1997 RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE, AS AMENDED (RULES 1-71, RULES OF COURT) EFFECTIVE JULY 1, 1997 Per Resolution of the Supreme

Court in Bar Matter No. 803 Adopted in Baguio City on April 8, !!" RULES OF COURT Pursuant to the provisions of section 5 (5) of Article VIII of the Constitution, the Supreme Court hereby adopts and promulgates the follo ing rules concerning the protection and enforcement of constitutional rights, pleading, practice and procedure in all courts, the admission to the practice of la , the Integrated !ar, and legal assistance to the underprivileged"

RULE 1 Genera Pr!"#$#!n$ Se%&#!n 1' #itle of the Rules# $ %hese &ule shall be 'no n and cited as the &ules of Court# (() Se%&#!n (' $n %hat &ourts appli&a'le# $ %hese &ules shall apply in all the courts, e)cept as other ise provided by the Supreme Court# (n) Se%&#!n )' Cases go(erned# $ %hese &ules shall govern the procedure to be observed in actions, civil or criminal and special proceedings# (a) A civil action is one by hich a party sues another for the enforcement or protection of a right, or the prevention or redress of a rong, ((a, &*) A civil action may either be ordinary or special# !oth are governed by the rules for ordinary civil actions, sub+ect to the specific rules prescribed for a special civil action# (n) (b) A criminal action is one by hich the State prosecutes a person for an act or omission punishable by la # (n) (c) A special proceeding is a remedy by hich a party see's to establish a status, a right, or a particular fact# (*a, &*) Se%&#!n *' $n %hat &ase not appli&a'le# $ %hese &ules shall not apply to election cases, land registration, cadastral, naturali,ation and insolvency proceedings, and other cases not herein provided for, e)cept by analogy or in a suppletory character and henever practicable and convenient# (&(-.a)

Se%&#!n +' Commen&ement of a&tion# $ A civil action is commenced by the filing of the original complaint in court# If an additional defendant is impleaded in a later pleading, the action is commenced ith regard to him on the dated of the filing of such later pleading, irrespective of hether the motion for its admission, if necessary, is denied by the court# (/a) Se%&#!n ,' Constru&tion# $ %hese &ules shall be liberally construed in order to promote their ob+ective of securing a +ust, speedy and ine)pensive disposition of every action and proceeding# (*a)

C#"# A%&#!n$ Or-#nar. C#"# A%&#!n$

RULE ( Ca/$e !0 A%&#!n Se%&#!n 1' )rdinary &i(il a&tions, 'asis of. $ 0very ordinary civil action must be based on a cause of action# (n) Se%&#!n (' Cause of a&tion, defined# $ A cause of action is the act or omission by hich a party violates a right of another# (n) Se%&#!n )' )ne suit for a single &ause of a&tion# $ A party may not institute more than one suit for a single cause of action# (.a) Se%&#!n *' Splitting a single &ause of a&tion1 effe&t of. $ If t o or more suits are instituted on the basis of the same cause of action, the filing of one or a +udgment upon the merits in any one is available as a ground for the dismissal of the others# (-a) Se%&#!n +' *oinder of &auses of a&tion# $ A party may in one pleading assert, in the alternative or other ise, as many causes of action as he may have against an opposing party, sub+ect to the follo ing conditions" (a) %he party +oining the causes of action shall comply ith the rules on +oinder of parties1 (b) %he +oinder shall not include special civil actions or actions governed by special rules1 (c) 2here the causes of action are bet een the same parties but pertain to different venues or +urisdictions, the +oinder may be allo ed in the &egional %rial Court provided

one of the causes of action falls ithin the +urisdiction of said court and the venue lies therein1 and (d) 2here the claims in all the causes action are principally for recovery of money, the aggregate amount claimed shall be the test of +urisdiction# (5a) Se%&#!n ,' Mis+oinder of &auses of a&tion# $ 3is+oinder of causes of action is not a ground for dismissal of an action# A mis+oined cause of action may, on motion of a party or on the initiative of the court, be severed and proceeded ith separately# (n)

RULE ) Par&#e$ &! C#"# A%&#!n$ Se%&#!n 1' ,ho may 'e parties1 plaintiff and defendant# $ 4nly natural or +uridical persons, or entities authori,ed by la may be parties in a civil action# %he term 5plaintiff5 may refer to the claiming party, the counter6claimant, the cross6claimant, or the third (fourth, etc#) $ party plaintiff# %he term 5defendant5 may refer to the original defending party, the defendant in a counter6claim, the cross6defendant, or the third (fourth, etc#) $ party defendant# ((a) Se%&#!n (' Parties in interest# $ A real party in interest is the party ho stands to be benefited or in+ured by the +udgment in the suit, or the party entitled to the avails of the suit# 7nless other ise authori,ed by la or these &ules, every action must be prosecuted or defended in the name of the real party in interest# (*a) Se%&#!n )' Representati(es as parties# $ 2here the action is allo ed to be prosecuted and defended by a representative or someone acting in a fiduciary capacity, the beneficiary shall be included in the title of the case and shall be deemed to be the real property in interest# A representative may be a trustee of an e)pert trust, a guardian, an e)ecutor or administrator, or a party authori,ed by la or these &ules# An agent acting in his o n name and for the benefit of an undisclosed principal may sue or be sued ithout +oining the principal e)cept hen the contract involves things belonging to the principal# (.a) Se%&#!n *' Spouses as parties# $ 8usband and ife shall sue or be sued +ointly, e)cept as provided by la # (-a) Se%&#!n +' Minor or in&ompetent persons# $ A minor or a person alleged to be incompetent, may sue or be sued ith the assistance of his father, mother, guardian, or if he has none, a guardian ad litem# (5a) Se%&#!n ,' Permissi(e +oinder of parties# $ All persons in hom or against hom any right to relief in respect to or arising out of the same transaction or series of transactions is alleged to e)ist, hether +ointly, severally, or in the alternative, may, e)cept as other ise provided in these &ules, +oin as plaintiffs or be +oined as defendants in one complaint, here any 9uestion of la

ithout +ustifiable cause. shall be deemed a aiver of the claim against such party# %he non6inclusion of a necessary party does not prevent the court from proceeding in the action.or fact common to all such plaintiffs or to all such defendants may arise in the action1 but the court may ma'e such orders as may be +ust to prevent any plaintiff or defendant from being embarrassed or put to e)pense in connection ith any proceedings in hich he may have no interest# (/n) Se%&#!n 7' Compulsory +oinder of indispensa'le parties# $ Parties in interest ithout hom no final determination can be had of an action shall be +oined either as plaintiffs or defendants# (:) Se%&#!n 1' Ne&essary party# $ A necessary party is one ho is not indispensable but ho ought to be +oined as a party if complete relief is to be accorded as to those already parties.a) Se%&#!n 9' Non-+oinder of ne&essary parties to 'e pleaded# $ 2henever in any pleading in hich a claim is asserted a necessary party is not +oined. $ If the consent of any party ho should be +oined as plaintiff can not be obtained. the pleader shall set forth his name. and shall state hy he is omitted# Should the court find the reason for the omission unmeritorious. although a right to relief against one may be inconsistent ith a right of relief against the other# ((. he may +oin any or all of them as defendants in the alternative.a) .n%illing &o-plaintiff. and the +udgment rendered therein shall be ithout pre+udice to the rights of such necessary party# (. if 'no n.a. a number of them hich the court finds to be sufficiently numerous and representative as to fully protect the interests of all concerned may sue or defend for the benefit of all# Any party in interest shall have the right to intervene to protect his individual interest# ((*a) Se%&#!n 1)' Alternati(e defendants# $ 2here the plaintiff is uncertain against ho of several persons he is entitled to relief. <a) Se%&#!n 12' . or for a complete determination or settlement of the claim sub+ect of the action# (. it may order the inclusion of the omitted necessary party if +urisdiction over his person may be obtained# %he failure to comply ith the order for his inclusion. he may be made a defendant and the reason therefor shall be stated in the complaint# ((=) Se%&#!n 11' Mis+oinder and non-+oinder of parties# $ >either mis+oinder nor non6+oinder of parties is ground for dismissal of an action# Parties may be dropped or added by order of the court on motion of any party or on its o n initiative at any stage the action and on such terms as are +ust# Any claim against a mis+oined party may be severed and proceeded ith separately# (((a) Se%&#!n 1(' Class suit# $ 2hen the sub+ect matter of the controversy is one of common or general interest to many persons so numerous that it is impracticable to +oin all as parties.

or if the one so named shall fail to appear ithin the specified period. the action may be continued and maintained by or against his successor if.=) days after such death of the fact thereof. the court. hen his identity or true name is discovered. may be recovered as costs# ((/a. the party or officer to be affected. or other ise ceases to hold office. the name and addresses of the persons composing said entity must all be revealed# ((5a) Se%&#!n 1.Se%&#!n 1*' .=) days after the successor ta'es office or such time as may be granted by the court. he may be sued as the un'no n o ner heir devisee. ithin a specified time to procure the appointment of an e)ecutor or administrator for the estate of the deceased and the latter shall immediately appear for and on behalf of the deceased# %he court charges in procuring such appointment. if defrayed by the opposing party. may allo the action to be continued by or against the incompetent or incapacitated person assisted by his legal guardian or guardian ad litem# ((<a) . they may be sued under the name by hich they are generally or commonly 'no n# In the ans er of such defendant. ithout re9uiring the appointment of an e)ecutor or administrator and the court may appoint a guardian ad litem for the minor heirs# %he court shall forth ith order said legal representative or representatives to appear and be substituted ithin a period of thirty (.=) days from notice# If no legal representative is named by the counsel for the deceased party. shall be given reasonable notice of the application therefor and accorded an opportunity to be heard# ((. upon motion ith notice. it shall be the duty of his counsel to inform the court ithin thirty (. or by such other designation as the case may re9uire.' 1eath of party1 duty of &ounsel# $ 2henever a party to a pending action dies. and to give the name and address of his legal representative or representatives# ?ailure of counsel to comply ith his duty shall be a ground for disciplinary action# %he heirs of the deceased may be allo ed to be substituted for the deceased.ed as an entity ith +uridical personality enter into a transaction. ithin thirty (. and the claim is not thereby e)tinguished. (:a) Se%&#!n 17' 1eath or separation of a party %ho is a pu'li& offi&er# $ 2hen a public officer is a party in an action in his official capacity and during its pendency dies. the pleading must be amended accordingly# ((-) Se%&#!n 1+' 0ntity %ithout +uridi&al personality as defendant# $ 2hen t o or more persons not organi. the court may order the opposing party. it is satisfactorily sho n to the court by any party that there is a substantial need for continuing or maintaining it and that the successor adopts or continues or threatens to adopt or continue to adopt or continue the action of his predecessor# !efore a substitution is made. resigns.a) Se%&#!n 11' $n&ompeten&y or in&apa&ity# $ If a party becomes incompetent or incapacitated. unless e)pressly assenting thereto.n/no%n identity or name of defendant# $ 2henever the identity or name of a defendant is un'no n.

ed to litigate his action. shall be commenced and tried in the proper court hich has +urisdiction over the area herein the real property involved. and of transcripts of stenographic notes hich the court may order to be furnished him# %he amount of the doc'et and other la ful fees hich the indigent as e)empted from paying shall be a lien on any +udgment rendered in the case favorable to the indigent. rules or regulations. or interest therein. e)ecution shall issue or the payment thereof.a) RULE * Ven/e !0 A%&#!n$ Se%&#!n 1' 4enue of real a&tions# $ Actions affecting title to or possession of real property. is satisfied that the party is one ho has no money or property sufficient and available for food. the proper doc'et and other la ful fees shall be assessed and collected by the cler' of court# If payment is not made ithin the time fi)ed by the court. may re9uire the appearance of the Solicitor @eneral ho may be heard in person or a representative duly designated by him# (*. unless the court other ise provides# Any adverse party may contest the grant of such authority at any time before +udgment is rendered by the trial court# If the court should determine after hearing that the party declared as an indigent is in fact a person ith sufficient income or property. e)press or implied. upon an e2 parte application and hearing. in its discretion. and the defendant dies before entry of final +udgment in the court in hich the action as pending at the time of such death. is situated# . unless the court upon motion directs the person to hom the interest is transferred to be substituted in the action or +oined ith the original party# (*=) Se%&#!n (2' A&tion and &ontra&tual money &laims# $ 2hen the action is for recovery of money arising from contract. presidential decree. claim or defense as an indigent if the court. shelter and basic necessities for himself and his family# Such authority shall include an e)emption from payment of doc'et and other la ful fees. la . the action may be continued by or against the original party.Se%&#!n 19' #ransfer of interest# $ In case of any transfer of interest. it shall not be dismissed but shall instead be allo ed to continue until entry of final +udgment# A favorable +udgment obtained by the plaintiff therein shall be enforced in the manner especially provided in these &ules for prosecuting claims against the estate of a deceased person# (*(a) Se%&#!n (1' $ndigent party# $ A party may be authori. e)ecutive order. ordinance. or a portion thereof. the court. ithout pre+udice to such other sanctions as the court may impose# (**a) Se%&#!n ((' Noti&e to the Soli&itor 3eneral# $ In any action involving the validity of any treaty.

at the election of the plaintiff# (*AbBa) Se%&#!n )' 4enue of a&tions against nonresidents# $ If any of the defendants does not reside and is not found in the Philippines. or in the case of a non6resident defendant here he may be found. or here the defendant or any of the principal defendants resides. the action may be commenced and tried in the court of the place here the plaintiff resides. or a portion thereof. 5a) RULE + Un#0!r3 Pr!%e-/re In Tr#a C!/r&$ Se%&#!n 1' . 3unicipal %rial Courts in Cities. or any property of said defendant located in the Philippines.hen Rule not appli&a'le# $ %his &ule shall not apply# (a) In those cases here a specific rule or la provides other ise1 or (b) 2here the parties have validly agreed in riting before the filing of the action on the e)clusive venue thereof# (. is situated# ((AaB. 3unicipal %rial Courts.a.niform pro&edure# $ %he procedure in the 3unicipal %rial Courts shall be the same as in the &egional %rial Courts. or here the property or any portion thereof is situated or found# (*AcBa) Se%&#!n *' . e)cept (a) here a particular provision e)pressly or impliedly applies only to either of said courts.?orcible entry and detainer actions shall be commenced and tried in the municipal trial court of the municipality or city herein the real property involved. 5#n-$ O0 P ea-#n4$ . and 3unicipal Circuit %rial Courts# ((a) Pr!%e-/re In Re4#!na Tr#a C!/r&$ RULE . *AaBa) Se%&#!n (' 4enue of personal a&tions# $ All other actions may be commenced and tried here the plaintiff or any of the principal plaintiffs resides. and the action affects the personal status of the plaintiff. or (b) in civil cases governed by the &ule on Summary Procedure# (n) Se%&#!n (' Meaning of terms# $ %he term 53unicipal %rial Courts5 as used in these &ules shall include 3etropolitan %rial Courts.

being cogni. hile hypothetically admitting the material allegations in the pleading of the claimant. former recovery.able by the regular courts of +ustice. cross6claim. illegality. e)cept that in an original action before the &egional %rial Court. release. payment. statute of frauds. and any other matter by ay of confession and avoidance# (5a) Se%&#!n . arises out of or is connected ith the transaction or occurrence constituting the sub+ect matter of the opposing partyCs claim and does not re9uire for its ad+udication the presence of third parties of hom the court cannot ac9uire +urisdiction# Such a counterclaim must be ithin the +urisdiction of the court both as to the amount and the nature thereof.Se%&#!n 1' Pleadings defined# $ Pleadings are the ritten statements of the respective claims and defenses of the parties submitted to the court for appropriate +udgment# ((a) Se%&#!n (' Pleadings allo%ed# $ %he claims of a party are asserted in a complaint. counterclaim. the counter6claim may be considered compulsory regardless of the amount# (n) Se%&#!n 1' Cross-&laim# $ A cross6claim is any claim by one party against a co6party arising out of the transaction or occurrence that is the sub+ect matter either of the original action or of a counterclaim therein# Such cross6claim may include a claim that the party against hom it is asserted is or may be liable to the cross6claimant for all or part of a claim asserted in the action against the cross6claimant# (:) . estoppel. ould nevertheless prevent or bar recovery by him# %he affirmative defenses include fraud. discharge in ban'ruptcy. third (fourth. statute of limitations. etc#)6party complaint.' Counter&laim# $ A counterclaim is any claim hich a defending party may have against an opposing party# (/a) Se%&#!n 7' Compulsory &ounter&laim# $ A compulsory counterclaim is one hich.a) Se%&#!n *' Ans%er# $ An ans er is a pleading in hich a defending party sets forth his defenses# (-a) Se%&#!n +' 1efenses# $ Defenses may either be negative or affirmative# (a) A negative defense is the specific denial of the material fact or facts alleged in the pleading of the claimant essential to his cause or causes of action# (b) An affirmative defense is an allegation of a ne matter hich. or complaint6in6intervention# %he defenses of a party are alleged in the ans er to the pleading asserting a claim against him# An ans er may be responded to by a reply# (n) Se%&#!n )' Complaint# $ %he complaint is the pleading alleging the plaintiffCs cause or causes of action# %he names and residences of the plaintiff and defendant must be stated in the complaint# (.

*a) Se%&#!n (' #he 'ody# $ %he body of the pleading sets fourth its designation. counterclaims or cross6claims. including such defenses that the third (fourth. etc#) $ party defendant for contribution. it shall be sufficient if the name of the first party on each side be stated ith an appropriate indication hen there are other parties# %heir respective participation in the case shall be indicated# ((a. or allege facts in denial or avoidance of ne matters alleged by ay of defense in the ans er and thereby +oin or ma'e issue as to such ne matters# If a party does not file such reply. and the doc'et number if assigned# %he title of the action indicates the names of the parties# %hey shall all be named in the original complaint or petition1 but in subse9uent pleadings. the title of the action. and the date of the pleading# (n) . the office or function of hich is to deny. 5fourth. etc#) $ party plaintiff may have against the original plaintiffCs claim# In proper cases. such claims shall be set forth in an amended or supplemental complaint# ((() Se%&#!n 11' #hird. called the third (fourth.67party &omplaint# $ A third (fourth. the relief prayed for. et&. et&. etc#) $ party complaint is a claim that a defending party may. subrogation or any other relief.Se%&#!n 9' Counter-&ounter&laims and &ounter-&ross&laims# $ A counter6claim may be asserted against an original counter6claimant# A cross6claim may also be filed against an original cross6claimant# (n) Se%&#!n 12' Reply# $ A reply is a pleading. all the ne matters alleged in the ans er are deemed controverted# If the plaintiff ishes to interpose any claims arising out of the ne matters so alleged. ith leave of court. if +urisdiction over them can be obtained# ((-) Se%&#!n 1)' Ans%er to third 5fourth. in respect of his opponentCs claim# ((*a) Se%&#!n 1(' Bringing ne% parties# $ 2hen the presence of parties other than those to the original action is re9uired for the granting of complete relief in the determination of a counterclaim or cross6claim.67party &omplaint# $ A third (fourth. the court shall order them to be brought in as defendants. indemnity. file against a person not a party to the action. he may also assert a counterclaim against the original plaintiff in respect of the latterCs claim against the third6party plaintiff# (n) RULE 7 Par&$ !0 a P ea-#n4 Se%&#!n 1' Caption# $ %he caption sets forth the name of the court. etc#) $ party defendant may allege in his ans er his defenses. the allegations of the partyCs claims or defenses.

&/) (d) 1ate# $ 0very pleading shall be dated# (n) Se%&#!n )' Signature and address# $ 0very pleading must be signed by the party or counsel representing him. and so on for the others# 2hen one or more paragraphs in the ans er are addressed to one of several causes of action in the complaint. the court may. or in a s orn certification anne)ed thereto and simultaneously filed there ith" (a) that he has not theretofore . stating in either case his address hich should not be a post office bo)# %he signature of counsel constitutes a certificate by him that he has read the pleading1 that to the best of his 'no ledge.a) (b) 8eadings# $ 2hen t o or more causes of action are +oined the statement of the first shall be prefaced by the ords 5first cause of action. they shall be prefaced by the ords 5ans er to the first cause of action5 or 5ans er to the second cause of action5 and so on1 and hen one or more paragraphs of the ans er are addressed to several causes of action. allo such deficiency to be remedied if it shall appear that the same as due to mere inadvertence and not intended for delay# Counsel ho deliberately files an unsigned pleading. they shall be prefaced by ords to that effect# (-) (c) Relief. $ %he pleading shall specify the relief sought. or lac's a proper verification. each of hich shall contain a statement of a single set of circumstances so far as that can be done ith convenience# A paragraph may be referred to by its number in all succeeding pleadings# (. verified or accompanied by affidavit #(5a) A pleading is verified by an affidavit that the affiant has read the pleading and that the allegations therein are true and correct of his 'no ledge and belief# A pleading re9uired to be verified hich contains a verification based on 5information and belief5. or fails promptly report to the court a change of his address. or upon 5'no ledge. pleadings need not be under oath.CC of the second by 5second cause of action5. information and belief5. and belief there is good ground to support it1 and that it is not interposed for delay# An unsigned pleading produces no legal effect# 8o ever.(a) Paragraphs# $ %he allegations in the body of a pleading shall be divided into paragraphs so numbered to be readily identified. information. or alleges scandalous or indecent matter therein. shall be sub+ect to appropriate disciplinary action# (5a) Se%&#!n *' 4erifi&ation# $ 0)cept hen other ise specifically re9uired by la or rule. or signs a pleading in violation of this &ule.a. in its discretion. but it may add a general prayer for such further or other relief as may be deemed +ust or e9uitable# (. shall be treated as an unsigned pleading# (/a) Se%&#!n +' Certifi&ation against forum shopping# $ %he plaintiff or principal party shall certify under oath in the complaint or other initiatory pleading asserting a claim for relief.

must be averred# A party desiring to raise an issue as to the legal e)istence of any party or the capacity of any party to sue or be sued in a representative capacity. the pleading is not made insufficient by the insufficiency of one or more of the alternative statements# (*) Se%&#!n )' Conditions pre&edent# $ In any pleading a general averment of the performance or occurrence of all conditions precedent shall be sufficient# (. either in one cause of action or defense or in separate causes of action or defenses# 2hen t o or more statements are made in the alternative and one of them if made independently ould be sufficient. to the best of his 'no ledge. as the case may be. hich shall include such supporting particulars as are peculiarly ithin the pleaderCs 'no ledge# (-) . shall do so by specific denial. a plain. a complete statement of the present status thereof1 and (c) if he should thereafter learn that the same or similar action or claim has been filed or is pending. omitting the statement of mere evidentiary facts# (() If a defense relied on is based on la .ed association of person that is made a party. the pertinent provisions thereof and their applicability to him shall be clearly and concisely stated# (n) Se%&#!n (' Alternati(e &auses of a&tion or defenses# $ A party may set forth t o or more statements of a claim or defense alternatively or hypothetically. concise and direct statement of the ultimate facts on hich the party pleading relies for his claim or defense.commenced any action or filed any claim involving the same issues in any court. tribunal or 9uasi6+udicial agency and. no such other action or claim is pending therein1 (b) if there is such other pending action or claim. unless other ise provided. upon motion and after hearing# %he submission of a false certification or non6compliance ith any of the underta'ings therein shall constitute indirect contempt of court. he shall report that fact ithin five (5) days therefrom to the court herein his aforesaid complaint or initiatory pleading has been filed# ?ailure to comply ith the foregoing re9uirements shall not be curable by mere amendment of the complaint or other initiatory pleading but shall be cause for the dismissal of the case ithout pre+udice. as ell as a cause for administrative sanctions# (n) RULE 1 Manner !0 Ma6#n4 A e4a&#!n$ #n P ea-#n4$ Se%&#!n 1' $n general# $ 0very pleading shall contain in a methodical and logical form. the same shall be ground for summary dismissal ith pre+udice and shall constitute direct contempt.) Se%&#!n *' Capa&ity# $ ?acts sho ing the capacity of a party to sue or be sued or the authority of a party to sue or be sued in a representative capacity or the legal e)istence of an organi. ithout pre+udice to the corresponding administrative and criminal actions# If the acts of the party or his counsel clearly constitute illful and deliberate forum shopping.

