1. What is the Low temperature Tank?

1.CONTAINMENT TYPE PER BS 7777 Part 1 Section 3 A double tank Definitions
Type of Tank Definitions Only theSingle tank inner is required to meet Containment the low temperature ductility requirements for storage of the product. The carbon steel outer tank is primarily for the retention and protection of insulation and to constrain the vapor purge gas pressure, but is not designed to contain refrigerated liquid in the event of leakage from the inner tank. Both theDoubletank inner and outer tank are Containment capable of independently containing LNG. To minimize the pool of escaping liquid, the PC outer wall is located at a distance not exceeding 6 meters from the carbon steel outer tank.

The inner tank contains the refrigerated liquid under normal operating conditions. The outer tank or wall is intended to contain the refrigerated liquid product leakage from the inner tank, but it is not intended to contain any vapor resulting from product leakage from the the Fig. shown Refer to inner tank. in the next sheet.

designed and constructed so that Full Containment both the inner tank and outer tank are capable of independently containing refrigerated liquid stored. The outer tank or wall should be 1 meter to meters distant from the inner tank. The inner tank contains the refrigerated liquid under normal operating conditions. The outer tank is intended to be capable both of containing LNG and controlled venting of the vapor resulting from product leakage after a credible event.

1.CONTAINMENT TYPE PER BS 7777 Part 1 Section 3 Definitions
Type of Tank Normal Operating Condition Single Containment
VAPOR

Double Containment
WEATHER COVER VAPOR

Full Containment

VAPOR

REFRIGERATED LIQUID

REFRIGERATED LIQUID

REFRIGERATED LIQUID

In the Event of Leakage from the Inner Tank
VAPOR LEAKAGE VAPOR LEAKAG E LEAKAG E VAPOR VAPOR VAPOR

REFRIGERATED LIQUID BUND WALL

REFRIGERATED LIQUID

REFRIGERATED LIQUID

Single Containment - 1

1.PROGRESSION OF BUND WALL & CONTAINMENT TYPE
Single Containment - 2

Single Containment - 3
BUND WALL

BUND WALL BUND WALL

METAL OUTER TANK (ABLE TO CONTAIN LIQUID)

Providing the taller bund wall to reduce area required. Double Full Containment Containment
WEATHER COVER METAL BUND WALL (ABLE TO CONTAIN LIQUID)

Providing the bund wall integrated with the tank

PC OUTER WALL

RC ROOF

Providing the tallest bund wall at closest point to the tank.

WEATHER COVER PC WALL

RC WALL & EARTH EMBANKMENT

WEATHER COVER

RC WALL & EARTH EMBANKMENT

1.EXAMPLES - SINGLE CONTAINMENT TANKS PER BS 7777
Figure
EXTERNAL WEATHER BARRIER EXTERNAL INSULATION ROOF OUTER TANK LOOSE FILL INSULATION OUTER TANK LOOSE FILL INSULATION SUSPENDED DECK w/INSULATION

BUND WALL

INNER TANK

BUND WALL

INNER TANK INNER TANK

BUND WALL

INNER TANK

BASE INSULATION

BASE INSULATION

BASE INSULATION

ELEVATED SLAB FOUNDATION OR

ELEVATED SLAB FOUNDATION OR

ELEVATED SLAB FOUNDATION OR

RAFT FOUNDATION WITH BOTTOM HEATER RAFT FOUNDATION WITH BOTTOM HEATER RAFT FOUNDATION WITH BOTTOM HEATER

: METALLIC PARTS : THERMAL INSULATION : CONCRETE

Applicatio n to LNG Storage

Not appropriate. The BOG rate will be extremely high.

Appropriate.

Appropriate.
See Fig.-1.1 & 1.2 for Typical Configuration of LNG Storage Tank.

1.EXAMPLES - DOUBLE CONTAINMENT TANKS PER BS 7777
Figure
EXTERNAL WEATHER BARRIER EXTERNAL INSULATION ROOF WEATHER COVER INNER TANK OUTER TANK LOOSE FILL INSULATION OUTER TANK LOOSE FILL INSULATION

SUSPENDED DECK w/INSULATION SUSPENDED DECK w/INSULATION WEATHER WEATHER COVER COVER

INNER TANK

INNER TANK

BASE INSULATION RAFT FOUNDATION WITH BOTTOM HEATER METAL OUTER TANK SHELL

BASE INSULATION RAFT FOUNDATION WITH BOTTOM HEATER PC OUTER TANK WALL

BASE INSULATION RAFT FOUNDATION WITH BOTTOM HEATER RC OUTER TANK WALL WITH EARTH EMBANKMENT

: METALLIC PARTS : THERMAL INSULATION : CONCRETE

Applicatio n to LNG Storage

Not appropriate. The BOG rate will be extremely high.

Appropriate.
See Fig.-2.1 for Typical Configuration of LNG Storage Tank.

Appropriate.
See Fig.-2.2 for Typical Configuration for LNG Storage Tank.

1.EXAMPLES - FULL CONTAINMENT TANKS PER BS 7777
Figure
METAL OUTER TANK (ABLE TO CONTAIN LIQUID) OUTER WALL (ABLE TO CONTAIN LIQUID) PC LOOSE FILL INSULATION OR EMPTY SUSPENDED DECK w/INSULATION LOOSE FILL INSULATION OR EMPTY SUSPENDED DECK w/INSULATION RC OUTER WALL w/EMBANKMENT (ABLE TO CONTAIN LIQUID) LOOSE FILL INSULATION OR EMPTY SUSPENDED DECK w/INSULATION

INNER TANK

INNER TANK

INNER TANK

BASE INSULATION RAFT FOUNDATION WITH BOTTOM HEATER INSULATION ON INSIDE OF OUTER TANK

BASE INSULATION RAFT FOUNDATION WITH BOTTOM HEATER INSULATION ON INSIDE OF OUTER WALL Instead of t his wall insulation, secondary bottom and corner protection made of 9% Ni steel are provided in the latest design.

BASE INSULATION RAFT FOUNDATION WITH BOTTOM HEATER INSULATION ON INSIDE OF OUTER WALL

: METALLIC PARTS : THERMAL INSULATION : CONCRETE

Applicatio n to LNG Storage

Appropriate.

Appropriate.
See Fig.-3.1, 3.2 & 3.3 for Typical Configuration of LNG Storage Tank.

Appropriate.

1.EXAMPLES - TYPE NOT DEFINED IN BS 7777
ABOVE GROUND - MEMBRANE TANK Figure
METAL OR PC OUTER ROOF SUSPENDED DECK w/INSULATION PC WALL

IN GROUND - MEMBRANE TANK
DOME ROOF OR SUSPENDED DECK w/INSULATION

PC OUTER WALL TANK

PC METAL ROOF WALL w/HEATING SYSTEM OUTER WALL (ABLE TO CONTAIN LIQUID) PC LOOSE FILL INSULATION METAL DOME ROOF

SS MEMBRANE

SS MEMBRANE

INNER TANK

ELEVATED OR RAFT FOUNDATION WITH BOTTOM HEATER INSULATION

BASE INSULATION FOUNDATION WITH BOTTOM HEATER INSULATION RAFT FOUNDATION WITH BOTTOM HEATER INSULATION ON INSIDE OF OUTER WALL (PUF) Note: The outer tank metal dome is not intended to to be capable of controlled venting of the vapor resulting from product leakage after a credible event.

See Fig.- 4.1 & 4.2 for Typical Configuration of LNG Storage Tank. : METALLIC PARTS : THERMAL INSULATION : CONCRETE

Applicatio n to LNG Storage

Appropriate.

Appropriate.

