .2 50.7 81. . .4 14. . . . . . . . . 2009. . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . .4 6. .217 1.664 10. . 39.593 11.358 1. . .1 83. . . . . . .4 84.188 20. .6 55. . .0 10.4 Total people Total Total BLACK ALONE6 Number 2010.052 20. . . . . . . . .935 3. . . .702 1. . . Poverty. . . .967 2. .2 53.2 20. .758 13.143 9.436 1. . . . . . . . .7 3.6 45.7 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 2. . . . . . . .905 12. .021 7. . . .379 29. . .5 11. .504 12.369 36. . . . .956 29. . . . . .0 100. . . . .7 9. .8 11. . . .2 9. . 2009. .6 15.0 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 18.1 18. . . . . .9 8. . 2007. . .731 1.196 7. .5 39. .6 83. . . 100. . . . . . . . 20023 . .597 35. . .7 31. sampling error. .0 100.7 68.169 17. .875 8.018 14. .6 10. 2005. . . . . . . .544 4. . . . . .247 8. .928 8. . . . . . .4 13. . . . .3 15. . .8 70. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 49. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2009. . . . . . . . . .288 29. .1 2. . . . . . . . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U. . . . .899 30.5 72. . . . . .6 2. . . .6 23. . .3 83. . . . . . . .0 100.965 36. .Table C-2. . .8 31. . . 36.806 30. . . . .375 6.9 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . .699 5. . . .766 3. . .9 54. . . . . . .3 81. . . . . .133 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 100. . . . . . . . . . . . . and year Private health insurance Government health insurance Employment Direct based purchase Military health care1 Not covered 4. . 2008. . . . . . . . . .0 100. . . . . . . .250 2. . . . . . . .6 19. . . . .212 8.033 20.003 2.257 12. . .0 62. . . . . . . . .088 2. .gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. . . . . . . . . . .8 3. . . . . .299 2. .395 3. . . . . . . . . .3 64.775 37. . . . . . . . .046 9. . . . . . . . . . .2 82. . . .592 6. . . . . . . .539 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419 10. . .0 55.518 20. .3 81. . . . . . . .5 10. . . .8 20. . . . . . .2 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .039 9. . . . . . . . . . .9 64. .0 73. .205 2. .3 43. . . .6 66. . . . . . . .5 56.8 10.761 2. .522 3. . . . .014 1. . . . . . . . .2 64. . . . . . . . . .307 12. . . .169 9. . .032 17. . . .212 7. . . . . . . .490 1. .2 8. . . . . . . .1 25. . . . . . . . .0 100. . . . . .194 20. . . . . . .995 7.2 59.332 11. . . . .542 9. . . . .7 5. 19993 . . . . . .9 84. . . . . . . . . . .348 13.1 9. . For information on confidentiality protection. . . .6 8. . . . . . .444 14. .319 1. . . . . .0 82. . .4 10.9 24.132 7. . . . . . . .754 29.550 18. . . . .107 3. . .3 20. . . . . . . .003 456 475 374 379 404 461 388 349 339 2. . . . . . 20002 . . . . . . . . .8 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2007. . . .9 18. . . . . . . . . . . .3 11. . . . .7 81.1 33.5 20. . .9 37. . . . .0 82. . . . . .544 18. . 2003. . . .132 20. . . . . . . .300 7. . . . .178 2. .9 5.451 11. . . . . .054 59. . . .9 62. 20023 . . . . . .589 18. .268 9. . . . .742 18. . . . . . .5 58. . . .814 12. . . .1 10. . . .1 53. . . .472 18. . . . . . . . . . 2004. 2003.3 54. . . . .305 1. .2 79. . . .353 1. . . . . . .7 70. .4 3. . . . .922 1. . . . . . . .2 50.165 1. . . . . .428 1. . .868 1. . . .0 2. . . . 2006. . .418 19. . . 100. . . . . . . . . . 2008.4 38. .7 10. . .426 10. . . . .8 32.182 1. . .788 Percent 2010. . . . .869 3. . . . . . . .0 100. .888 19. . . . .695 15.046 Percent 2001. . . . . . . .186 1. .290 1. . .4 23. . . . . . . .9 8. . .372 2. . . .223 1.150 6. 19993 . .7 9. . .859 1. . . 2008. . . . .031 38. . .630 7. . . . . .9 10. . . . . . .1 60. .252 1. . .658 1. . .5 8.056 4. . . . . . . . . . .2 63. .7 73.9 11. . .233 13. . . . . . . . 2004. . .3 35.443 2. . . . . .0 79.544 1. . . . .8 27.0 100. . . . 2006.4 52. . . . . . . . Hispanic origin.337 1. . . . .6 19. . . .076 37. . . . .7 18. . . . . .9 24. . . . . . . . . .599 2. . . . . . . .425 1. . . . . . .097 1. . . . .0 4. .642 2.288 11. .035 2. . . .554 2. . .691 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 18. . . . . .8 17. . . . nonsampling error. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 2. . . .880 12.0 100.0 100. 2005. . . . . . .317 20. . . . .274 1. .994 30. . . . . .746 9. . . . . . . . . . . (Numbers in thousands.9 10. . . .858 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 100.3 5. . 15. . . . .3 9. . . . . . . .1 15. . . . . .306 3.893 29. .9 82. . . . . . . 2005. .9 55. . . 20023 .3 14.2 48. . . . . . 2003. . . . .967 Percent 2010. . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . and definitions. . . . . .541 4. . . . . . .502 1.7 10. . . . . .9 22. .5 8. . . . .3 3. . .7 11. . . .823 9. . . 2006. . . . . . . .405 6.3 9. .281 14.617 1. see www. . .6 81. .203 12. . . . . . .7 10. . . . . . . . . . . .618 29. . .970 21.902 2. . 2009. . . . . . .1 5. . .0 100.4 16. . .3 4. .9 51. . . .233 12. .7 21. . . .7 5. . .401 2. .3 10.8 3.447 29. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 17. . . .548 14. .838 7. . . . .548 1. . . . . . .7 85. 2007.945 3. . . .678 6. . . . . . .9 11. . . . . . . .599 4. .0 100. . . 2005. . .371 1. . . . . . .3 58.4 80. . . . . . . . .405 20. .137 6. . . . .0 81. . . . .198 11.7 14. . . . 2008.058 30. .S.9 11. . . .9 16. .0 18. . . . . . . . .0 100. .1 3.464 10.6 3. . .285 20.1 3. . .6 BLACK5 Number 2001. . .121 35. . . . . . . . . 100. . . .7 3. . .063 18. 20023 .3 71. . . . .9 3. . .4 4. . Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1999 to 2010—Con . . . .8 50. . . . . . .456 9. . . . . .016 2. . . . .404 1. .3 85. .7 17. . .579 18. 80 Income. . . . . 2004. . . .913 2. . . . .548 36. . . . . . . . . . . .140 10. . . .2 48. . . . . . . . . . . .0 5. . . . . .7 18. . . . . . . . .309 4. . 2004. . . . . .8 5. .963 15. . . .192 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .353 1. . . . . . .211 2. . . . . . . .0 62. . . . . . .626 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .786 31. . .0 100. . .3 18. . .6 11.0 4. . . . .0 100. . .7 84. . . . 2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . .743 27.0 5. . .0 100. . . People as of March of the following year. .077 1. .0 50. .728 10. . . . . . .4 35.6 5. . . . . . .3 52. . . . .610 19. . . 2006. . . . .357 1. . . . .023 35. .067 8. . . .3 22. . . . . . . . . . .238 1. .