under oath specifically denies them. he shall so state. &<) Se%&#!n 1(' Stri/ing out of pleading or matter &ontained therein# $ 7pon motion made by a party before responding to a pleading or. it is sufficient to aver that the document as issued or the act done in compliance ith la # (<) Se%&#!n 12' Spe&ifi& denial# $ A defendant must specify each material allegation of fact the truth of hich he does not admit and. henever practicable. &ondition of the mind# $ In all averments of fraud or mista'e the circumstances constituting fraud or mista'e must be stated ith particularity# 3alice. or said copy may ith li'e effect be set forth in the pleading# (:) Se%&#!n 1' 8o% to &ontest su&h do&uments# $ 2hen an action or defense is founded upon a ritten instrument. the court may order any pleading to be stric'en out or that any sham or false. or upon the courtCs o n initiative at any time. shall set forth the substance of the matters upon hich he relies to support his denial# 2here a defendant desires to deny only a part of an averment.Se%&#!n +' 9raud. the substance of such instrument or document shall be set forth in the pleading. impertinent. and this shall have the effect of a denial# ((=a) Se%&#!n 11' Allegations not spe&ifi&ally denied deemed admitted# $ 3aterial averment in the complaint. if no responsive pleading is permitted by these &ules. immaterial. &<) . or of a board or officer. upon motion made by a party ithin t enty (*=) days after the service of the pleading upon him. copied in or attached to the corresponding pleading as provided in the preceding section. or other condition of the mind of a person may be averred generally#(5a) Se%&#!n .' *udgment# $ In pleading a +udgment or decision of a domestic or foreign court. hich shall be deemed to be a part of the pleading. 'no ledge. or scandalous matter be stric'en out therefrom# (5. he shall specify so much of it as is true and material and shall deny only the remainder# 2here a defendant is ithout 'no ledge or information sufficient to form a belief as to the truth of a material averment made to the complaint. and sets forth hat he claims to be the facts. it is sufficient to aver the +udgment or decision ithout setting forth matter sho ing +urisdiction to render it# (/) Se%&#!n 7' A&tion or defense 'ased on do&ument# $ 2henever an action or defense is based upon a ritten instrument or document.a) Se%&#!n 9' )ffi&ial do&ument or a&t# $ In pleading an official document or official act. but the re9uirement of an oath does not apply hen the adverse party does not appear to be a party to the instrument or hen compliance ith an order for an inspection of the original instrument is refused# (. intent. redundant. mista/e. +udicial or 9uasi6+udicial tribunal. and the original or a copy thereof shall be attached to the pleading as an e)hibit. other than those as to the amount of unli9uidated damages. the genuineness and due e)ecution of the instrument shall be deemed admitted unless the adverse party. shall be deemed admitted hen not specifically denied# Allegations of usury in a complaint to recover usurious interest are deemed admitted if not denied under oath# ((a.

not set up shall be barred# (-a) Se%&#!n )' 1efault1 de&laration of. and proof of such failure.) (b) Relief from order of default# $ A party declared in default may at any time after notice thereof and before +udgment file a motion under oath to set aside the order of default upon proper sho ing that his failure to ans er as due to fraud. declare the defending party in default# %hereupon. $ If the defending party fails to ans er ithin the time allo ed therefor. the court shall dismiss the claim# (*a) Se%&#!n (' Compulsory &ounter&laim. accident.a. the court shall try the case against all upon the ans ers thus filed and render +udgment upon the evidence presented# (-a. to intervene for the State in order to see to it that the evidence submitted is not fabricated# (/a. and if there is no collusion. not set up 'arred# $ A compulsory counterclaim. unless the court in its discretion re9uires the claimant to submit evidence# Such reception of evidence may be delegated to the cler' of court# ((a. some of hom ans er and the others fail to do so.RULE 9 E00e%& !0 Fa# /re &! P eaSe%&#!n 1' 1efenses and o'+e&tions not pleaded# $ Defenses and ob+ections not pleaded either in a motion to dismiss or in the ans er are deemed aived# 8o ever. upon motion of the claiming party ith notice to the defending party. the court shall order the prosecuting attorney to investigate hether or not a collusion bet een the parties e)ists. that there is another action pending bet een the same parties for the same cause. &(. &(.) (a) 0ffe&t of order of default# $ A party in default shall be entitled to notice of subse9uent proceedings but not to ta'e part in the trial# (*a. mista'e or e)cusable negligence and that he has a meritorious defense# In such case.)# (d) 02tent of relief to 'e a%arded# $ A +udgment rendered against a party in default shall not e)ceed the amount or be different in 'ind from that prayed for nor a ard unli9uidated damages# (5a. &(. &(. or &ross-&laim. hen it appears from the pleadings or the evidence on record that the court has no +urisdiction over the sub+ect matter. the order of default may be set aside on such terms and conditions as the +udge may impose in the interest of +ustice# (.here no defaults allo%ed# $ If the defending party in an action for annulment or declaration of nullity of marriage or for legal separation fails to ans er. or a cross6claim.) . &(. &(. or that the action is barred by a prior +udgment or by statute of limitations. the court shall proceed to render +udgment granting the claimant such relief as his pleading may arrant. the court shall.)# (e) .) (c) 0ffe&t of partial default# $ 2hen a pleading asserting a claim states a common cause of action against several defending parties.

and after notice to the adverse party. shall be filed# (:a) . the court may allo the pleadings to be amended and shall do so ith liberality if the presentation of the merits of the action and the ends of substantial +ustice ill be subserved thereby# %he court may grant a continuance to enable the amendment to be made# (5a) Se%&#!n .RULE 12 A3en-e. or by correcting a mista'e in the name of a party or a mista'en or inade9uate allegation or description in any other respect. so that the actual merits of the controversy may speedily be determined. a ne copy of the entire pleading. hich shall be indicated by appropriate mar's. incorporating the amendments.' Supplemental pleadings# $ 7pon motion of a party the court may. upon reasonable notice and upon such terms as are +ust. provided no pre+udice is caused thereby to the adverse party# (-a) Se%&#!n +' Amendment to &onform to or authori:e presentation of e(iden&e# $ 2hen issues not raised by the pleadings are tried ith the e)press or implied consent of the parties they shall be treated in all respects as if they had been raised in the pleadings# Such amendment of the pleadings as may be necessary to cause them to conform to the evidence and to raise these issues may be made upon motion of any party at any time. in the case of a reply. at its initiative or on motion. ithout regard to technicalities. occurrences or events hich have happened since the date of the pleading sought to be supplemented# %he adverse party may plead thereto ithin ten ((=) days from notice of the order admitting the supplemental pleading# (/a) Se%&#!n 7' 9iling of amended pleadings# $ 2hen any pleading is amended. permit him to serve a supplemental pleading setting forth transactions.a) Se%&#!n *' 9ormal amendments# $ A defect in the designation of the parties and other clearly clerical or typographical errors may be summarily corrected by the court at any stage of the action. and an opportunity to be heard# (. even after +udgment1 but failure to amend does not effect the result of the trial of these issues# If evidence is ob+ected to at the trial on the ground that it is not ithin the issues made by the pleadings. at any time ithin ten ((=) days after it is served# (*a) Se%&#!n )' Amendments 'y lea(e of &ourt# $ 0)cept as provided in the ne)t preceding section. substantial amendments may be made only upon leave of court# !ut such leave may be refused if it appears to the court that the motion as made ith intent to delay# 4rders of the court upon the matters provided in this section shall be made upon motion filed in court. and in the most e)peditious and ine)pensive manner# (() Se%&#!n (' Amendments as a matter of right# $ A party may amend his pleading once as a matter of right at any time before a responsive pleading is served or.an.S/77 e3en&a P ea-#n4$ Se%&#!n 1' Amendments in general# $ Pleadings may be amended by adding or stri'ing out an allegation or the name of any party.

the defendant shall ans er the same ithin fifteen ((5) days after being served ith a copy thereof# 2here its filing is not a matter of right. unless a different period is fi)ed by the court# (la) Se%&#!n (' Ans%er of a defendant foreign pri(ate +uridi&al entity# $ 2here the defendant is a foreign private +uridical entity and service of summons is made on the government official designated by la to receive the same.a) Se%&#!n *' Ans%er to &ounter&laim or &ross-&laim# $ A counterclaim or cross6claim must be ans ered ithin ten ((=) days from service# (-) Se%&#!n +' Ans%er to third 5fourth.=) days after receipt of summons by such entity# (*a) Se%&#!n )' Ans%er to amended &omplaint# $ 2hen the plaintiff files an amended complaint as a matter of right. etc#)$party complaint. et&.' Reply# $ A reply may be filed ithin ten ((=) days from service of the pleading responded to# (/) Se%&#!n 7' Ans%er to supplemental &omplain# $ A supplemental complaint may be ans ered ithin ten ((=) days from notice of the order admitting the same. the ans er shall be filed ithin thirty (. unless a different period is fi)ed by the court# %he ans er to the complaint shall serve as the ans er to the supplemental complaint if no ne or supplemental ans er is filed# (n) .6-party &omplaint# $ %he time to ans er a third (fourth. etc#)$party complaint shall be governed by the same rule as the ans er to the complaint# (5a) Se%&#!n . amended third (fourth. and claims or defenses alleged therein not incorporated in the amended pleading shall be deemed aived# (n) RULE 11 89en &! F# e Re$7!n$#"e P ea-#n4$ Se%&#!n 1' Ans%er to the &omplaint# $ %he defendant shall file his ans er to the complaint ithin fifteen ((5) days after service of summons.Se%&#!n 1' 0ffe&t of amended pleadings# $ An amended pleading supersedes the pleading that it amends# 8o ever. and amended complaint6in6intervention# (. amended cross6claim. the defendant shall ans er the amended complaint ithin ten (l=) days from notice of the order admitting the same# An ans er earlier filed may serve as the ans er to the amended complaint if no ne ans er is filed# %his &ule shall apply to the ans er to an amended counterclaim. admissions in superseded pleadings may be received in evidence against the pleader.

Se%&#!n 1' 02isting &ounter&laim or &ross-&laim# $ A compulsory counterclaim or a cross6claim that a defending party has at the time he files his ans er shall be contained therein# (. either in hole or in part. set up the counterclaim or cross6claim by amendment before +udgment# (. or allo the parties the opportunity to be heard# (n) Se%&#!n )' Complian&e %ith order# $ If the motion is granted. upon li'e terms. or in case of insufficient compliance there ith. or e)cusable neglect. a party may move for a definite statement or for a bill of particulars of any matter hich is not averted ith sufficient definiteness or particularity to enable him properly to prepare his responsive pleading# If the pleading is a reply. or hen +ustice re9uires. the court may order the stri'ing out of the pleading or the portions thereof to hich the order as directed or ma'e such other order as it deems +ust# ((AcBa) . allo an ans er or other pleading to be filed after the time fi)ed by these &ules# (:) RULE 1( :# !0 Par&#%/ ar$ Se%&#!n 1' . &/) Se%&#!n 9' Counter&laim or &ross-&laim arising after ans%er# $ A counterclaim or a cross6claim hich either matured or as ac9uired by a party after serving his pleading may. the compliance there ith must be effected ithin ten ((=) days from notice of the order.. by leave of court. unless a different period is fi)ed by the court# %he bill of particulars or a more definite statement ordered by the court may be filed either in a separate or in an amended pleading.hen applied for1 purpose# $ !efore responding to a pleading. be presented as a counterclaim or a cross6claim by supplemental pleading before +udgment# (<. the motion must be filed ithin ten ((=) days from service thereof# Such motion shall point out the defects complained of. ith the permission of the court. serving a copy thereof on the adverse party# (n) Se%&#!n *' 0ffe&t of non-&omplian&e# $ If the order is not obeyed. &<) Se%&#!n 11' 02tension of time to plead# $ 7pon motion and on such terms as may be +ust. the cler' of court must immediately bring it to the attention of the court hich may either deny or grant it outright. &/) Se%&#!n 12' )mitted &ounter&laim or &ross-&laim# $ 2hen a pleader fails to set up a counterclaim or a cross6claim through oversight. the court may e)tend the time to plead provided in these &ules# %he court may also. he may. and the details desired# ((a) Se%&#!n (' A&tion 'y the &ourt# $ 7pon the filing of the motion. the paragraphs herein they are contained.a. inadvertence.

as ell as the service thereof. +udgments and all other papers shall be made by presenting the original copies thereof. or by leaving it in his office ith his cler' or ith a person having charge thereof# If no person is found in his office. then by leaving the copy. notices. personally to the cler' of court or by sending them by registered mail# In the first case. notice.O&9er Pa7er$ Se%&#!n 1' Co(erage# $ %his &ule shall govern the filing of all pleadings and other papers. hich shall not be less than five (5) days in any event# ((AbBa) Se%&#!n .Ser"#%e !0 P ea-#n4$.a) Se%&#!n .Se%&#!n +' Stay of period to file responsi(e pleading# $ After service of the bill of particulars or of a more definite pleading. service upon him shall be made upon his counsel or one of them. shall be considered as the date of their filing. as sho n by the post office stamp on the envelope or the registry receipt. payment. or deposit in court# %he envelope shall be attached to the record of the case# ((a) Se%&#!n *' Papers re. the moving party may file his responsive pleading ithin the period to hich he as entitled at the time of filing his motion. e)cept those for hich a different mode of service is prescribed# (n) Se%&#!n (' 9iling and ser(i&e. pleadings. and served upon the parties affected# (*a) Se%&#!n +' Modes of ser(i&e# $ Service of pleadings motions. plainly indicated as such. the cler' of court shall endorse on the pleading the date and hour of filing# In the second case. +udgments and other papers shall be made either personally or by mail# (. or he has no office. appearance. bet een the hours of eight in the morning and si) in the . defined# $ ?iling is the act of presenting the pleading or other paper to the cler' of court# Service is the act of providing a party ith a copy of the pleading or paper concerned# If any party has appeared by counsel. orders. J/-43en&$ an. offer of +udgment or similar papers shall be filed ith the court. orders. pleading subse9uent to the complaint. or after notice of denial of his motion. resolution. the date of the mailing of motions. or his office is not 'no n. he shall only be entitled to one copy of any paper served upon him by the opposite side# (*a) Se%&#!n )' Manner of filing# $ %he filing of pleadings.uired to 'e filed and ser(ed# $ 0very +udgment. order. motions. demand. appearances. notices. unless service upon the party himself is ordered by the court# 2here one counsel appears for several parties. or any other papers or payments or deposits.' Bill a part of pleading# $ A bill of particulars becomes part of the pleading for hich it is intended# ((AaBa) RULE 1) F# #n4 an. ritten motion.' Personal ser(i&e# $ Service of the papers may be made by delivering personally a copy to the party or his counsel.

containing a full statement of the date. by the registry receipt and by the affidavit of the person ho did the mailing. ith proof of failure of both personal service and service by mail# %he service is complete at the time of such delivery# (/a) Se%&#!n 9' Ser(i&e of +udgments.a) Se%&#!n 11' Priorities in modes of ser(i&e and filing# $ 2henever practicable. final orders. if 'no n.=.. +udgments. the filing shall be proved by the ritten or stamped ac'no ledgment of its filing by the cler' of court on a copy of the same1 if filed by registered mail. the service and filing of pleadings and other papers shall be done personally# 0)cept ith respect to papers emanating from the court. place and manner of service# If the service is by ordinary mail.) Se%&#!n 1' Su'stituted ser(i&e# $ If service of pleadings. (: ?ebruary (<<. proof thereof shall consist of an affidavit of the person mailing of facts sho ing . unless the court other ise provides# Service by registered mail is complete upon actual receipt by the addressee. orders and other papers cannot be made under the t o preceding sections. or resolutions# $ Eudgments. a resort to other modes must be accompanied by a ritten e)planation hy the service or filing as not done personally# A violation of this &ule may be cause to consider the paper as not filed# (n) Se%&#!n 1(' Proof of filing# $ %he filing of a pleading or paper shall be proved by its e)istence in the record of the case# If it is not in the record. final orders or resolutions against him shall be served upon him also by publication at the e)pense of the prevailing party# (:a) Se%&#!n 12' Completeness of ser(i&e# $ Personal service is complete upon actual delivery# Service by ordinary mail is complete upon the e)piration of ten ((=) days after mailing. ith postage fully prepaid. and ith instructions to the postmaster to return the mail to the sender after ten ((=) days if not delivered# (n) Se%&#!n 1)' Proof of Ser(i&e# $ Proof of personal service shall consist of a ritten admission of the party served. service may be made by delivering the copy to the cler' of court. but is claimed to have been filed personally. the office and place of residence of the party or his counsel being un'no n. if 'no n. notices. or the official return of the server. other ise at his residence. at the partyCs or counselCs residence. or the affidavit of the party serving. resolutions. ith postage fully prepaid. and ith instructions to the postmaster to return the mail to the sender after ten ((=) days if undelivered# If no registry service is available in the locality of either the senders or the addressee.evening. final orders or resolutions shall be served either personally or by registered mail# 2hen a party summoned by publication has failed to appear in the action. plainly addressed to the party or his counsel at his office. if 'no n. hichever date is earlier# (. containing a full statement of the date and place of depositing the mail in the post office in a sealed envelope addressed to the court. motions. or after five (5) days from the date he received the first notice of the postmaster. ith a person of sufficient age and discretion then residing therein# (-a) Se%&#!n 7' Ser(i&e 'y mail# $ Service by registered mail shall be made by depositing the copy in the post office in a sealed envelope. service may be done by ordinary mail# (5a1 !ar 3atter >o# .

proof shall be made by such affidavit and the registry receipt issued by the mailing office# %he registry return card shall be filed immediately upon its receipt by the sender. personally or by registered mail. or in lieu thereof the unclaimed letter together ith the certified or s orn copy of the notice given by the postmaster to the addressee# ((=a) Se%&#!n 1*' Noti&e of lis pendens# $ In an action affecting the title or the right of possession of real property. signed by the cler' of court under seal and contain (a) the name of the court and the names of the parties to the action1 (b) a direction that the defendant ans er ithin the time fi)ed by these &ules1 (c) a notice that unless the defendant so ans ers plaintiff ill ta'e +udgment by default and may be granted the relief applied for# A copy of the complaint and order for appointment of guardian ad litem if any. or for +ustifiable reasons by any suitable person authori. or other proper court officer. the plaintiff and the defendant.compliance ith section : of this &ule# If service is made by registered mail. the server shall. his deputy. hen affirmative relief is claimed in his ans er. the cler' of court shall forth ith issue the corresponding summons to the defendants# ((a) Se%&#!n (' Contents# $ %he summons shall be directed to the defendant. may record in the office of the registry of deeds of the province in hich the property is situated notice of the pendency of the action# Said notice shall contain the names of the parties and the ob+ect of the action or defense. be deemed to have constructive notice of the pendency of the action. serve a copy of the return. or encumbrancer of the property affected thereby. and a description of the property in that province affected thereby# 4nly from the time of filing such notice for record shall a purchaser.ed by the court issuing the summons# (5a) Se%&#!n *' Return# $ 2hen the service has been completed. or that it is not necessary to protect the rights of the rights of the party ho caused it to be recorded# (*-a. &6 (-) RULE 1* S/33!n$ Se%&#!n 1' Cler/ to issue summons# $ 7pon the filing of the complaint and the payment of the re9uisite legal fees. ithin five (5) days therefrom. and only of its pendency against the parties designated by their real names# %he notice of lis pendens hereinabove mentioned may be cancelled only upon order of the court. and shall return the summons to the cler'.a) Se%&#!n )' By %hom ser(ed# $ %he summons may be served by the sheriff. after proper sho ing that the notice is for the purpose of molesting the adverse party. ho issued it. accompanied by proof of service# (/a) . shall be attached to the original and each copy of the summons# (. to the plaintiffCs counsel.

ed as a special sheriff for said purpose# ((*a) Se%&#!n 12' Ser(i&e upon minors and in&ompetents# $ 2hen the defendant is a minor.' Ser(i&e in person on defendant# $ 2henever practicable.a) Se%&#!n 1' Ser(i&e upon entity %ithout +uridi&al personality# $ 2hen persons associated in an entity ithout +uridical personality are sued under the name by hich they are generally or commonly 'no n. or upon the person in charge of the office or place of business maintained in such name# !ut such service shall not bind individually any person hose connection ith the entity has. or in6house counsel# ((. managing partner. treasurer.Se%&#!n +' $ssuan&e of alias summons# $ If a summons is returned ithout being served on any or all of the defendants. service may be effected (a) by leaving copies of the summons at the defendantCs residence ith some person of suitable age and discretion then residing therein.ed under the la s of the Philippines ith a +uridical personality. if he refuses to receive and sign for it. partnership or association organi. or if the summons has been lost. if there be no such agent. insane or other ise an incompetent. upon due notice. ((a) Se%&#!n 11' Ser(i&e upon domesti& pri(ate +uridi&al entity# $ 2hen the defendant is a corporation. service may also be made on his father or mother# (l=a. the summons shall be served by handling a copy thereof to the defendant in person. for +ustifiable causes. or if none his guardian ad litem hose appointment shall be applied for by the plaintiff# In the case of a minor. been severed before the action as brought# (<a) Se%&#!n 9' Ser(i&e upon prisoners# $ 2hen the defendant is a prisoner confined in a +ail or institution. service shall be effected upon him by the officer having the management of such +ail or institution ho is deemed deputi. by tendering it to him# (:a) Se%&#!n 7' Su'stituted ser(i&e# $ If. may issue an alias summons# (-a) Se%&#!n . service may be made on the president. the defendant cannot be served ithin a reasonable time as provided in the preceding section. the server shall also serve a copy of the return on the plaintiffCs counsel. service may be effected on the Solicitor @eneral1 in case of a province. service shall be made upon him personally and on his legal guardian if he has one. or (b) by leaving the copies at defendantCs office or regular place of business ith some competent person in charge thereof# (. or on any of its officers or agents ithin the Philippines# ((-a) Se%&#!n 1)' Ser(i&e upon pu'li& &orporations# $ 2hen the defendant is the &epublic of the Philippines. on demand of the plaintiff. city or . service may be effected upon all the defendants by serving upon any one of them. the cler'. on the government official designated by la to that effect. stating the reasons for the failure of service. or. or. general manager. corporate secretary. ithin five (5) days therefrom# In such a case.a) Se%&#!n 1(' Ser(i&e upon foreign pri(ate +uridi&al entities# $ 2hen the defendant is a foreign private +uridical entity hich has transacted business in the Philippines. service may be made on its resident agent designated in accordance ith la for that purpose.

