History Of Pakistan

BACKGROUND TO PARTITION
The concept of a separate Muslim "nation" or "people," qaum, is inherent in Islam, but this concept bears no resemblance to a territorial entity. The proposal for a Muslim state in India was first enunciated in 1930 by the poet-philosopher Muhammad Iqbal, who suggested that the four northwestern provinces (Sindh, Balochistan, Punjab, and the North-West Frontier Province) should be joined in such a state. In a 1933 pamphlet Choudhary Rahmat Ali, a Cambridge student, coined the name Pakstan (later Pakistan), on behalf of those Muslims living in Punjab, Afghan (North-West Frontier Province), Kashmir, Sind, and Balochistan. Alternatively the name was said to mean "Land of the Pure." (H.R.T.)

Birth of the new state.
Pakistan came into existence as a dominion within the Commonwealth in August 1947, with Jinnah as governor-general and Liaquat Ali Khan as prime minister. With West and East Pakistan separated by more than 1,000 miles of Indian territory and with the major portion of the wealth and resources of the British heritage passing to India, Pakistan's survival seemed to hang in the balance. Of all the well-organized provinces of British India, only the comparatively backward areas of Sindh, Balochistan, and the North-West Frontier came to Pakistan intact. The Punjab and Bengal were divided, and Kashmir became disputed territory. Economically, the situation seemed almost hopeless; the new frontier cut off Pakistani raw materials from the Indian factories, disrupting industry, commerce, and agriculture. The partition and the movement of refugees were accompanied by terrible massacres for which both communities were responsible. India remained openly unfriendly; its economic superiority expressed itself in a virtual blockade. The dispute over Kashmir brought the two countries to the verge of war; and India's command of the headworks controlling the water supplies to Pakistan's eastern canal colonies gave it an additional economic weapon. The resulting friction, by obstructing the process of sharing the assets inherited from the British raj (according to plans previously agreed), further handicapped Pakistan. (L.F.R.W.)

Document Written by, Raza Ullah Khan 1/14/2006 4:06:06 PM

Orissa. where. thus. Sikhs had been equally fierce in opposing the British raj. which proposed a three-tier federation for India. Cripps was responsible primarily for drafting the ingenious Cabinet Mission Plan. Group B. and the Central Provinces (virtually all of what became independent India a year later). and within each group the princely states were to be integrated into their neighbouring provinces. The subcontinent was to be divided into three major groups of provinces: Group A. The group governments were to be virtually autonomous in everything but matters reserved to the union centre. Since World War I. to contain the Muslim-majority provinces of the Punjab. in the "kingdom" once ruled by Ranjit Singh (1780-1839). Local provincial governments were to have the choice of opting out of the group in which they found themselves should a majority of their populace vote to do so. the distribution of the principal. communications. as the league won all 30 seats reserved for Muslims in the Central Legislative Assembly and most of the reserved provincial seats as well. and only those finances required to care for such unionwide matters.THE TRANSFER OF POWER AND THE BIRTH OF TWO NATIONS British India in 1947. to include the Hindumajority provinces of the Bombay Presidency. the North-West Frontier. Raza Ullah Khan 1/14/2006 4:06:06 PM . and Baluchistan (the areas out of which the western part of Pakistan was created). and Group C. Sind. of transferring British power to a single Indian administration. The Congress was successful in gathering most of the general electorate seats. Madras. defense. which would be limited to handling foreign affairs. and. Elections held in the winter of 1945-46 proved how effective Jinnah's single-plank strategy for his Muslim League had been. but it could no longer effectively insist that it spoke for the entire population of British India. integrated by a minimal central-union government in Delhi. and much of the Sikh community had become anti-Muslim since the start of the Mughal emperors' persecution of their gurus in the 17th century. though never more than 2 percent of India's Document Written by. most Sikhs lived. to include the Muslim-majority Bengal (a portion of which became the eastern part of Pakistan and in 1971 the country of Bangladesh) and the Hindu-majority Assam. Secretary of State Pethick-Lawrence personally led a three-man Cabinet deputation to New Delhi with the hope of resolving the Congress-Muslim League deadlock and. for Punjab as a whole would have belonged to Group B. Bihar. In 1946. Punjab's large and powerful Sikh population would have been placed in a particularly difficult and anomalous position. Sikhs played so important a role in the British Indian Army that many of their leaders hoped that the British would reward them at the war's end with special assistance in carving out their own nation from the rich heart of Punjab's fertile canal-colony lands. showing major administrative divisions. the United Provinces.