.999 1.593 1.0 100.949 9.529 2.094 18. . 2007.317 2. . . . . . . .4 2.557 27. . . . . . .288 6. . Note: All years reflect the implementation of the verification question.0 100. . .265 2. . . . . . .168 41. . . . . . .968 13. . 19993 . . . . . . . . . . .520 7. . . . . . . . .828 19.6 44. .273 3.558 11. . .4 26. .0 83. . . .7 9. . . . 3 The data for 1999 through 2009 were revised to reflect the results of enhancements to the editing process.5 45. .3 22. . . . .2 4.600 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 49. . .0 100. . . . .2 9. . . . .7 32. . .2 32. 2008.1 31. .6 11. . .528 24.578 9. . . .194 12.0 18. . 6 Black alone refers to people who reported Black or African American and did not report any other race. . as well as care provided by the Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs and care provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs and the military. . .754 23. .6 4. . . .5 64. .7 73. . . . . . 2008. . . . . 20023 . . . . . . . . . . . .754 2. . .026 2. ASIAN AND PACIFIC ISLANDER Number 2001.259 25.051 1. . . . . . . . . . . .218 2. . . . . . .648 2.334 16. . . 20002 . . .7 24. . . . . . .0 9.0 69. . . . The reference groups for these years are White. . . . . .9 1. . . . . .910 11. . . .5 21. . . . . . . .174 20. . . . . . .4 16. . 19993 . 2006. . . . . . . . . White alone refers to people who reported White and did not report any other race category. . . . .9 20. . . . . . .332 14. . . . .3 44. . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . .0 100. . . . 19993 . . . . 2006.5 66.664 10. . .066 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 17. .148 100.7 17. . . .census. . . .011 13.0 66. . . . .913 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 2. .2 71.5 63.767 6. . . .277 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219 9. see www. .241 11.8 85.0 100. . .4 2. . . .6 83. . . . . 2001. . . . . sampling error. . . . . . . . .5 62.0 100. . . .3 6. .7 6. .3 20. . . .635 2. 2006. . .9 85. .8 8. . . .5 71. .1 8.3 27. . . .0 20. . . .1 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2007.482 1.610 2. . . . . . . . . . .451 33.3 72.4 4. .382 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 83. . . .175 3. . . . . . . . .052 17. . . . . . . . . . .3 68. . . . . . . . .0 41. . .3 83. is available from the 2010 Census through American FactFinder. . .0 100. . . . . . . . . . .401 1. . 4 The 2003 CPS asked respondents to choose one or more races. . . . . . .6 11. . . . and year ASIAN ALONE7 Number 2010. . . . . . . . 20002 . . .770 2.8 31. . . . .Table C-2. . .001 29. .6 9. . .466 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 100. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U. About 2. . . .239 8. . . .294 8. . .570 10. . . . . . . . . . and Asian and Pacific Islander. .8 1. . .4 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2005. . . . 2003.8 31. . .394 8. .234 17. . . . .0 9. . . . . . . .3 27. . . . . .5 9. . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Asian alone refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race.599 12. . . . . . . .8 7. . . .693 11. . .1 16. . . . . . .7 17. . . . . .6 29. . . . . . .0 100. . .0 2.5 3. . . . .1 5. . .0 71. .0 100.033 10.191 1. . . . .0 100. .0 100. . . . . . . .5 18. .9 1.1 45. . . . . . . . . . . . .207 2.890 1. . White not Hispanic. . . . . . . . . . . .5 16. . . . .7 1. . .0 81. .154 14. . . . 20002 . . . . . 2008. . . . .1 41. . . 2005. .0 100. . .2 9.731 11.461 16. . . .4 22. . . . . . . . . . 5 The 2001 CPS and earlier years asked respondents to report only one race. . .184 1.591 9. . . . . . . . .459 9. . . . . . . . . . . .6 18. . . .9 46. . . . . . 2009. . . . .1 11. . . . . .968 11. . .047 12. . . . . .759 1. . . .2 10. .631 33.448 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 64. . . .184 19. . 20023 . . 2002.6 44.5 9. . . . .933 27. . . . . . . .0 100. . . . .093 34. . . . . . . . . . .6 19. . . . . . .gov/hhes/www/hlthins/data/usernote/index. . The use of this single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. . . . . . . . . .365 9. .854 43. . . . . . . . . .8 4.1 23. . . . . . . .298 8.233 2. . . . . . . .2 19. . . . . .0 48. . . .7 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 7. . .258 1. . .206 1. . . . .528 30. . . .2 69.904 17. . Current Population Survey. . . . . . .540 1. 2003.3 8.9 percent of people reported more than one race in the 2010 Census. . . . . .327 7. . . . . . . . . . 2004. . For information on confidentiality protection. Source: U. . .621 18. .8 1. . . 2008.1 67. . .3 9. . . . . .021 989 898 801 810 869 670 675 707 698 633 554 15. . . .1 17. . . 20002 . . . . . . . . . . 2006. .0 41. . . .9 Total people Total Total 14.0 6. . . . . .5 28. . . 2007. . . . .7 31. . . . . 2004. . Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1999 to 2010—Con . . . . .259 1.189 8. . . . .9 5. .gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. . . . .2 6. . . . . . .5 66. .397 1. . . . . .0 7. . . . . . .0 100. .801 1.541 15. . . . .5 24. . . .461 18.467 10.8 31. . . . . . . . .7 83. . .840 40. . . . . . .799 2.5 2. . . . .2 37.2 2.001 8. . . . . .5 9. . .0 1. . .338 11. .8 22. .115 1. . . . . . . . .068 18.9 46. . . . . .3 30. . . .207 8. .185 1. Census Bureau Income. .8 2. . 2009. . . .5 49. . . .6 10. . .963 11.7 83.000 household sample expansion. . . . .2 68.032 2. . . . . . . .2 18. . . Black. .654 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .9 10. .132 1. . . . .3 58. . . . . . HISPANIC (ANY RACE) Number 2010. . .8 2. . . . . . . .4 25. . . . .0 11. . . . . .773 34.377 8. .170 1. . .442 9.026 44. . . . . . . . . . .7 44.6 59. . . . . .797 19. .5 61. . . 