setting forth the grounds for the application# ((<) Se%&#!n 11' Proof of ser(i&e# $ %he proof of service of a summons shall be made in riting by the server and shall set forth the manner. be effected out of the Philippines by personal service as under section /1 or by publication in a ne spaper of general circulation in such places and for such time as the court may order. by leave of court. business or advertising manager.municipality.a) Se%&#!n 17' <ea(e of &ourt# $ Any application to the court under this &ule for leave to effect service in any manner for hich leave of court is necessary shall be made by motion in riting. service may be effected on its e)ecutive head. or li'e public corporations. be effected upon him by publication in a ne spaper of general circulation and in such places and for such time as the court may order# ((/a) Se%&#!n 1+' 02traterritorial ser(i&e# $ 2hen the defendant does not reside and is not found in the Philippines. or henever his hereabouts are un'no n and cannot be ascertained by diligent in9uiry. actual or contingent. or on such other officer or officers as the la or the court may direct# ((5) Se%&#!n 1*' Ser(i&e upon defendant %hose identity or %herea'outs are un/no%n# $ In any action here the defendant is designated as an un'no n o ner. in e)cluding the defendant from any interest therein. service may be proved by the affidavit of the printer. or the li'e. or of the editor. supported by affidavit of the plaintiff or some person on his behalf. postage prepaid. by leave of court. directed to the defendant by registered mail to his last 'no n address# (*() Se%&#!n (2' 4oluntary appearan&e# $ %he defendantCs voluntary appearance in the action shall be e9uivalent to service of summons# %he inclusion in a motion to dismiss of other grounds aside . as under the preceding section# ((. in hich case a copy of the summons and order of the court shall be sent by registered mail to the last 'no n address of the defendant. service may. in hich the defendant has or claims a lien or interest. by leave of court. or in any other manner the court may deem sufficient# Any order granting such leave shall specify a reasonable time. service may. ithin hich the defendant must ans er# ((:a) Se%&#!n 1. holly or in part. but ho is temporarily out of it. or the sub+ect of hich is. or in hich the relief demanded consists.' Residents temporarily out of the Philippines# $ 2hen any action is commenced against a defendant ho ordinarily resides ithin the Philippines. property ithin the Philippines. and date of service1 shall specify any papers hich have been served ith the process and the name of the person ho received the same1 and shall be s orn to hen made by a person other than a sheriff or his deputy# (*=) Se%&#!n 19' Proof of ser(i&e 'y pu'li&ation# $ If the service has been made by publication. be also effected out of the Philippines. service may. hich shall not be less than si)ty (/=) days after notice. his foreman or principal cler'. and the action affects the personal status of the plaintiff or relates to. to hich affidavit a copy of the publication shall be attached and by an affidavit sho ing the deposit of a copy of the summons and order for publication in the post office. or the property of the defendant has been attached ithin the Philippines. place.

signature. designation. and shall specify the time and date of the hearing hich must not be later than ten ((=) days after the filing of the motion# (5a) Se%&#!n .a) RULE 1+ M!&#!n$ Se%&#!n 1' Motion defined# $ A motion is an application for relief other than by a pleading# ((a) Se%&#!n (' Motions must 'e in %ritings# $ All motions shall be in riting e)cept those made in open court or in the course of a hearing or trial# (*a) Se%&#!n )' Contents# $ A motion shall state the relief sought to be obtained and the grounds upon hich it is based.a) Se%&#!n *' 8earing of motion# $ 0)cept for motions hich the court may act upon ithout pre+udicing the rights of the adverse party. or if ?riday is a non6 or'ing day. or proceeding shall include all ob+ections then available. +udgment. unless the court for good cause sets the hearing on shorter notice# (-a) Se%&#!n +' Noti&e of hearing# $ %he notice of hearing shall be addressed to all parties concerned.) days before the date of hearing. every ritten motion shall be set for hearing by the applicant# 0very ritten motion re9uired to be heard and the notice of the hearing thereof shall be served in such a manner as to ensure its receipt by the other party at least three (. shall be accompanied by supporting affidavits and other papers# (. in the afternoon of the ne)t or'ing day# (:a) Se%&#!n 1' )mni'us motion# $ Sub+ect to the provisions of section ( of &ule <.from lac' of +urisdiction over the person of the defendant shall not be deemed a voluntary appearance# (*.' Proof of ser(i&e ne&essary# $ >o ritten motion set for hearing shall be acted upon by the court ithout proof of service thereof# (/a) Se%&#!n 7' Motion day# $ 0)cept for motions re9uiring immediate action. and other matters of form# (<a) . and if re9uired by these &ules or necessary to prove facts alleged therein. all motions shall be scheduled for hearing on ?riday afternoons. order. and all ob+ections not so included shall be deemed aived# (. a motion attac'ing a pleading.a) Se%&#!n 9' Motion for lea(e# $ A motion for leave to file a pleading or motion shall be accompanied by the pleading or motion sought to be admitted# (n) Se%&#!n 12' 9orm# $ %he &ules applicable to pleadings shall apply to ritten motions so far as concerns caption.

RULE 1, M!&#!n &! D#$3#$$ Se%&#!n 1' 3rounds# $ 2ithin the time for but before filing the ans er to the complaint or pleading asserting a claim, a motion to dismiss may be made on any of the follo ing grounds" (a) %hat the court has no +urisdiction over the person of the defending party1 (b) %hat the court has no +urisdiction over the sub+ect matter of the claim1 (c) %hat venue is improperly laid1 (d) %hat the plaintiff has no legal capacity to sue1 (e) %hat there is another action pending bet een the same parties for the same cause1 (f) %hat the cause of action is barred by a prior +udgment or by the statute of limitations1 (g) %hat the pleading asserting the claim states no cause of action1 (h) %hat the claim or demand set forth in the plaintiffCs pleading has been paid, aived, abandoned, or other ise e)tinguished1 (i) %hat the claim on hich the action is founded is enforceable under the provisions of the statute of frauds1 and (+) %hat a condition precedent for filing the claim has not been complied ith# ((a) Se%&#!n (' 8earing of motion# $ At the hearing of the motion, the parties shall submit their arguments on the 9uestions of la and their evidence on the 9uestions of fact involved e)cept those not available at that time# Should the case go to trial, the evidence presented during the hearing shall automatically be part of the evidence of the party presenting the same# (n) Se%&#!n )' Resolution of Motion# $ After the hearing, the court may dismiss the action or claim, deny the motion, or order the amendment of the pleading# %he court shall not defer the resolution of the motion for the reason that the ground relied upon is not indubitable# In every case, the resolution shall state clearly and distinctly the reasons therefor# (.a) Se%&#!n *' #ime to plead# $ If the motion is denied, the movant shall file his ans er ithin the balance of the period prescribed by &ule (( to hich he as entitled at the time of serving his

motion, but not less than five (5) days in any event, computed from his receipt of the notice of the denial# If the pleading is ordered to be amended, he shall file his ans er ithin the period prescribed by &ule (( counted from service of the amended pleading, unless the court provides a longer period# (-a) Se%&#!n +' 0ffe&t of dismissal# $ Sub+ect to the right of appeal, an order granting a motion to dismiss based on paragraphs (f), (h) and (i) of section ( hereof shall bar the refiling of the same action or claim# (n) Se%&#!n ,' Pleading grounds as affirmati(e defenses# $ If no motion to dismiss has been filed, any of the grounds for dismissal provided for in this &ule may be pleaded as an affirmative defense in the ans er and, in the discretion of the court, a preliminary hearing may be had thereon as if a motion to dismiss had been filed# (5a) %he dismissal of the complaint under this section shall be ithout pre+udice to the prosecution in the same or separate action of a counterclaim pleaded in the ans er# (n)

RULE 17 D#$3#$$a !0 A%&#!n$ Se%&#!n 1' 1ismissal upon noti&e 'y plaintiff. $ A complaint may be dismissed by the plaintiff by filing a notice of dismissal at any time before service of the ans er or of a motion for summary +udgment# 7pon such notice being filed, the court shall issue an order confirming the dismissal# 7nless other ise stated in the notice, the dismissal is ithout pre+udice, e)cept that a notice operates as an ad+udication upon the merits hen filed by a plaintiff ho has once dismissed in a competent court an action based on or including the same claim# ((a) Se%&#!n (' 1ismissal upon motion of plaintiff. $ 0)cept as provided in the preceding section, a complaint shall not be dismissed at the plaintiffCs instance save upon approval of the court and upon such terms and conditions as the court deems proper# If a counterclaim has been pleaded by a defendant prior to the service upon him of the plaintiffs motion for dismissal, the dismissal shall be limited to the complaint# %he dismissal shall be ithout pre+udice to the right of the defendant to prosecute his counterclaim in a separate action unless ithin fifteen ((5) days from notice of the motion he manifests his preference to have his counterclaim resolved in the same action# 7nless other ise specified in the order, a dismissal under this paragraph shall be ithout pre+udice# A class suit shall not be dismissed or compromised ithout the approval of the court# (*a) Se%&#!n )' 1ismissal due to fault of plaintiff. $ If, for no +ustifiable cause, the plaintiff fails to appear on the date of the presentation of his evidence in chief on the complaint, or to prosecute his action for an unreasonable length of time, or to comply ith these &ules or any order of the court, the complaint may be dismissed upon motion of the defendant or upon the courtCs o n motion, ithout pre+udice to the right of the defendant to prosecute his counterclaim in the same

or in a separate action# %his dismissal shall have the effect of an ad+udication upon the merits, unless other ise declared by the court# (.a) Se%&#!n *' 1ismissal of &ounter&laim, &ross-&laim, or third-party &omplaint# $ %he provisions of this &ule shall apply to the dismissal of any counterclaim, cross6claim, or third6party complaint# A voluntary dismissal by the claimant by notice as in section ( of this &ule, shall be made before a responsive pleading or a motion for summary +udgment is served or, if there is none, before the introduction of evidence at the trial or hearing# (-a)

RULE 11 Pre-Tr#a Se%&#!n 1' ,hen &ondu&ted# $ After the last pleading has been served and filed, if shall be the duty of the plaintiff to promptly move e2 parte that the case be set for pre6trial (5a, &*=) Se%&#!n (' Nature and purpose# $ %he pre6trial is mandatory# %he court shall consider" (a) %he possibility of an amicable settlement or of a submission to alternative modes of dispute resolution1 (b) %he simplification of the issues1 (c) %he necessity or desirability of amendments to the pleadings1 (d) %he possibility of obtaining stipulations or admissions of facts and of documents to avoid unnecessary proof1 (e) %he limitation of the number of itnesses1 (f) %he advisability of a preliminary reference of issues to a commissioner1 (g) %he propriety of rendering +udgment on the pleadings, or summary +udgment, or of dismissing the action should a valid ground therefor be found to e)ist1 (h) %he advisability or necessity of suspending the proceedings1 and (i) Such other matters as may aid in the prompt disposition of the action# ((a, &*=) Se%&#!n )' Noti&e of pre-trial# $ %he notice of pre6trial shall be served on counsel, or on the party ho has no counsel# %he counsel served ith such notice is charged ith the duty of notifying the party represented by him# (n)

the amendments allo ed to the pleadings. the court shall issue an order hich shall recite in detail the matters ta'en up in the conference. $ %he parties shall file ith the court and serve on the adverse party. and to enter into stipulations or admissions of facts and of documents# (n) Se%&#!n +' 0ffe&t of failure to appear# $ %he failure of the plaintiff to appear hen so re9uired pursuant to the ne)t preceding section shall be cause for dismissal of the action# %he dismissal shall be ith pre+udice.) days before the date of the pre6trial. and the agreements or admissions made by the parties as to any of the matters considered# Should the action proceed to trial. to submit to alternative modes of dispute resolution.' Pre-trial 'rief. &*=) RULE 19 In&er"en&#!n . the order shall. and the substance of their respective testimonies# ?ailure to file the pre6trial brief shall have the same effect as failure to appear at the pre6trial# (n) Se%&#!n 7' Re&ord of pre-trial# $ %he proceedings in the pre6trial shall be recorded# 7pon the termination thereof. indicating the desired terms thereof1 (b) A summary of admitted facts and proposed stipulation of facts1 (c) %he issues to be tried or resolved1 (d) %he documents or e)hibits to be presented stating the purpose thereof1 (e) A manifestation of their having availed or their intention to avail themselves of discovery procedures or referral to commissioners1 and (f) %he number and names of the itnesses. e)plicitly define and limit the issues to be tried# %he contents of the order shall control the subse9uent course of the action. unless modified before trial to prevent manifest in+ustice# (5a. unless other6 ise ordered by the court# A similar failure on the part of the defendant shall be cause to allo the plaintiff to present his evidence e2 parte and the court to render +udgment on the basis thereof# (*a. in such manner as shall ensure their receipt thereof at least three (. the action ta'en thereon.Se%&#!n *' Appearan&e of parties# $ It shall be the duty of the parties and their counsel to appear at the pre6trial# %he non6appearance of a party may be e)cused only if a valid cause is sho n therefor or if a representative shall appear in his behalf fully authori. their respective pre6trial briefs hich shall contain. &*=) Se%&#!n . among others" (a) A statement of their illingness to enter into amicable settlement or alternative modes of dispute resolution.ed in riting to enter into an amicable settlement.

shall 'eep a calendar of cases for pre6trial. or in the success of either of the parties. or is so situated as to be adversely affected by a distribution or other disposition of property in the custody of the court or of an officer thereof may. special civil actions. or at any investigation conducted by competent authority. election cases. be allo ed to intervene in the action# %he court shall consider hether or not the intervention ill unduly delay or pre+udice the ad+udication of the rights of the original parties. or an ans er6in6intervention if he unites ith the defending party in resisting a claim against the latter# (*AcBa. &(*) Se%&#!n (' #ime to inter(ene# $ %he motion to intervene may be filed at any time before rendition of +udgment by the trial court# A copy of the pleading6in6intervention shall be attached to the motion and served on the original parties# (n) Se%&#!n )' Pleadings-in-inter(ention# $ %he intervenor shall file a complaint6in6intervention if he asserts a claim against either or all of the original parties. unless a different period is fi)ed by the court# (*AdBa. under the direct supervision of the +udge. those hose trials ere ad+ourned or postponed. &(*) Se%&#!n *' Ans%er to &omplaint-in-inter(ention# $ %he ans er to the complaint6in6intervention shall be filed ithin fifteen ((5) days from notice of the order admitting the same. &(*) RULE (2 Ca en-ar !0 Ca$e$ Se%&#!n 1' Calendar of &ases# $ %he cler' of court. ith leave of court. and hether or not the intervenorCs rights may be fully protected in a separate proceeding# (*AaB.ho may inter(ene# $ A person ho has a legal interest in the matter in litigation. or for the ta'ing of his deposition# It may also .Se%&#!n 1' . &**) Se%&#!n (' Assignment of &ases# $ %he assignment of cases to the different branches of a court shall be done e)clusively by raffle# %he assignment shall be done in open session of hich ade9uate notice shall be given so as to afford interested parties the opportunity to be present# (:a.7!ena Se%&#!n 1' Su'poena and su'poena du&es te&um# $ Subpoena is a process directed to a person re9uiring him to attend and to testify at the hearing or the trial of an action. for trial. and those ith motions to set for hearing# Preference shall be given to ha'eas &orpus cases. &**) RULE (1 S/. or an interest against both. AbBa. and those so re9uired by la # ((a.

shall constitute sufficient authori.re9uire him to bring ith him any boo's. &*. &*. shall be directed to the person hose attendance is re9uired. at or before the time specified therein if it is unreasonable and oppressive. in hich case it is called a subpoena du&es te&um# ((a. or if the person in hose behalf the subpoena is issued fails to advance the reasonable cost of the production thereof# %he court may 9uash a subpoena ad testifi&andum on the ground that the itness is not bound thereby# In either case.' Ser(i&e# $ Service of a subpoena shall be made in the same manner as personal or substituted service of summons# %he original shall be e)hibited and a copy thereof delivered to the person on hom it is served. the subpoena may be 9uashed on the ground that the itness fees and 'ilometrage allo ed by these &ules ere not tendered hen the subpoena as served# (-a. documents or things demanded hich must appear to the court prima fa&ie relevant# (.ed by la to do so in connection ith investigations conducted by said officer or body1 or (d) any Eustice of the Supreme Court or of the Court of Appeals in any case or investigation pending ithin the Philippines# 2hen application for a subpoena to a prisoner is made.a. &*. tendering to him the fees for one dayCs attendance and the . ho ever.ation for the issuance of subpoenas for the persons named in said notice by the cler' of the court of the place in hich the deposition is to be ta'en# %he cler' shall not. and in the case of a subpoena du&es te&um. &*. documents or things does not appear.) Se%&#!n . it shall also contain a reasonable description of the boo's. re&lusion perpetua or life imprisonment and ho is confined in any penal institution shall be brought outside the said penal institution for appearance or attendance in any court unless authori.) Se%&#!n (' By %hom issued# $ %he subpoena may be issued by $ (a) the court before hom the itness is re9uired to attend1 (b) the court of the place here the deposition is to be ta'en1 (c) the officer or body authori. as provided in sections (5 and *5 of &ule *.) Se%&#!n *' =uashing a su'poena# $ %he court may 9uash a subpoena du&es te&um upon motion promptly made and. the +udge or officer shall e)amine and study carefully such application to determine hether the same is made for a valid purpose# >o prisoner sentenced to death. documents. or other things under his control.ed by the Supreme Court (*a..) Se%&#!n )' 9orm and &ontents# $ A subpoena shall state the name of the court and the title of the action or investigation. issue a subpoena du&es te&um to any such person ithout an order of the court# (5a.) Se%&#!n +' Su'poena for depositions# $ Proof of service of a notice to ta'e a deposition. or the relevancy of the boo's. in any event. &*.

the tender need not be made# %he service must be made so as to allo the itness a reasonable time for preparation and travel to the place of attendance# If the subpoena is du&es te&um.) Se%&#!n 12' 02&eptions# $ %he provisions of sections . the time shall not run until the ne)t or'ing day# (a) Se%&#!n (' 0ffe&t of interruption# $ Should an act be done hich effectively interrupts the running of the period. or his deputy.) Se%&#!n 7' Personal appearan&e in &ourt# $ A person present in court before a +udicial officer may be re9uired to testify as if he ere in attendance upon a subpoena is sued by such court or officer# ((=.) RULE (( C!37/&a&#!n !0 T#3e Se%&#!n 1' 8o% to &ompute time# $ In computing any period of time prescribed or allo ed by these &ules. &*. the reasonable cost of producing the boo's. as thus computed. and < of this &ule shall not apply to a itness ho resides more than one hundred ((==) 'ilometers from his residence to the place here he is to testify by the ordinary course of travel. the court or +udge issuing the subpoena. documents or things demanded shall also be tendered# (/a.) Se%&#!n 1' Compelling attendan&e# $ In case of failure of a itness to attend. upon proof of the service thereof and of the failure of the itness. hen a subpoena is issued by or on behalf of the &epublic of the Philippines or an officer or agency thereof.ure of such itness shall be paid by the itness if the court issuing it shall determine that his failure to ans er the subpoena as illful and ithout +ust e)cuse# (((. &*. the day of the act or event from hich the designated period of time begins to run is to be e)cluded and the date of performance included# If the last day of the period. &*. e)cept that. falls on a Saturday a Sunday.) Se%&#!n 9' Contempt# $ ?ailure by any person ithout ade9uate cause to obey a subpoena served upon him shall be deemed a contempt of the court from hich the subpoena is issued# If the subpoena as not issued by a court. or by any applicable statute. to arrest the itness and bring him before the court or officer here his attendance is re9uired. and the cost of such arrant and sei. or a legal holiday in the place here the court sits. &*. or to a detention prisoner if no permission of the court in hich his case is pending as obtained# (<a. or by order of the court. the allo able period after such interruption shall start to run on the day after notice of the cessation of the cause thereof# %he day of the act that caused the interruption shall be e)cluded in the computation of the period# (n) . the disobedience thereto shall be punished in accordance ith the applicable la or &ule# ((*a &*. may issue a arrant to the sheriff of the province.'ilometrage allo ed by these &ules.

description. hether a party or not. or ithout such leave after an ans er has been served. of this &ule. or other tangible things and the identity and location of persons having 'no ledge of relevant facts# (*.se of depositions# $ At the trial or upon the hearing of a motion or an interlocutory proceeding. nature. director. hich is relevant to the sub+ect of the pending action. partnership. &*-) Se%&#!n (' S&ope of e2amination# $ 7nless other ise ordered by the court as provided by section (/ or (. or imprisonment. documents. may be used by any party for any purpose if the court finds" (() that the itness is dead. and location of any boo's. so far as admissible under the rules of evidence. may be ta'en. or (. may be used against any party ho as present or represented at the ta'ing of the deposition or ho had due notice thereof. including the e)istence.RULE () De7!$#&#!n$ Pen-#n4 A%&#!n Se%&#!n 1' 1epositions pending a&tion. custody. &*-) Se%&#!n *' . or (*) that the itness resides at a distance more than one hundred ((==) 'ilometers from the place of trial or hearing. &*-) Se%&#!n )' 02amination and &ross-e2amination# $ 0)amination and cross6e)amination of deponents may proceed as permitted at the trial under sections . by deposition upon oral e)amination or ritten interrogatories# %he attendance of itnesses may be compelled by the use of a subpoena as provided in &ule *(# Depositions shall be ta'en only in accordance ith these &ules# %he deposition of a person confined in prison may be ta'en only by leave of court on such terms as the court prescribes# ((a. the deponent may be e)amined regarding any matter. hether or not a party. that such e)ceptional circumstances e)ist as to ma'e it desirable. at the instance of any party.a.*# (. in accordance ith any one of the follo ing provisions1 (a) Any deposition may be used by any party for the purpose of contradicting or impeaching the testimony of deponent as a itness1 (b) %he deposition of a party or of any one ho at the time of ta'ing the deposition as an officer. hether relating to the claim or defense of any other party. in the . or (-) that the party offering the deposition has been unable to procure the attendance of the itness by subpoena1 or (5) upon application and notice. %hen may 'e ta/en# $ !y leave of court after +urisdiction has been obtained over any defendant or over property hich is the sub+ect of the action. not privileged. any part or all of a deposition. or is out of the Philippines. to (. or association hich is a party may be used by an adverse party for any purpose1 (c) %he deposition of a itness. the testimony of any person. unless it appears that his absence as procured by the party offering the deposition.) that the itness is unable to attend or testify because of age. sic'ness. condition. infirmity. or managing agent of a public or private corporation. of &ule (.