Appropriate.

1.FIG. OF EACH CONTAINMENT TYPE
Single Containment Single Metal Tank Double Containment Metal Outer Wall Full Containment Double Metal Tank Others Above Ground - Membrane Tank

Double Metal Tank Dome Roof Inner Tank

PC Outer Wall

PC Outer Wall Tank

In Ground - Membrane Tank

INNER TANK

Double Metal Tank w/Suspended Deck

RC Outer Wall + Earth Embankment

RC Outer Wall + Earth Embankment

PC Outer wall Tank in Japan

INNER TANK

1.FIG. OF EACH CONTAINMENT TYPE
Single Single Containment Containment Single Metal Tank Double Containment Metal Outer Wall Full Containment Double Metal Tank Others Above Ground - Membrane Tank

Double Metal Tank Dome Roof Inner Tank

PC Outer Wall

PC Outer Wall Tank

In Ground - Membrane Tank

INNER TANK

Double Metal Tank w/Suspended Deck

RC Outer Wall + Earth Embankment

RC Outer Wall + Earth Embankment

PC Outer wall Tank in Japan

Fig. - 1 : SINGLE CONTAINMENT - DOUBLE METAL TANK - TYPICAL
CRANE / HOIST FOR IN TANK PUMP ROOF WALKWA Y VENT FOR DOME SPACE PUMP COLUMN HEAD MAIN PLATFORM DECK INSULATION PRESSURE & VACUUM RELIEF VALVES

PERIFERAL ROOF WALKWAY

CS ROOF & STRUCTURE DECK VENT SUSPENDED DECK

RESILIENT BLANKET INNER LADDER RISER PIPES & SUPPORTS COOL DOWN PIPING 9% Ni INNER TANK WALL ESCAPE LADDER

CS OUTER WALL

ANNULAR SPACE INSULATION STAIRCASE PUMP COLUMN

DRYING & PURGING LINE

BUND WALL IN TANK PUMP & FOOT VALVE 9% Ni INNER TANK BOTTOM

BOTTOM HEATING SYSTEM

INNER TANK FOUNDATION RING BOTTOM INSULATION

RC SLAB FOUNDATION

Fig. - 1.2 : SINGLE CONTAINMENT - DOUBLE METAL TANKFOUNDATION CONCRETE SLAB BOTTOM CORNER - TYPICAL CS OUTER TANK WALL
RESILIENT BLANKET

9% Ni INNER TANK WALL ANNULAR SPACE INSULATION (PERLITE)

9% Ni INNER TANK BOTTOM

ANCHOR STRAP

INNER TANK FOUNDATION RING CS OUTER TANK BOTTOM BOTTOM HEATING SYSTEM FIBERGLASS BLANKET

G.L.

RC SLAB FOUNDATION

CELLULAR GLASS

SAND OR CONCRETE LEVELING LAYER

1.FIG. OF EACH CONTAINMENT TYPE
Single Containment Single Metal Tank Double Double Containment Containment Metal Outer Wall Full Containment Double Metal Tank Others Above Ground - Membrane Tank

Double Metal Tank Dome Roof Inner Tank

PC Outer Wall

PC Outer Wall Tank

In Ground - Membrane Tank

INNER TANK

Double Metal Tank w/Suspended Deck

RC Outer Wall + Earth Embankment

RC Outer Wall + Earth Embankment

PC Outer wall Tank in Japan

Fig. - 2.1 : DOUBLE CONTAINMENT - PC OUTER WALL TYPICAL
CRANE / HOIST FOR IN TANK PUMP ROOF WALKWA Y VENT FOR DOME SPACE PUMP COLUMN HEAD MAIN PLATFORM DECK INSULATION PRESSURE & VACUUM RELIEF VALVES

PERIFERAL ROOF WALKWAY

CS ROOF & STRUCTURE DECK VENT SUSPENDED DECK CS WEATHER COVER

RESILIENT BLANKET INNER LADDER RISER PIPES & SUPPORTS COOL DOWN PIPING 9% Ni INNER TANK WALL ESCAPE LADDER

CS OUTER WALL

ANNULAR SPACE INSULATION STAIRCASE PUMP COLUMN PC OUTER WALL DRYING & PURGING LINE

IN TANK PUMP & FOOT VALVE 9% Ni INNER TANK BOTTOM

BOTTOM HEATING SYSTEM

INNER TANK FOUNDATION RING BOTTOM INSULATION

RC SLAB FOUNDATION

1.FIG. OF EACH CONTAINMENT TYPE
Single Containment Single Metal Tank Double Double Containment Containment Metal Outer Wall Full Containment Double Metal Tank Others Above Ground - Membrane Tank

Double Metal Tank Dome Roof Inner Tank

PC Outer Wall

PC Outer Wall Tank

In Ground - Membrane Tank

INNER TANK

Double Metal Tank w/Suspended Deck

RC Outer Wall + Earth Embankment

RC Outer Wall + Earth Embankment

PC Outer wall Tank in Japan

Fig. - 2.2 : DOUBLE CONTAINMENT - RC OUTER WALL + EARTH EMBANKMENT - TYPICAL
CRANE / HOIST FOR IN TANK PUMP ROOF WALKWA Y VENT FOR DOME SPACE PUMP COLUMN HEAD MAIN PLATFORM DECK INSULATION PRESSURE & VACUUM RELIEF VALVES

PERIFERAL ROOF WALKWAY

CS ROOF & STRUCTURE PIPE BRIDGE DECK VENT SUSPENDED DECK CS WEATHER COVER

RESILIENT BLANKET INNER LADDER

COOL DOWN PIPING

9% Ni INNER TANK WALL

CS OUTER WALL

ANNULAR SPACE INSULATION

PUMP COLUMN EARTH EMBANKMENT RC WALL DRYING & PURGING LINE

IN TANK PUMP & FOOT VALVE 9% Ni INNER TANK BOTTOM

BOTTOM HEATING SYSTEM

INNER TANK FOUNDATION RING BOTTOM INSULATION

RC SLAB FOUNDATION

1.FIG. OF EACH CONTAINMENT TYPE
Single Containment Single Metal Tank Double Containment Metal Outer Wall Full Full Containment Containment Double Metal Tank Others Above Ground - Membrane Tank

Double Metal Tank Dome Roof Inner Tank

PC Outer Wall

PC Outer Wall Tank

In Ground - Membrane Tank

INNER TANK

Double Metal Tank w/Suspended Deck

RC Outer Wall + Earth Embankment

RC Outer Wall + Earth Embankment

PC Outer wall Tank in Japan

Fig. - 3.1 : FULL CONTAINMENT - PC OUTER WALL TYPICAL
CRANE / HOIST FOR IN TANK PUMP ROOF WALKWA Y VENT FOR DOME SPACE PUMP COLUMN HEAD MAIN PLATFORM DECK INSULATION RC ROOF PRESSURE & VACUUM RELIEF VALVES

PERIFERAL ROOF WALKWAY

CS ROOF LINER & STRUCTURE DECK VENT SUSPENDED DECK

RESILIENT BLANKET INNER LADDER RISER PIPES & SUPPORTS COOL DOWN PIPING 9% Ni INNER TANK WALL ESCAPE LADDER

CS WALL VAPOR BARRIER

PC OUTER WALL

ANNULAR SPACE INSULATION STAIRCASE PUMP COLUMN 9% Ni CORNER PROTECTION DRYING & PURGING LINE

IN TANK PUMP & FOOT VALVE 9% Ni INNER TANK BOTTOM

9% Ni SECONDARY BOTTOM BOTTOM HEATING SYSTEM

CS BOTTOM VAPOR BARRIER INNER TANK FOUNDATION RING BOTTOM INSULATION RC SLAB FOUNDATION

Fig. - 3.2 : FULL CONTAINMENT - PC OUTER WALL - BOTTOM CONCRETE SLAB FOUNDATION CORNER&-TENDON TYPICAL PC DUCT CS WALL VAPOR BARRIER
VERTICAL PC OUTER WALL RESILIENT BLANKET PC DUCT & TENDON HORIZONTAL

9% Ni INNER TANK WALL 9% Ni CORNER PROTECTION 9% Ni INNER TANK BOTTOM ANNULAR SPACE INSULATION (PERLITE) INNER TANK FOUNDATION RING 9% Ni SECONDARY BOTTOM

CELLULAR GLASS

FIBERGLASS BLANKET

BOTTOM HEATING SYSTEM

G.L.