2004. .0 100. .4 6.337 1. . . . . . . . . . .225 11. . . .0 19. .526 1. . . . . .932 8. . . . . . . .708 2.6 4. . .109 13.pdf) Covered by private and/or government health insurance Race. 2001. .645 28.340 15. . .196 1. . . . . . . . . .7 30. . . . . Percent 2010. . .475 1. . .0 100. . . . . . . .0 100. . . . . . . . .2 10. . .731 6. . . . . .4 26.539 9. 2004. . . . .063 982 345 368 292 296 335 353 316 288 260 2. . . .201 1. . . . . .2 69. .9 43. .5 3. . .439 16. . .818 9. .177 1. .0 2.2 4. . .089 1. . . .7 3. . . .302 1.9 4. . . . .0 100. .014 8. . . . . .907 12. . . .1 Total Medicaid Medicare 1 Military health care includes Tricare and CHAMPVA (Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs). . . . . .407 1. . .4 4.869 11.304 1. . . . . . 2005. . . . . . . . . . People as of March of the following year. . . .2 14.8 8. . . Poverty. . . . . . .7 27. . .450 14. . . . . and definitions.6 30. . . . . . . . . . .0 8. . .4 18.1 6. . .485 46. . . . 2009. .043 1. .015 14. . . . . . . .735 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .867 12. . . . . . . .383 2. . .972 48. . .2 68. . . . . . . . . . .2 63. . . . . . . . . . . .3 4. . . . .8 30. .844 2. 2003.147 8. . . .0 8. . . . .2 68.694 11. . . . . . .6 44. . . . .954 19. . . . . .125 11. . .7 72. . . .2 83. . . . . . . .7 40. . .4 4. . . . .3 16. . . . . . . . . . .905 2. .106 7. . . . . . . . .503 3. . . .268 13.2 2. . . .179 1.438 36.326 8. . .193 3. .074 100. .4 70. . . . . . . . .523 12. . . 2005.853 13. . .119 9. 2002. . . . .2 61. . . .6 49. . . 2009.942 8.067 921 893 893 435 451 507 2. . .6 68. . . . . . .8 6.315 13. .0 100. .census. .4 9. . .0 1. . . . .9 7. .3 82. . . . . .2 16. . . . .6 2. . .375 18. Census Bureau.460 13. . . . . .8 20. . . . . . . . .887 2. . . . . . Private health insurance Government health insurance Employment Direct based purchase Military health care1 Not covered 1.6 21. . . . . . . . . . Hispanic origin. . . . . .289 10. . . . . . .1 12. .875 2. . . . .3 26. . . . . . . . .8 31.320 7. . . . 2007. . .0 63. . . . .672 1. . . . . . 2 Implementation of a 28. .5 70. . . . . . . . Percent 2010.523 16.7 69. . . . . . . . . . .html>. . . . . . . . . . .0 41.5 11.183 12. . . . .270 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .317 1.6 2.6 1.9 68. . . such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American. . .049 100. . . . . . . .8 45. . .3 17. . . . . . . . .473 9. . .7 9. .525 1. .2 14. . . . . .8 16. . . . . . . . .252 9. . .834 1.498 14. .3 48. .195 1. . . . . .196 2. . . . . . .0 100. . . See <www. . . . . . . .964 10. . . . .105 38. . .296 2. .4 31. . . . .556 10. . The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. .2 68. . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115 1. . . .901 7. . . . 2000 to 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. .500 12. . . . . .S. . . . (Numbers in thousands.2 41. .S.156 9.115 2. . . . .6 72.1 14. . . . 2003. . nonsampling error. . . .137 11.7 2. . . . .668 9. 19993 . . . . . . . . . . .103 1. . . .6 18. . . . .966 1. . . . . .336 8. . .065 17.5 83. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .041 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .874 1. .668 20. . .886 21. . . .901 47. . . . . . . . . . .131 1. . . . .371 9.9 9. .7 62. . . . . . Information on people who reported more than one race.5 33. . .081 11. . . .5 69. . .208 2. .2 42. . . . . . . .253 3. . .544 19. . .331 31. . . . . . . . .384 37.1 3.7 1. .4 6. . . . . . Percent 2001. . .4 4. .425 39. . . . . . . .854 18. .8 18. . .9 9. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .971 178. . .874 196. . . . . .147 29. . .980 29. .985 73. . . . . . . . . .543 178. . . .163 204. . . . . . .0 100. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 72. . .6 0.943 21. . . . . . . . . . 2002. . . 2001. . . . . .955 10. . . . . . .7 13. . .824 293. . . .4 4. .6 3. .6 0.0 100. . . . . . . . . .873 43. .189 4.904 48. .7 9. . . . . . . . . .580 47. . . . . . . . . . . .040 2. . . . . . . . .9 36. . . . . . 2008. .2 61. .4 86. . . .7 61. . . .5 89.6 71.942 203. . . . . . sampling error. . . . . . .3 34. . . .285 49.277 45. . .386 19. . .1 26. 2009. . 2005.4 85.1 13. .4 89.353 44. . . .1 61.2 10. .3 6. . . . . . .099 7. .989 204.313 7. .336 40.8 22.8 27. .5 67. . 2007. . . . . . 2008. .367 2.291 4.280 285. . . .1 58. . .1 3.9 85. . . . . 20002 . . 2009. . . . . . . . . . .5 13.1 11. . .235 4. . . . . . . . . 2009. .106 296. . . . . . . .2 68. . . . . . . . .7 0. . . . .307 7.580 8. .0 100. Health Insurance Coverage by Age: 1999 to 2010 (Numbers in thousands. . .7 14. .9 6. . . . . . . .214 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 10. . .586 37.3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .359 37. . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . .8 9. .062 27.7 0.5 73. . .5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .571 18. . . . .070 48. . .434 43. . . . . . .799 249.0 100. . . . . . . . . .323 4.8 9. . .1 2. . . .0 100.343 80.083 41. . . 2007. . . . . . . . . . . .8 65. .5 86. . .264 170. . People as of March of the following year. . . . .023 47. . . . . . . . . . . . . .563 179. . . . . .931 14.480 76. . . . 2003.0 100. . . . . . .033 28.461 2. . .432 28. . . . .866 19. .628 72. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .468 16. . nonsampling error. . . . . .332 246. .6 13. . . . . . . . . .403 74.932 239.8 85.580 73. .387 40. . 