but this shall not apply to the use by an adverse party of a deposition as described in paragraph (b) of section . &*-) Se%&#!n +' 0ffe&t of su'stitution of parties# $ Substitution of parties does not affect the right to use depositions previously ta'en1 and. to receiving in evidence any deposition or part thereof for any reason hich ould re9uire the e)clusion of the evidence if the itness ere then present and testifying (/. &*-) . and on such terms. depositions may be ta'en (a) on notice before a secretary of embassy or legation. ob+ection may be made at the trial or hearing. on application and notice. &*-) Se%&#!n 7' 0ffe&t of ta/ing depositions# $ A party shall not be deemed to ma'e a person his o n itness for any purpose by ta'ing his deposition# (:. (b) before such person or officer as may be appointed by commission or under letters rogatory1 or (c) the person referred to in section (. &*-) Se%&#!n 11' Persons 'efore %hom depositions may 'e ta/en in foreign &ountries# $ In a foreign state or country.interest of +ustice and ith due regard to the importance of presenting the testimony of itnesses orally in open court. notary public.hereof# (((a. &*-) Se%&#!n 9' Re'utting deposition# $ At the trial or hearing any party may rebut any relevant evidence contained in a deposition hether introduced by him or by any other party# (<. vice6consul. or the person referred to in section (. to allo the deposition to be used1 and (d) If only part of a deposition is offered in evidence by a party. &*-) Se%&#!n .of this &ule# (. &*-) Se%&#!n 1' 0ffe&t of using depositions# $ %he introduction in evidence of the deposition or any part thereof for any purpose other than that of contradicting or impeaching the deponent ma'es the deponent the itness of the party introducing the deposition.. and ith such direction as are +ust and appropriate# 4fficers may be designated in notices or commissions either by name or descriptive title and letters rogatory may be addressed to the appropriate +udicial authority in the foreign country# ((*a. &*-) Se%&#!n 1(' Commission or letters rogatory# $ A commission or letters rogatory shall be issued only hen necessary or convenient. the adverse party may re9uire him to introduce all of it hich is relevant to the part introduced. consul. or consular agent of the &epublic of the Philippines. &*-) Se%&#!n 12' Persons 'efore %hom depositions may 'e ta/en %ithin the Philippines# $ 2ithin the Philippines depositions may be ta'en before any +udge. hen an action has been dismissed and another action involving the same sub+ect is after ard brought bet een the same parties or their representatives or successors in interest. consul general.' )'+e&tions to admissi'ility# $ Sub+ect to the provisions of section *< of this &ule. all depositions la fully ta'en and duly filed in the former action may be used in the latter as if originally ta'en therefor# (5. and any party may introduce any other parts# (-a.hereof# ((=a.

and upon a sho ing that the e)amination is being conducted in bad faith or in such manner as unreasonably to annoy. oath1 o'+e&tions# $ %he officer before hom the deposition is to be ta'en shall put the itness on oath and shall personally. or oppression# ((/a. upon motion seasonably made by any party or by the person to be e)amined and for good cause sho n. record the testimony of the itness# %he testimony shall be ta'en stenographically unless the parties agree other ise# All ob+ections made at the time of the e)amination to the 9ualifications of the officer ta'ing the deposition. the court may for cause sho n enlarge or shorten the time# ((5. and any other ob+ection to the proceedings. or to the conduct of any party. or that certain matters shall not be in9uired into. or employee or counsel of any of the parties.ed to administer oaths. or ho is a relative ithin the same degree. the court in hich the action is pending may ma'e an order that the deposition shall not be ta'en. shall be noted by the officer upon the deposition# 0vidence ob+ected to shall be ta'en sub+ect to the ob+ections# In lieu of participating in the oral e)amination. &*-) Se%&#!n 1+' 1eposition upon oral e2amination1 noti&e1 time and pla&e# $ A party desiring to ta'e the deposition of any person upon oral e)amination shall give reasonable notice in riting. or to the evidence presented. or research need not be disclosed. embarrass. and if the name is not 'no n. or that it may be ta'en only at some designated place other than that stated in the notice. the court in hich the action is pending or the &egional %rial Court of the place here the deposition is being ta'en may order the officer . to every other party to the action# %he notice shall state the time and place for ta'ing the deposition and the name and address of each person to be e)amined.a. or that the parties shall simultaneously file specified documents or information enclosed in sealed envelopes to be opened as directed by the court or the court may ma'e any other order hich +ustice re9uires to protect the party or itness from annoyance.Se%&#!n 1)' 1is. or by some one acting under his direction and in his presence.' )rders for the prote&tion of parties and deponents# $ After notice is served for ta'ing a deposition by oral e)amination. at any time or place. &*-) Se%&#!n 1*' Stipulations regarding ta/ing of depositions# $ If the parties so stipulate in riting. or oppress the deponent or party. &*-) Se%&#!n 17' Re&ord of e2amination. or that it may be ta'en only on ritten interrogatories. developments. embarrassment. ho shall propound them to the itness and record the ans ers (er'atim# ((:. in accordance ith these &ules and hen so ta'en may be used li'e other depositions# ((-a. &*-) Se%&#!n 11' Motion to terminate or limit e2amination# $ At any time during the ta'ing of the deposition. a general description sufficient to identify him or the particular class or group to hich he belongs# 4n motion of any party upon hom the notice is served. parties served ith notice of ta'ing a deposition may transmit ritten interrogatories to the officers. or that secret processes. &*-) Se%&#!n 1. or employee of such counsel1 or ho is financially interested in the action# ((. or that after being sealed the deposition shall be opened only by order of the court. on motion or petition of any party or of the deponent. or that the scope of the e)amination shall be held ith no one present e)cept the parties to the action and their officers or counsel. depositions may be ta'en before any person authori. if 'no n. or to the manner of tal'ing it.ualifi&ation 'y interest# $ >o deposition shall be ta'en before a person ho is a relative ithin the si)th degree of consanguinity or affinity.

as provided in section (/ of this &ule# If the order made terminates the e)amination. unless the parties by stipulation aive the signing or the itness is ill or cannot be found or refuses to sign# If the deposition is not signed by the itness. the court may order the party giving the notice to pay to such other party the amount of the reasonable e)penses incurred by him and his counsel in so attending. the ta'ing of the deposition shall be suspended for the time necessary to ma'e a notice for an order# In granting or refusing such order. &*-) . or may limit the scope and manner of the ta'ing of the deposition. the officer shall furnish a copy of the deposition to any party or to the deponent# (**. &*-) Se%&#!n (*' 9ailure of party gi(ing noti&e to ser(e su'poena# $ If the party giving the notice of the ta'ing of a deposition of a itness fails to serve a subpoena upon him and the itness because of such failure does not attend. &*-) Se%&#!n ()' 9ailure to attend of party gi(ing noti&e# $ If the party giving the notice of the ta'ing of a deposition fails to attend and proceed there ith and another attends in person or by counsel pursuant to the notice. and if another party attends in person or by counsel because he e)pects the deposition of that itness to be ta'en. the court may order the party giving the notice to pay such other party the amount of the reasonable e)penses incurred by him and his counsel in so attending. unless such e)amination and reading are aived by the itness and by the parties# Any changes in form or substance hich the itness desires to ma'e shall be entered upon the deposition by the officer ith a statement of the reasons given by the itness for ma'ing them# %he deposition shall then be signed by the itness. &*-) Se%&#!n (2' Certifi&ation. the court holds that the reasons given for the refusal to sign re9uire re+ection of the deposition in hole or in part# ((<a. and the deposition may then be used as fully as though signed. &*-) Se%&#!n (1' Noti&e of filing# $ %he officer ta'ing the deposition shall give prompt notice of its filing to all the parties# (*(. the deposition shall be submitted to the itness for e)amination and shall be read to or by him. including reasonable attorneyCs fees# (*-a. &*-) Se%&#!n 19' Su'mission to %itness1 &hanges1 signing# $ 2hen the testimony is fully transcribed.conducting the e)amination to cease forth ith from ta'ing the deposition. the court may impose upon either party or upon the itness the re9uirement to pay such costs or e)penses as the court may deem reasonable# ((. the officer shall sign it and state on the record the fact of the aiver or of the illness or absence of the itness or the fact of the refusal to sign together ith the reason be given therefor. it shall be resumed thereafter only upon the order of the court in hich the action is pending# 7pon demand of the ob+ecting party or deponent. and filing 'y offi&er# $ %he officer shall certify on the deposition that the itness as duly s orn to by him and that the deposition is a true record of the testimony given by the itness# 8e shall then securely seal the deposition in an envelope indorsed ith the title of the action and mar'ed 5Deposition of (here insert the name of itness)5 and shall promptly file it ith the court in hich the action is pending or send it by registered mail to the cler' thereof for filing# (*=. &*-) Se%&#!n ((' 9urnishing &opies# $ 7pon payment of reasonable charges therefor.a.a. unless on a motion to suppress under section *< (f) of this &ule. if any. including reasonable attorneyCs fees# (*.

to ta'e the testimony of the itness in response to the interrogatories and to prepare. a party may serve recross6 interrogatories upon the party proposing to ta'e the deposition# (*5. certify. and file or mail the deposition. and for good cause sho n. of the ob+ection is one hich might have been obviated or removed if presented at that time# (d) As to oral e2amination and other parti&ulars# $ 0rrors and irregularities occurring at the oral e)amination in the manner of ta'ing the deposition in the form of the 9uestions or ans ers. relevancy. or materiality of testimony are not aived by failure to ma'e them before or during the ta'ing of the deposition. in the oath or affirmation. unless the ground. (< and *= of this &ule. &*-) Se%&#!n (7' Noti&e of filing and furnishing &opies# $ 2hen a deposition upon interrogatories is filed. the court in hich the action is pending. &*-) Se%&#!n (. a party so served may serve cross6 interrogatories upon the party proposing to ta'e the deposition# 2ithin five (5) days thereafter. ho shall proceed promptly.' )ffi&ers to ta/e responses and prepare re&ord# $ A copy of the notice and copies of all interrogatories served shall be delivered by the party ta'ing the deposition to the officer designated in the notice. in the manner provided by sections (:. (/ and (.ualifi&ation of offi&er# $ 4b+ection to ta'ing a deposition because of dis9ualification of the officer before hom it is to be ta'en is aived unless made before the ta'ing of the deposition begins or as soon thereafter as the dis9ualification becomes 'no n or could be discovered ith reasonable diligence# (c) As to &ompeten&y or rele(an&y of e(iden&e# $ 4b+ections to the competency of itness or the competency. of this &ule hich is appropriate and +ust or an order that the deposition shall not be ta'en before the officer designated in the notice or that it shall not be ta'en e)cept upon oral e)amination# (*. &*-) Se%&#!n (1' )rder for the prote&tion of parties and deponents# $ After the service of the interrogatories and prior to the ta'ing of the testimony of the deponent. attaching thereto the copy of the notice and the interrogatories received by him# (*/. on motion promptly made by a party or a deponent. the latter may serve re6direct interrogatories upon a party ho has served cross6interrogatories# 2ithin three (.) days after being served ith re6direct interrogatories. or in the conduct of the parties and errors of any . the officer ta'ing it shall promptly give notice thereof to all the parties. and may furnish copies to them or to the deponent upon payment of reasonable charges therefor# (*:.a.Se%&#!n (+' 1eposition upon %ritten interrogatories1 ser(i&e of noti&e and of interrogatories# $ A party desiring to ta'e the deposition of any person upon ritten interrogatories shall serve them upon every other party ith a notice stating the name and address of the person ho is to ans er them and the name or descriptive title and address of the officer before hom the deposition is to be ta'en# 2ithin ten ((=) days thereafter. may ma'e any order specified in sections (5. &*-) Se%&#!n (9' 0ffe&t of errors and irregularities in depositions# $ (a) As to noti&e# $ All errors and irregularities in the notice for ta'ing a deposition are aived unless ritten ob+ection is promptly served upon the party giving the notice# (b) As to dis.

&(.-) Se%&#!n )' Noti&e and ser(i&e# $ %he petitioner shall serve a notice upon each person named in the petition as an e)pected adverse party. or other ise dealt ith by the officer under sections (:. indorsed. &(.-) Se%&#!n (' Contents of petition# $ %he petition shall be entitled in the name of the petitioner and shall sho " (a) that the petitioner e)pects to be a party to an action in a court of the Philippines but is presently unable to bring it or cause it to be brought1 (b) the sub+ect matter of the e)pected action and his interest therein1 (c) the facts hich he desires to establish by the proposed testimony and his reasons for desiring to perpetuate it1 (d) the names or a description of the persons he e)pects ill be adverse parties and their addresses so far as 'no n1 and (e) the names and addresses of the persons to be e)amined and the substance of the testimony hich he e)pects to elicit from each.ed# (f) As to manner of preparation# $ 0rrors and irregularities in the manner in hich the testimony is transcribed or the deposition is prepared.) days after service of the last interrogatories authori. are aived unless reasonable ob+ection thereto is made at the ta'ing of the deposition# (e) As to form of %ritten interrogatories# $ 4b+ections to the form of ritten interrogatories submitted under sections *5 and */ of this &ule are aived unless served in riting upon the party propounding them ithin the time allo ed for serving succeeding cross or other interrogatories and ithin three (. sealed.a.-) . the court shall cause notice thereof to be served on the parties and prospective deponents in the manner provided for service of summons# (. ascertained# (*<a. (<. certified. or ith due diligence might have been. at a time and place named therein.ing the petitioner to ta'e the depositions of the persons to be e)amined named in the petition for the purpose of perpetuating their testimony# (*. for the order described in the petition# At least t enty (*=) days before the date of the hearing. together ith a copy of the petition. stating that the petitioner ill apply to the court.able in any court of the Philippines may file a verified petition in the court of the place of the residence of any e)pected adverse party# ((a &(.'ind hich might be obviated. and shall as' for an order authori. &*-) RULE (* De7!$#&#!n$ :e0!re A%&#!n !r Pen-#n4 A77ea Se%&#!n 1' 1epositions 'efore a&tion1 petition# $ A person ho desires to perpetuate his o n testimony or that of another person regarding any matter that may be cogni. transmitted. *= and */ of this &ule are aived unless a motion to suppress the deposition or some part thereof is made ith reasonable promptness after such defect is. signed. or cured if promptly prosecuted. filed. removed.

and thereupon the depositions may be ta'en and used in the same manner and under the same conditions as are prescribed in these &ules for depositions ta'en in pending actions# (:a.-) Se%&#!n 7' 1epositions pending appeal# $ If an appeal has been ta'en from a +udgment of a court. if the party served is a public or private corporation or a partnership or association. before the hearing# (-a.se of deposition# $ If a deposition to perpetuate testimony is ta'en under this &ule. &(.-) Se%&#!n +' Referen&e to &ourt# $ ?or the purpose of applying &ule *.. the court in hich the +udgment as rendered may allo the ta'ing of depositions of itnesses to perpetuate their testimony for in the event of further proceedings in the said court# In such case the party ho desires to perpetuate the testimony may ma'e a motion in the said court for leave to ta'e the depositions. it ould be admissible in evidence. &(. $ 7nder the same conditions specified in section ( of &ule *.and 5 of &ule *. upon the same notice and service thereof as if the action as pending therein# %he motion shall state (a) the names and addresses of the persons to be e)amined and the substance of the testimony hich he e)pects to elicit from each. any party desiring to elicit material and relevant facts from any adverse parties shall file and serve upon the latter ritten interrogatories to be ans ered by the party served or.-) RULE (+ In&err!4a&!r#e$ &! Par&#e$ Se%&#!n 1' $nterrogatories to parties1 ser(i&e thereof.Se%&#!n *' )rder and e2amination# $ If the court is satisfied that the perpetuation of the testimony may prevent a failure or delay of +ustice. and (b) the reason for perpetuating their testimony# If the court finds that the perpetuation of the testimony is proper to avoid a failure or delay of +ustice. &(. it shall ma'e an order designating or describing the persons hose deposition may be ta'en and specifying the sub+ect matter of the e)amination and hether the depositions shall be ta'en upon oral e)amination or ritten interrogatories# %he depositions may be ta'en in accordance ith &ule *.-) Se%&#!n . to depositions for perpetuating testimony.# (/a. including the Court of Appeals in proper cases. or before the ta'ing of an appeal if the time therefor has not e)pired. each reference therein to the court in hich the action is pending shall be deemed to refer to the court in hich the petition for such deposition as filed# (5a. it may ma'e an order allo ing the deposition to be ta'en. it may be used in any action involving the same sub+ect matter sub6se9uently brought in accordance ith the provisions of sections .' . although not so ta'en. by any officer thereof competent to testify in its behalf# ((a) Se%&#!n (' Ans%er to interrogatories# $ %he interrogatories shall be ans ered fully in riting and shall be signed and s orn to by the person ma'ing them# %he party upon hom the interrogatories have been served shall file and serve a copy of the ans ers on the party . or if. &(.

a party not served ith ritten interrogatories may not be compelled by the adverse party to give testimony in open court.submitting the interrogatories ithin fifteen ((5) days after service thereof unless the court on motion and for good cause sho n. or ithin such further time as the court may allo on motion.uest for admission# $ At any time after issues have been +oined. serve more than one set of interrogatories to be ans ered by the same party# (-) Se%&#!n +' S&ope and use of interrogatories# $ Interrogatories may relate to any matters that can be in9uired into under section * of &ule *. Se%&#!n 1' Re.of the same &ule# (5a) Se%&#!n .a) Se%&#!n *' Num'er of interrogatories# $ >o party may. a party may file and serve upon any other party may file and serve upon any other party a ritten re9uest for the admission by the latter of the genuineness of any material and relevant document described in and e)hibited ith the re9uest or of the truth of any material and relevant matter of fact set forth in the re9uest# Copies of the documents shall be delivered ith the re9uest unless copy have already been furnished# ((a) Se%&#!n (' $mplied admission# $ 0ach of the matters of hich an admission is re9uested shall be deemed admitted unless. the party to hom the re9uest is directed files and serves upon the party re9uesting the admission a s orn statement either denying specifically the matters of hich an admission is re9uested or setting forth in detail the reasons hy he cannot truthfully either admit or deny those matters# 4b+ections to any re9uest for admission shall be submitted to the court by the party re9uested ithin the period for and prior to the filing of his s orn statement as contemplated in the preceding paragraph and his compliance there ith shall be deferred until such ob+ections are resolved. ith notice as in case of a motion1 and ans ers shall be deferred until the ob+ections are resolved. A-"er$e Par&. ithin a period designated in the re9uest.. A-3#$$#!n . or to give a deposition pending appeal# (n) RULE (.. hich resolution shall be made as early as practicable# (*a) . and the ans ers may be used for the same purposes provided in section . hich shall be at as early a time as is practicable# (. e)tends or shortens the time# (*a) Se%&#!n )' )'+e&tions to interrogatories# $ 4b+ections to any interrogatories may be presented to the court ithin ten ((=) days after service thereof. ithout leave of court.' 0ffe&t of failure to ser(e %ritten interrogatories# $ 7nless thereafter allo ed by the court for good cause sho n and to prevent a failure of +ustice. hich shall not be less than fifteen ((5) days after service thereof.

of any designated documents. letters. shall not be permitted to present evidence on such facts# (n) RULE (7 Pr!-/%&#!n !r In$7e%&#!n !0 D!%/3en&$ !r T9#n4$ Se%&#!n 1' Motion for produ&tion or inspe&tion1 order# $ 7pon motion of any party sho ing good cause therefor. custody or control. manner. or (b) order any party to permit entry upon designated land or other property in his possession or control for the purpose of inspecting. or photographing the property or any designated relevant ob+ect or operation thereon# %he order shall specify the time. ob+ects or tangible things. accounts.$#%a an.uest for admission# $ 7nless other ise allo ed by the court for good cause sho n and to prevent a failure of +ustice a party ho fails to file and serve a re9uest for admission on the adverse party of material and relevant facts at issue hich are. boo's. hich constitute or contain evidence material to any matter involved in the action and hich are in his possession. place.Men&a E<a3#na&#!n !0 Per$!n$ Se%&#!n 1' . papers. not privileged. conditions and scope of the e)amination and the person or persons by hom it is to be made# (*) . photographs. and may prescribe such terms and conditions as are +ust# ((a) RULE (1 P9. measuring.Se%&#!n )' 0ffe&t of admission# $ Any admission made by a party pursuant to such re9uest is for the purpose of the pending action only and shall not constitute an admission by him for any other purpose nor may the same be used against him in any other proceeding# (. to ithdra or amend it upon such terms as may be +ust# (-) Se%&#!n +' 0ffe&t of failure to file and ser(e re. the court in hich the action is pending may in its discretion order him to submit to a physical or mental e)amination by a physician# (() Se%&#!n (' )rder for e2amination# $ %he order for e)amination may be made only on motion for good cause sho n and upon notice to the party to be e)amined and to all other parties.hen e2amination may 'e ordered# $ In an action in hich the mental or physical condition of a party is in controversy. by or on behalf of the moving party. surveying. and shall specify the time.) Se%&#!n *' . place and manner of ma'ing the inspection and ta'ing copies and photographs. hether e)press or implied.ithdra%al# $ %he court may allo the party ma'ing an admission under the &ule. or ought to be. the court in hich an action is pending may (a) order any party to produce and permit the inspection and copying or photographing. ithin the personal 'no ledge of the latter.

previously or thereafter made. or . or an order under &ule *: to produce any document or other thing for inspection. or both of them.uen&es# $ If any party or an officer or managing agent of a party refuses to obey an order made under section ( of this &ule re9uiring him to ans er designated 9uestions. and if a physician fails or refuses to ma'e such a report the court may e)clude his testimony if offered at the trial# (. the refusal may be considered a contempt of that court# (*a) Se%&#!n )' )ther &onse. the party causing the e)amination to be made shall deliver to him a copy of a detailed ritten report of the e)amining physician setting out his findings and conclusions# After such re9uest and delivery. the court may re9uire the proponent or the counsel advising the filing of the application. Se%&#!n 1' Refusal to ans%er# $ If a party or other deponent refuses to ans er any 9uestion upon oral e)amination.a) Se%&#!n *' . for an order to compel an ans er# %he same procedure may be availed of hen a party or a itness refuses to ans er any interrogatory submitted under &ules *. including attorneyCs fees# ((a) Se%&#!n (' Contempt of &ourt# $ If a party or other itness refuses to be s orn or refuses to ans er any 9uestion after being directed to do so by the court of the place in hich the deposition is being ta'en. the party e)amined aives any privilege he may have in that action or any other involving the same controversy. the court on motion and notice may ma'e an order re9uiring delivery on such terms as are +ust. the court shall re9uire the refusing party or deponent to ans er the 9uestion or interrogatory and if it also finds that the refusal to ans er as ithout substantial +ustification. copying. the e)amination may be completed on other matters or ad+ourned as the proponent of the 9uestion may prefer# %he proponent may thereafter apply to the proper court of the place here the deposition is being ta'en. to pay the proponent the amount of the reasonable e)penses incurred in obtaining the order. the party causing the e)amination to be made shall be entitled upon re9uest to receive from the party e)amined a li'e report of any e)amination. =#&9 M!-e$ !0 D#$%!"er. or both of them.ai(er of pri(ilege# $ !y re9uesting and obtaining a report of the e)amination so ordered or by ta'ing the deposition of the e)aminer. it may re9uire the refusing party or deponent or the counsel advising the refusal. of the same mental or physical condition# If the party e)amined refuses to deliver such report. or *5# If the application is granted. to pay to the refusing party or deponent the amount of the reasonable e)penses incurred in opposing the application. regarding the testimony of every other person ho has e)amined or may thereafter e)amine him in respect of the same mental or physical e)amination# (-) RULE (9 Re0/$a &! C!37 .Se%&#!n )' Report of findings# $ If re9uested by the party e)amined. including attorneyCs fees# If the application is denied and the court finds that it as filed ithout substantial +ustification.

