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The processes of runoff, wind, or snow melt caused eroded and transported soil particle on the surface of watershed. Eroded and transported the sediment particles through a river system and then deposited in the reservoirs, lakes or sea. The engineers and geologists used many approaches to determination the erosion rate of watershed rely mainly on empirical approach or field survey. During the 1997 19th Congress of the International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD), the Sedimentation Committee (Basson, 2002) passed a resolution encouraging all member countries to 1-Develop methods for the prediction of the surface erosion rate based on rainfall and soil properties. 2-Develop computer models for the simulation and prediction of reservoir sedimentation processes. Yang et al. (1998) outlined the methods that can be used to meet the goals of the ICOLD resolution. This report describes methods for erosion estimation based on unit stream power and minimum unit stream power theories, and methods for estimation of sediment inflow and distribution in the reservoir, based on empirical and computer model simulation.
2- Empirical Approach for Erosion Estimation.
The erosion processes by water, wind, ice and gravity produce sediment. The total amount of this sediment in watershed is known as the gross erosion. However this material distributed some of them enters the stream system some of material is deposited as alluvial fans and another transported
through the stream system and enter to reservoir. The amount of this sediment on the sediment yield produced by the upstream watershed and this depends on factors as follows (Strand and Pemberton, 1982):
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Rainfall amount and intensity. Soil type and geologic formation. Ground cover. Land use. Topography.
6. Upland erosion rate, drainage network density, slope, shape, size, and
alignment of channels.
Runoff. Sediment characteristics-grain size, mineralogy, etc. Channel hydraulic characteristics. The empirical approaches for predict of erosion rate based on one of the following methods.
1. 2. 3.
Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) or its modified versions. Sediment yield as a function of drainage area. Sediment yield as a function of drainage characteristics. This approaches developed by using data collected and application of these equation should be limited to areas represented the same area which collected data.
(1) (Wischmeier and Smith.5 for slope equal to or greater than 5 percent to 0.Slope-steepness factor. The rainfall factor (R) depends on intensity.41 sin2 Ѳ + 4.7) for highly erodible loams and silt loams less than (0. 1965). Equation (2) expresses graphically as shown in fig.6)m (65.Angles of slope.065) …………………(2) Where: λ . L . The ability of soil to give soil is called soil-erodiblity (K) it depend on type of soil range between (0. 3 . duration. The slope length factor (L) is increased the quantity of runoff and the slope steepness factor (S) increased the velocity of runoff the effects of slope length and steepness usually working together can be expressed into one single factor (LS) which can be computed by.An exponent with value ranging from 0.Soil-erodibility factor.Actual slope length in feet. 1965. (Wischmeier and Smith 1965).56 sin Ѳ + 0. P . C .2 for slope equal to or less than 1 percent.2. m .1. LS = (λ/72. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is: A = RKLSCP ………………………………………………………… (1) Where: A . 1962.Cropping-management factor.Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE).Erosion-control practice factor. and frequency for rainfall. Ѳ . S . 1978) based on statistical analyses of field data from 47 regions.1) for sandy and gravelly soil with high infiltration rate.Rainfall factor.Slope-length factor. K .Computed soil loss in (tons/acre/year). R . This equation proposed by (Wischmeier and Smith.
4 . the ratio of soil loss with given practice to soil loss with straight row farming parallel to the slope is called erosion. The amount of erosion may be reduced by conservation practices such as contouring. as shown in table (1). Environmental Protection Agency and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil Conservation Service). The rainstorm distribution for season in different location influences the amount of erosion over the course of year.(1) Topographic-effect graph used to determine LS-factor values for different slope steepness slope length combinations (Wischmcicr and Stnith. Table(2) provides some suggested values of (P) based on recommendations of the U.Fig.control (P). strip-cropping and terracing.S. 1965). The cropping management factor (C) various with the crop type and with the stage of crop growth.
Table (1) Relative erodibilities of several crops for different crop sequences and yield levels at various stages of crop growth (Wischmeier and Smith. 1965) Table (2) Suggested P values for the erosion-control factor 5 .