4 . Poverty. . .7 26. . . . . . . and definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .916 75. . .2 70. . . . 2005. . .330 68.887 44. .9 29. .0 100.376 4.8 30. . .082 279.1 9.8 58. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 13. . . . .164 10. . . . . 19993. . .0 100. .7 0. . .3 3. . . .312 72. . . . 74.870 37. .776 38. .039 48. . . .1 89. .098 28. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 20. . .7 0. . . . .245 87. .924 177.558 63.166 28. . .9 24. .8 5. . . . . . . . . . . .610 250. . .2 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 69.0 100. . .735 7. . . . . . . .398 28. . . . .327 43. . . . . . 2001. . .6 10.8 9. . . .4 3. . .0 29.596 47. .0 13. . .8 9. . .5 13.9 15.466 16.496 1. . .5 9. .6 14. . . . .831 39. . . . . . . .4 73. . .372 48. . 2007. . . .974 21. . . . . .702 255. . . .880 178. . . . . . . . . . .949 39. . . . .7 10. .281 67. .3 13. . 2003. . . .290 50.3 12. . . . . . . . . . . 2005. . . .8 2.326 31. . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . .4 88.6 3. .9 14. . 19993. . . . .754 602 545 623 518 411 534 489 476 514 389 510 384 2. . .059 242. . . . .766 19. . . .8 0.167 39. . . . . .088 2. . .116 72. . . . . . . . . . .7 25. .9 5.1 67. . . . . .6 4.9 3.626 203. .0 100. . . . .984 181. . . .958 20.1 27. . .S. . . .725 17. . .933 65. . . . . .0 100. . . . . . . . . . .3 9. .035 41.3 26. . . . .0 100. 19993. . . .640 44. . . . . . 20002 . . .933 282.182 95. . . . . . . 4 . .9 59.0 69. . . . . . . .003 93. .1 26. . .018 251.7 12. . . . . .8 5. . . . .055 34. .7 70. .2 68.808 26. . . .4 13. .8 3. .067 25.241 2.Table C-3.6 64. . . . .031 41. .8 24. . . .934 30. . . . . .2 4. . .2 66. . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 100.525 65. . .554 50. . .023 36. . . . . .205 203.8 33. . .643 45.414 246. . . . 2002.391 177. .7 89.5 3. . . . . . . . .7 83.101 2. . . . . . .5 2. .283 79. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .543 11.5 24.648 7. .804 256. . . . . .110 304. . . . .454 65.9 13.088 45. .575 202. . . . . . .780 44. . . . . . . . .3 28. . .8 33. .5 3. . . . . . .295 256. . .9 26. . . . . .4 25. . . . . . . . . . . .6 13.014 201. . . . . . . . . .245 202.2 UNDER 18 YEARS Number 2010.526 49.0 30. .1 5. . . . .0 100.500 29. 100. . . . . .161 28. .6 20.9 86.0 100. . .172 Percent 2010.8 66. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166 288. .5 63. . . . . . . .6 89.1 14. . . .9 59. . . . . 2008.602 20. . .0 59. . .0 Direct purchase Total Medicaid See footnotes at end of table. . . . . . .284 38.9 13. 2004 . . . . . . . .137 21.021 169. . . . . . .892 9. . .0 100. . .7 65. . .9 14. . . . . . .0 10.9 10.3 Medicare Military health care1 Not covered 48. . . . .349 66. .264 2. . . . 2009.0 64. .3 84.2 10. . . .636 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 5. .5 10. .1 86. . . . . . . . . .287 28. . 100. 2006. . . . . .3 67. . .445 4.6 60. . . .0 64. . . . . . . .6 13.779 66. .8 3. .8 60. .1 61. . .6 9.6 65. . 2003. . . . .7 13. . . . .537 51. . . . .727 67. . . . . . . .441 4. . .1 64. . . . .0 6.641 5.2 23.401 47. .2 6.3 14. . . .9 10. . .518 49. . . . .337 7.7 29. . . .826 29. . . .893 64. .483 299.7 0. . .7 29.767 64. . . . . . . . . . .505 50. . . .314 72. . .362 179. . . . . . . . . .8 2. . .102 195. . .040 74. . .535 30. . .545 7. . . .411 66. . .7 5. . .2 3. .2 14. . . .3 10. .479 44. .510 74. . . . . . For information on confidentiality protection.847 42. . . . . . . . . . . . .685 38. . .9 62. . . . . . . . . . .881 41. .103 2. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U. . . .8 55. . . . . .0 83. . .285 28.8 2. . . . . . . .0 9. . . . . . . . .280 301. .183 67.834 291. .903 203. .2 10. . . . . . . .census. . . . 306. .757 39.0 100.124 9. 2006. . . . . .385 27. .2 10. .8 3. .7 85. 2002. . 19993. . . . . . . . . . . . . .370 38.3 16.1 16. . . . . . . .862 177.7 5. . . . . . . . . .584 4. 2006. . . .517 276. . . . .0 100. . . . . . . . . 2004.391 14. . . . . . . . . . .0 55. .7 3. . . . . . .787 36. . .808 23. . . . . . . 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . Census Bureau . . . .5 14. . . .4 64. . 4 . .313 4. 2003. . . . . . . . . .8 63. . .5 0.103 Percent 2010. . . .0 100. . . .1 64. . . .3 27. . . . . . . . . .206 255. . . . . . . . . .603 24.191 38.329 22. . .1 85. . . .7 90. . .609 67. .101 73. . . .877 8.414 11.8 89.8 60. . . . . . . .2 90. .377 4. . .990 12. . . . 2005.848 12.086 22. . . .8 13. . . . . . . . .3 14. .4 24. .3 31.762 177.1 27.9 11. .937 8. .565 45. .3 60. . 2007. . . 2001. .7 0. . . . . .0 2.2 13. see www. .269 47. . . . . . . .825 70.322 7. . .2 69. . .098 19. .791 73.3 90. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 100. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001. .752 41. . . . . . . . . . . . .985 44. . .157 244. . . . .1 10. .3 88. 82 Income. . . . .gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. . .3 56. . . . .584 10.0 69. .0 90. . . .991 7. . . . .5 9. . . . . . .6 29.1 71. . . .4 54. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 62. . . .7 15. .656 4. . . .0 100. . . . . . . . . .147 80. . . . . . . . .3 23. . .756 8. . .562 10. . . . . .586 83.513 28. . . . . . .702 31. . .pdf) Covered by private and/or government health insurance Private health insurance Age Government health insurance Total people Total Total Employment based ALL AGES Number 2010.082 49.4 0.0 10. . . . . . . . . .0 100. . . . . . . . 2008. 2006. . . .8 0. 20002 . .414 2. .9 37.051 2. . 2004 .620 45. . . . .142 205.331 17. . . . . . .2 27. . 20002 . . . . 2002.6 11.