may stri'e out all or any part of any pleading of that party. or dismissing the action or proceeding or any part thereof. or dismiss the action or proceeding or any part thereof. or staying further proceedings until the order is obeyed. or from introducing evidence of physical or mental condition1 (c) An order stri'ing out pleadings or parts thereof. an order directing the arrest of any party or agent of a party for disobeying any of such orders e)cept an order to submit to a physical or mental e)amination# (. order him to pay reasonable e)penses incurred by the other. or the contents of the paper. and in its discretion. or to permit entry upon land or other property or an order made under &ule *. including attorneyCs fees# 7nless the court finds that there ere good reasons for the denial or that admissions sought ere of no substantial importance.a) Se%&#!n *' 02penses on refusal to admit# $ If a party after being served ith a re9uest under &ule */ to admit the genuineness of any document or the truth of any matter of fact serves a s orn denial thereof and if the party re9uesting the admissions thereafter proves the genuineness of such document or the truth of any such matter of fact. or fails to serve ans ers to interrogatories submitted under &ule *5 after proper service of such interrogatories.photographing or to permit it to be done. and among others the follo ing" (a) An order that the matters regarding hich the 9uestions ere as'ed. including attorneyCs fees# (5) Se%&#!n . or enter a +udgment by default against that party. the court on motion and notice. he may apply to the court for an order re9uiring the other party to pay him the reasonable e)penses incurred in ma'ing such proof. after being served ith a proper notice. or rendering a +udgment by default against the disobedient party1 and (d) In lieu of any of the foregoing orders or in addition thereto. re9uiring him to submit to a physical or mental e)amination. the court may ma'e such orders in regard to the refusal as are +ust.' 02penses against the Repu'li& of the Philippines# $ 0)penses and attorneyCs fees are not to be imposed upon the &epublic of the Philippines under this &ule# (/) RULE )2 Tr#a . or the physical or mental condition of the party. or any other designated facts shall be ta'en to be established for the purposes of the action in accordance ith the claim of the party obtaining the order1 (b) An order refusing to allo the disobedient party to support or oppose designated claims or defenses or prohibiting him from introducing in evidence designated documents or things or items of testimony. such order shall be issued# (-a) Se%&#!n +' 9ailure of party to attend or ser(e ans%ers# $ If a party or an officer or managing agent of a party ilfully fails to appear before the officer ho is to ta'e his deposition. or the character or description of the thing or land.

ed in riting by the Court Administrator. &**) Se%&#!n )' Re. and unless the court for special reasons other ise directs. Supreme Court# (. the cler' shall notify the parties of the date of its trial in such manner as shall ensure his receipt of that notice at least five (5) days before such date# (*a. in the order to be prescribed by the court1 (f) %he parties may then respectively adduce rebutting evidence only. *( Euly (<<. and so forth.uisites of motion to postpone trial for illness of party or &ounsel# $ A motion to postpone a trial on the ground of illness of a party or counsel may be granted if it appears upon affidavit or s orn certification that the presence of such party or counsel at the trial is indispensable and that the character of his illness is such as to render his non6attendance e)cusable# (5a.Se%&#!n 1' Noti&e of #rial# $ 7pon entry of a case in the trial calendar.=.) Se%&#!n *' Re. cross6claim and fourth6party complaint1 (d) %he fourth6party. shall adduce evidence of his defense. permits them to adduce evidence upon their original case1 and . but shall have no po er to ad+ourn a trial for a longer period than one month for each ad+ournment nor more than three months in all. and to any stated time.. &**) Se%&#!n (' Ad+ournments and postponements# $ A court may ad+ourn a trial from day to day. e)cept hen authori.a. as the e)peditious and convenient transaction of business may re9uire. the trial shall be limited to the issues stated in the pre6 trial order and shall proceed as follo s" (a) %he plaintiff shall adduce evidence in support of his complaint1 (b) %he defendant shall then adduce evidence in support of his defense. cross6claim and third6party complaints1 (c) %he third6party defendant if any. even if he ob+ects or reserves the right to ob+ect to their admissibility. counterclaim. counterclaim.(. unless the court. and that due diligence has been used to procure it# !ut if the adverse party admits the facts to be given in evidence. the trial shall not be postponed# (-a. shall adduce evidence in support of their defense. &**) Se%&#!n +' )rder of trial# $ Sub+ect to the provisions of section * of &ule . shall adduce evidence of the material facts pleaded by them1 (e) %he parties against hom any counterclaim or cross6claim has been pleaded. for good reasons and in the furtherance of +ustice.uisites of motion to postpone trial for a'sen&e of e(iden&e# $ A motion to postpone a trial on the ground of absence of evidence can be granted only upon affidavit sho ing the materiality or relevancy of such evidence. if any. &**1 !ar 3atter >o# .

unless the court directs the parties to argue or to submit their respective memoranda or any further pleadings# If several defendants or third6party defendants. &. upon the facts involved in the litigation. or to any of the parties. in default or e2 parte hearings. itnesses or counsel.=) Se%&#!n 1' Suspension of a&tions# $ %he suspension of actions shall be governed by the provisions of the Civil Code# (n) Se%&#!n 9' *udge to re&ei(e e(iden&e1 delegation to &ler/ of &ourt# $ %he +udge of the court here the case is pending shall personally receive the evidence to be adduced by the parties# 8o ever. may order a separate trial of any claim. or of any separate issue or of any number of claims. the court may delegate the reception of evidence to its cler' of court ho is a member of the bar# %he cler' of court shall have no po er to rule on ob+ections to any 9uestion or to the admission of e)hibits. and it may ma'e such orders concerning proceedings therein as may tend to avoid unnecessary costs or delay# (() Se%&#!n (' Separate trials# $ %he court. having separate defenses appear by different counsel.' Agreed statement of fa&ts# $ %he parties to any action may agree. in riting.(g) 7pon admission of the evidence. and in any case here the parties agree in riting. shall be made of record in the stenographic notes# (.a.=) Se%&#!n .=) Se%&#!n 7' Statement of +udge# $ During the hearing or trial of a case any statement made by the +udge ith reference to the case. and submit the case for +udgment on the facts agreed upon. the trial shall be held as to the disputed facts in such order as the court shall prescribe# (*a. third6party complaints or issues# (*a) . the court shall determine the relative order of presentation of their evidence# ((a. and so forth. it may order a +oint hearing or trial of any or all the matters in issue in the actions1 it may order all the actions consolidated. cross6claims. hich ob+ections shall be resolved by the court upon submission of his report and the transcripts ithin ten ((=) days from termination of the hearing# (n) RULE )1 C!n$! #-a&#!n !r Se"eran%e Se%&#!n 1' Consolidation# $ 2hen actions involving a common 9uestion of la or fact are pending before the court. ithout the introduction of evidence# If the parties agree only on some of the facts in issue. counterclaims. in furtherance of convenience or to avoid pre+udice. &. counterclaim. or third6party complaint. &. cross6claim. the case shall be deemed submitted for decision.

. C!33#$$#!ner Se%&#!n 1' Referen&e 'y &onsent# $ !y ritten consent of both parties. in any stage of a case. &.) . s ear itnesses. &. an auditor and an e)aminer# ((a. the court may order any or all of the issues in a case to be referred to a commissioner to be agreed upon by the parties or to be appointed by the court# As used in these &ules.) Se%&#!n )' )rder of referen&e1 po%ers of the &ommissioner# $ 2hen a reference is made. other than upon the pleadings..) Se%&#!n (' Referen&e ordered on motion# $ 2hen the parties do not consent. the cler' shall forth ith furnish the commissioner ith a copy of the order of reference# %he order may specify or limit the po ers of the commissioner. he may rule upon the admissibility of evidence# %he trial or hearing before him shall proceed in all respects as it ould if held before the court# (. or for carrying a +udgment or order into effect# (c) 2hen a 9uestion of fact. the commissioner shall forth ith set a time and place for the first meeting of the parties or their counsel to be held ithin ten ((=) days after the date of the order of reference and shall notify the parties or their counsel# (5a. &... or to receive and report evidence only and may fi) the date for beginning and closing the hearings and for the filing of his report# Sub+ect to other specifications and limitations stated in the order.) Se%&#!n +' Pro&eedings 'efore &ommissioner# $ 7pon receipt of the order of reference and unless other ise provided therein. in hich case the commissioner may be directed to hear and report upon the hole issue or any specific 9uestion involved therein1 (b) 2hen the ta'ing of an account is necessary for the information of the court before +udgment. and may direct him to report only upon particular issues. the court may.a. and unless other ise provided in the order of reference.RULE )( Tr#a . or to do or perform particular acts. direct a reference to a commissioner in the follo ing cases" (a) 2hen the trial of an issue of fact re9uires the e)amination of a long account on either side. the ord 5commissioner5 includes a referee. &.. &. the commissioner has and shall e)ercise the po er to regulate the proceedings in every hearing before him and to do all acts and ta'e all measures necessary or proper for the efficient performance of his duties under the order# 8e may issue subpoenas and subpoenas du&es te&um. upon the application of either or of its o n motion. or for carrying a +udgment or order into effect# (*a.) Se%&#!n *' )ath of &ommissioner# $ !efore entering upon his duties the commissioner shall be s orn to a faithful and honest performance thereof# ((-.. arises upon motion or other ise.

if any. &.) Se%&#!n 1)' Compensation of &ommissioner# $ %he court shall allo the commissioner such reasonable compensation as the circumstances of the case arrant. &. or re+ecting the report in hole or in part. he shall file ith the court his report in riting upon the matters submitted to him by the order of reference# 2hen his po ers are not specified or limited. if they so desire# 4b+ections to the report based upon grounds hich ere available to the parties during the proceedings before the commissioner. &..) Se%&#!n 12' Noti&e to parties of the filing of report# $ 7pon the filing of the report. papers and the transcript. &. depositions. he shall set forth his findings of fact and conclusions of la in his report# 8e shall attach thereto all e)hibits..) Se%&#!n 1' Commissioner shall a(oid delays# $ It is the duty of the commissioner to proceed ith all reasonable diligence# 0ither party. the commissioner may proceed e2 parte or. &.. &. after hich the court shall issue an order adopting. may apply to the court for an order re9uiring the commissioner to e)pedite the proceedings and to ma'e his report# (.. modifying.a.. or apportioned.' 9ailure of parties to appear 'efore &ommissioner# $ If a party fails to appear at the time and place appointed. or recommitting it ith instructions.) Se%&#!n 1(' Stipulations as to findings# $ 2hen the parties stipulate that a commissionerCs findings of fact shall be final. the report shall be set for hearing.. or re9uiring the parties to present further evidence before the commissioner or the court# (((a.) Se%&#!n 7' Refusal of %itness# $ %he refusal of a itness to obey a subpoena issued by the commissioner or to give evidence before him. and they shall be allo ed ten ((=) days ithin hich to signify grounds of ob+ections to the findings of the report.) RULE )) De3/rrer &! E"#-en%e . as +ustice re9uires# ((. &. giving notice to the absent party or his counsel of the ad+ournment# (/a.Se%&#!n . shall not be considered by the court unless they ere made before the commissioner# ((=.. other than ob+ections to the findings and conclusions therein.. to be ta)ed as costs against the defeated party. set forth. shall be deemed a contempt of the court hich appointed the commissioner# (:a &. the parties shall be notified by the cler'.) Se%&#!n 9' Report of &ommissioner# $ 7pon the completion of the trial or hearing or proceeding before the commissioner. only 9uestions of la shall thereafter be considered# ((*a. ad+ourn the proceedings to a future day.) Se%&#!n 11' 8earing upon report# $ 7pon the e)piration of the period of ten ((=) days referred to in the preceding section. of the testimonial evidence presented before him# (<a.. affidavits. on notice to the parties and commissioner. in his discretion.

&. at any time. move ith supporting affidavits. in actions for declaration of nullity or annulment of marriage or for legal separation. by e)amining the pleadings and the evidence before it and by interrogating counsel shall ascertain hat material facts e)ist ithout substantial controversy and .-) Se%&#!n (' Summary +udgment for defending party# $ A party against hom a claim.a.-) Se%&#!n *' Case not fully ad+udi&ated on motion# $ If on motion under this &ule. J/-43en&$ Se%&#!n 1' Summary +udgment for &laimant# $ A party see'ing to recover upon a claim. depositions. the defendant may move for dismissal on the ground that upon the facts and the la the plaintiff has sho n no right to relief# If his motion is denied he shall have the right to present evidence# If the motion is granted but on appeal the order of dismissal is reversed he shall be deemed to have aived the right to present evidence# ((a. or cross6claim is asserted or a declaratory relief is sought may. move ith supporting affidavits. the +udgment sought shall be rendered forth ith if the pleadings. or cross6claim or to obtain a declaratory relief may. and admissions on file. depositions or admissions for a summary +udgment in his favor upon all or any part thereof# ((a. or admissions at least three (. &. &(<) RULE )+ S/33ar. at any time after the pleading in ans er thereto has been served. the material facts alleged in the complaint shall al ays be proved# ((a. supporting affidavits. there is no genuine issue as to any material fact and that the moving party is entitled to a +udgment as a matter of la # (.5) RULE )* J/-43en& !n &9e P ea-#n4$ Se%&#!n 1' *udgment on the pleadings# $ 2here an ans er fails to tender an issue. direct +udgment on such pleading# 8o ever. sho that. +udgment is not rendered upon the hole case or for all the reliefs sought and a trial is necessary.Se%&#!n 1' 1emurrer to e(iden&e# $ After the plaintiff has completed the presentation of his evidence. the court at the hearing of the motion. depositions or admissions for a summary +udgment in his favor as to all or any part thereof# (*a. counterclaim. depositions. or other ise admits the material allegations of the adverse partyCs pleading. counterclaim. &.-) Se%&#!n )' Motion and pro&eedings thereon# $ %he motion shall be served at least ten ((=) days before the time specified for the hearing# %he adverse party may serve opposing affidavits. the court may1 on motion of that party.) days before the hearing# After the hearing. &. e)cept as to the amount of damages.

ithin a certificate that such +udgment or final order has become final and e)ecutory# (*a.-) Se%&#!n +' 9orm of affida(its and supporting papers# $ Supporting and opposing affidavits shall be made on personal 'no ledge.En&r. including the e)tent to hich the amount of damages or other relief is not in controversy. or solely for the purpose of delay. the +udgment or final order shall forth ith be entered by the cler' in the boo' of entries of +udgments# %he date of finality of the +udgment or final order shall be deemed to be the date of its entry# %he record shall contain the dispositive part of the +udgment or final order and shall be signed by the cler'. leaving the action to proceed against the others# (-) . hen a several +udgment is proper. J/-43en&$.-) Se%&#!n .hat are actually and in good faith controverted# It shall thereupon ma'e an order specifying the facts that appear ithout substantial controversy. after hearing further ad+udge the offending party or counsel guilty of contempt# (/a. and the trial shall be conducted on the controverted facts accordingly# (-a.' Affida(its in 'ad faith# $ Should it appear to its satisfaction at any time that any of the affidavits presented pursuant to this &ule are presented in bad faith. and filed ith the cler' of the court# ((a) Se%&#!n (' 0ntry of +udgments and final orders# $ If no appeal or motion for ne trial or reconsideration is filed ithin the time provided in these &ules. render +udgment against one or more of them. stating clearly and distinctly the facts and the la on hich it is based. &. the court shall forth ith order the offending party or counsel to pay to the other party the amount of the reasonable e)penses hich the filing of the affidavits caused him to incur including attorneyCs fees. and directing such further proceedings in the action as are +ust# %he facts so specified shall be deemed established. T9ere!0 Se%&#!n 1' Rendition of +udgments and final orders# $ A +udgment or final order determining the merits of the case shall be in riting personally and directly prepared by the +udge. signed by him. it may. (=. &5() Se%&#!n )' *udgment for or against one or more of se(eral parties# $ Eudgment may be given for or against one or more of several plaintiffs and for or against one or more of several defendants# 2hen +ustice so demands.) Se%&#!n *' Se(eral +udgments# $ In an action against several defendants.-) RULE ). &. the court may re9uire the parties on each side to file adversary pleadings as bet een themselves and determine their ultimate rights and obligations# (. and shall sho affirmatively that the affiant is competent to testify to the matters stated therein# Certified true copies of all papers or parts thereof referred to in the affidavit shall be attached thereto or served there ith# (5a. shall set forth such facts as ould be admissible in evidence. F#na Or-er$ an. &. the court may.

$ %he motion shall be made in riting stating the ground or grounds therefor. mista'e or e)cusable negligence hich ordinary prudence could not have guarded against and by reason of hich such aggrieved party has probably been impaired in his rights1 or (b) >e ly discovered evidence.Se%&#!n +' Separate +udgments# $ 2hen more than one claim for relief is presented in an action. the aggrieved party may also move for reconsideration upon the grounds that the damages a arded are e)cessive. at any stage. that the evidence is insufficient to +ustify the decision or final order. accident. and hich if presented ould probably alter the result# 2ithin the same period. the aggrieved party may move the trial court to set aside the +udgment or final order and grant a ne trial for one or more of the follo ing causes materially affecting the substantial rights of said party" (a) ?raud. or by duly authenticated documents hich are proposed to be introduced in evidence# . a ritten notice of hich shall be served by the movant on the adverse party# A motion for ne trial shall be proved in the manner provided for proof of motion# A motion for the cause mentioned in paragraph (a) of the preceding section shall be supported by affidavits of merits hich may be rebutted by affidavits# A motion for the cause mentioned in paragraph (b) shall be supported by affidavits of the itnesses by hom such evidence is e)pected to be given. have discovered and produced at the trial. if 'no n# (/a) RULE )7 Ne= Tr#a !r Re%!n$#-era&#!n$ Se%&#!n 1' 3rounds of and period for filing motion for ne% trial or re&onsideration# $ 2ithin the period for ta'ing an appeal. upon a determination of the issues material to a particular claim and all counterclaims arising out of the transaction or occurrence hich is the sub+ect matter of the claim. the +udgment shall set out their individual or proper names. may render a separate +udgment disposing of such claim# %he +udgment shall terminate the action ith respect to the claim so disposed of and the action shall proceed as to the remaining claims# In case a separate +udgment is rendered the court by order may stay its enforcement until the rendition of a subse9uent +udgment or +udgments and may prescribe such conditions as may be necessary to secure the benefit thereof to the party in hose favor the +udgment is rendered# (5a) Se%&#!n . ith reasonable diligence.' *udgment against entity %ithout +uridi&al personality# $ 2hen +udgment is rendered against t o or more persons sued as an entity ithout +uridical personality. the court. or that the decision or final order is contrary to la # ((a) Se%&#!n (' Contents of motion for ne% trial or re&onsideration and noti&e thereof. hich he could not.

of the parties to it. upon such terms as may be +ust. or only one. insofar as the same is material and competent to establish the issues.' 0ffe&t of granting of motion for ne% trial# $ If a ne trial is granted in accordance ith the provisions of this &ules the original +udgment or final order shall be vacated. the remedy being an appeal from the +udgment or final order# (n) . or may deny the motion# If the court finds that e)cessive damages have been a arded or that the +udgment or final order is contrary to the evidence or la . based on a ground not e)isting nor available hen the first motion as made. -. or less than an of the matter in controversy. the court may either enter a +udgment or final order as to the rest. I&@) Se%&#!n . and the action shall stand for trial de no(o1 but the recorded evidence ta'en upon the former trial. or less than all.A motion for reconsideration shall point out a specifically the findings or conclusions of the +udgment or final order hich are not supported by the evidence or hich are contrary to la ma'ing e)press reference to the testimonial or documentary evidence or to the provisions of la alleged to be contrary to such findings or conclusions# A pro forma motion for ne trial or reconsideration shall not toll the reglementary period of appeal# (*a) Se%&#!n )' A&tion upon motion for ne% trial or re&onsideration# $ %he trial court may set aside the +udgment or final order and grant a ne trial. it may amend such +udgment or final order accordingly# (.=) days from the time it is submitted for resolution# (n) Se%&#!n +' Se&ond motion for ne% trial# $ A motion for ne trial shall include all grounds then available and those not so included shall be deemed aived# A second motion for ne trial. shall be used at the ne trial ithout reta'ing the same# (5a) Se%&#!n 7' Partial ne% trial or re&onsideration# $ If the grounds for a motion under this &ule appear to the court to affect the issues as to only a part. or stay the enforcement of such +udgment or final order until after the ne trial# (:a) Se%&#!n 9' Remedy against order denying a motion for ne% trial or re&onsideration# $ An order denying a motion for ne trial or reconsideration is not appealed. the court may order a ne trial or grant reconsideration as to such issues if severable ithout interfering ith the +udgment or final order upon the rest# (/a) Se%&#!n 1' 0ffe&t of order for partial ne% trial# $ 2hen less than all of the issues are ordered retried.a) Se%&#!n *' Resolution of motion# $ A motion for ne trial or reconsideration shall be resolved ithin thirty (. may be filed ithin the time herein provided e)cluding the time during hich the first motion had been pending# >o party shall be allo ed a second motion for reconsideration of a +udgment or final order (-a.

or other proceeding to be set aside. but such in+unction shall not operate to discharge or e)tinguish any lien hich the adverse party may have ac9uired upon. or e)cusable negligence. order. the property. mista'e. by fraud. accident. he may file a petition in such court and in the same case praying that the appeal be given due course# ((a) Se%&#!n )' #ime for filing petition1 &ontents and (erifi&ation# $ A petition provided for in either of the preceding sections of this &ule must be verified. and the facts constituting the petitionerCs good and substantial cause of action or defense. the court shall hear the petition and if after such hearing. accident. the court in hich it is filed. shall issue an order re9uiring the adverse parties to ans er the same ithin fifteen ((5) days from the receipt thereof# %he order shall be served in such manner as the court may direct. final order. and a party thereto.' Pro&eedings after ans%er is filed# $ After the filing of the ans er or the e)piration of the period therefor. and must be accompanied ith affidavits sho ing the fraud. mista'e. accident. !r O&9er Pr!%ee-#n4$ Se%&#!n 1' Petition for relief from +udgment. has been prevented from ta'ing an appeal. the petition shall be dismissed1 but if it finds said allegations to be true. upon the filing by the petitioner of a bond in favor of the adverse party. conditioned that if the petition is dismissed or the petitioner fails on the trial of the case upon its merits. or e)cusable negligence relied upon. of the petitioner# (5a) Se%&#!n . final order or other proceeding had never been rendered. or other pro&eedings# $ 2hen a +udgment or final order is entered. together ith copies of the petition and the accompanying affidavits# (-a) Se%&#!n +' Preliminary in+un&tion pending pro&eedings# $ %he court in hich the petition is filed may grant such preliminary in+unction as may be necessary for the preservation of the rights of the parties. as the case may be# (. or such proceeding as ta'en. issued or ta'en# %he court shall then proceed to hear and . he may file a petition in such court and in the same case praying that the +udgment. order or proceeding be set aside# (*a) Se%&#!n (' Petition for relief from denial of appeal# $ 2hen a +udgment or final order is rendered by any court in a case. Or-er$.) Se%&#!n *' )rder to file an ans%er# $ If the petition is sufficient in form and substance to +ustify relief. filed ithin si)ty (/=) days after the petitioner learns of the +udgment.RULE )1 Re #e0 0r!3 J/-43en&$. or e)cusable negligence. mista'e. or any other proceeding is thereafter ta'en against a party in any court through fraud. he ill pay the adverse party all damages and costs that may be a arded to him by reason of the issuance of such in+unction or the other proceedings follo ing the petition. and not more than si) (/) months after such +udgment or final order as entered. it shall set aside the +udgment or final order or other proceeding complained of upon such terms as may be +ust# %hereafter the case shall stand as if such +udgment. it finds that the allegations thereof are not true.