To compute the rainfall-runoff erosivity (R) factor in the (USLE) and RUSLE is made by use of the (El30) parameter.Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). C. including twice monthly distributions of (El30) (product of kinetic energy of rainfall and 30-minute precipitation intensity) (Renard et al.2. The factor (C) represent continous function such as surface cover (SC).. 6 . flat areas. or low areas. 1996). or erosion and deposition between upland and the reservoir. crop canopy (CC). The factor (P) has been expanded to include conditions for rangelands. (1994) proposed the revision of the all factors in (USLE) equation (1) so that called (RUSLE). strip-cropping. Renard et al. gully.. and terracing. and P) are accounted for by the use of climatic data. In the estimation of sediment inflow to a reservoir. contouring. the effects of rill.The equation (1) estimated average value of soil loss amount for typical year and this may be more or less than the average rate this different in result due to many factors affect on soil and does not account for sediment detention due to vegetation. where (E) is the total storm energy and (I30) is the maximum 30-minute rainfall intensity for the storm. seasonal variations in (K. should also be considered. The factor (R) has been expanded and corrections made to account for rainfall on ponded water. also slope length and steepness factors (LS) have revised to determine for the relation between rill and interrill erosion. Additionally. Added correction to (K) were made for rock fragments in the soil profile and made time varying. The average (El30) is used to establish the isoerodent maps for the (R) factor. 2. surface roughness and soil moisture. However significant changes to the algorithms used to calculate the factors. and riverbank erosion and other sources.
. An adjustment factor (Rc) is used to account for the protection from raindrops as a result of ponded water: …………......05 im)] .........72(e-0..………………………………..0........… (6) Where: y ..... kem = 0....29[1 ........ The kinetic energy of an entire storm is multiplied by the maximum 30-minute rainfall intensity I30 for that storm to get the El30.... However.... used in calculating (E) is used in (RUSLE).. 7 ...kinetic energy (ft ton acre-1 in-1) i = rainfall intensity (in h-1).(5) Where kem= kinetic energy of rainfall (MJ ha-1 mm-1 of rainfall) im = rainfall intensity (mm h-1) Should be used for all calculations (R) factor....depth of flow or ponded water. it is recommended by Renard et al.....The kinetic energy of rainfall calculating by empirical relationship............ (1996) in the RUSLE handbook that the equation determined by Brown and Foster (1987)... ………(3) ………(4) Where ke ...
8 .Eli . and Rw= percentage by weight of rock fragments > 2 mm.El. all this effect on correction factor (K). hydraulic conductivity.3o index at any time (calendar days). therefore. the seasonal effects such as freezing. soil texture and soil water also effect on (K) factor. soil structure. The rock fragment decrease the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil which is leading to increase of the soil erosion. An average annual value of (KR) is estimated from: …………………………………………(8) Where:. while the value of the soil erodibility factor will tend to decrease over the length of the growing season in areas that are not prone to freezing periods.The present of rock fragments in the soil surface may be reduction in erosion because this rocks act as armoring layer also present it in the soil matricx effect on infiltration rates and hydraulic conductivity. The rate of reduction in saturated hydraulic conductivity resulting from the presence of rock fragments is given by: ………………………………………………(7) Where: Kb . are accounted for with the KR factor.saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil with rock fragments. Kf = saturated hydraulic conductivity of the fine fraction of soil. soil strength and aggregate stability. The occurrence of many freeze thaw cycles will tend to increase the (K) factor. The melt of soil freezing increase the soil erodibility (K) factor because the freeze changing many soil properties such as bulk density.
(9) Where Ki = soil erodibility factor at any time (ti in calendar days).……(10) Where λ . The value of (β) when the soil is moderately susceptible to rill and interrill erosion is given by: …………………………….(12) Where θ .length of the frost-free period or growing period.ratio of rill to interrill erosion.……………………………………. 72.maximum soil erodibility factor at time tmax. Δt . The parameter (m) in the RUSLE is a function of (β) (Equation 11).RUSLE plot length in feet. The newly defined (L) factor is combined with the original (S) factor to obtain a new (LSR) factor. Values of (m) are in classes of low moderate. Kmax .6 .6 gives an example of the new (LSR) factor values for soils with low rill erosion rates. ………………………………………………………(11) Where β .horizontal projection of the slope length. Kmin. Table 2. The slope length factor L is derived from plot data that indicate the following relation: ………………………………………………….minimum soil erodibility factor at time tmin..slope angle. and tables are available in the RUSLE handbook for each of these classes to obtain values for (LSR). 9 .. and high.
Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation.PR) must be calculated using the (RUSL. 10 . ……………………………………………………. al. 1996) The all factors affect on soil loss erosion so the (USLE) becomes.CR. 2.(13) And the all factor (KR..06b program). Williams (1975) impose with no runoff yield no sediment with a little or no rainfall and estimate the quantity with a single runoff event.3.Table (3) values of the topographic (LSR) factor for slopes with a low ratio of rill to interrill erosion( Renard et. He replaced rainfall erosivity (R) with a runoff factor than the modified (USLE) is given or (MUSLE) is given by the fallowing (Williams 1975). 1.
..Total event runoff volume (ft').... However it may be possible to extend short-term measurements by empirical correlation with records from another stream gauge in the watershed have the similar drainage characteristics... The (MUSLE) can estimate soil loss from a single event.. pp= event peak discharge (ft3 s-1)......... A power equation of the form. neither it nor the (USLE and RUSLE) can estimate detachment.....4........ (14) Where S ... 2....... But the long-term measurements of river discharge... and P = USLE parameters (Equation 1)... and redistribution of sediment within the watershed and are of limited application. Q .Sediment yield for a single event in tons...... .. suspended load and bed load are not commonly available.... K.... LS. A short-term record of suspended sediment concentrations can be extended by correlation with streamflow. C.(15) 11 ....Direct Measurement of Sediment Yield and Extension of Measured Data. The best method for determining the amount of soil erosion from watershed is by direct measurement of sediment deposition in reservoirs (Blanton 1982) or by directed measurement for suspended load concentration and bed load in the stream flow.... the direct measurement needs long time records are available... C = aQb ………………………………………………………………. entrainment..... transport.. deposition.....
.This equation is most commonly used for regression analysis... where (C) is the sediment concentration.. Q is the rate of stream flow. .... seasons......... from low flows to high flows.sediment yield in ac-ft/mi2/yr Ad .............. and from year to year.. For obtain a good result enough measurements of suspended sediment concentration and stream flow are necessary to ensure that the regression equation is applicable over a wide range of stream flow conditions.. Table (4) bedload ratio to suspended load 12 ..... Strand and Pemberton (1982) presented guide for estimating the ratio of the bedload to suspended load (table 4) show that..... This same approach can be used to develop equations for other regions. New Mexico........ If the bedload measurements are not available.. The relationship between stream flow and suspended sediment concentration can change with grain size...drainage area in mi2. and (a . Strand (1975) developed sediment yield equations as a function of drainage area based on sediment survey data for Arizona....... b) are regression coefficients. and years. from season to season... (16) Where Qs............. and California..............
material transported. The energy is dissipated by matieral transport and related with the rate of Govers and Rauws (1986) proposed the relation describe the relationship between stream power and many variables related with sediment movement.velocity V.reach length.time. (18) Figure (2) showed relationship between unit stream power and sediment concentration.Physically Based Approach for Erosion Estimates. Unit stream power = Where t. Y .potential energy per unit weight of water. The rate of the energy dissipation per unit weight of water is. …………………………………………………………. dY/dt . Yang's (1973) original unit stream power equation was intended for open channel flows.. …………………… (17) x .3. For sheet and rill flows with very shallow depth. The energy dissipation in equilibrium dynamic system is minimum value which is depends on the variables and condition of the system. Moore and Burch found that the critical unit stream power required at incipient motion can be approximated by a constant: ……………………………………………………(19) 13 .energy or water surface slope S. dx/dt . His dimensionless critical unit stream power required at incipient motion may not be directly applicable to sheet and rill flows.
(Wischmeier and 14 .Computer Model Simulation of Surface Erosion Process.Fig.Empirically based erosion models such as the USLE Smith.-2.Relationship between sheet and rill flow sediment concentration unit stream power Govers and Rauws (1986) The Yang(1973) unit stream power equation is a rational method based on rainfall-runoff and unit stream power relationship can developed to replace the empirical (USLE).. . These models can be grouped into several categories. because this theory can be used to determine the rate of sediment transport in small and large rivers and it is possible use to determine the total rate of sediment yield and transported from watershed from compute the amount the sediment entering a reservoirs. Many computer models have been constructed to simulate soil erosion within watershed area. 1978) and the RUSLE (Renard et al. 1996). 4.