FIBERGLASS BLANKET RC SLAB FOUNDATION CELLULAR GLASS SAND OR CONCRETE LEVELING LAYER

Fig. - 3.3 : FULL CONTAINMENT - PC OUTER WALL - ROOF CONCRETE SLAB FOUNDATION CORNER - TYPICAL
CS ROOF STRUCTURE CS ROOF LINER PERLITE FILL NOZZLE RC DOME ROOF

PERLITE RETAINING WALL

PC DUCT & TENDON VERTICAL

SUSPENDED DECK ANNULAR SPACE INSULATION (PERLITE)

CS WALL VAPOR BARRIER PC DUCT & TENDON HORIZONTAL

SUSPENDED DECK INSULATION (PERLITE OR FIBERGLASS BLANKET)

PC OUTER WALL GLASS CLOTH FIBERGLASS BLANKET ANNULAR SPACE INSULATION (PERLITE)

9% NI INNER TANK WALL

RESILIENT BLANKET

1. FIG. OF EACH CONTAINMENT TYPE
Single Containment Single Metal Tank Double Containment Metal Outer Wall Full Containment Double Metal Tank Others Others Above Ground - Membrane Tank

Double Metal Tank Dome Roof Inner Tank

PC Outer Wall

PC Outer Wall Tank

In Ground - Membrane Tank

INNER TANK

Double Metal Tank w/Suspended Deck

RC Outer Wall + Earth Embankment

RC Outer Wall + Earth Embankment

PC Outer wall Tank in Japan

Fig. - 4.1 : MEMBRANE TANK : ABOVE GROUND - TYPICAL
CRANE / HOIST FOR IN TANK PUMP ROOF WALKWA Y VENT FOR DOME SPACE PUMP COLUMN HEAD MAIN PLATFORM DECK INSULATION RC ROOF PRESSURE & VACUUM RELIEF VALVES

PERIFERAL ROOF WALKWAY

CS ROOF LINER & STRUCTURE DECK VENT SUSPENDED DECK

INNER LADDER RISER PIPES & SUPPORTS COOL DOWN PIPING ESCAPE LADDER

WALL MOISTURE BARRIER STAINLESS WALL BEMBRANE PC OUTER WALL

WALL INSULATION STAIRCASE PUMP COLUMN

DRYING & PURGING LINE

IN TANK PUMP & FOOT VALVE

STAINLESS BOTTOM MEMBRANE BOTTOM HEATING SYSTEM

BOTTOM MOISTURE BARRIER BOTTOM INSULATION RC SLAB FOUNDATION

Fig. - 4.2 : MEMBRANE TANK - CONTAINMENT SYSTEM BOTTOM / WALL - TYPICAL
MEMBRANE ANCHOR

WALL MEMBRANE CONCRETE TANK WALL ANGLE PIECE (MEMBRANE) CORNER PLATE (MEMBRANE) MOISTURE BARRIER BOTTOM MEMBRANE PLYWOOD INSULATION PANEL

BONDIND MASTIC

CONCRETE SLAB FOUNDATION

1.COMPARISON OF EACH CONTAINMENT TYPE (1/2)
DEFINITION OF CONTAINMENT TYPE PER BS 7777 Type of Tank Single Containment Double Containment Full Containment 180% 100% *3 1. Cost (*1) 2. Erection Schedule(*1,*2) 100% (Min. 25 months) Good 150% 125% (Approx. 32 months) Excellent Good : Wall Roof : Limited Good : Wall Large Roof : Limited Small 85,000 Appreox. 10 Tanks 140% (Approx. 35 months) Excellent Excellent Excellent Small 55,000 ~ 176,000 Approx. 50 Tanks Oman : 146,000m3 x 2 Tanks

3. Resistance Against Abnormal Condition Limited (1) Thermal Radiation of Fire (2) Blast Wave 6. (3) Flying Projectiles Number of Tanks Ever Built Limited

in the World as of July 8,000 ~ 170,000 4. Site Area Required 2003. Approx. 160 Tanks 5. Inner Tank Geo. Capacity Range (m3) 7. Tanks Ever Built by CHIYODA as of July 2003. Indonesia : 127,000m3 x 1 Tanks

Qatar : 94,000m3 x 4 8.Tanks Under Abu Dhabi : 150,000m3 x Tanks Construction / 2 Tanks Note : Qatar : 152,000m3 x 2 Engineering by Tanks CHIYODA *1 : International Contractor base and for the tank having geometric capacity 100,000m3 and over. as Excluding connection of the pipe, purge and cooldown. *2 : of July 2003. *3 : Excluding cost of bund wall. Sakhalin : 120,000m3 x 2 Tanks

1. COMPARISON OF EACH CONTAINMENT TYPE (2/2)
CONTAINMENT TYPE NOT DEFINED IN BS 7777 Type of Tank Membrane - Above & Inground PC Outer Wall LNG Tank in Japan

1. Cost 2. Erection Schedule) 3. Resistance Against Abnormal Condition Good (1) Thermal Radiation of Fire Good : Wall (2) Blast Wave 6. Number of Tanks Ever (3) Flying Projectiles Built in the World as of July 4. Site Area Required 2003. Roof Limited Good : Wall Roof : Limited Small Approx. 5 to 6 Years

Approx. 4 Years Excellent Good : Wall Roof : Limited Good : Wall Roof : Limited Small 36,000 ~ 189,000 5 Tanks 1 Tank for MZL Project

35,000 ~ 203,000 5. Inner Tank Geo. Capacity Range (m3) 7. Tanks Ever Built by Approx. 70 Tanks CHIYODA as of July 2003. 8.Tanks Under Construction / Engineering by CHIYODA as of July 2003. -

The material for the LNG container for the large capacity of LNG storage is 9% Ni 5. MATERIAL SELECTION FOR THE LNG CONTAINER steel in consideration of the design of -161 ~ -168 oC of the design temperature of LNG as shown in the following sheet “TEMPERATURE RANGE FOR MATERIAL OF CRYOGENIC STORAGE TANKS”. In principle, stainless steel type 304 is used for the tank having small capacity and in case that the use of 9% Ni steel is not economical. The stainless steel type 304 is also used for the membrane of in-ground and above ground tank.

6. TANK SIZING (1/6)
DEFINITION OF CAPACITY OF CYLINDRICAL TANK DESIGNED AT AMBIENT TEMPERATURE 1. GEOMETRIC CAPACITY : (Inside Diameter)2 x π / 4 x Height 2. NET WORKING CAPACITY “Geometric Capacity” - “Top Deadwood” - “Bottom Deadwood” 3. STORAGE CAPACITY Total Volume of Liquid Stored “Geometric Capacity” - “Top Deadwood” 4. TOP DEADWOOD 4. TOP Top space for safety to avoid over-fill and spillage due to sloshing DEADWOOD wave by earthquake. 5. BOTTOM DEAD WOOD Volume not possible to withdraw due to nozzle height, pump NPSHR, etc 1. GEOMETRIC CAPACITY 3. STORAGE CAPACITY 2. NET WORKING CAPACITY

5. BOTTOM DEAD WOOD

6. TANK SIZING (2/6)
SPECIAL CONSIDERATION TO BE TAKEN FOR THE CAPACITY OF CYLINDRICAL TANK AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURE

The reducing of the tank size due to the contraction at design temperature as show in the following Fig. shall be considered to maintain net working capacity required at design temperature.