direct the court of origin to issue the rit of e)ecution# (n) Se%&#!n (' 1is&retionary e2e&ution# $ (a) 02e&ution of a +udgment or final order pending appeal# $ 4n motion of the prevailing party ith notice to the adverse party filed in the trial court hile it has +urisdiction over the case and is in possession of either the original record or the record on appeal. or motion. Sa&#$0a%&#!n an. order e)ecution of a +udgment or final order even before the e)piration of the period to appeal# After the trial court has lost +urisdiction the motion for e)ecution pending appeal may be filed in the appellate court# Discretionary e)ecution may only issue upon good reasons to be stated in a special order after due hearing# (b) 02e&ution of se(eral. separate or partial +udgment may be e)ecuted under the same terms and conditions as e)ecution of a +udgment or final order pending appeal# (*a) Se%&#!n )' Stay of dis&retionary e2e&ution# $ Discretionary e)ecution issued under the preceding section may be stayed upon approval by the proper court of a sufficient supersedeas . as the case may be. the lo er court shall be re9uired to give due course to the appeal and to elevate the record of the appealed case as if a timely and proper appeal had been made# (:a) RULE )9 E<e%/&#!n. hen the interest of +ustice so re9uires. ith notice to the adverse party# %he appellate court may.E00e%& !0 J/-43en&$ Se%&#!n 1' 02e&ution upon +udgments or final orders# $ 0)ecution shall issue as a matter of right. in its discretion. on motion in the same case. said court may. submitting there ith certified true copies of the +udgment or +udgments or final order or orders sought to be enforced and of the entry thereof. on motion of the +udgment obligee. at the time of the filing of such motion. separate or partial +udgments# $ A several.determine the case as if a timely motion for a ne trial or reconsideration had been granted by it# (/a) Se%&#!n 7' Pro&edure %here the denial of an appeal is set aside# $ 2here the denial of an appeal is set aside. upon a +udgment or order that disposes of the action or proceeding upon the e)piration of the period to appeal therefrom if no appeal has been duly perfected# ((a) If the appeal has been duly perfected and finally resolved. the e)ecution may forth ith be applied for in the court of origin.

and before it is barred by the statute of limitations. accounting and support.' 02e&ution 'y motion or 'y independent a&tion# $ A final and e)ecutory +udgment or order may be e)ecuted on motion ithin five (5) years from the date of its entry# After the lapse of such time. receivership. after e)ecution is actually levied upon any of his property. against his e)ecutor or administrator or successor in interest. be stayed by an appeal ta'en therefrom. receivership. and the officer ma'ing the sale shall account to the corresponding e)ecutor or administrator for any surplus in his hands# (:a) Se%&#!n 1' $ssuan&e. the trial court may. issue such orders of restitution or reparation of damages as e9uity and +ustice may arrant under the circumstances# (5a) Se%&#!n . or annulled. on appeal or other ise. accounting. restoring or granting the in+unction. unless other ise ordered by the trial court# 4n appeal therefrom.bond filed by the party against hom it is directed. or the enforcement of a lien thereon1 (c) In case of the death of the +udgment obligor. conditioned upon the performance of the +udgment or order allo ed to be e)ecuted in case it shall be finally sustained in hole or in part# %he bond thus given may be proceeded against on motion ith notice to the surety# (. upon the application of his e)ecutor or administrator. modifying. a +udgment may be enforced by action# %he revived +udgment may also be enforced by motion ithin five (5) years from the date of its entry and thereafter by action before it is barred by the statute of limitations# (/a) Se%&#!n 7' 02e&ution in &ase of death of party# $ In case of the death of a party. form and &ontents of a %rit of e2e&ution# $ %he rit of e)ecution shall" (() issue in the name of the &epublic of the Philippines from the court hich granted the motion1 (*) state the name of the court. in the manner hereinafter provided" . the case number and title. the appellate court in its discretion may ma'e an order suspending.) re9uire the sheriff or other proper officer to hom it is directed to enforce the rit according to its terms. shall be enforceable after their rendition and shall not. or a ard of support# %he stay of e)ecution shall be upon such terms as to bond or other ise as may be considered proper for the security or protection of the rights of the adverse party# (-a) Se%&#!n +' 0ffe&t of re(ersal of e2e&uted +udgment# $ 2here the e)ecuted +udgment is reversed totally or partially. on motion. if the +udgment be for the recovery of real or personal property.a ) Se%&#!n *' *udgments not stayed 'y appeal# $ Eudgments in actions for in+unction. and such other +udgments as are no or may hereafter be declared to be immediately e)ecutory. e)ecution may issue or be enforced in the follo ing manner" (a) In case of the death of the +udgment obligee. the dispositive part of the sub+ect +udgment or order1 and (. or successor in interest1 (b) In case of the death of the +udgment obligor. the same may be sold for the satisfaction of the +udgment obligation.

out of the real or personal property of such +udgment obligor1 (b) If it be against real or personal property in the hands of personal representatives. rents. the +udgment obligor shall deliver the aforesaid payment to the e)ecuting sheriff# %he latter shall turn over all the amounts coming into his possession ithin the same day to the cler' of court of the court that issued the rit.ed representative is not present to receive payment. the amount of the +udgment debt under proper receipt directly to the +udgment obligee or his authori. if any. to satisfy the +udgment. aside from the principal obligation under the +udgment# ?or this purpose. and to satisfy any costs. or profits covered by the +udgment out of the personal property of the person against hom it as rendered. ith interest.ed representative if present at the time of payment# %he la ful fees shall be handed under proper receipt to the e)ecuting sheriff ho shall turn over the said amount ithin the same day to the cler' of court of the court that issued the rit# If the +udgment obligee or his authori. describing it. rents.a) Se%&#!n 9' 02e&ution of +udgments for money. damages. the motion for e)ecution shall specify the amounts of the foregoing reliefs sought by the movant#(. heirs. deposit said amounts to a fiduciary account in the nearest government depository ban' of the &egional %rial Court of the locality# %he cler' of said court shall thereafter arrange for the remittance of the deposit to the account of the court that issued the rit hose cler' of court shall then deliver said payment to the +udgment obligee in satisfaction of the +udgment# %he e)cess. the material parts of hich shall be recited in the rit of e)ecution1 (d) If it be for the delivery of the possession of real or personal property. devisees. the rit of e)ecution shall specifically state the amount of the interest. and apply the proceeds in conformity ith the +udgment. to the party entitled thereto. or any other form of payment acceptable to the latter. then out of the real property1 and (e) In all cases. shall be delivered to the +udgment obligor hile the la ful fees shall be retained by the cler' .(a) If the e)ecution be against the property of the +udgment obligor. or profits due as of the date of the issuance of the rit. or if the same is not practicable. costs. ith interest. tenants. ho% enfor&ed# $ (a) $mmediate payment on demand# $ %he officer shall enforce an e)ecution of a +udgment for money by demanding from the +udgment obligor the immediate payment of the full amount stated in the rit of e)ecution and all la ful fees# %he +udgment obligor shall pay in cash. damages. or trustees of the +udgment obligor. out of such property1 (c) If it be for the sale of real or personal property to sell such property describing it. to satisfy the +udgment. and if sufficient personal property cannot be found. to deliver the possession of the same. legatees. certified ban' chec' payable to the +udgment obligee.

and other personal property. other ise. or any interest in either real or personal property. the officer shall levy upon the properties of the +udgment obligor of every 'ind and nature hatsoever hich may be disposed. sufficient to satisfy the +udgment# If the +udgment obligor does not e)ercise the option. the choice shall be made by the +udgment obligee# . including ban' deposits. and then on the real properties if the personal properties are insufficient to ans er for the +udgment# %he sheriff shall sell only a sufficient portion of the personal or real property of the +udgment obligor hich has been levied upon# 2hen there is more property of the +udgment obligor than is sufficient to satisfy the +udgment and la ful fees. financial interests. of for value and not other ise e)empt from e)ecution giving the latter the option to immediately choose hich property or part thereof may be levied upon. if available. or certified ban' chec' issued in the name of the +udgment obligee. shares. debts. shall have the right to indicate the garnishee or garnishees ho shall be re9uired to deliver the amount due. shall be delivered directly to the +udgment obligee ithin ten ((=) or'ing days from service of notice on said garnishee re9uiring such delivery. certified ban' chec' or other mode of payment acceptable to the +udgment obligee. he must sell only so much of the personal or real property as is sufficient to satisfy the +udgment and la ful fees# &eal property. if any. commissions and other personal property not capable of manual delivery in the possession or control of third parties# Fevy shall be made by serving notice upon the person o ing such debts or having in his possession or control such credits to hich the +udgment obligor is entitled# %he garnishment shall cover only such amount as ill satisfy the +udgment and all la ful fees# %he garnishee shall ma'e a ritten report to the court ithin five (5) days from service of the notice of garnishment stating hether or not the +udgment obligor has sufficient funds or credits to satisfy the amount of the +udgment# If not. credits. e)cept the la ful fees hich shall be paid directly to the court# In the event there are t o or more garnishees holding deposits or credits sufficient to satisfy the +udgment. the officer shall first levy on the personal properties. the report shall state ho much funds or credits the garnishee holds for the +udgment obligor# %he garnished amount in cash. royalties. may be levied upon in li'e manner and ith li'e effect as under a rit of attachment# (c) 3arnishment of de'ts and &redits# $ %he officer may levy on debts due the +udgment obligor and other credits. the +udgment obligor. stoc's.of court for disposition as provided by la # In no case shall the e)ecuting sheriff demand that any payment by chec' be made payable to him# (b) Satisfa&tion 'y le(y# $ If the +udgment obligor cannot pay all or part of the obligation in cash.

rents or profits a arded by the +udgment shall be satisfied in the same manner as a +udgment for money# ((. to sell such property. and restore possession thereof to the +udgment obligee.a. if necessary. demolish or remove said improvements e)cept upon special order of the court. and employing such means as may be reasonably necessary to reta'e possession. the court in lieu of directing a conveyance thereof may by an order divest the title of any party and vest it in others. deli(ery of deeds. of appropriate peace officers. describing it.%he e)ecuting sheriff shall observe the same procedure under paragraph (a) ith respect to delivery of payment to the +udgment obligee# (. the court may direct the act to be done at the cost of the disobedient party by some other person appointed by the court and the act hen so done shall have li'e effect as if done by the party# If real or personal property is situated ithin the Philippines. and place the +udgment obligee in possession of such property# Any costs. to obey the same. the officer shall ta'e possession of the same and forth ith deliver it to the party entitled thereto and satisfy any +udgment for money as therein provided# (. and apply the proceeds in conformity ith the +udgment# (. (5a) Se%&#!n 12' 02e&ution of +udgments for spe&ifi& a&t# $ (a) Con(eyan&e. or other spe&ifi& a&ts1 (esting title# $ If a +udgment directs a party to e)ecute a conveyance of land or personal property.a) Se%&#!n 11' 02e&ution of spe&ial +udgments# $ 2hen a +udgment re9uires the performance of any act other than those mentioned in the t o preceding sections. and such party or person may be punished for contempt if he disobeys such +udgment# (<a) . other ise. hich shall have the force and effect of a conveyance e)ecuted in due form of la # ((=a) (b) Sale of real or personal property# $ If the +udgment be for the sale of real or personal property.a) (d) Remo(al of impro(ements on property su'+e&t of e2e&ution# $ 2hen the property sub+ect of the e)ecution contains improvements constructed or planted by the +udgment obligor or his agent. a certified copy of the +udgment shall be attached to the rit of e)ecution and shall be served by the officer upon the party against hom the same is rendered. any other specific act in connection there ith. or upon any other person re9uired thereby. issued upon motion of the +udgment obligee after the hearing and after the former has failed to remove the same ithin a reasonable time fi)ed by the court# ((-a) (e) 1eli(ery of personal property# $ In +udgment for the delivery of personal property. or to perform. and the party fails to comply ithin the time specified. or to deliver deeds or other documents.AcBa) (c) 1eli(ery or restitution of real property# $ %he officer shall demand of the person against hom the +udgment for the delivery or restitution of real property is rendered and all persons claiming rights under him to peaceably vacate the property ithin three (.) or'ing days. the officer shall not destroy. damages. or by la . the officer shall oust all such persons therefrom ith the assistance.

The writ of e ecution shall be returnable to the court issuing it immediately after the judgment has been satisfied in part or in full( -f the judgment cannot be satisfied in full within thirty (. sub+ect to liens and encumbrances then e)isting# ((/a) Se%&#!n 1)' Property e2empt from e2e&ution# $ 0)cept as other ise e)pressly provided by la . and no other. (h) One fishing boat and accessories not e ceeding the total value of one hundred thousand pesos owned by a fisherman and by the lawful use of which he earns his livelihood. and used for that purpose by the judgment obligor and his family./) days after his receipt of the writ. (g) The professional libraries and e#uipment of judges. engineers. or three carabaos. pharmacists. such as the judgment obligor may select. or three cows. or livelihood.Se%&#!n 1(' 0ffe&t of le(y on e2e&ution as to third person# $ %he levy on e)ecution shall create a lien in favor of the +udgment obligee over the right. lawyers. the officer shall report to the court and state the reason therefor( $uch writ shall continue in effect during the period within which the judgment may be enforced by motion( The officer shall ma!e a report to the court every thirty (. employment. (m) "roperties specially e empted by law( )ut no article or species of property mentioned in this section shall be e empt from e ecution issued upon a judgment recovered for its price or upon a judgment of foreclosure of a mortgage thereon( (*+a) Section 14. (e) Household furniture and utensils necessary for house!eeping. or annuities accruing or in any manner growing out of any life insurance. dentists. or money or property obtained as such support. (i) $o much of the salaries. physicians. (f) "rovisions for individual or family use sufficient for four months. such as the judgment obligor may select necessarily used by him in his ordinary occupation. benefits. e cluding jewelry. and other professionals. shall be e)empt from e)ecution" (a) The judgment obligor's family home as provided by law. (d) His necessary clothing and articles for ordinary personal use. the follo ing property. or the homestead in which he resides. or other beasts of burden. (b) Ordinary tools and implements personally used by him in his trade. wages./) days on the proceedings . Return of writ of execution( . privileges. title and interest of the +udgment obligor in such property at the time of the levy. (!) &onies. clergymen. or earnings of the judgment obligor for his personal services within the four months preceding the levy as are necessary for the support of his family. (j) %ettered gravestones. (l) The right to receive legal support. (c) Three horses. or any pension or gratuity from the 'overnment. of a value not e ceeding one hundred thousand pesos. teachers. surveyors. and land necessarily used in connection therewith. not e ceeding three hundred thousand pesos in value.

whether in 3nglish. or prevent the judgment obligee from claiming damages in the same or a separate action against a third1party claimant who filed a frivolous or plainly spurious claim( . e cept as provided in paragraph (a) hereof where notice shall be given the same manner as personal service of pleadings and other papers as provided by section 5 of 6ule *. and shall be filed with the court and copies thereof promptly furnished the parties( (**a) Section 15. considering the character and condition of the property. Notice of sale of property on execution( . and serves the same upon the officer ma!ing the levy and copy thereof. by posting a similar notice in the three (. on demand of the officer. and such person ma!es an affidavit of his title thereto or right to the possession thereof. (c) -n case of real property. and if the assessed value of the property e ceeds fifty thousand ("2/. unless such judgment obligee. the sale shall be held in the place where the property is located( (*8a) Section 16. date and e act time of the sale which should not be earlier than nine o'cloc! in the morning and not later than two o'cloc! in the afternoon( The place of the sale may be agreed upon by the parties( -n the absence of such agreement. notice thereof must be given as follows0 (a) -n case of perishable property. written notice of the sale shall be given to the judgment obligor. by posting written notice of the time and place of the sale in three (. files a bond approved by the court to indemnity the third1party claimant in a sum not less than the value of the property levied on( -n case of disagreement as to such value. and a serves the same upon the officer ma!ing the levy and a copy thereof upon the judgment obligee.ta!en thereon until the judgment is satisfied in full. in the absence thereof. (d) -n all cases. for such time as may be reasonable. preferably in conspicuous areas of the municipal or city hall. post office and public mar!et in the municipality or city where the sale is to ta!e place.) public places abovementioned a similar notice particularly describing the property and stating where the property is to be sold. stating the grounds of such right or title. or its effectivity e pires( The returns or periodic reports shall set forth the whole of the proceedings ta!en. -f the property levied on is claimed by any person other than the judgment obligor or his agent.( The notice shall specify the place. the same shall be determined by the court issuing the writ of e ecution( 9o claim for damages for the ta!ing or !eeping of the property may be enforced against the bond unless the action therefor is filed within one hundred twenty (*+/) days from the date of the filing of the bond( The officer shall not be liable for damages for the ta!ing or !eeping of the property. having general circulation in the province or city.) public places. the officer shall not be bound to !eep the property. (b) -n case of other personal property. Proceedings where property claimed by third person ( . at least three (. by publishing a copy of the notice once a wee! for two (+) consecutive wee!s in one newspaper selected by raffle. stating the grounds of such right or tittle. edited and circulated or.///(//) pesos. the sale of the property or personal property not capable of manual delivery shall be held in the office of the cler! of court of the 6egional Trial 7ourt or the &unicipal Trial 7ourt which issued the writ of or which was designated by the appellate court( -n the case of personal property capable of manual delivery.) days before the sale.) public places above1mentioned for not less than five (2) days. )efore the sale of property on e ecution. or any major regional language published. 4ilipino. by posting for twenty (+/) days in the three (. to any third1party claimant if such bond is filed( 9othing herein contained shall prevent such claimant or any third person from vindicating his claim to the property in a separate action.

or. and in case the sheriff or levying officer is sued for damages as a result of the levy.:hen the writ of e ecution is issued in favor of the 6epublic of the "hilippines. the judgment obligor may prevent the sale by paying the amount re#uired by the e ecution and the costs that have been incurred therein( (+/a) Section 19. How property sold on execution. and may punish him for contempt if he disobeys the order( The amount of such payment shall be for the benefit of the person entitled to the proceeds of the e ecution. both to be recovered by motion in the same action. nor his deputies. or their duly authori>ed representatives. capable of manual delivery. can become a purchaser. they must be sold separately. he may re#uire it to be sold separately( :hen the sale is of personal property capable of manual delivery. )y written consent of the judgment obligor and obligee. if desired. e ecute and deliver to him a . if present at the sale. it must be sold within view of those attending the same and in such parcels as are li!ely to bring the highest price( The judgment obligor. the filing of such bond shall not be re#uired.a) Section 17. and no third1party claim has been filed. he need not pay the amount of the bid if it does not e ceed the amount of his judgment( -f it does. he shall be represented by the $olicitor 'eneral and if held liable therefor. no more shall be sold and any e cess property or proceeds of the sale shall be promptly delivered to the judgment obligor or his authori>ed representative. but the court may order the refusing purchaser to pay into the court the amount of such loss.a) Section 22. <n officer selling without the notice prescribed by section *2 of this 6ule shall be liable to pay punitive damages in the amount of five thousand ("2. when such property consists of several !nown lots or parcels which can be sold to advantage separately( 9either the officer conducting the e ecution sale. real or personal shall be sold. Refusal of purchaser to pay( . :hen the purchaser of any personal property. in addition to his actual damages. Penalty for selling without notice. Conveyance to purchaser of personal property capable of manual delivery ( . the actual damages adjudged by the court shall be paid by the 9ational Treasurer out of such funds as may be appropriated for the purpose( (*. -f a purchaser refuses to pay the amount bid by him for property struc! off to him at a sale under e ecution. to the highest bidder. shall be liable to pay five thousand ("2. the officer may adjourn the sale to any date and time agreed upon by them( :ithout such agreement. may direct the order in which property. in addition to his actual damages. in which event such proceeds shall be for the benefit of the judgment obligor( The officer may thereafter reject any subse#uent bid of such purchaser who refuses to pay( (++a) Section 21. or any officer duly representing it. who may direct manner and order of sale( . the officer may again sell the property to the highest bidder and shall not be responsible for any loss occasioned thereby. to start at the e act time fi ed in the notice( <fter sufficient property has been sold to satisfy the e ecution. unless the e ecution has been fully satisfied. or removing or defacing notice( . and a person willfully removing or defacing the notice posted.///(//) pesos to any person injured thereby. if done before the sale. with costs. the officer ma!ing the sale must deliver the property to the purchaser and. Judgment obligee as purchaser( . No sale if judgment and costs paid( . unless otherwise directed by the judgment or order of the court( :hen the sale is of real property. consisting of several !nown lots. :hen the purchaser is the judgment obligee. or before the satisfaction of the judgment if it be satisfied before the sale. <t any time before the sale of property on e ecution. he may adjourn the sale from day to day if it becomes necessary to do so for lac! of time to complete the sale on the day fi ed in the notice or the day to which it was adjourned( (+?a) Section 23. he shall pay only the e cess( (+.///(//) pesos to any person injured by reason thereof. Adjournment of sale( . nor be interested directly or indirectly in any purchase at such sale( (+*a) Section 20. <ll sales of property under e ecution must be made at public auction. when a portion of such real property is claimed by a third person. to be recovered by motion in the same action( (*=a) Section 18. pays the purchase price.