2002). and Systkme Hydrologique Europken Sediment model (SHESED) (Wicks and Bathurst. The most important parameters for process-based models are rainfall parameters (e. 1989).g. 1980)....GIS and Remote Sensing techniques that utilize one of the previously listed erosion models (Jiirgens and Fander.. hydraulic conductivity). but a little difference between them at predicting total sediment yield (Hong and Mostaghimi 1997). Additionally. Sharma and Singh. intensity) and infiltration parameters (e.Poor quality input data can lead to large errors in erosion modeling. Ogden and Julien. 2002)..Mixed empirical and physically based models. and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems (CREAMS) (Kinsel. Runoff..Physically based models. 2002). and Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrological Analysis model (GSSHA) (Downer. 1995. 1990). but it needs a lot of the parameters and that not advisable to use a model in watershed area that does not have the requisite data. Chemicals. 15 .Point Source Pollution model (AGNPS) (Young et al. 1993. such as the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) (Nearing et al.g. Although the physically based models give a good result .. such as Cascade of Planes in Two Dimensions (CASC2D) (Johnson et al. Areal Non-point Source Watershed Environmental Response Simulation (ANSWERS) (Beasley et al.. European Soil Erosion Model (EUROSEM) (Morgan et al. Two dimensional models give more accurate result than one dimensional models. Agricultural Non. 1980).. . 1998). 1989). duration. Mitasova et al. 2000. . 1996). soil erosion models are built upon the framework of hydrologic models that simulate the rainfall-runoff process. Kinematic runoff and Erosion model (KINEROS) (Woolhiser et al..
1993). use (GSTARS 2. 16 .1.Generalized Sediment Transport Model for Alluvial River Simulation (GSTARS). Fig. For describe and evaluate the performance of these models can be return to the reference (Erosion and sedimentation manual)..Any error that exists in the hydrologic model will be propagated with the error from the soil erosion model. This model based on stream tube theory conjunction with the theory of minimum energy dissipation rate or its simplified theory of minimum of stream power.1) to (GSTARS 3.1) model (Yang and Simones. To simulate and predict the dynamic adjustment of channel and profile in semi-three dimensional manner. 1974) in laboratory flume. 2002) is an enhanced version of (GSTARS 2. computer models are needed for the simulation of the process and the estimation of the surface erosion rate. However the error introduced from the simulated runoff is generally much less than the error from the simulation of erosion (Wu et al. Due to the complexity of the surface erosion process. Fig. 4. (4) show example compare model result with the observed delta formation (Swamee. Also (Yang and Simoes.(3) show example to simulate and predict geometry profile and compare with measured data. These links below can be found many other soil erosion models. 2000).0) for simulate and predict the sedimentation processes in lakes and reservoirs.
2000). 17 .Fig.-3. Fig.Comparison of results produced by GSTARS 2.1 and survey data ( Yang and Simoes.Comparison of experiments with results produced by GSTARS 3.-4.0 ( Yang and Simoes. 2000).
-5. 2001). lakes and wetlands in watershed as a sink for sediments. 18 . For all cases considering that the reservoirs.0) and (GSTARS 2.0) for Tarabela Reservoir in Pakistan ( Yang and Simoes.1) enable us to simulate and predict the profile of river system with all the processes that occurs within the system.Also fig.0 for the Tarbela Reservoir in Pakistan (Yang and Simoes. 2001).Comparison between measured and simulated bed profiles by GSTARS3. (GSTARS 3. Fig.(5) show the bed profile measured and predict by (GSTARS 3.
Further the input data include Input data include meteorologic. (1983) and the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) by Johanson et al.1 and GSTARS 3. rill and gully erosion rate of a watershed can be computed. (1984). The surface erosion effect on the soil environment also reduces the agricultural productivity of watershed.Rainfall-Runoff Relationship. These models are Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) by Leavesley et al.1 and GSTARS 3. snow. The schematic diagram of (PRMS) model shown in the fig. The outputs are runoff hydrographs.0). including maximum discharge.0) and calibrated (GSTARS-W) to simulate and predict the surface erosion as well as river morphologic processes and deposition in reservoirs and lakes. Once the surface run-off given a sheet. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other agencies used integrated models to evaluate the impact on total maximum daily load of 19 .2. 4. Surface run-off is very complexity phenomenon to determine should be known characteristic rainfall and watershed.3. The United Nation Atomic energy Agency has organized 5-year international effort to determine the surface erosion. flow volume. The output result can used to input information for sediment routing model such as (GSTARS 2. and watershed descriptions. These models are based on the same approach for determination of erosion. many computer models existing to simulate this phenomenon and some of them also have certain abilities to simulate sheet erosion rates of watershed. hydrologic. Using radio isotopes as tracers collect data from different region by used GIS and other technology to test the (GSTARS 2. and flow duration.(6).GSTAR-W Model.4. sediment transport and deposition in watershed.