At Ambient At Design Temperature Temperature Typical calculation for the net working capacity of LNG storage tank is shown in the following pages.

6. TANK SIZING (3/6)
TYPICAL CALCULATION OF TANK CAPACITY OF LNG STORAGE TANK AT MINIMUM DESIGN TEMPERATURE
Ba D sig Pa m t rs sic e n ra ee It m e Ta k Mae l n t ria Am ie tT p rau b n em e t re De nT m e t re sig e p rau Te p Diff m. . Th rm l Exp nio Co f. e a a t n ef In e Ta kCa a yCh ck nr n p cit e It m e In e Dia ee sid mt r He h ig t He h of T p D d o ig t o ea wo d He h of Bot mDe W d ig t to ad oo Co t ct n a Min u De n T m e u nra io t im m sig e p rat re In e Dia ee sid mt r He h ig t Ca acit p y Ne W rkin Ca a y Re u d t o g p cit q ire Ge eric Cap cit om t a y Ne W rkin Ca a y t o g p cit T p De d o o a wo d Bot mDe W o to ad o d [m] [m] [m] [m] [m]
3 3 3 3 3

UNIT [ C] [ C] [ C] [/ C]
o o o o

Valu e 9 Ni St e % el 3 8 -1 7 6 25 0 9 E-0 .4 6 AT AMBIENT T EMPERAT URE (CONST RUCT ION PHASE) 6 .3 0 3 0 3 .0 0 0 0 0 0 .5 0 2 0 .3 0 8 ,0 0 5 0 9 ,4 0 4 1 8 ,5 9 5 9 1 7 ,5 4 7 3 ,2 8 Fo 9 Ni St e r % el AT MINIMUM DESIGN T EMPERATURE (UNDER OPERAT ION 6 .1 8 3 7 2 .9 2 9 4 0 0 .5 0 2 0 .3 0 -1 2 2 .0 -5 .8 7 8 ,0 0 5 0 9 ,8 5 3 6 8 ,0 8 5 8 1 6 ,5 7 7 1 ,2 0 Ma u De nT p t re xim m sig em erau Min u Desig T m e t re im m n e p rau

Re a m rks

Un it [m ] [m ] [m ] [m ] [m ] m [m ] m

Re a m rks

He h t b ke ta Min De n T m . ig t o e p t . sig e p He h t b ke ta Min De n T m . ig t o e p t . sig e p

Se Noe 1 e t . Se Noe 2 e t

N e ot : 1 N a t eg om t ca a ya a b n t m . is u d t sp cif t eg om t ca a yof t et n . . orm lly h e eric p cit t m ie t e p se o e y h e eric p cit h ak 2 Th ca lae n tw rk g ca a ya m im md sig t m . sh ll n b le t a t en tw in ca a yre u d . e lcu t d e o in p cit t in u e n e p a ot e ss h n h e ork g p cit q ire . Th ca lae n tw in sh ll in d m rg f t ed la m n of in e a a ssorie e lcu t d e ork g a clu e a in or h isp ce e t t rn l cce s.

6. TANK SIZING (4/6)
TYPICAL CALCULATION OF TANK CAPACITY OF LNG STORAGE TANK AT MINIMUM DESIGN TEMPERATURE
Top of Inner Tank Shell at Ambient Temperature (Construction Phase) Top of Inner Tank Shell at Minimum Design Temperature Inner Tank Height at Ambient Temperature (Construction Phase) Inner Tank Height at Design Temperature Top Deadwood: 1,000 mm or Sloshing Height + 1 ft Liquid Run-up whichever Larger.

Maximum Design LNG Level (HLL)

Net Working Capacity Minimum Design LNG Level (LLL) NPSHR (@Rated Capacity) of Submerged Pumps
Margin

Pumpable Minimum LNG Level at Minimum Flow Rate Bottom Deadwood Submerged Pump Foot Valve Minimum 150 mm at operation position of the foot valve.

Pump Well

Top of Inner Tank Bottom Inner Tank Inside Diameter at Design Temperature Inner Tank Inside Diameter at Ambient Temperature (Construction Phase)

OTHER RESTRICTIONS & LIMITATIONS TO BE CONSIDERED FOR THE INNER TANK SIZING (1/2) 6. TANK SIZING (5/6) 1. Ratio of HLL/D (High Liquid Level / Tank Inside Diameter) The ratio of HLL/D shall be thoroughly decided in consideration of stability of the inner tank at seismic condition to determine the necessity of the anchorage on the inner tank that are preferably to be eliminated to avoid penetrations into the tank foundation slab. 2. Limit of the Inner Tank Height (1) Soil Conditions Survey of the inner tank height limit due to soil conditions shall be thoroughly performed based on the soil investigation report and preliminary tank foundation design including implementation of the soil improvement and/or piling shall also be performed simultaneously. (2) Insulation Material Strength Limitation of the inner tank height due to the allowable strength of bottom insulation material including safety factor and seismic load on the inner tank bottom. The inner tank height may be increased up to 40 m in consideration of design safety factor and allowable compressive load for the insulation material (cellular glass) and bottom pressure due to earthquake.

6. TANK TO BE CONSIDERED FOR THE INNER TANK OTHER RESTRICTIONS & LIMITATIONSSIZING (6/6) SIZING (2/2)
3. Limit of the 9% Ni. Steel Shell Thickness The maximum inner tank sizes subject to the maximum shall plate thickness permitted are as follows: BS 7777 : 40 mm (Type V improved 9% Ni steel)* API 620 /ASTM A553 : 50.8 (2 in.) per ASTM A 553** * : When material thickness are required in excess of the value,, additional requirements to maintain the same level of safety are to be agreed between purchaser and manufacturer. **: The maximum thickness of plates is limited only by the capacity of the material to meet the specified mechanical property requirements; however, current mill practice normally limits this material to 2 in. max.

7. DESIGN PARAMETERS & REQUIREMENTS (1/5)
Requirements Apply to the Inner Tank Requirements Apply to the Outer Tank Design Code Requirements Basic Design Data - Minimum Working Capacity - Tank Size - Hydrotest Water Level - Internal Pressure, etc. Material Requirements
Sheet 1 of 4
Rev.

LNG STORAGE TANK DATA SHEET
Owner Project Title Location CHIYODA Job No. Consortium Doc. No. CHIYODA Doc. No. Tank No. Service
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

: A COMPANY : X PROJECT :: XXXXXX : : Abbreviation : TBD = To be determined/verified by Subcontractor Required Nos. : 2 tanks API STD 620 9TH ED ADDENDUM 3 , APPENDIX Q for Inner Tank Design BS 7777 Part 3 as guidance for Outer Tank Design

: T-0001, & T-0002 : LNG

Design Code Design Condition Type of Foundation Type of Roof Type of Bottom Min. Working Capacity Tank Diameter (I.D) Tank Height Design Pressure Max .Design Liquid Level Hydrotest Water Level Operating Pressure Design Temperature Operating Temperature Design Amb. Temp.(Max./Min.) Design Spec. Gravity Corrosion Allowance Filling Rate Emptying Rate Design Wind Velocity Snow Load Seismic Load TANK MATERIAL Wall Bottom Annular Bottom Roof Plate/Structure Suspended Deck Wall Vapor Barrier Bottom Vapor Barrier Secondary Bottom Corner Protection Nozzle Neck/Internal Piping Nozzle Flange Flange/Bolting PAINTING Temporary Rust Prevention Permanent External Wall Roof Underside of Bottom Appurtenances Internal
Notes : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

INNER TANK --Suspended Deck Flat 140,000 m3 See Note 1. 76,000 mm TBD 35,300 mm TBD --34,700 mm TBD 21,000 mm TBD --0 -165 C (Later) 0C --483 kg/m3 0 mm 11,500 m3/h 1,707 m3/h --None See sheet 2 of 4.