:hen a property sold by virtue of a writ of e ecution has been claimed by a third person. or any part thereof sold separately. judgment or mortgage on the property sold. +? and +2 of this 6ule shall ma!e e press mention of the e istence of such third1 party claim( (+8a) Section 27. with two per centum thereon in addition and the amount of any assessments or ta es which the last redemptioner may have paid thereon after redemption by him. (d) < statement that the right of redemption e pires one (*) year from the date of the registration of the certificate of sale( $uch certificate must be registered in the registry of deeds of the place where the property is situated( (+.. Certificate of sale where property claimed by third person ( . and if the purchaser be also a creditor having a prior lien to that of the redemptioner. pays the purchase price. and in addition. may redeem the property from the purchaser. ho may redeem real property so sold( . the officer ma!ing the sale must e ecute and deliver to the purchaser a certificate of sale( $uch certificate conveys to the purchaser all the rights which the judgment obligor had in such property as of the date of the levy on e ecution or preliminary attachment( (+5a) Section 25. a) Section 26. with interest( "roperty so redeemed may again be redeemed within si ty (5/) days after the last redemption upon payment of the sum paid on the last redemption. The judgment obligor. or his successor in interest in the whole or any part of the property. Conveyance of real property. with the per centum per month interest thereon in addition. Conveyance to purchaser of personal property not capable of manual delivery ( . 6eal property sold as provided in the last preceding section. notice to be given and filed( . (c) The whole price paid by him. may be redeemed in the manner hereinafter provided. the amount of any liens held by said last . at any time within one (*) year from the date of the registration of the certificate of sale. @pon a sale of real property. together with the amount of any assessments or ta es which the purchaser may have paid thereon after purchase. (b) The price paid for each distinct lot or parcel. by the following persons0 (a) The judgment obligor. with interest on such last named amount. the officer must give to the purchaser a certificate of sale containing0 (a) < particular description of the real property sold. subse#uent to the lien under which the property was sold( $uch redeeming creditor is termed a redemptioner( (+=a) Section 28.certificate of sale( The sale conveys to the purchaser all the rights which the judgment obligor had in such property as of the date of the levy on e ecution or preliminary attachment( (+2a) Section 24. the amount of such other lien. not capable of manual delivery. :hen the purchaser of any personal property. successive redemptions. or redemptioner. or on some part thereof. other than the judgment under which such purchase was made. up to the time of redemption. !ime and manner of" and amounts payable on. (b) < creditor having a lien by virtue of an attachment. by paying the purchaser the amount of his purchase. the certificate of sale to be issued by the sheriff pursuant to sections +. and interest on such last named amount at the same rate. certificate thereof given to purchaser and filed with registry of deeds( .

during the period allowed for redemption. as in other proper cases. and in the latter case shall have the same validity as though the officer ma!ing the sale had continued in office and e ecuted it( . the property may be redeemed without paying such assessments.?a) Section 33. < redemptioner must produce to the officer. certified by the registrar of deeds. or for him to the officer who made the sale( (. on the application of the purchaser or the judgment obligee. by whom executed or given( . if he redeems upon a mortgage or other lien. the purchaser is entitled to a conveyance and possession of the property.redemptioner prior to his own. certified by the cler! of the court wherein the judgment or final order is entered.. -f no redemption be made within one (*) year from the date of the registration of the certificate of sale. and a certificate to be delivered and recorded thereupon. or to use it in the ordinary course of husbandry. whereupon. or the value of the use and occupation thereof when such property is in the possession of a tenant( <ll rents. showing the amount then actually due on the lien( (. on paying the sum paid on the last previous redemption. with interest thereon. Rents. the court may. Proof re$uired of redemptioner( .*a) Section 30. with or without notice. &eed and possession to be given at expiration of redemption period . restrain the commission of waste on the property by injunction.+a) Section 31. and the amount of any liens held by the last redemptioner prior to his own. ta es./a) Section 29. @ntil the e piration of the time allowed for redemption. and an affidavit e ecuted by him or his agent. if such notice be not filed. and if any assessments or ta es are paid by the redemptioner or if he has or ac#uires any lien other than that upon which the redemption was made. and the amounts of any assessments or ta es which the last previous redemptioner paid after the redemption thereon. notice thereof must in li!e manner be given to the officer and filed with the registry of deeds. The purchaser or a redemptioner shall not be entitled to receive the rents. a memorandum of the record thereof. or liens( (. if so redeemed whenever si ty (5/) days have elapsed and no other redemption has been made. no further redemption shall be allowed and he is restored to his estate( The person to whom the redemption payment is made must e ecute and deliver to him a certificate of redemption ac!nowledged before a notary public or other officer authori>ed to ta!e ac!nowledgments of conveyances of real property( $uch certificate must be filed and recorded in the registry of deeds of the place in which the property is situated and the registrar of deeds must note the record thereof on the margin of the record of the certificate of sale( The payments mentioned in this and the last preceding sections may be made to the purchaser or redemptioner. or person from whom he see!s to redeem. but it is not waste for a person in possession of the property at the time of the sale. to continue to use it in the same manner in which it was previously used. redeemed from any previous redemptioner within si ty (5/) days after the last redemption. or entitled to possession afterwards. and as often as a redemptioner is so disposed. and notice thereof given. or. but in all cases the judgment obligor shall have the entire period of one (*) year from the date of the registration of the sale to redeem the property( The deed shall be e ecuted by the officer ma!ing the sale or by his successor in office. #ffect of redemption by judgment obligor. or an original or certified copy of any assignment necessary to establish his claim. the last redemptioner is entitled to the conveyance and possession. earnings and income of property pending redemption ( . earnings and income of the property sold on e ecution. with two per centum thereon in addition. waste restrained( . %anner of using premises pending redemption . or. -f the judgment obligor redeems he must ma!e the same payments as are re#uired to effect a redemption by a redemptioner. and the time for redemption has e pired. with interest( The property may be again. and serve with his notice to the officer a copy of the judgment or final order under which he claims the right to redeem. with interest( :ritten notice of any redemption must be given to the officer who made the sale and a duplicate filed with the registry of deeds of the place. or to ma!e the necessary repairs to buildings thereon while he occupies the property( (.a) Section 32. earnings and income derived from the property pending redemption shall belong to the judgment obligor until the e piration of his period of redemption( (. to whom payments on redemption made( .

:hen the return of a writ of e ecution against the property of a judgment obligor shows that the judgment remain unsatisfied. shall be entitled to an order from the court which rendered the said judgment. but the proceedings may be adjourned from time to time. :hen property liable to an e ecution against several persons is sold thereon. #xamination of judgment obligor when judgment unsatisfied ( .8a) Section 37. to attend before the court or commissioner to testify as provided in the two preceding sections. Recovery of price if sale not effective. or because the judgment has been reversed or set aside. < party or other person may be compelled. and upon proof to the satisfaction of the court which issued the writ.@pon the e piration of the right of redemption. re#uire such person. #xamination of obligor of judgment obligor( . he may on motion in the same action or in a separate action recover from the judgment obligee the price paid. or is evicted therefrom. shows that the judgment remains unsatisfied. or because the property sold was e empt from e ecution. or other juridical entity. it must be on the oath of an authori>ed officer or agent thereof( (?/a) . or he may. and proceedings may thereupon be had for the application of the property and income of the judgment obligor towards the satisfaction of the judgment( )ut no judgment obligor shall be so re#uired to appear before a court or commissioner outside the province or city in which such obligor resides or is found( (. may be punished for contempt as in other cases( 3 aminations shall not be unduly prolonged. or any officer. at a time and place within the province or city where such debtor resides or is found. he may compel repayment from the principal( (. or because a third person has vindicated his claim to the property. and when a corporation or other juridical entity answers. he may compel a contribution from the others. and be e amined concerning the same( The service of the order shall bind all credits due the judgment obligor and all money and property of the judgment obligor in the possession or in the control of such person corporation. interest and claim of the judgment obligor to the property as of the time of the levy( The possession of the property shall be given to the purchaser or last redemptioner by the same officer unless a third party adversely to the judgment obligor( (. without a sale. or so much thereof as has not been delivered to the judgment obligor. more than his proportion. on motion.=a) Section 38. re#uiring such judgment obligor to appear and be e amined concerning his property and income before such court or before a commissioner appointed by it at a specified time and place. and the surety pays the amount. that a person. in whole or in part. and more than a due proportion of the judgment is satisfied out of the proceeds of the sale of the property of one of them. as security for another. to appear before the court or a commissioner appointed by it. by an order or subpoena. or any part thereof. or other juridical entity has property of such judgment obligor or is indebted to him. in conse#uence of irregularities in the proceedings concerning the sale. or so much thereof as has been delivered to the judgment obligor( The judgment so revived shall have the same force and effect as an original judgment would have as of the date of the revival and no more( (. and the court may also re#uire notice of such proceedings to be given to any party to the action in such manner as it may deem proper( (. either by sale of his property or before sale. or juridical entity from the time of service. corporation. Right to contribution or reimbursement ( . or any one of several obligors in the same judgment. the judgment obligee. or to answer as a witness or to subscribe his deposition.5a) Section 35. title. fails to recover the possession thereof. -f the purchaser of real property sold on e ecution. revival of judgment( . until they are completed( -f the e amination is before a commissioner. and upon failure to obey such order or subpoena or to be sworn. #nforcement of attendance and conduct of examination ( . with interest. corporation.. in whole or in part. at any time after such return is made. and when a judgment is upon an obligation of one of them.2a) Section 34.a) Section 36. or member thereof. the court may. :hen the return of a writ of e ecution issued against property of a judgment obligor. or his successor in interest. by an order. have the original judgment revived in his name for the whole price with interest. or one of them pays. the purchaser or redemptioner shall be substituted to and ac#uire all the rights. he must ta!e it in writing and certify it to the court( <ll e aminations and answers before a court commissioner must be under oath.

a) Section 46. <fter a writ of e ecution against property has been issued. upon such terms as may be just( (?2a) Section 44. Proceedings when indebtedness denied or another person claims the property ( . or money due him. :hen a judgment is rendered against a party who stands as surety for another. the court may order that he pay the judgment in fi ed monthly installments. The court may appoint a receiver of the property of the judgment obligor. or any interference with. The court may order any property of the judgment obligor. subject to any prior rights over such property( -f. -f it appears that the judgment obligor has an interest in real estate in the place in which proceedings are had. and upon his failure to pay any such installment when due without good e cuse. may punish him for indirect contempt( (?+a) Section 41. or of a corporation or other juridical entity. the property of the judgment obligor not e empt from e ecution( (?. or may order the entry of satisfaction to be made without such admission( (?.Section 39. or upon the endorsement of such admission by the judgment obligee or his counsel. on the face of the record of the judgment( (?5a) Section 45.?a) Section 43. in the hands of either himself or another person. (ale of ascertainable interest of judgment obligor in real estate ( . 'bligor may pay execution against obligee( . and after notice and upon motion the court may order either the judgment obligee or his counsel to do so. and an opportunity at the surety's re#uest to join in the defense( (?8a) . or otherwise than upon an e ecution on demand of the judgment obligor. or upon the filing of an admission to the satisfaction of the judgment e ecuted and ac!nowledged in the same manner as a conveyance of real property by the judgment obligee or by his counsel unless a revocation of his authority is filed. and such sale shall be conducted in all respects in the same manner as is provided for the sale of real state upon e ecution. and may punish disobedience of such order as for contempt( $uch order may be modified or vacated at any time by the court which issued it. to be applied to the satisfaction of the judgment. forbid a transfer or other disposition of such interest or debt within one hundred twenty (*+/) days from notice of the order. 'rder for application of property and income to satisfaction of judgment ( . $atisfaction of a judgment shall be entered by the cler! of court in the court doc!et. :henever a judgment is satisfied in fact. the judgment obligee or his counsel must e ecute and ac!nowledge. and the sheriff's receipt shall be a sufficient discharge for the amount so paid or directed to be credited by the judgment obligee on the e ecution( (?*a) Section 40. the latter is also bound from the time that he has notice of the action or proceeding. as mortgagor or mortgagee or other1 wise. a person indebted to the judgment obligor may pay to the sheriff holding the writ of e ecution the amount of his debt or so much thereof as may be necessary to satisfy the judgment. alleged to have property of the judgment obligor or to be indebted to him. and in the e ecution boo!. or by the court in which the action is brought. the court may authori>e. #ntry of satisfaction of judgment by cler) of court( . hen principal bound by judgment against surety( . upon the return of a writ of e ecution showing the full satisfaction of the judgment. or indorse an admission of the satisfaction as provided in the last preceding section. and his interest therein can be ascertained without controversy the receiver may be ordered to sell and convey such real estate or the interest of the obligor therein. Appointment of receiver( . the judgment obligee to institute an action against such person or corporation for the recovery of such interest or debt. -f it appears that a person or corporation. not e empt from e ecution. claims an interest in the property adverse to him or denied the debt. and it may also forbid a transfer or other disposition of. by an order made to that effect.a) Section 42. it appears that the earnings of the judgment obligor for his personal services are more than necessary for the support of his family. in the manner prescribed in section = of this 6ule. and the proceedings thereon shall be approved by the court before the e ecution of the deed( (. #ntry of satisfaction with or without admission( . upon investigation of his current income and e penses.

having jurisdiction to render the judgment or final order is as follows0 (a) -n case of a judgment or final order upon a specific thing. fraud. with respect to the matter directly adjudged or as to any other matter that could have been missed in relation thereto. and (c) -n any other litigation between the same parties or their successors in interest. and (b) -n case of a judgment or final order against a person. want of notice to the party. The effect of a judgment or final order rendered by a court of the "hilippines. status or relationship of the person. the judgment or final order may be repelled by evidence of a want of jurisdiction. may be as follows0 (a) -n case of a judgment or final order against a specific thing. however. conclusive between the parties and their successors in interest. hen to appeal( . is conclusive upon the title to the thing. the appellant shall file a notice of appeal and a record on appeal within thirty (. that only is deemed to have been adjudged in a former judgment or final order which appears upon its face to have been so adjudged. or legal condition or status of a particular person or his relationship to another. the judgment or final order is presumptive evidence of a right as between the parties and their successors in interest by a subse#uent title( -n either case. here to appeal( . The effect of a judgment or final order of a tribunal of a foreign country./) days after notice of the judgment or final order( . the probate of a will or granting of letters of administration shall only be prima facie evidence of the death of the testator or intestate. having jurisdiction to pronounce the judgment or final order. or in respect to the probate of a will. the judgment or final order is conclusive upon the title to the thing. litigating for the same thing and under the same title and in the same capacity. the judgment or final order is. (b) -n other cases. #ffect of foreign judgments or final orders( . <n appeal may be ta!en within fifteen (*2) days after notice to the appellant of the judgment or final order appealed from( :here a record on appeal is re#uired. #ffect of judgments or final orders( . or the administration of the estate of a deceased person. or in respect to the personal. or clear mista!e of law or fact( (2/a) Appeals RULE 40 Appeal From !nicipal "rial #o!rts to t$e Re%ional "rial #o!rts Section 1. the will or administration or the condition. collusion.Section 47. or which was actually and necessarily included therein or necessary thereto( (?=a) Section 48. by title subse#uent to the commencement of the action or special proceeding. political. the judgment or final order. but the party appealing the case shall be further referred to as the appellant and the adverse party as the appellee( (a) Section 2. <n appeal from a judgment or final order of a &unicipal Trial 7ourt may be ta!en to the 6egional Trial 7ourt e ercising jurisdiction over the area to which the former pertains( The title of the case shall remain as it was in the court of origin.

or the e piration of the period to do so. effect thereof* . -f an appeal is ta!en from an order of the lower court dismissing the case without a trial on the merits. The appeal is ta!en by filing a notice of appeal with the court that rendered the judgment or final order appealed from( The notice of appeal shall indicate the parties to the appeal. 6ule ?*( 7opies of the notice of appeal. shall be served on the adverse party( (n) Section 4.The period of appeal shall be interrupted by a timely motion for new trial or reconsideration( 9o motion for e tension of time to file a motion for new trial or reconsideration shall be allowed( (n) Section 3. the 6egional Trial 7ourt. a copy of which shall be furnished by him to the adverse party( :ithin fifteen (*2) days from receipt of the appellant's memorandum. the cler! of court of the 6egional Trial 7ourt shall notify the parties of such fact( (b) :ithin fifteen (*2) days from such notice. Perfection of appeal. Procedure in the Regional !rial Court( . the 6egional Trial 7ourt may affirm or reverse it. it shall be the duty of the appellant to submit a memorandum which shall briefly discuss the errors imputed to the lower court. The perfection of the appeal and the effect thereof shall be governed by the provisions of section =. the case shall be remanded for further proceedings( . :ithin the period for ta!ing an appeal. the appellant shall pay to the cler! of the court which rendered the judgment or final order appealed from the full amount of the appellate court doc!et and other lawful fees( "roof of payment thereof shall be transmitted to the appellate court together with the original record or the record on appeal. :ithin fifteen (*2) days from the perfection of the appeal. shall try the case on the merits as if the case was originally filed with it( -n case of reversal. (a) @pon receipt of the complete record or the record on appeal. Appeal from orders dismissing case without trial . as the case may be( -n case of affirmance and the ground of dismissal is lac! of jurisdiction over the subject matter. to the proper 6egional Trial 7ourt( < copy of his letter of transmittal of the records to the appellate court shall be furnished the parties( (n) Section 7. Appellate court doc)et and other lawful fees( . the judgment or final order or part thereof appealed from. which he shall certify as complete. the case shall be considered submitted for decision( The 6egional Trial 7ourt shall decide the case on the basis of the entire record of the proceedings had in the court of original and such memoranda as are filed( (n) Section 8. the cler! of court or the branch cler! of court of the lower court shall transmit the original record or the record on appeal. together with the transcripts and e hibits. as the case may be( (n) Section 6. and state the material dates showing the timeliness of the appeal( < record on appeal shall be re#uired only in special proceedings and in other cases of multiple or separate appeals( The form and contents of the record on appeal shall be as provided in section 5. the appellee may file his memorandum( 4ailure of the appellant to file a memorandum shall be a ground for dismissal of the appeal( (c) @pon the filing of the memorandum of the appellee. lac) of jurisdiction( . and the record on appeal where re#uired. &uty of the cler) of court( . How to appeal( . 6ule ?*( (n) Section 5. if it has jurisdiction thereover.

the 6egional Trial 7ourt on appeal shall not dismiss the case if it has original jurisdiction thereof. (e) <n order denying a motion to set aside a judgment by consent. and (h) <n order dismissing an action without prejudice( -n all the above instances where the judgment or final order is not appealable. (a) 'rdinary appeal( .( . The appeal to the 7ourt of <ppeals in cases decided by the 6egional Trial 7ourt in the e ercise of its original jurisdiction shall be ta!en by filing a notice of appeal with the court which rendered the judgment or final order appealed from and serving a copy thereof upon the adverse party( 9o record on appeal shall be re#uired e cept in special proceedings and other cases of multiple or separate appeals where law on these 6ules so re#uire( -n such cases. unless the court allows an appeal therefrom. while the main case is pending. Applicability of Rule +. or any other ground vitiating consent. %odes of appeal( . mista!e or duress. counterclaims. (c) <n interlocutory order.-f the case was tried on the merits by the lower court without jurisdiction over the subject matter. (b) <n order denying a petition for relief or any similar motion see!ing relief from judgment. the aggrieved party may file an appropriate special civil action under 6ule 52( (n) Section 2. but shall decide the case in accordance with the preceding section. the record on appeal shall be filed and served in li!e manner( . (f) <n order of e ecution. or of a particular matter therein when declared by these 6ules to be appealable( 9o appeal may be ta!en from0 (a) <n order denying a motion for new trial or reconsideration. (d) <n order disallowing or dismissing an appeal. (g) < judgment or final order for or against one or more of several parties or in separate claims. cross1claims and third1party complaints. confession or compromise on the ground of fraud. The other provisions of 6ule ?* shall apply to appeals provided for herein insofar as they are not inconsistent with or may serve to supplement the provisions of this 6ule( (n) RULE 41 Appeal From "$e Re%ional "rial #o!rts Section 1. (ubject of appeal( . without prejudice to the admission of amended pleadings and additional evidence in the interest of justice( (n) Section 9. <n appeal may be ta!en from a judgment or final order that completely disposes of the case.

and the testimonial evidence by the names of the corresponding witnesses( -f the whole testimonial and documentary evidence in the case is to be included. the appeal shall be to the $upreme 7ourt by petition for review on certiorari in accordance with the 6ule ?2( (n) Section 3. ta!en upon the issue involved( The reference shall specify the documentary evidence by the e hibit numbers or letters by which it was identified when admitted or offered at the hearing. or that fi ed by the court( (8a) Section 9. they may file a joint record on appeal within the time fi ed by section . The notice of appeal shall indicate the parties to the appeal. the trial court may approve it as presented or upon its own motion or at the instance of the appellee. Period of ordinary appeal( . in their proper chronological se#uence. shall redraft the record by including therein. of this 6ule. The appeal to the 7ourt of <ppeals in cases decided by the 6egional Trial 7ourt in the e ercise of its appellate jurisdiction shall be by petition for review in accordance with 6ule ?+( (c) Appeal by certiorari( . Perfection of appeal. and state the material dates showing the timeliness of the appeal( (?a) Section 6. :here both parties are appellants. Appellate court doc)et and other lawful fees( . motions and all interlocutory orders as are related to the appealed judgment or final order for the proper understanding of the issue involved. :ithin the period for ta!ing an appeal. testimonial and documentary. and shall thereupon submit the redrafted record for approval. form and contents thereof* . Approval of record on appeal( . the full amount of the appellate court doc!et and other lawful fees( "roof of payment of said fees shall be transmitted to the appellate court together with the original record or the record on appeal( (n) Section 5. effect thereof* .(b) Petition for review( . Joint record on appeal( . the appellant. copies of only such pleadings. may direct its amendment by the inclusion of any omitted matters which are deemed essential to the determination of the issue of law or fact involved in the appeal( -f the trial court orders the amendment of the record./) days from notice of the judgment or final order( The period of appeal shall be interrupted by a timely motion for new trial or reconsideration( 9o motion for e tension of time to file a motion for new trial or reconsideration shall be allowed( (n) Section 4. Record on appeal. specify the judgment or final order or part thereof appealed from. The appeal shall be ta!en within fifteen (*2) days from notice of the judgment or final order appealed from( :here a record on appeal is re#uired. in chronological order. petitions. such additional matters as the court may have directed him to incorporate. The full names of all the parties to the proceedings shall be stated in the caption of the record on appeal and it shall include the judgment or final order from which the appeal is ta!en and. the appellant shall file a notice of appeal and a record on appeal within thirty (.a) Section 8. within the time limited in the order. or such e tension thereof as may be granted. < party's appeal by notice of appeal is deemed perfected as to him upon the filing of the notice of appeal in due time( . in li!e manner as the original draft( (. or if no time is fi ed by the order within ten (*/) days from receipt thereof. Notice of appeal( . the record on appeal shall include by reference all the evidence. upon notice to the appellee. the appellant shall pay to the cler! of the court which rendered the judgment or final order appealed from. specify the court to which the appeal is being ta!en. @pon the filing of the record on appeal for approval and if no objection is filed by the appellee within five (2) days from receipt of a copy thereof. a statement to that effect will be sufficient without mentioning the names of the witnesses or the numbers or letters of e hibits( 3very record on appeal e ceeding twenty (+/) pages must contain a subject inde ( (5a) Section 7. together with such data as will show that the appeal was perfected on time( -f an issue of fact is to be raised on appeal. -n all cases where only #uestions of law are raised or involved.

permit appeals of indigent litigants. to ta!e such measures as may be re#uired to complete the records. and a list of the e hibits and the pages wherein each of them appears to have been offered and admitted or rejected by the trial court( The transcripts shall be transmitted to the cler! of the trial court who shall thereupon arrange the same in the order in which the witnesses testified at the trial. as the case may be aid to ma!e certification of its correctness. transmitted to the appellate court. approve compromises. the cler! shall immediately direct the stenographers concerned to attach to the record of the case five (2) copies of the transcripts of the testimonial evidence referred to in the record on appeal( The stenographers concerned shall transcribe such testimonial evidence and shall prepare and affi to their transcripts an inde containing the names of the witnesses and the pages wherein their testimonies are found. the original documentary evidence referred to therein. and (d) To transmit the records to the appellate court( -f the efforts to complete the records fail. and the original and three (. the court may issue orders for the protection and preservation of the rights of the parties which do not involve any matter litigated by the appeal. (b) To verify the completeness of the records that will be. he shall indicate in his letter of transmittal the e hibits or transcripts not included in the records being transmitted to the appellate court./) days from the perfection of the appeal. together with the proof of payment of the appellate court doc!et and other lawful fees. &uty of cler) of court of the lower court upon perfection of appeal ( . and the steps ta!en or that could be ta!en to have them available( The cler! of court shall furnish the parties with copies of his letter of transmittal of the records to the appellate court( (*/a) Section 11. and shall cause the pages to be numbered consecutively( (*+a) Section 12. !ranscript( . the court loses jurisdiction over the case upon the perfection of the appeals filed in due time and the e piration of the time to appeal of the other parties( -n appeals by record on appeal. a certified true copy of the minutes of the proceedings. prior to the transmittal of the original record or the record on appeal. @pon the perfection of the appeal. the court loses jurisdiction only over the subject matter thereof upon the approval of the records on appeal filed in due time and the e piration of the appeal of the other parties( -n either case. !ransmittal( . (c) -f found to be incomplete. it shall be the duty of the cler! of court of the lower court0 (a) To verify the correctness of the original record or the record on appeal. :ithin thirty (. The cler! of the trial court shall transmit to the appellate court the original record or the approved record on appeal within thirty (.=. the order of approval. the reasons for their non1 transmittal. the certificate of correctness. order e ecution pending appeal in accordance with + of 6ule . availing of the authority that he or the court may e ercise for this purpose.< party's appeal by record on appeal is deemed perfected as to him with respect to the subject matter thereof upon the approval of the record on appeal filed in due time( -n appeals by notice of appeal. and allow withdrawal of the appeal( (=a) Section 10./) days after perfection of all the appeals in accordance with the preceding section.) copies of the transcripts( 7opies of the transcripts and certified true copies of the documentary evidence shall remain in the lower court for the e amination of the parties( (**a) .