Fig. 1993).sediment (TMPL) of sediment due to change of land use or other human activities. Sediment TMDL study and decision making flowchart. -7-.Flowchart of the PRMS model (Leavesley ct al. Fig. (7) Show schematic of this.. -6. Fig. 20 .
Reservoir Sediment Trap Efficiency.Reservoir Sedimentation.4. So the reservoir as considered trap for the sediment and the efficiency is the ratio of the deposited sediment to the total sediment inflow. It has been observed that the unit stream power (vs/w) is the most important parameter to determination the rate of erosion. 21 . Then the useful life of the reservoir might become very short. sediment characteristic and velocity in the reservoir (Strand and Pemberton.Erosion Index Map. The surface erosion is a big problem so that it is necessary locating index maps to identify areas of erosion that occur and take remedial measures. Therefore should be reducing reservoir sedimentation. must be pointed out the important points in determining the potential for reservoir sedimentation.4. It depends on many factors depend primarily upon the fall velocity. From this construct the index map thus we can put a preliminary estimation also may be modified this index with green cover data (Gvs/w) by green cover factor and this it range between 0 for paved surfaces and 1 for surfaces with no ground cover. 5. There are several methods available for reducing it. Almost all sediment collected from watershed deposited within the reservoirs. Also reservoir characteristic and operation system are affecting on the trap efficiency. All reservoir formed by dams on natural rivers. due to this the velocity become very low so that the reservoir make as a trap for to deposition of sediment in it this sediment is effect on the reservoir life.1. These methods depend on the condition of the reservoir. 1982). 5.
. semi-dry reservoirs. This is used as an index the reservoir sediment trap efficiency. normally full. 4.The reservoir storage capacity (at the normal pool elevation) relative to the mean annual volume of river flow. 3. frequently drawn down. provides a good comparison of the Brune and Churchill methods for computing trap efficiencies using techniques developed by Murthy (1980). 2. Burne method use as a general guide line for large storage or normal ponded reservoirs and Churchill curve for settling basin.g. small reservoirs. Churchill (1948) developed dimensionless curve shows the relationship between the percent of incoming sediment passing through the reservoir and sediment index.The purposes for which the dam and reservoir are to be constructed and how the reservoir will be operated (e.(8). When the expected sediment accumulative greater than (10%) of the reservoir capacity then should be analyzed the trap efficiency for the additional periods of the reservoir life. 6.1. flood retarding structures.The average and maximum width of the reservoir relative to the average and maximum width of the upstream river channel. Also in (1952) Brune proposed an empirical relationship for estimating reservoir trap efficiency these shown in fig.The concentration of contaminants and heavy metals being supplied from the upstream watershed. or normally empty).The reservoir storage capacity relative to the mean annual sediment load of the inflowing rivers.The average and maximum depth of the reservoir relative to the average and maximum depth of the upstream river channel. 22 . 5.
1982). to determine loss of storage due to sediment in any assigned storage space. and the distribution of the sediment within the reservoir all must be considered in the design of the dam.Trap efficiency curves (Churchill. The mean annual sediment inflow. and Burne. However.(9) shows the effect of sediment on storage capacity of reservoirs. the ultimate density of the deposited sediment.Fig. 23 . 1948. Fig. 1952) The estimated sediment inflow to reservoirs is very important to expect the reservoir life (Strand and Pemberton. the total sediment deposition is used for design purposes to set the sediment elevation at the dam. 1982).-8. the trap efficiency of the reservoir. and to help determine total storage requirements. To prevent the loss in the reservoir storage capacity should be added the anticipated sediment deposition volume during the life in the design (Strand and Pemberton. A 100-year period of economic analysis and sediment accumulation was used for those reservoirs.
the new sediment deposits will change the density of the old sediment deposits. 1987). The density of sediment deposited in the reservoirs affected by.Fig.Schematic diagram of anticipated sediment deposition (Bureau of Reclamation. The influence of reservoir operation is one of the most important factors because affect directly on the consolidation or drying out that can occur in the clay fraction of sediments deposited. -9. 24 . The density of the sediment deposit in reservoirs measured in dry mass per unit volume is used to converted the total sediment enter in reservoir from mass to volume. Compact or consolidation rate of deposited sediment.2. 23- Sediment size deposited. 1- The way of reservoirs operation. 5. Reservoirs operating with a constant stage yields the same degree of consolidate.Density of Deposited Sediment.