584 41.381 2. . .5 65. . . .1 72. . . . 2001.6 9.2 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 100. . .358 17.213 14. .939 2.290 24. . . . . . . .094 3. . . . 2006. . .2 1. . . . . . . .9 61.3 27.0 100. .0 71.1 5.753 4. . . .7 6. . .314 25.3 1. . . 2006.8 23. . . . . . .404 9. . . . . 20002 . . . .670 38. . . . . .0 100. . .1 15. . . . .465 3. . . 2008. . . .815 26. . . .985 8.628 7. . . .8 70.9 58.194 30. . .3 64. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435 3. . . . . .304 2. .104 1. . . . . . . .9 3. . . . . . . . .834 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 50. . . Poverty. . .564 2. .9 9. . . . . . .4 28. . .4 12. .3 61. . . . . . . . . . . .766 24. . . .8 72. . .4 13.173 26. . . . . . . . . . . . .0 53.2 10. .752 4.2 1. .209 1. . . . 2004.1 74. . . . . . . . . . . . .801 26. . .598 26. . . .407 16.3 2. . . . .0 100. .092 1. . .0 2. .573 20. . . .927 13.2 2. .530 10. . .478 2. .8 49. . . . . .0 100. . . . .581 7.434 17.8 64. . .8 3. . . .9 6. . .3 73. . . . . . . . . . . .8 12. . . . . . . .861 26. . . . . . . .556 25. . . . .471 4. . . .4 28. . . Census Bureau Income. .250 2. . . .489 2. .965 28.6 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .720 2. . .4 6. . . . . .9 28. 20002 . .1 3. . . . . . . . . .035 898 868 823 721 872 787 898 768 719 773 788 8. .868 39. . . . . . . .1 25.9 13. . . . . . .3 1.133 30. . . . .219 14. . . .6 6. .7 0.8 6. . .3 16. . . . . . . 2004. . .9 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 15.1 Direct purchase Total Medicaid See footnotes at end of table. . . . . . . . . .285 26. . . . . . . .3 1.5 11. 2009. . .812 7. . 2001. . .364 23.919 19.census.367 30. . . .906 29. .0 100. . . . . . . .7 2. 2008. .142 17. . .663 1. . . .8 11.078 8. . . . 2005. . . . .612 5. . . . .586 257 199 254 180 152 184 202 159 182 177 193 149 1. . . . .5 25.7 0. .6 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 61. .3 1.784 3.9 5. . . .495 2. .9 25. . . . . . .0 72. . .195 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 71. . . . .4 Medicare Military health care1 Not covered 4.396 Percent 2010. . .208 30. 2002. . . . .6 11. .9 6. . . .119 4. . .313 28. . .1 79.9 74. . . .058 989 872 907 834 870 953 11. 2009.480 39. . 2003. .1 2. . . . .6 24. . . . . . .8 73. . .3 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 26. . .465 28. . . . . . . . 19993.149 20.516 25. .007 6. .9 78. .259 3. .987 2. .393 24. . .1 52. . .2 2. .339 27.1 23. . 2009. .732 20.7 0. .462 7.4 51. .5 62. . .670 5. . . . . . . .259 2. . . . . . . .347 2.7 66. . .9 27. . .5 63. . . . . .310 39. . . . .6 10. .9 20. . . . . . .0 100. . . . . .405 27. 19993. . . . . . . . .780 29. . . . . . . . . . . .387 9. . . .0 100. . . . . . . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . .987 10. . .3 6. . . .913 1. .1 13. . .6 71. . . . . . .474 2. . . . .802 9. . .3 8. . .6 3. . .5 3. . 100. .9 3. . . . . . . . .8 6. . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 83 . . . . . . . .884 24. 19993. .0 28. . . .340 2.7 25. . . .9 66. . .145 17. . . . . 2002. . .4 75. . . .1 8. . . . .2 61. . . .438 27. . . .9 0. . . . . .638 7. . . .496 29. . For information on confidentiality protection. . . . .278 7. . . . . . . . . U. . .1 55. . 2002.8 45.312 26.6 2. . .864 1. . .171 2. .6 6.6 11. . . . .0 75. . . . .244 1. .9 6. . . . .1 25 TO 34 YEARS Number 2010. . . .217 13. . . . . . . . . . .055 24. . . .2 2. . . . . . . .695 Percent 2010. . . . .058 13. . . . .8 2.652 17. . . . .5 78. . . .6 14.453 17. . .5 64. . . . . . . . . . .361 4. . . sampling error. .2 69. . . . .752 1.520 40. . . . . . .746 5. .962 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 1. . . . . Health Insurance Coverage by Age: 1999 to 2010—Con . . .6 6. . .5 61. .1 60.990 26. . . . . . . . . . . .555 30. 2007. .0 100. .Table C-3. . .9 60. .5 21. . .0 100.222 6. .201 39. .800 1. . . . . . . . . . . .7 5. .7 10.0 2.099 20.0 61. . . 19993. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . .516 4. .6 0. . .4 63. . . . . . . . . .9 2. . . .9 0. . . . . . . .0 100.6 15. . . .288 2. .8 56. . .8 7. . . .718 17.7 67. . . . . . .7 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 0.0 24. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 62. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . .3 9. . 2005. . .454 3. . . .895 6. .504 14. . . . .249 4. . . . . . . .246 3. . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. 2008. . .2 2. . . .1 2. .949 1.7 6. . . .0 14. . . .008 27. . . . . . . . . . . .0 100. . . . . .9 60. . . . . . .957 1.6 61.5 0. .047 888 1. . .6 73. . . . . . . . . 2004. . . . . . . . 2007. . . . . . . . . . 2001.398 28. .0 0. .3 48. .7 10. .0 62. . . . . . 2007. . . . . . .891 1. . . . . . .824 27. .5 8. . . . . . . . . . .440 2. . . . . . . . .pdf) Covered by private and/or government health insurance Private health insurance Age Government health insurance Total people Total Total Employment based 18 TO 24 YEARS Number 2010.876 20. .760 20. .1 67. . . . . . . . . . . .192 26. .817 7. . . . . . . .2 27. . . . . . . .883 1. . . . . .3 67.987 1. . . .326 21. . . .1 53. . . . . . . . .1 12. .6 73. .7 56.1 68. . . .689 28. 2007. . . . . 2006. . . .371 9. . . . . . . . . . . . .8 0.289 3. . . . . . . .8 13. . . . . . . . .8 18. . . .1 72. . . .010 4. . . . . . . . . . 2006. . . . . . .347 17. . . .763 2. . . . . . 2004. . . .0 100. . . . .688 17.9 76. . . .049 8.0 11. . . . . . .4 26.3 5. . . .198 26. .159 29. . . . . .8 13. .503 17. . . . .3 12. .0 100. . . . . . 2003. . . .2 29. . . 4 . . . .467 20. 29. . . . . . . . . . . . .123 5.1 49.2 6.7 2. .0 6. . .167 3. . . . . 41. . .6 6.8 10.8 5.0 100. . . .221 23. . . 2009. . 4 . .479 17.810 3. . . . . . . and definitions. . . .0 71. . .0 100. . . . .160 20.874 3. . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 1. . . 4 .238 3. . 2005.1 1. . . . . . . . . .9 2.775 3. .031 29. .1 9. . . nonsampling error. . . . . . . . . . .7 5.305 19. . . .540 4. . . . .612 13. . . .2 15. . . . . .433 4. . . . . . .2 26.6 13. .0 100. . . . . . . . . 2001.6 0. . . . 2005.193 2. . . . . . .632 4. .804 11.385 3. . . . .907 1. . . .085 40. . . . . .2 5. . .892 14. . . . 100.9 65.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. . .1 74.651 29. .7 72. . . . . . . . . . . .7 55. . . . . . . . 20002 .5 2. . .0 100.7 0. . . . . .501 24.146 39. . . .3 74. . . . . . . .5 1. . . . .7 26. . . . . . . .9 45.579 5. . . see www.0 6. . . .5 6. . . .7 8. . . .865 39. . . . . . .809 25.679 29. . .1 21. . . . . . . .0 8. . .243 38. . . . .199 4. .5 74. .679 28. . .0 27.251 2. . . . . .0 69. . .909 7. . .938 7. . . . . .9 6. .260 14. . . . . .0 100. .8 65. .252 27.5 3. . . . . . . . . 2003. .325 3. . (Numbers in thousands. . .1 50. . . 20002 .2 76.764 14. . . .574 3. . . . .S. . . . . . . . . . . . 2002.8 10. . . .266 13.438 4. . . . .0 100. . . . . . . . .2 72. . People as of March of the following year. . . .866 3. . . .0 100. . . .832 14. . . . .881 30.564 3. . . .289 610 547 546 502 472 541 501 543 430 473 394 340 1. . . .0 100. .321 3. . . . . . 2008. . . . . . .873 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003. . . .