OUTER TANK Stone Column Dome ----78,000 mm TBD 39,000 mm TBD +290 mbarg / -5 mbarg ----From +80 mbarg to +240 mbarg 38.5 0C 0 --C 38.5 0C / 6 0C --0 mm ----See sheet 2 of 4. None See sheet 2 of 4.

9 % Ni Steel 9 % Ni Steel 9 % Ni Steel --Aluminum Alloy or equivalent. --------304 SS See Note 2. 304 SS 304 SS Yes. See Specification.

Prestressed Concrete (PC) Reinforced Concrete (RC) --C.S + Reinforced Concrete (RC) --C.S C.S 9 % Ni Steel 9 % Ni Steel CS CS CS

Painting & Coating Requirements

40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52.

-----------

See Specification. Bituminous coats ----Yes ---

See Note 5.

See Note 3 & 4.

At design temperature. See Appendix-3. Alternatively 9% Ni Steel for Pump Columns. Stainless steel bolt and nut such as type 304 and 316 except those of type 316L shall be coated. Including metallic surface for materials of stainless steel, carbon steel, galvanized steel except insulated surface. Side face of buried bottom slab only.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT AND ANY DATA AND INFORMATION CONTAINED THEREIN ARE CONFIDENTIAL AND THE PROPERTY OF CHIYODA CORPORATION (CHIYODA) AND THE COPYRIGHT THEREIN IS VESTED IN CHIYODA. NO PART OF THIS DOCUMENT, DATA, OR INFORMATION SHALL BE DISCLOSED TO OTHERS OR REPRODUCED IN ANY MANNER OR USED FOR ANY PURPOSE WHATSOEVER, EXCEPT WITH THE PRIOR WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHIYODA.

7. DESIGN OBE : Operating Basis PARAMETERS Earthquake
SSE : Safety Shutdown Earthquake See next sheet for detail per NFPA 59A.

& REQUIREMENTS (2/5)
Sheet 2 of 4
Rev.

LNG STORAGE TANK DATA SHEET
Owner Project Title Location CTCI Job No. CHIYODA Job No. Consortium Doc. No. CHIYODA Doc. No. Tank No. Service
1. 2.

: A COMPANY : X PROJECT :: XXXXXX : : Abbreviation : TBD = To be determined/verified by Subcontractor Required Nos. : 2 tanks

: T-0001, & T-0002 : LNG

SEISMIC DESIGN - Design Seismic Coefficient, Static Analysis

SSE : Horizontal SSE : Vertical OBE : Horizontal

: : :

0.330 0.220 0.165

PGA (Peak Ground Acceleration)

Seismic Design Condition Wind Velocity & Pressure Design Against Flying Object Design Against Heat Radiation Design Against Blast Wave Design of Spill Protection

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT AND ANY DATA AND INFORMATION CONTAINED THEREIN ARE CONFIDENTIAL AND THE PROPERTY OF CHIYODA CORPORATION (CHIYODA) AND THE COPYRIGHT THEREIN IS VESTED IN CHIYODA. NO PART OF THIS DOCUMENT, DATA, OR INFORMATION SHALL BE DISCLOSED TO OTHERS OR REPRODUCED IN ANY MANNER OR USED FOR ANY PURPOSE WHATSOEVER, EXCEPT WITH THE PRIOR WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHIYODA.

PGA (Peak Ground Acceleration)

- Dynamic Analysis

OBE : Vertical : 0.110 Required including Seismic Hazard Analysis

DESIGN WIND VELOCITY AND PRESSURE - Typhoon Wind Velocity 42.7 m/sec - Design Wind Pressure Height (m) Wind Pressure (kg/m2) Less than 9 150 9 ~ 15 200 15 ~ 30 250 30 ~ 150 300 FLYING OBJECT - Design Consideration Required. - Weight 50 kg - Velocity 45 m/s - Requirement The flying object shall not penetrate the outer tank wall and roof. HEAT RADIATION - Design Consideration Required. 27,515 kcal/hr/m2 (32 kW/m2) - Heat Radiation Flux - Location of Possible Fire Spill containment and PRV tail pipes - Duration of Fire 30 minutes - Requirement The structural integrity of the tank shall be maintained against the heat radiation. BLAST WAVE - Design Consideration Required. - Sourse of Blast Wave Unconfined Vapor Cloud Explosion - Blast Wave Profile 0 sec, 0 barg. 0.05 sec, 0.1 barg. 0.1 sec, 0 barg. SPILL PROTECTION - Spill Location At flange connection of LNG piping - Spill Flow Rate Max. 569 m3/hr : 15 minutes of rated capacity of one in-tank pump. - Drain Pipe Quantity (TBD) - Drain Pipe Size (TBD) Drain pipes shall be combined into one drain header and the header pipe shall be connected to a down comer pipe and terminated at spill channel at grade. - Spill Detector 5 points on the spill pan + 1 point at top of down comer pipe. - Material of Spill Pan 304 SS (Spill pan and drain pipe shall be thermally isolated from and Drain Pipe tank and its appurtenances.) Note : 1. The data are preliminary and subject to change after pump manufacturer is selected.

OBE ( Operating Basis PARAMETERS & REQUIREMENTS Earthquake) per 7. DESIGN Earthquake ) and SSE (Safety Shutdown (3/5) NFPA 59A OBE (Operating Basis Earthquake): The LNG container shall be designed to remain operable during and after an OBE. SSE (Safety Shutdown Earthquake): Similarly, the design shall be such that during and after an SSE there shall be no loss of containment capability, and it shall be possible to isolate and maintain the LNG container. After the SSE event, the container shall be emptied and inspected prior to resumption of containerfilling operation

7. DESIGN PARAMETERS & REQUIREMENTS (4/5)
Sheet 3 of 4
Rev.

LNG STORAGE TANK DATA SHEET
Owner Project Title Location CTCI Job No. CHIYODA Job No. Consortium Doc. No. CHIYODA Doc. No. Tank No. Service
1. 2.

: A COMPANY : X PROJECT :: XXXXXX : : Abbreviation : TBD = To be determined/verified by Subcontractor Required Nos. : 2 tanks

: T-0001, & T-0002 : LNG

Pump Column Design Data BOG Requirements

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

PUMP COLUMN DESIGN DATA - Quantity - Column Diameter - Design Flow Rate - Design Pressure - Foot Valve - Filter Box - Weight of Pump - Weight of Foot Valve BOG RATE - Maximum BOG Rate - Design Condition

(See Note 1.) Normal operation : 2 sets, Spare : 1 set for one tank 34" 569 m3/hr pump 15.0 barg Required (Supplied by Contractor) Required. 2,500 kg / one pump (maximum load to be lifted by hoist /crane) 1,300 kg / one foot valve 0.075 vol.% per day LNG latent heat of : 122 kcal/kg pure methane Normal Internal pressure : 240 mbarg LNG temperature : -165 ℃ Ambient temperature : 38.5 ℃ Solar radiation : Roof : 48 ℃ / Shell : 43 ℃ equilibrium temperature (Minimum) Liquid density of : 423 kg/m3 pure methane Liquid level : Maximum allowable liquid level (See Appendix-3.) Wind speed : None Relative Humidity : 93% average Tank Condition : Stable

BOG Performance Test Requirements

36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53.