1982).S. 1987) used data of (11) Great Plains reservoir in united state that may be used as a guide in estimating the portion of total sediment deposition within the reservoir.3.Sediment Distribution within a Reservoir. 1987) 25 .S. Fig. Burea reclamation.5. -10-Sediment distribution from reservoir surveys of Lake Mead (Bureau of Reclamation. In (1978) (U. Department of Agriculture) used data for different reservoirs to develop empirical relationships for predicting sediment distribution in reservoirs (Strand and Pemberton. Fig (10 and 11) is the most common techniques for sediment distribution (U.
The shape of reservoir regard the major criterion for development of empirically derive designs curve for use in distributing sediment. • Shape of the reservoir. This method described by Borland and Miller (1960) with revisions by Lara (1962). Shown in fig.(12).Empirical Area-Reduction method may be used to estimate the sediment distribution. 1987). the method develop from data of (30) reservoirs. • The amount of sediment. • Sediment size and shape. 1.-11.Fig. • The manner of reservoir operation. Weight type distribution is select from table (5) in these cases where chose of two 26 . With equal weight applied to reservoir operation and shape.Sediment deposition profiles of several reservoirs (Bureau of Reclamation. In this method sediment distribution depends on.
located on the salt river in Arizona this method used to 27 . Table (5) Design type curve selection 2. The appropriate design type curve is selected using the weighting procedure shown in table (5). silt and sand therefore the effect of size to be least important Lara (1962) provides the detail on distributing sediment in reservoirs. Studies have shown that a reservoir dose change type with sediment depositions.The are increment method is suitable to the type (II) design curve and based on the assumption that the area of sediment deposition remain constant (Strand and Pemberton 1982) applied this method on Theodore Roosevelt dam. However it possible that a change in reservoir operation could produce a new weighted type as defined in the same table. Only for those cases with two possible type distributions should be chose one size distribution but the materials in most river systems is a mixture of clay. Once a reservoir has been assigned a type by shape this classification will not change.types are given depend on the factor is more influential.
(12) and then cause rising of the backwater elevation in the river (upstream from reservoir) cause more deposit in the upstream due to decrease of flow velocity this phenomenon called delta. 5. The delta 28 . The method based on the size of the sediment deposit in the delta is greater than (0.(12) Typical sediment deposition profile (Bureau of Reclamation.predict the amount of sediment deposit in the future estimate the life of reservoir and distribution of sediment. (Stand and Pemberton 1982) proposed trail and error method empirical procedure. 1987) To predicting the delta within a reservoirs is complex problem because of more variables are affect such as operation of reservoir.062mm).4.Delta Deposits. trial and error method used the topographic data and volume computations by average end-area method is used to arrived at final delta location. The flow velocity in the reservoirs decreases closer to the dam due to the backwater flow so that the coarse material deposit away from the dam and fine material near the dam as shown in fig. Fig. size of sediment and hydraulics characteristic of river and reservoir.
x – Distance.5.Time.Minimum Unit Stream Power and Minimum Stream Power Method.Potential energy per unit weight of water. 5.(20) Where. He supposes that the system is closed and energy dissipated under dynamic equilibrium. 29 . Yang (1976) applied the theory on fluvial system also Yang (1976) and Yang and Song (1986) derive the theory of minimum energy dissipation rate from basic principle in fluid mechanic and mathematic then called on it minimum energy dissipation rate. This value (VS) depends on system condition. Y . These theories have been applied to solve a wide range of fluvial hydraulic problems. ………………………………….formation can also be determined from computer modeling. VS . V .Average flow velocity. S – Slope. t . Yang (1971) presented the theory of minimum unit stream power. due to developed computer technique modeling in the recent decades.Unit stream power.
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