. . . . . .4 2. . . . . . .705 4. . . 39. .102 3. . .3 7. . . . .0 11. . . . .8 10.2 1. . .762 43. . . . . . .201 29. 2009. .3 74. . . . . . . . . .4 74.2 64.2 3. . . .648 4. . . .170 1.736 3. . . . . .419 4. . . . . .3 3. . .3 71. . . . .7 8. . . . . .0 3.380 1. . . . . .3 12. . .892 1. . . .831 32. . . . . . . . . . . .130 3. . .1 3. . 19993. .058 32. . . .5 77.0 81. . . .gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11. Census Bureau .807 3. . . .751 6. . . . . . . .0 9. . . . . . .6 6. . .443 1.9 69. . .852 29.3 87. 2007. .835 5. 2007.675 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7.3 8.183 3. . .9 79. . . . . .705 4. . . . . . .113 1. . . . . 2003. . . .158 900 934 970 930 806 884 879 921 864 860 816 840 1. . . .7 8. . . . . . . . . . . .109 30. . . . 2003. . .8 10. . . .072 1. . . .545 6. . . . .957 4. . . . . .954 44. . .533 38.664 6. . . .5 85. . .138 1.3 3. . . .867 3.625 3.7 10. .0 100.8 21. . . . . . . . .006 30. . . .7 8. . . . .4 3. . .2 69. . .5 2.0 4.498 7.8 82. . . . .0 18. . .036 2. . .768 34.8 10. .598 33. . . . . . . . .pdf) Covered by private and/or government health insurance Private health insurance Age Government health insurance Total people Total Total Employment based 35 TO 44 YEARS Number 2010. .9 72.600 3.1 2. . . . .132 42.0 3. . . .723 37. . . .5 13. .6 86. .0 17. . . . . . . . . . .390 37.9 9.6 6. . .2 17. . . . .678 29. . . . . . .0 7. . . . . .8 69. . . .9 5.110 5. . . . . . . . . .609 5. . . . .319 1.2 7. .7 21. . . . . . . . . . .7 7. 20002 . . . . . . . .799 1. .9 1. . . . . . . 100. . . . .949 33.679 31. . .1 8. . . .955 33. .0 100. . . . . . . .300 28. . . . .6 11. . . . .231 8. .797 41. . .0 100.017 5.614 2. . .0 100. . .604 2. .5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and definitions. . . .0 100. 43. . . . .7 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .510 34. . .4 10. .035 36. .855 6. . . . . . . .926 3. . .4 80. 4 . . . . . . . . . . .511 37. . .2 81. . . . . .4 66. .6 75. .366 43. . . .019 31. . .835 2. . . 2008. .461 42. . . . .0 100. . . .0 100. . . . . . 100.9 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .971 30. . . . . .2 7. .678 7.9 8.8 72. .0 82. . . . . . . . . . . .6 74. . . . . . . . . . . . .451 5. . . . .371 1. . . . . . . .792 33. . . . . . . . .851 Percent 2010.9 2.1 11. . . .6 81. . 2001. .6 79. . . . . . .8 18. . . . . . 2002.351 35. . .7 17. . . . . . . . .0 100. . . . . . . . . .138 29.1 11. .098 1. .935 43. .3 82. . . . . . .053 29. . . .741 1. . .676 7. . . . . sampling error. . . . . . . . . . 2009. . . . . . . . . .7 8. .695 32. . . . . . . .379 6. . . . . . .3 12. .662 32. .7 7. . . 20002 .350 3. .357 32. . .1 4. .5 11. . .9 3. . .794 1. .149 31. .573 44. . . . . .720 37.2 7. . . . . .7 87. . . . .0 100. . .0 100.627 32. . .190 2. . . .3 4. . . . . .969 30.1 13. . . . . . .7 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2005.762 30. . 2006.2 79.426 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . Poverty. . .1 72. . . . . . . . . . . . .430 33. . . 2005.011 1.969 4. . . . . .3 Direct purchase Total Medicaid See footnotes at end of table. . . .3 2. . . . . . . .032 1.103 31. . .735 1.4 13. . . .570 3. 2001. . . . . . .230 30. . .426 28. . .780 36. . . . . . . .097 1.4 4.7 4. . . . . .4 76. . . .8 3.903 27. .9 13. . . . . .7 15.895 36. . . . . . . 2002. . . .769 29.418 32.8 10. . . . . . . . . 2003. .4 67.164 29. .074 3. . . . . . .206 4.733 2. . . .6 5. . . . 2002.6 2. . . . .1 82. .9 75. . . . . . .6 7. . .8 85.046 5. .961 41.3 8. .6 Medicare Military health care1 Not covered 3. . . . . .0 100. .0 100. . . . 19993.469 3.6 2. .3 3. . . .911 2. .829 35. . . . . . . 2007. . .5 2. . . . . . . .census. . . . .559 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 74.3 2. . .492 2.959 31. .322 42. . . . . . . . .607 3. . . . . . . . . . .768 2. . . . . nonsampling error. . 20002 .836 3. .0 75.365 33.9 88. . . .0 100.581 1. . .8 1.312 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 100. . . . . . . .553 1.449 3. . . . . . . . .8 6. 2009. . .566 3. . . . . .4 69. . . .984 3. . . .384 5.1 45 TO 54 YEARS Number 2010.777 4. . . . . . 84 Income.0 100. .284 44.2 77.6 2. . .5 14.474 31. . .2 68. .234 39. . .5 70. . .373 3. .545 38. 2001. . . .563 1. . . . .0 100. .2 4.209 32. .5 14. . .575 1. . . . .5 6. 2005.5 69. . . . . . . . . .972 5. . . . . . .083 36.1 4. . . . . .981 30. . . . .6 82. . . .4 2. . . .101 37. . . . . .4 5. 2007.190 30. .9 7. . . . . 4 . . . . . . .8 8. . .2 13.0 7. . .096 1. . . . . . . . .264 2. . . .166 5. . . . .170 2. . . . . . . .0 82. . . . . . .351 43. . . . .290 4. . . . . . . .620 3. .860 1. . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . .573 26. . .466 6. .0 4. . . . For information on confidentiality protection.0 100. . . .534 33. . . . . . . . . . . .7 9. .338 1. .7 4. . . .9 3. . .5 4.387 44. . .8 3. . .7 5.9 88.601 35.7 17.7 9. . .7 6. .919 7. . . 2004. . . . . . . . . . . .519 3.2 2. . . . .692 8. . . 2008. . . .5 82. . . . . .8 3. . .7 12.0 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .016 1. . .420 1.072 4. . . . . . . . .0 78.S. . . .1 2. . . .9 2. . . . . . . . 2008. . . .422 4.447 41.618 35.574 2. 2003. . . . . .0 2. . 19993. . . .068 40. . . .365 1.8 78. .9 75. . . .172 1. . . . . . .3 85.6 76.2 14. . . . .121 43. . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . .4 83. . . . 2006. . .587 3. . . . .3 15.1 85.3 2. . . . . . . . .5 74. . . . . . .2 7. . . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 U. . . .7 74.0 100. .202 8. . . . . . . . .0 100. .122 1. . . . . .125 1. . . .2 7.110 3. . . .1 6. . .9 86. .9 14. . . . . .298 1. .4 8. . . .566 44. .7 84.336 33. . . . . 2009. . . . 2004. . . . . . .434 32. .7 14. . . . . . . . . . . .210 31.3 82. . . . . . . . . . . . .619 34. . . . 4 . . .156 1. . .842 40. . . .709 3. .986 35. . . .9 7. . . . . . . . . . 2001. . . . . .827 2. . . . . . . .688 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .853 34.173 1. . . .5 85.595 Percent 2010. .432 33. . .989 3. . .5 77. People as of March of the following year. . . 2005. . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . .9 78. . .8 8. . 2008. . .393 1. . . .4 71. . . .334 36. . . . . .7 73. . 20002 . 19993.078 3. . . .7 72. .832 28.579 3. . . . . . .3 84. . .351 1. . . . .901 1. .5 69. .8 79. . . . . . .5 18. . . . . .993 30. .645 3. . . . . .0 100. . . . . .967 1. .571 12. . . . . Health Insurance Coverage by Age: 1999 to 2010—Con . . . .8 8. . .590 1. . . . see www. . .857 3. .380 6. .6 16. .0 67. . . . .7 3.6 2. . .9 2. .0 76.9 7. .0 1.2 9.244 4. .131 34.0 100. .1 2. .0 73. . . . . . . . .502 30. .8 70. . 2002. .074 44. . . . . . . 2006. . . . . . . . . . .9 4. . . 2004. .0 100.172 2.5 2. . .3 3. . . . . . .103 4. .643 7. .2 6. . . (Numbers in thousands. . . .513 7.285 1. . . . . .3 10. . . . . . . . .127 2. . . . . .9 9. . . . . . .812 7. . . . 4 . . . . . . . . .2 12. .Table C-3. .7 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .693 37. . . . .777 7. 2004. . . . .288 7. . .175 3. . . .237 25. .2 65. . .123 3.084 3. . . . . . .5 71. . .478 35. . .9 17. . 2006.