BOG PERFORMANCE GUARANTEE TEST - Test Required for each tank. - Guarantee BOG Rate BOG rate (0.075 vol.% per day) shall be guaranteed under the following conditions: - An ambient temperature of 30.0 ℃ - High liquid level - Stable condition - LNG tank normal operating pressure - Constant barometric pressure - No ship loading - No cold circulation - No gas send-out - Test Method BOG rate guarantee test shall be done after heat stable condition is attained under the constant pressure with no unloading, no cold circulation, and no LNG send-out conditions. After confirmation of the tank conditions mentioned in the "Guarantee BOG Rate", BOG rate measurement shall be carried out. BOG rate shall be measured by the flow instrument with temperature and pressure compensation which will be installed on BOG line from LNG tank. The flow instrument will be provided by Contractor. Storage tank concrete surface temperatures and bottom temperatures shall be measured during the performance test. The test result shall be corrected in consideration of the following factors: - Barometric pressure change - The difference between estimated heat ingress, which will be derived from the tank surface temperatures, bottom temperatures and other measured values during performance test and design heat ingress at the guarantee conditions specified above.

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT AND ANY DATA AND INFORMATION CONTAINED THEREIN ARE CONFIDENTIAL AND THE PROPERTY OF CHIYODA CORPORATION (CHIYODA) AND THE COPYRIGHT THEREIN IS VESTED IN CHIYODA. NO PART OF THIS DOCUMENT, DATA, OR INFORMATION SHALL BE DISCLOSED TO OTHERS OR REPRODUCED IN ANY MANNER OR USED FOR ANY PURPOSE WHATSOEVER, EXCEPT WITH THE PRIOR WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHIYODA.

7. DESIGN PARAMETERS & REQUIREMENTS (5/5)
Sheet 4 of 4
Rev.

LNG STORAGE TANK DATA SHEET ACCESSORY LIST OF REFRIGERATED STORAGE TANK
Owner Project Title Location CTCI Job No. CHIYODA Job No. Consortium Doc. No. CHIYODA Doc. No. Tank No. Service
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

: A COMPANY : X PROJECT :: XXXXXX : : Abbreviation : TBD = To be determined/verified by Subcontractor Required Nos. : 2 tanks

: T-0001, & T-0002 : LNG

INNER TANK
Item Skin Temp Detector for cooldown Inner Ladder along pump column with cage & intermediate landings Platform/ladder below roof manway Deck Walkway Annular Space Monorail Deck Manhole Deck Vent Deck Support Pipe Supports Internal Piping Anchor Strap Earth lugs Grounding Q'ty-Size Remarks per P&ID For shell plate per P&ID For bottom plate 1

OUTER TANK
Item Roof Circumferential Walkway Stairway Top Platform PSV Platform VRV Platform Emergency ladder w/cage & platform Lift External Monorail for Wall Maintenance PRV VRV Nozzle and Manholes Monorail/Hoist or Crane Pipe Support Pressure Gage Pressure Transmitter Tank Gage with Trans mitter Tank Gage with Trans mitter Temperature Element Instruments for Piping Lighting Lightning Protection Grounding Junction Box Including Support & Foundation Cable Tray/Support Settlement Measur't System Proces s Piping Utility piping Valves for Piping Pressure Relief Valve for Piping Spectacle Blinds for Piping Fire Protection System Spill Protection Cathodic Protection Pump Column Head Plate Stand Temporary Pot for Intank Pump Q'ty-Size Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 1 No No Remarks All around

2 1 (TBD) 2 Yes (TBD) Yes (TBD) Yes Yes (TBD) Yes Yes

Opposite side of stairway

Yes Yes Yes Per Appendix-2. Yes (TBD) For intank pump. Yes 2 1 1 1 1 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 1 1 See Note 1.

Tank Appurtenances

21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55.

To be connected to the outer tank

Capacitance type Radar type Multi element

Leak Detection System Annular Space Horizontal Annular Space Vertical

32 2

Incl. 16 spares

TANK FOUNDATION
Bottom Heating System and Temperature Sensor Settlement Measurem't Clip Settlement Measurem't System for Found'n Slab Yes See Data Sheet.

12 Yes

Periphery Inclinometer for cons truction use only

See Note 4. See Note 4.

Note : 1. The following fire protection shall be provided per Appendix-8.

-1. -2. -3. -4.

Water spray system Fire extinguishing system for PRV tail pipe. Gas detectors for flange connections of LNG lines larger than 2" on roof main platform To be located on the top platform.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT AND ANY DATA AND INFORMATION CONTAINED THEREIN ARE CONFIDENTIAL AND THE PROPERTY OF CHIYODA CORPORATION (CHIYODA) AND THE COPYRIGHT THEREIN IS VESTED IN CHIYODA. NO PART OF THIS DOCUMENT, DATA, OR INFORMATION SHALL BE DISCLOSED TO OTHERS OR REPRODUCED IN ANY MANNER OR USED FOR ANY PURPOSE WHATSOEVER, EXCEPT WITH THE PRIOR WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHIYODA.

8. FILING AND WITHDRAWAL OF LNG (1/2)
Recently in-tank (submerged) pumps and pump columns are provided with not only full containment tanks but also single containment tanks instead of wall and bottom connections and penetrations as shown below, since the leakage of LNG to the atmosphere can be minimized by avoiding all connections and penetrations on the tank below the maximum LNG level Conventional Design with Penetrations below the LNG Level Relatively vulnerable points (Potential leak source).

Relatively vulnerable points (Potential leak source).

LNG

LNG

Emergency remote control and/or automatic fail safe shut off valve

Emergency remote control and/or automatic fail safe shut off valve

Since all stored LNG above the wall penetration will be flown out to the atmosphere when the leakage of LNG occurs from the potential leak sources shown in the above, BS 7777 requires to provide emergency remote control and/or automatic fail safe shut-off valves as shown in the above.

8. FILLING & WITHDRAWAL OF LNG (2/2)
USING OF SUBMERGED PUMPS & PUMP WELL (OVER-THE -TOP FILLING & WITHDRAWAL)

POWER SUPPLY TO SUBMERGED PUMP

FROM LIQUEFICATION PLANT AND/OR LOADING FACILITIES FILLING LINE WITH BAFFLE PLATE

TO VAPORIZATION, SEND-OUT PLANT AND/OR LOADING FACILITIES PUMP COLUMN

FILLING LINE WITH INTERNAL PIPING DOWN TO BOTTOM

SUBMERGED PUMP & FOOT VALVE

9. MAJOR SAFETY DEVICES FOR LNG TANK

TANK GAUGE SYSTEM WITH DENSITY MEASUREMENT HIGH LIQUID LEVEL ALARM VACUUM RELIEF VALVE (VRV) PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE (PRV) FIRE EXTINGUISHER FOR PRV TAIL PIPE SPILL PROTECTION WATER SPRAY SYSTEM TEMPERATURE SENSOR SLAB HEATING SYSTEM GAS DETECTOR FIRE DETECTOR

Rollover Protection Overfill Protection Protection against excessive vacuum Protection against excessive pressure Tail pipe fire protection (Dry Chemical CO2, N2 Injection, etc.) LNG spill correction & protection of roof Protection against adjacent fire LNG leak detection Protection against the frost of soil LNG leak & fire detection

10. DESIGN OF DOUBLE METAL TANK
The typical basic concepts for design of double metal refrigerated tank is shown in the following pages. (1) Double Metal Wall Tank Design - Suspended Deck - Typical

(2) Double Metal Wall Tank Design - Double Dome Roof - Typical

(1) DOUBLE METAL WALL TANK DESIGN - SUSUPENDED DECK - TYPICAL
Heat Radiation from PRV Tail Pipe Fire Outer Tank Roof, Live Load, Roof Accessories & Suspended Deck/Insulation Internal Vacuum Insulation & Live Load Flying Object Factor such as solar radiation, ambient temp. and subsoil temp. etc. for BOG & insulation design are not shown. Up Lift due to Internal Pressure, Wind/Earthquake Overturning Moment.