Lord Mountbatten (1900-79) was sent to replace Wavell as viceroy in March 1947. Jinnah read Nehru's remarks as a "complete repudiation" of the plan. Vallabhbhai Patel (1875-1950). frenzy. where he conferred with the leaders of all parties and with his own officials. Thus began India's bloodiest year of civil war since the mutiny nearly a century earlier. alternately called "Sikhistan" or "Khalistan" ("Land of the Sikhs" or "Land of the Pure"). A Sikh Akali Dal ("Party of Immortals"). as all civilized restraint seemed to disappear. which withdrew its previous agreement to the federation scheme and instead called upon the "Muslim Nation" to launch "direct action" in midAugust 1946. himself mortally afflicted with tuberculosis and lung cancer. saw a dawn of hope for India's future prospects. Gandhi alone refused to reconcile himself to partition and urged Mountbatten to offer Jinnah the premiership of a united India rather than a separate Muslim nation. the most important leader of this vigorous Sikh political movement. but that soon proved false when Nehru announced at his first press conference as the reelected president of the Congress that no constituent assembly could be "bound" by any prearranged constitutional formula. therefore. By March 1946.population. however. rather than risk further political negotiations while civil war raged and a new mutiny of Indian troops seemed imminent. Jinnah then convened the league's Working Committee. Among the major Indian leaders. Shortly after reaching Delhi. The early summer of 1946. Fearing a forced evacuation of British troops still stationed in India. Document Written by. which was started in 1920. Tara Singh (1885-1967). which had to be accepted in its entirety in order to work. Raza Ullah Khan 1/14/2006 4:06:06 PM . had no time or energy to focus on Sikh separatist demands and found the Muslim League's demand for Pakistan equally impossible to accept. led militant marches to liberate gurdwaras ("doorways to the Guru". and fear to every corner of the subcontinent. Singh demanded a Sikh nation-state. one that would divide Punjab and Bengal virtually in half. as Britain prepared to transfer its power over India to some "responsible" hands by no later than June 1948. as did Congress leaders. As a pragmatist. the Sikh places of worship) from corrupt Hindu managers. Lord Mountbatten resolved to opt for partition. however. would not agree to that. Mountbatten decided that the situation was too dangerous to wait even that brief period. The Cabinet Mission. The Hindu-Muslim rioting and killing that started in Calcutta sent deadly sparks of fury. Jinnah. nor would his most powerful Congress deputy. accepted the Cabinet Mission's proposal. they had as highly disproportionate a number of nationalist "martyrs" as of army officers. as both had become tired of arguing with Jinnah and were eager to get on with the job of running an independent government of India. Nehru. first raised the demand for a separate Azad ("Free") Punjab in 1942.

1947. two boundary commissions worked desperately to partition Punjab and Bengal in such a way as to leave a majority of Muslims to the west of the former's new boundary and to the east of the latter's. no fewer than 10 million Hindus. within 13 months of independence. which had been integrated in countless ways for more than a century. some 1 million people were slaughtered in communal massacres that made all previous conflicts of the sort known to recent history pale by comparison. and dividing within a single month the assets of the world's largest empire. Raza Ullah Khan 1/14/2006 4:06:06 PM . 1415. Tara Singh later asked. the new capital. They had supported Jinnah in his struggle against the Congress not so much because they desired an Islamic state but because they had come to regard the Congress as synonymous with Hindu domination. but as soon as the new borders were known. Muslims." suffered the highest percentage of casualties. Liaquat Ali Khan. But he was Document Written by. In the course of that tragic exodus of innocents. elected at the end of 1945. the framework within which their forefathers had ruled India. "The Muslims got their Pakistan. Himself a moderate (he had entered politics via a landlord party). caught in the middle of Punjab's new "line. Sikhs. he subscribed to the parliamentary. and the Hindus got their Hindustan. and these people were said to wish to establish Pakistan as a theocracy (a term they repudiated). Racing the deadline. For historical coverage since 1947 of the partitioned areas in the northwest and the northeast. They had various degrees of personal commitment to Islam. and Sikhs fled from their homes on one side of the newly demarcated borders to what they thought would be "shelter" on the other. Jinnah's lieutenant. Most Sikhs finally settled in India's muchdiminished border state of Punjab.) ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF PAKISTAN Mohammed Ali Jinnah died in September 1948. But there were also groups that subscribed to Islam as a total way of life. assembled at Karachi. see the articles PAKISTAN and BANGLADESH. The members of the old Constituent Assembly. inherited the task of drafting a constitution. ordering the demarcation of the dominions of India and Pakistan by midnight of Aug. The leaders of the new Pakistan were mainly lawyers with a strong commitment to parliamentary government.Britain's Parliament passed in July 1947 the Indian Independence Act. To some it represented an ethic that might (or might not) be the basis of personal behaviour within a modern. but what did the Sikhs get?" (The following section discusses the history since 1947 of those areas of the subcontinent that became the Republic of India. democratic state. democratic. To others it represented a tradition. secular state.

nonbelievers who were denied certain rights and saddled with certain additional obligations. whereas most of his colleagues and potential rivals drew support from their own people in Punjab or Bengal. He was a muhajir ("refugee") from the United Provinces. Document Written by. Islamic states had traditionally distinguished between the Muslims. He issued a resolution on the aims and objectives of the constitution. the ulama). the Indian heartland. and dhimmis. Raza Ullah Khan 1/14/2006 4:06:06 PM . "Sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to Allah Almighty alone" and went on to emphasize Islamic values. which began. as full citizens. Liaquat Ali Khan therefore deemed it necessary to gain the support of the religious spokesmen (the mullahs or.conscious that he possessed no local or regional power base. Hindu members of the old Constituent Assembly protested. more properly.

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