. . . . . . . . .252 2. . .993 3. . . . . .0 19.6 96. .223 13. . . . . . . .009 3.041 3. . . . .340 2.971 11. . . . .409 33.5 9.0 5. .0 100.7 8. . . . . . . . . . . .9 9. .1 28.5 5.314 6. . . . . .859 33. .769 33. . . . . . . .2 1. . . .387 37. . . . .4 12. . . . . 19993. .0 100. 2001. . . .9 88.377 38. . . . . . . . .6 6. .213 2. .7 1. . . . . . . . . . . .145 20. . . . . . . .190 2. 2006. . . . .489 1. . .7 1. . . . . .5 9.0 100. .1 11. . . . . . . . .2 20. . . . . . .1 93.8 2. . .697 4. . . . . . .839 25. .6 86.3 7. .179 2. . . 19993.8 12. . . . 2008. . . .0 100. .186 1.0 100. . 39. . . .4 8.264 31. . .367 3. .587 3.604 2. .702 11. .0 75.2 93.7 31.0 11. . . . . . . .161 36. .4 93. .723 2.470 21. . . 2002. . . . . .3 7. . . . . . . . . . .0 6. . . .496 3. . . . .3 36.9 96.4 96. . . . . . . .823 2.0 100. .973 22. . 2008. . . . . . . . .659 34. . . 2009.981 29. . 2004.1 Direct purchase Total Medicaid 1 Military health care includes Tricare and CHAMPVA (Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs). . . . . .5 11. . . . . . . .357 32. .349 4. . . .832 12. . . . . . . 19993. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285 26.2 6.5 7.984 35. .0 7. . . . .1 11. . . . .536 28.0 9. . .254 3. . . . . . . . .6 9. . .7 36. . . .629 36. . U. . . . . .6 9. .7 6. . . . . . . . .143 3. . .2 5. . . . . . . . . .702 25. . . . . . . .2 12.2 10.4 36. . . . .0 67. . . . . .501 23. . . . . . . . . . . . .115 21.8 62.039 2. . . . .gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar11.census. . . .6 93. .498 1.6 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .018 12. .292 3.932 2. . .9 76. . .5 8.971 17.179 38. .2 8. . 2003. .4 6. . . .0 100. . . . . .3 5. . . . . . .9 57. . . .4 76. . .805 11. . .0 100. . .339 3. .9 98.2 78. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1.224 19. 2 Implementation of a 28.5 98. . . . . . . . . . .922 3. . . . Health Insurance Coverage by Age: 1999 to 2010—Con . . . . . People as of March of the following year. .0 16. .3 20. . . . .9 58. . . .0 1. . . . . . . . .632 21.gov/hhes/www/hlthins/data/usernote/index. . . . . . . 2005. . . . . . . . . . 2006. . .0 19. . . . . 2001.5 7. . .6 6. .668 22. . . .083 24. . .933 10. . . .084 10. .410 21.457 36.402 32.9 78. . .5 93. . . . .3 78. . . . .4 28. . . . . . . . . .9 5.770 1. . . . . .550 Percent 2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .486 3. . . . . .0 35. . .609 2. . . . . .114 2. .099 35. . . . . . . . . .5 65. . . .191 30. . See <www. . . . . . . . .707 22. .613 36. . 2005.885 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .672 23. . . . . .698 18. . . . . .6 62. . . . . . . . .2 8. . .533 1. . . . . . .0 98.3 95. . . . . . . . . . . . .304 34. .2 98. .Table C-3. . . . . . 20002 . . . . . . . . . .267 10. . . . .9 77. . . . . 2006.249 2.7 94. . . . . .9 8.293 22. . .079 1. .847 1. . . . . . . 2008.1 95. .853 3. . . . . .7 68. . . . . . . . . . . . . Poverty. .4 69. .676 2.652 10. . .652 3. .2 96.1 30. .pdf) Covered by private and/or government health insurance Private health insurance Age Government health insurance Total people Total Total Employment based 55 TO 64 YEARS Number 2010. .104 20. . . . . .9 99. . . . . . . . .388 33.0 62. . .188 3.613 37.8 98. .017 22. .0 68.062 20. . . 2006. 100. . . .261 32. . . . 2002. .8 61. . . . . . .637 21. . .675 6. . .916 2.8 61.360 2. . .253 35.728 13. .006 13. . . .6 65 YEARS AND OLDER Number 2010. .6 88. . . . . . . .7 31. . . . . .721 10. . . . . 20002 . .7 9.0 100. 2004. . . . .802 33. . .201 2. .0 100.6 4.464 11. . . . . . .0 6.7 88.3 96. . .277 24. . . . . . . . .258 12.505 35.753 34. . . . . . .530 22. . . . .251 2. . . . . . . . . . .0 100. . . . Source: U. . .8 93. . . . . .449 28. . . .2 69. 4 .9 8. . .3 14. . . . . . . . . .5 7. . . .0 95. . . . . . .290 2. . . .209 34.375 27. 2009. . .9 69. . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . .602 4. . .535 33. . . . 2001. .395 34.3 73. . .7 8. . .507 35.761 4. . .6 87. .105 3. Census Bureau Income. . .0 100. . . . . . .094 10. . .4 60. . 2005.2 10. . .945 21. . .2 5.0 1. .1 1. .8 88. 2003. . . 3 The data for 1999 through 2009 were revised to reflect the results of enhancements to the editing process. . . . . . . .234 33. . . .688 2. . .4 4. . . . . .384 3. . . . . . . . . . .000 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182 3. .187 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 58. . .434 2.census. . .8 95. . . .0 100. . .382 10. . .241 33. . .S. 19993. . .566 33.743 25. . . .0 6.1 26. . .3 98. . 20002 .7 20. .278 33. 20002 . . . . . . . . .899 3.373 22.351 2. . .0 34. .3 3. 2003.4 61. . 2007. . . .798 21. .4 9.0 98.707 2.080 34. .456 1. . .6 8. . . . . .812 21. . . . . . . .029 2. . . . . . . .6 32. . . . . .8 95. . . . . .S. . . . . . . . .7 9. sampling error. . . .3 7.381 2. . . .804 20.8 7. .0 100. . .981 31. . . . .488 2. . .8 16. .398 3. . . . . . . . . .7 11. . 4 . . . .249 9.312 4.4 87. . . . . .368 3. . . . 2002.826 23. .1 76.2 4.296 18. . . . . . . . . .4 30.240 19. . . . . . . .979 33. . . 2009.413 10. . . . and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 85 . .6 7. .788 36. . . . . . . . .8 67. . . Census Bureau.893 5. 2007.8 93. . 2007. 2000 to 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. . . .101 29. . . . . . .0 100. . . .292 27. .0 100. . . .638 30. .108 9. . .5 69.603 3. .9 5. .399 25. . 4 Estimates reflect the results of follow-up verification questions and implementation of Census 2000-based population controls.971 37. . . .035 35. .2 11.360 3.5 68. .1 61.7 98.558 36. . .1 8. . . .2 78. 2009. . . . .6 12. . . .7 36. . . .360 22. . .7 35. . . . . . .0 85. .0 100.8 9. . . . . . . . . 