Internal Pressure Heat Radiation from Adjacent Fire Blast Wave Wind Up Lift due to Earthquake Overturning Moment.

Overturning Moment Due to Earthquake or Wind

Load exerted by Perlite Pressure due to Earthquake Internal Vacuum Load exerted by Perlite Internal Pressure Hydrotest Water Product Hydrotest Water* Product* Inner Tank Anchor Outer Tank Anchor Earthquake Base Share Due to Earthquake Inner Tank Shell, Insulation (Resilient Blanket) and Accessories. Load due to moment caused by Earthquake. Outer Tank Roof, Suspended Deck, Shell, Insulation (PUF) and Accessories. Load due to moment caused by Wind or Earthquake. Hydrotest Water* Product* & Annular Space Insulation *: If outer tank to be designed to store product and to be hydrostatic tested.

(2) DOUBLE METAL WALL TANK DESIGN - DOUBLE DOME ROOF - TYPICAL
Heat Radiation from PRV Tail Pipe Fire Outer Tank Roof, Live Load, Roof Accessories Flying Object Internal Vacuum, Insulation, Live Load Internal Vacuum Internal Pressure Overturning Moment Due to Earthquake or Wind Internal Pressure Heat Radiation from Adjacent Fire Blast Wave Wind Load exerted by Perlite Pressure due to Earthquake Internal Vacuum Load exerted by Perlite Internal Pressure Hydrotest Water Product Hydrotest Water* Product* Inner Tank Anchor Outer Tank Anchor Earthquake Base Share Due to Earthquake Inner Tank Shell, Insulation (Resilient Blanket) and Accessories. Load due to moment caused by Earthquake. Outer Tank Roof, Suspended Deck, Shell, Insulation (PUF) and Accessories. Load due to moment caused by Wind or Earthquake. Hydrotest Water* Product* & Annular Space Insulation *: If outer tank to be designed to store product and to be hydrostatic tested. Factor such as solar radiation, ambient temp. and subsoil temp. etc. for BOG & insulation design are not shown. Up Lift due to Internal Pressure, Wind/Earthquake Overturning Moment.

Up Lift due to Internal Pressure, Earthquake Overturning Moment.

11. ROLLOVER PROTECTION (1/4)
1. What is Rollover? Since the LNG stored in the refrigerated tank is naturally mixed by the convection at top surface due to the boiling off of LNG as shown in the following fig., the rollover will not occur unless receiving LNG having different density into same tank especially receiving heavier density of LNG into bottom level of the tank or leaving the stored LNG long time.
LNG VAPOR LNG VAPOR VAPORIZING LIGHT PARTS OF LNG

HEAVIER LNG WILL GO DOWN TO THE BOTTOM (CONVECTION)

NATURAL MIXING BY CONVECTION

LNG

NORMAL CONDITION IN THE LNG OF EVEN DENSITY

In consequence of the operation that receiving different density LNG into same tank especially receiving heavier density of LNG into bottom level of the tank or leaving stored LNG long time without mixing and/or circulation; (1) Light parts of LNG at upper layer will boil off due to heat transfer from the lower layer to upper layer of LNG (2) Density of upper layer will be heavier gradually due to the vaporization of light parts of LNG

11. ROLLOVER PROTECTION (2/4)

(1)
LNG VAPOR

(2)

LNG VAPOR

BOILING OFF OF LNG

BOILING OFF OF LNG

HEAT TRANSFER

HEAT TRANSFER

11. ROLLOVER PROTECTION (3/4)
(3) In case that the density of upper LNG layer become equal to or more that that of lower layer, the boiling off of LNG stored at lower layer will occur due to the rollover suddenly (4) The excessive boil-off gas caused by the rollover energy will be danger of damage the storage tank

(3)
LNG VAPOR

(4)
EXCESSIVE LNG VAPOR

ROLL OVER OF LNG

BOILING OFF OF LNG

2. How to Protect Rollover (1) Measurement of Density of LNG Stored at Every Level To detect the phenomena of stratiform of LNG having different density, the LNG tank shall be equipped with the level gauging systems that are able to measure the density of LNG stored at any level of LNG. (2) To avoid the stratiform of LNG, the following counter measure(operation) shall be taken. - Restriction of the receiving of LNG having different density into same tank - *Mixing of LNG stored using of jet nozzle - *Receiving of heavier LNG from top part of the tank and lighter LNG from bottom part of the tank Receiving of heavier LNG from - *Circulation of LNG stored to mix lower layer and top top part of the tank layer *: See Fig. below.
FROM LIQUEFACTION PLANT AND/OR LOADING FACILITIES

11. ROLLOVER PROTECTION (4/4)

Circulation of LNG stored to mix lower layer and top layer
TO VAPORIZATION, SEND-OUT PLANT AND/OR LOADING FACILITIES

Mixing of LNG stored using jet nozzle
PUMP COLUMN

SUBMERGED PUMP

Receiving of lighter LNG from bottom part of the tank

1. General 12. BASIC DESIGN CONCEPT OF PC (PRE-STRESSED The concept of LNG storage tank for Full Containment Type is that the outer tank is CONCRETE) (1/2) intended to be capable both of containing LNG and controlled venting of the vapor resulting from product leakage after a credible event. The pre-stressed concrete outer tank wall instead of the RC (Reinforced Concrete) outer tank wall with the earth embankment is introduced in 1990th to minimize tank area and construction cost. The Pre-Stressing Concrete is common design technology and generally used for construction of superstructures such as bridges, etc. 2. Concept of Pre-stressing The outer tank wall (reinforced concrete) is reinforced by by the Pre-stress Tendon PRE-STRESSING PRE-STRESSING ON TENDON against internal pressure as shown TENDON in the following model.
DUCT PRESTRESSING ON OUTER WALL BUTTRE SS PRESTRESSING ON OUTER WALL

TOP OF PC WALL

ANCHO R PRE-STRESSING ON TENDON

PRESTRESSING ON OUTER WALL

REINFORCED CONCRETE OUTER WALL

HORIZONT AL

DUCT

VERTICAL

PRE-STRESSING TENDON

3. Design Concept of Pre-stressed Concrete Outer Tank Wall (1) Permeation ofBASIC DESIGN CONCEPT OF PC (PRE-STRESSED 12. LNG Vapor For the above corner protection, the carbon steel liner is used to provide and CONCRETE) (2/2) impervious barrier against permeation by LNG vapor at the normal operation condition. Since the carbon steel liner is not intended to contain LNG leakage from the inner tank, in principle, the PC outer wall shall be designed considering that the width of a crack on PC wall shall not be more than 0.2 mm in case of LNG leakage. Because of ice formation in pores the permeability is reduced at minimum design temperature of LNG as compared to normal temperature and it is planned to utilize this self-blocking effect. (2) Residual Compressive Stress In addition to the aforesaid allowable crack width on the PC outer wall, the residual compressive stress zone shall be 15% of wall thickness, but not less than 80mm in case of LNG leakage as shown in the “T”: THICKNESS OF PC OUTER following fig. WALL “T” 0.15 OR 80 mm minimum TheXvalue of the WHICHEVER residual compression stress to be with discussed and agreed LARGER by the client for the project.
RESIDUAL COMPRESSION STRESS ZONE LNG LEAK LEVEL

OUTSIDE

PC OUTER WALL

INSID E

2.Basic Design Data of Low Temperature

3.1 Applicable Code

3.1. APPLICABLE DESIGN CODES & STANDARDS (1/9)

OVERSE AS Europe USA BS 7777 EEMUA 147 EN 1473 API Std 620

高圧ガス保安法 (High Press. Gas Control Low) LNG 地上式貯槽指針 Press. Gas 高圧ガス保安法 (High Control Low) LNG 地下式貯槽指針

DOMESTIC (IN JAPAN)

NFPA 59A

NFPA 15

消防法

プラント 安全規準

その他関連 法規・規準

3.1. APPLICABLE DESIGN CODES & STANDARDS (2/9)

BS 7777

OVERSE AS Europe USA BS 7777 EEMUA 147 EN 1473 API Std 620

NFPA 59A

NFPA 15

3.1. APPLICABLE DESIGN CODES & STANDARDS (3/9)
Design Codes & Standards BS 7777 Description British Standard 7777 Flat-bottomed, vertical, cylindrical storage tanks for low temperature service Consists of: Part -1: Guide to the general provisions applying for design, construction, installation and operation Part-2: Specification for the design and construction of single, double and full containment metal tanks for storage of liquefied gas at temperature down to -165 oC Part 3: Recommendations for the design and construction of prestressed and reinforced concrete tanks and tank foundations, and the design andb installation of tank insulation, tank liners and tank coatings Part-4: Specification for the design and construction of single containment tanks for the storage of liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen or liquid argon Notes Including definition of single, double and full containment & prestressed outer tank design requirements in part 3.

3.1. APPLICABLE DESIGN CODES & STANDARDS (4/9)

EEMUA 147

OVERSE AS Europe USA BS 7777 EEMUA 147 EN 1473 API Std 620

API Std 620

EN 1473
NFPA 59A NFPA 15

3.1. APPLICABLE DESIGN CODES & STANDARDS (5/9)
Design Codes & Standards EEMUA 147 Description The Engineering Equipment and Materials Users Association Publication No. 147 Recommendations for the Design and Construction of Refrigerated Liquefied Gas Storage Tanks Adopted European Standard Installation and Equipment for Liquefied Natural Gas - design od Onshore Installation American Petroleum Institute API Standard 620 Design and Construction of large, Welded, Low Pressure Storage Tanks Notes Including definition of single, double and full containment that are same as defined in BS 7777.

EN 1473

API Std 620

Including definition of single, double and full containment that are same as defined in BS 7777. Definitions of single, double and full containment that are not included. Applicable to the cylindrical inner tank of each containment type defined in BS 7777, and double metal single and full containment tank.

3.1. APPLICABLE DESIGN CODES & STANDARDS (6/9)

OVERSE AS Europe USA BS 7777 EEMUA 147 EN 1473 API Std 620

NFPA 59A

NFPA 15

NFPA 59A

NFPA 15

3.1. APPLICABLE DESIGN CODES & STANDARDS (7/9)
Design Codes & Standards NFPA 59A Description National Fire Protection Association NFPA 59 A Production, Storage, and Handling of Liquefied natural Gas (LNG) NFPA 15 National Fire Protection Association NFPA 15 Standard for Water Spray Fixed System for Fire Protection Notes Applicable to the spacing, bund wall design, fire protection, safety and security.

Applicable to the water spray system.

3.1. APPLICABLE DESIGN CODES & STANDARDS (8/9)

DOMESTIC (IN JAPAN)
高圧ガス保安法 LNG 地上式貯槽指針 高圧ガス保安法 LNG 地下式貯槽指針

高圧ガス保安法 High Press. Gas Control Low LNG 地上式貯槽指針 LNG Aboveground Tank

高圧ガス保安法 High Press. Gas Control Low LNG 地下式貯槽指針 LNG Underground Tank

消防法

プラント 安全規準

その他関連 法規・規準

3.1. APPLICABLE DESIGN CODES & STANDARDS (9/9)
Design Codes & Standards 高圧ガス保 安法 LNG 地上 式貯槽指針 経済産業省 社団法人 日本ガス協会 Description Notes Applicable to the above ground LNG storage tank in Japan

高圧ガス保 安法 LNG 地下 式貯槽指針

経済産業省 社団法人 日本ガス協会

Applicable to the under ground and/or in-ground LNG storage tank in Japan

3.2 Seismic Load

3.2 Seismic Load LNG Tanks shall be designed for two levels of seismic ground motion ( NFPA 59A, Para.4.1.3.2) OBE SSE Operating basis earthquake Safe shutdown earthquake

①OBE : 10% probability of exceedance within a 50-year period(=500years) ②SSE : 1% probability of exceedance within a 50-year period(=500years)

3.3 Liquid Temperature

o

3.3. TEMPERATURE RANGE FOR MATERIAL OF CRYOGENIC Classification STORAGE TANKS C F
o

30 20 10 0 - 10 - 20 - 30 - 40 - 50 - 60 - 70 - 80 - 90 - 100 - 110 - 120 - 130 - 140 - 150 - 160 - 170 - 180 - 190 - 200
o

Boiling Temperature of

80 Liquefied Gases 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 - 10 - 20 Ammonia : - 33.4oC ( - 28.1oF) - 30 : - 42.1oC ( - 43.8oF) - 40 Propane 46.0oC : - 47.7oC ( - 53.9oF) - 50 Propylene - 60 (o o o - 70 Hydrogen Sulfide : - 61.0 C ( - 77.8 F) 60.0oC 50.8 F) - 80 : - 65.0oC ( - 85.0oF) ( - 90 Radon o - 100 Carbon Dioxide : - 78.5oC ( -109.3oF) 76.0 F) - 110 Acetylene : - 84.0oC ( -119.2oF) - 120 : - 88.6oC ( -127.5oF) - 130 Ethane - 140 -101.0oC - 150 Ethylene : -103.5oC ( -154.3oF) - 160 Xenon : -108.0oC ( -162.4oF) ( - 170 -149.8oF) - 180 - 190 - 200 - 210 - 220 - 230 : -151.7oC ( -241.1oF) - 240 Krypton - 250 Methane : -161.5oC ( -258.7oF) - 260 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) - 270 - 280 - 290 Oxygen : -183.0oC ( -297.4oF) - 300 Argon : -185.5oC ( -301.9oF) - 310 : -195.8oC ( -320.4oF) -196.0oC - 320 Nitrogen - 330 (

of

Low temperature Service Steel
Low-Carbon Steel 0.20 ~ 0.35% C 0.15 ~ 0.30% Si <0.90% Mn Low-Alloy Steel (2.5% Ni Steel) Low-Alloy Steel (3.5% Ni 2.20 ~ 2.60% Ni Steel or Cr-Ni-Cu-Al Steel) 3.25 ~ 3.70% Ni or 0.75% Cr, 0.75% Ni 0.55% Cu, 0.15% Al

9% Ni Steel 8.50 ~ 9.50% Ni

-320.8o -452.2oF) on : -246.0 C ( -410.8oF), Hydrogen : -252.8oC ( -423.0oF), Helium : -269.0oC ( F)

Stainless Steel Type 304 or 304L

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