2001. . . . .232 33. . . . . .315 3. . .3 1. .643 10.3 11.265 3. . .493 3. . . . .484 1. .533 32.8 6.846 23. . .481 2. . . . For information on confidentiality protection. . . .465 33.9 88. . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 98. . . . . .942 21. . . . . . .462 20. . . . 36. . .023 2. . .8 27.485 3. . . . . . . .0 100.0 100.7 12.672 30.110 3. .8 98. . . . . .097 21. . . . . .954 Percent 2010. . .0 19. . . . . . . .6 29. . .0 100. . .1 8. . . .4 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Medicare Military health care1 Not covered 3. . . 2008. . 2002. . . .6 11.434 34. .1 88. .0 100. . . . . . .4 11. . . .933 6. . . . .402 3. . . .3 98. . . .547 3. . . . . . . . .3 59. . . . (Numbers in thousands. . . . . . .1 34. . .302 32.6 27. . . . .677 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152 1. . . . . . . . . . . .4 95. .4 88. . . . . . . .6 7.925 3. . . . . . . . . .860 2. 100. . .9 93. . as well as care provided by the Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs and care provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs and the military. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 72. . . . . . .5 93. .0 75. . .0 11. . . .5 64.059 2. .2 95. . .121 5. .289 33. .5 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 1.608 32. .853 33. . . . .727 33. . 2004.173 1. . . 2005. . . . .953 2. . . .4 88. . . . . and definitions. .1 16. . .635 13. . . .036 1. .9 9.455 1. . . . . . . .3 4. . . .696 3. . . . . . . .9 34. .176 25. . . . . . . . . .7 16.9 10. . . . . . . . . .874 24. .031 5.2 1. . . . . .011 7.509 7. . .1 7. . . . . . . .0 35. . . . .952 17. . . 4 .0 28. . 2003.273 792 643 627 674 528 424 457 418 381 360 334 360 28. . Current Population Survey. . . . . . .790 36. . . . . . see www. . . . . .116 35. .8 95. . . . .0 94.914 1. . . . . . . . . .5 8.717 32. . . . .177 26. . . . . . .html>. 4 . . .5 8. .451 1. . . . . . .3 68. . . .5 11. . . . .2 9. Note: All years reflect the implementation of the verification question. . 2007.3 9. . . nonsampling error. . . .600 3. . . .9 11. .433 3.0 100. . . . .757 4.1 13.8 17. . . .586 21. .372 3. . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .000 household sample expansion. . . . . . 2004.5 33. . . .

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Davern et al. (2006) found that the CPS ASEC GVF standard errors performed poorly against more precise Survey Design-Based (SDB) estimates. The Census Bureau will continue to provide the GVF parameters in the source and accuracy statement. VA. Robert E.APPENDIX D.” presented at the 2011 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America. U. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010 87 . and Peter Graven. the Census Bureau released replicate weights for the 2005 through 2009 CPS ASEC collection years and has released replicate weights for 2010 and 2011 with the release of the CPS ASEC public use data. Under this approach. In most cases. Fay. “Aspects of Survey and ModelBased Postcensal Estimation of Income and Poverty Characteristics for States and Counties. “Alternative Variance Estimates in the Current Population Survey and the American Community Survey. No. Replicate weight estimates performed markedly better against SDB standard errors than those calculated using the published GVF parameters. REPLICATE WEIGHTS Beginning in this report. the variance of CPS ASEC estimates used to calculate the standard errors and confidence intervals displayed in the text tables were calculated using the Successive Difference Replication (SDR) method documented by Fay and Train (1995). 2006. Michael. the standard errors of CPS ASEC estimates were calculated using a Generalized Variance Function (GVF) approach. pp. However. 3. In previous years. generalized variance parameters were used in formulas provided in the source and accuracy (S&A) statement to estimate standard errors.” Inquiry.’s results indicated that the published GVF parameters significantly underestimated standard errors in the 1 In order to facilitate historical comparisons. pp. 283–297. 43. Gestur Davidson. Since the published GVF parameters generally underestimated standard errors. Vol. 154–159. Boudreaux.” Proceedings of the Section on Government Statistics. Michel. Alexandria. Income. the increase in standard errors from GVF to SDR will not alter the findings. Davern. James Lepkowski. Davern. The SDR method has been used to estimate variances in the American Community Survey since its inception. Arthur Jones. For most CPS ASEC estimates. This and other critiques prompted the Census Bureau to transition from using the GVF method of estimating standard errors to using the SDR method of estimating standard errors for the CPS ASEC. Blewett. A study by Davern et al. American Statistical Association. Census Bureau CPS ASEC. 1995. marginally significant differences using the GVF may not be significant using replicate weights. 1 This method involves the computation of a set of replicate weights which account for the complex survey design of the CPS. Michael Davern. and George F. Train.S. and Graven (2011) compared replicate weight standard error estimates with SDB estimates. and Lynn A. the appendix tables display standard errors calculated using the Generalized Variance Function since replicate weights are not available for CPS ASEC collection years prior to 2005. References: Boudreaux. standard errors produced using SDR may be higher than in previous reports. “Unstable Inferences? An Examination of Complex Survey Sample Design Adjustments Using the Current Population Survey for Health Services Research. Poverty. In 2009. Following the 2009 release of CPS ASEC replicate weights.

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