) legible copies. he must state the status of the same. not a motion to dismiss. Action on the petition( . prosecuted manifestly for delay. and furnishing the 6egional Trial 7ourt and the adverse party with a copy of the petition( The petition shall be filed and served within fifteen (*2) days from notice of the decision sought to be reviewed or of the denial of petitioner's motion for new trial or reconsideration filed in due time after judgment( @pon proper motion and the payment of the full amount of the doc!et and other lawful fees and the deposit for costs before the e piration of the reglementary period. paying at the same time to the cler! of said court the corresponding doc!et and other lawful fees. The petition shall be filed in seven (. The failure of the petitioner to comply with any of the foregoing re#uirements regarding the payment of the doc!et and other lawful fees. "rior to the transmittal of the original record or the record on appeal to the appellate court. and if he should thereafter learn that a similar action or proceeding has been filed or is pending before the $upreme 7ourt. #ffect of failure to comply with re$uirements ( . the issues raised. and the reasons or arguments relied upon for the allowance of the appeal. with the original copy intended for the court being indicated as such by the petitioner. &ismissal of appeal( . allegedly committed by the 6egional Trial 7ourt. depositing the amount of "2//(// for costs. How appeal ta)en. accompanied by certified true copies of such material portions of the record referred to therein together with other supporting papers and shall (a) state whether or not he accepts the statement of . and the contents of and the documents which should accompany the petition shall be sufficient ground for the dismissal thereof( (n) Section 4. the 7ourt of <ppeals or different divisions thereof. Contents of comment( . time for filing( . the re#uisite number of plain copies thereof and of the pleadings and other material portions of the record as would support the allegations of the petition( The petitioner shall also submit together with the petition a certification under oath that he has not theretofore commenced any other action involving the same issues in the $upreme 7ourt. if there is such other action or proceeding. or any other tribunal or agency. (b) indicate the specific material dates showing that it was filed on time. or dismiss the petition if it finds the same to be patently without merit. The comment of the respondent shall be filed in seven (. he underta!es to promptly inform the aforesaid courts and other tribunal or agency thereof within five (2) days therefrom( (n) Section 3. The 7ourt of <ppeals may re#uire the respondent to file a comment on the petition. and shall (a) state the full names of the parties to the case. -orm and contents( . the trial court may motu propio or on motion dismiss the appeal for having been ta!en out of time( (*?a) RULE 42 &etition 'or Re(ie) From t$e Re%ional "rial #o!rts to t$e #o!rt o' Appeals Section 1.Section 13. (d) be accompanied by clearly legible duplicate originals or true copies of the judgments or final orders of both lower courts. (c) set forth concisely a statement of the matters involved. without impleading the lower courts or judges thereof either as petitioners or respondents. the 7ourt of <ppeals.) legible copies. within ten (*/) days from notice. or both. proof of service of the petition. or any other tribunal or agency. the 7ourt of <ppeals may grant an additional period of fifteen (*2) days only within which to file the petition for review( 9o further e tension shall be granted e cept for the most compelling reason and in no case to e ceed fifteen (*2) days( (n) Section 2. the specification of errors of fact or law. or different divisions thereof. < party desiring to appeal from a decision of the 6egional Trial 7ourt rendered in the e ercise of its appellate jurisdiction may file a verified petition for review with the 7ourt of <ppeals. certified correct by the cler! of court of the 6egional Trial 7ourt. or that the #uestions raised therein are too insubstantial to re#uire consideration( (n) Section 5. the deposit for costs.

7ivil <eronautics )oard.=. judgments. order e ecution pending appeal in accordance with section + of 6ule . (cope( . 3nergy 6egulatory )oard. -nsurance 7ommission. 'overnment $ervice -nsurance $ystem. permit appeals of indigent litigants. the 7ourt of <ppeals may set the case for oral argument or re#uire the parties to submit memoranda within a period of fifteen (*2) days from notice( The case shall be deemed submitted for decision upon the filing of the last pleading or memorandum re#uired by these 6ules or by the court itself( (n) RULE 43 Appeals From t$e #o!rt o' "a* Appeals an+ . the appeal is deemed perfected as to the petitioner( The 6egional Trial 7ourt loses jurisdiction over the case upon the perfection of the appeals filed in due time and the e piration of the time to appeal of the other parties( However. or these 6ules shall provide otherwise( (a) Section 9. Trademar!s and Technology Transfer. 9ational 3lectrification <dministration. (a) @pon the timely filing of a petition for review and the payment of the corresponding doc!et and other lawful fees. -f the petition is given due course. #levation of record( . Aepartment of <grarian 6eform under 6epublic <ct 9o( 552.!asi-. )ureau of "atents. Office of the "resident. (b) point out such insufficiencies or inaccuracies as he believes e ist in petitioner's statement of matters involved but without repetition. and voluntary arbitrators authori>ed by law( (n) Section 2. 3mployees 7ompensation 7ommission. 7onstruction -ndustry <rbitration 7ommission. -f upon the filing of the comment or such other pleadings as the court may allow or re#uire.!+icial A%encies to t$e #o!rt o' Appeals Section 1.matters involved in the petition. )oard of -nvestments. Cases not covered( . &ue course( .. Perfection of appeal. $ecurities and 3 change 7ommission. before the 7ourt of <ppeals gives due course to the petition. 6?*) (b) 3 cept in civil cases decided under the 6ule on $ummary "rocedure. 9ational Telecommunications 7ommission. This 6ule shall not apply to judgments or final orders issued under the %abor 7ode of the "hilippines( (n) . or after the e piration of the period for the filing thereof without such comment or pleading having been submitted. :henever the 7ourt of <ppeals deems it necessary. final orders or resolutions of or authori>ed by any #uasi1judicial agency in the e ercise of its #uasi1judicial functions( <mong these agencies are the 7ivil $ervice 7ommission. 7entral )oard of <ssessment <ppeals. it may accordingly give due course to the petition( (n) Section 7. and (c) state the reasons why the petition should not be given due course( < copy thereof shall be served on the petitioner( (a) Section 6. %and 6egistration <uthority. (ubmission for decision( . This 6ule shall apply to appeals from judgments or final orders of the 7ourt of Ta <ppeals and from awards. approve compromises. effect thereof* . the 6egional Trial 7ourt may issue orders for the protection and preservation of the rights of the parties which do not involve any matter litigated by the appeal. the appeal shall stay the judgment or final order unless the 7ourt of <ppeals. the law. "hilippine <tomic 3nergy 7ommission. it may order the cler! of court of the 6egional Trial 7ourt to elevate the original record of the case including the oral and documentary evidence within fifteen (*2) days from notice( (n) Section 8. $ocial $ecurity 7ommission. and allow withdrawal of the appeal( (=a. <gricultural -nvention )oard. the 7ourt of <ppeals finds prima facie that the lower court has committed an error of fact or law that will warrant a reversal or modification of the appealed decision.

final order or resolution. The comment shall be filed within ten (*/) days from notice in seven (. and (d) contain a sworn certification against forum shopping as provided in the last paragraph of section +. of law. and on the records the 7ourt of <ppeals finds prima facie that the court or agency concerned has . and the contents of and the documents which should accompany the petition shall be sufficient ground for the dismissal thereof( (n) Section 8. if publication is re#uired by law for its effectivity. together with certified true copies of such material portions of the record referred to therein and other supporting papers. judgment.) legible copies and accompanied by clearly legible certified true copies of such material portions of the record referred to therein together with other supporting papers( The comment shall (a) point out insufficiencies or inaccuracies in petitioner's statement of facts and issues. The 7ourt of <ppeals may re#uire the respondent to file a comment on the petition not a motion to dismiss. whether the appeal involves #uestions of fact. and proof of such service shall be filed with the 7ourt of <ppeals( (=a) Section 10. final order or resolution appealed from.Section 3. The appeal shall be ta!en within fifteen (*2) days from notice of the award. with proof of service of a copy thereof on the adverse party and on the court or agency a $uo( The original copy of the petition intended for the 7ourt of <ppeals shall be indicated as such by the petitioner( @pon the filing of the petition.) legible copies with the 7ourt of <ppeals. #ffect of failure to comply with re$uirements ( . Contents of the petition( . Period of appeal( . the deposit for costs. proof of service of the petition. and (b) state the reasons why the petition should be denied or dismissed( < copy thereof shall be served on the petitioner. -f upon the filing of the comment or such other pleadings or documents as may be re#uired or allowed by the 7ourt of <ppeals or upon the e piration of the period for the filing thereof. 6ule ?+( The petition shall state the specific material dates showing that it was filed within the period fi ed herein( (+a) Section 7. here to appeal( . (c) be accompanied by a clearly legible duplicate original or a certified true copy of the award. or dismiss the petition if it finds the same to be patently without merit. judgment. or mi ed #uestions of fact and law( (n) Section 4. or of the denial of petitioner's motion for new trial or reconsideration duly filed in accordance with the governing law of the court or agency a $uo( Only one (*) motion for reconsideration shall be allowed( @pon proper motion and the payment of the full amount of the doc!et fee before the e piration of the reglementary period. How appeal ta)en( . &ue course( . the petitioner shall pay to the cler! of court of the 7ourt of <ppeals the doc!eting and other lawful fees and deposit the sum of "2//(// for costs( 3 emption from payment of doc!eting and other lawful fees and the deposit for costs may be granted by the 7ourt of <ppeals upon a verified motion setting forth valid grounds therefor( -f the 7ourt of <ppeals denies the motion. <ppeal shall be ta!en by filing a verified petition for review in seven (. prosecuted manifestly for delay. or from the date of its last publication. the petitioner shall pay the doc!eting and other lawful fees and deposit for costs within fifteen (*2) days from notice of the denial( (n) Section 6. within ten (*/) days from notice. The failure of the petitioner to comply with any of the foregoing re#uirements regarding the payment of the doc!et and other lawful fees. <n appeal under this 6ule may be ta!en to the 7ourt of <ppeals within the period and in the manner herein provided. Action on the petition( . Contents of comment( . the 7ourt of <ppeals may grant an additional period of fifteen (*2) days only within which to file the petition for review( 9o further e tension shall be granted e cept for the most compelling reason and in no case to e ceed fifteen (*2) days( (n) Section 5. without impleading the court or agencies either as petitioners or respondents. The petition for review shall (a) state the full names of the parties to the case. (b) contain a concise statement of the facts and issues involved and the grounds relied upon for the review. or that the #uestions raised therein are too unsubstantial to re#uire consideration( (5a) Section 9.

shall be binding on the 7ourt of <ppeals( (n) Section 11. 6?5) Section 4. the cler! of court of the 7ourt of <ppeals shall doc!et the case and notify the parties thereof( (?a. as well as the proof of payment of the doc!et and other lawful fees. !itle of cases( . 6?5) Section 2. 6?5) Section 3. -f the original record or the record on appeal is not transmitted to the 7ourt of <ppeals within thirty (./) days after the perfection of the appeal. when supported by substantial evidence. &oc)eting of case( . #ffect of appeal( . final order or resolution sought to be reviewed unless the 7ourt of <ppeals shall direct otherwise upon such terms as it may deem just( (*/a) Section 13. judgment. The counsel and guardians ad litem of the parties in the court of origin shall be respectively considered as their counsel and guardians ad litem in the 7ourt of <ppeals( :hen others appear or are appointed. it shall dismiss the same( The findings of fact of the court or agency concerned. either party may file a motion with the trial court.a. 6?5) :ithin ten (*/) days from receipt of said notice. @pon receiving the original record or the record on appeal and the accompanying documents and e hibits transmitted by the lower court. (ubmission for decision( .committed errors of fact or law that would warrant reversal or modification of the award. the 7ourt of <ppeals may re#uire the court or agency concerned to transmit the original or a legible certified true copy of the entire record of the proceeding under review( The record to be transmitted may be abridged by agreement of all parties to the proceeding( The 7ourt of <ppeals may re#uire or permit subse#uent correction of or addition to the record( (8a) Section 12. the appellant. in appeals by record on appeal. the title of the case shall remain as it was in the court of origin. Counsel and guardians( . 'rder of transmittal of record( . -f the petition is given due course. shall file with the cler! of court seven (. The appeal shall not stay the award. :ithin fifteen (*2) days from notice that the petition has been given due course. notice thereof shall be served immediately on the adverse party and filed with the court( (+a.) clearly legible copies of the approved record on appeal. the 7ourt of <ppeals may set the case for oral argument or re#uire the parties to submit memoranda within a period of fifteen (*2) days from notice( The case shall be deemed submitted for decision upon the filing of the last pleading or memorandum re#uired by these 6ules or by the court of <ppeals( (n) "rocedure in the 7ourt of <ppeals RULE 44 /r+inar0 Appeale+ #ases Section 1. for the transmittal of such record or record on appeal( (. -n all cases appealed to the 7ourt of <ppeals under 6ule ?*. with notice to the other. otherwise. !ransmittal of record( . it may give due course to the petition. together with the proof of service of two (+) copies thereof upon the appellee( . but the party appealing the case shall be further referred to as the appellant and the adverse party as the appellee( (*a. judgment. final order or resolution sought to be reviewed.

te tboo!s and statutes cited with references to the pages where they are cited.) copies of his legibly typewritten. the appellee shall file with the court seven (. 6?5) Section 8. . and only if the motion for e tension is filed before the e piration of the time sought to be e tended( (*2. $uo warranto and habeas corpus cases. 6?5) Section 12. and shall issue an order e plaining the reasons for such declaration( (n) Section 7. on its own motion or on motion of any of the parties. Appellee.a. and a table of cases alphabetically arranged. the court.s reply brief* . distinctly and concisely stated without repetition and numbered consecutively. 6?5) Section 13.s brief* . within forty1five (?2) days from receipt of the notice of the cler! that all the evidence. seven (. !ime of filing memoranda in special cases( . omission or addition in the approved record on appeal shall be a ground for dismissal of the appeal( (n) Section 5. prohibition. the parties shall file in lieu of briefs. oral and documentary. mimeographed or printed brief./) days from receipt of the notice issued by the cler! that all the evidence. mimeographed or printed brief.<ny unauthori>ed alteration. 3 tension of time for the filing of briefs will not be allowed. (everal appellants or appellees or several counsel for each party ( . The appellant's brief shall contain.) copies of his legibly typewritten. mandamus. in the order herein indicated. with proof of service of two (+) copies thereof upon the appellant( (**a. :ithin forty1five (?2) days from receipt of the appellant's brief. -t shall be the duty of the appellant to file with the court. copies of the brief may be served upon any of them( (*?a. :here the record of the doc!eted case is incomplete. the appellant may file a reply brief answering points in the appellee's brief not covered in his main brief( (*+a. which errors shall be separately. e cept for good and sufficient cause. (b) <n assignment of errors intended to be urged. :here there are several appellants or appellees. Completion of record( . the following0 (a) < subject inde of the matter in the brief with a digest of the arguments and page references. -n certiorari. may declare that the record and its accompanying transcripts and e hibits so far available are sufficient to decide the issues raised in the appeal. are attached to the record. with proof of service of two (+) copies thereof upon the appellee( (*/a. #xtension of time for filing briefs( . 6?5) The failure of the appellant to file his memorandum within the period therefor may be a ground for dismissal of the appeal( (n) Section 11.s brief* . each counsel representing one or more but not all of them shall be served with only one copy of the briefs( :hen several counsel represent one appellant or appellee. Contents of appellant. 6?5) Section 10. is already attached to the record( (*. oral and documentary. &ispensing with complete record( . :ithin twenty (+/) days from receipt of the appellee's brief. their respective memoranda within a non1e tendible period of thirty (. Appellant. Appellant. 6?5) Section 9. :here the completion of the record could not be accomplished within a sufficient period allotted for said purpose due to insuperable or e tremely difficult causes.s brief* . the cler! of court of the 7ourt of <ppeals shall so inform said court and recommend to it measures necessary to complete the record( -t shall be the duty of said court to ta!e appropriate action towards the completion of the record within the shortest possible time( (n) Section 6.

B the appellee shall set forth his arguments in the case on each assignment of error with page references to the record( The authorities relied on shall be cited by the page of the report at which the case begins and the page of the report on which the citation is found( (*. and (h) -n cases not brought up by record on appeal.B the appellant's arguments on each assignment of error with page references to the record( The authorities relied upon shall be cited by the page of the report at which the case begins and the page of the report on which the citation is found. Contents of appellee.B a specification of the order or judgment which the appellant see!s. 6?5) Section 14. (f) @nder the heading B<rgument. the 6egional Trial 7ourt . but without repetition of matters in the appellant's statement of facts. the $andiganbayan. The appellee's brief shall contain. and (c) @nder the heading B<rgument. te tboo!s and statutes cited with references to the pages where they are cited.B the appellee shall state that he accepts the statement of facts in the appellant's brief. to the court for its judgment. (e) < clear and concise statement of the issues of fact or law to be submitted. < party desiring to appeal by certiorari from a judgment or final order or resolution of the 7ourt of <ppeals.B he shall point out such insufficiencies or inaccuracies as he believes e ist in the appellant's statement of facts with references to the pages of the record in support thereof.s brief* . with page references to the record. the appellant's brief shall contain. as an appendi . :hether or not the appellant has filed a motion for new trial in the court below he may include in his assignment of errors any #uestion of law or fact that has been raised in the court below and which is within the issues framed by the parties( (*8. together with the substance of the proof relating thereto in sufficient detail to ma!e it clearly intelligible. and a table of cases alphabetically arranged. (d) @nder the heading B$tatement of 4acts. (b) @nder the heading B$tatement of 4acts. (g) @nder the heading B6elief. -iling of petition with (upreme Court( . a summary of the proceedings. in the order herein indicated the following0 (a) < subject inde of the matter in the brief with a digest of the arguments and page references. 6?5) Section 15.B a clear and concise statement of the nature of the action. the appealed rulings and orders of the court.a. a copy of the judgment or final order appealed from( (*5a.(c) @nder the heading B$tatement of the 7ase. 6?5) RULE 45 Appeal 10 Certiorari to t$e S!preme #o!rt Section 1. /uestions that may be raised on appeal( . or under the heading B7ounter1$tatement of 4acts.B a clear and concise statement in a narrative form of the facts admitted by both parties and of those in controversy. the nature of the judgment and any other matters necessary to an understanding of the nature of the controversy with page references to the record.

thereof on the lower court concerned and on the adverse party shall be submitted together with the petition( (*a) Section 4. and will be granted only when there are special and important reasons thereof( The following. or is prosecuted manifestly for delay. +a) Section 2. The petition shall be filed in eighteen (*8) copies. sanctions( . may file with the $upreme 7ourt a verified petition for review on certiorari( The petition shall raise only #uestions of law which must be distinctly set forth( (*a.or other courts whenever authori>ed by law. with the original copy intended for the court being indicated as such by the petitioner and shall (a) state the full name of the appealing party as the petitioner and the adverse party as respondent. proof of service of petition( . as to call for an e ercise of the power of supervision( (?a) Section 7. Contents of petition( . @nless he has theretofore done so. with full payment of the doc!et and other lawful fees and the deposit for costs before the e piration of the reglementary period. without impleading the lower courts or judges thereof either as petitioners or respondents. (d) be accompanied by a clearly legible duplicate original. the petitioner shall pay the corresponding doc!et and other lawful fees to the cler! of court of the $upreme 7ourt and deposit the amount of "2//(// for costs at the time of the filing of the petition( "roof of service of a copy. extension( . The petition shall be filed within fifteen (*2) days from notice of the judgment or final order or resolution appealed from. or a certified true copy of the judgment or final order or resolution certified by the cler! of court of the court a $uo and the re#uisite number of plain copies thereof. (c) set forth concisely a statement of the matters involved. 4or purposes of determining whether the petition should be dismissed or denied pursuant to section 2 of this 6ule. was filed and when notice of the denial thereof was received. &oc)et and other lawful fees. and the reasons or arguments relied on for the allowance of the petition. or of the denial of the petitioner's motion for new trial or reconsideration filed in due time after notice of the judgment( On motion duly filed and served. 2a) Section 3. proof of service of the petition. The failure of the petitioner to comply with any of the foregoing re#uirements regarding the payment of the doc!et and other lawful fees. !ime for filing.a) Section 6. 6ule ?+( (+a) Section 5. while neither controlling nor fully measuring the court's discretion. Pleadings and documents that may be re$uired . not theretofore determined by the $upreme 7ourt. the $upreme 7ourt may for justifiable reasons grant an e tension of thirty (. but of sound judicial discretion. when a motion for new trial or reconsideration. and (e) contain a sworn certification against forum shopping as provided in the last paragraph of section +. and such material portions of the record as would support the petition. or that the #uestions raised therein are too unsubstantial to re#uire consideration( (. &ismissal or denial of petition( . deposit for costs. or where the petition is given due course under section 8 hereof. < review is not a matter of right. if any./) days only within which to file the petition( (*a. or so far sanctioned such departure by a lower court. the $upreme 7ourt may re#uire or allow the filing of . or (b) :hen the court a $uo has so far departed from the accepted and usual course of judicial proceedings. or has decided it in a way probably not in accord with law or with the applicable decisions of the $upreme 7ourt. and the contents of and the documents which should accompany the petition shall be sufficient ground for the dismissal thereof( The $upreme 7ourt may on its own initiative deny the petition on the ground that the appeal is without merit. Review discretionary( . indicate the character of the reasons which will be considered0 (a) :hen the court a $uo has decided a #uestion of substance. (b) indicate the material dates showing when notice of the judgment or final order or resolution subject thereof was received.

and if he should thereafter learn that a similar action or proceeding has been filed or is pending before the $upreme 7ourt. or ruling subject thereof. This 6ule shall apply to original actions for certiorari. and for $uo warranto by 6ule 55( (n) Section 3. and the grounds relied upon for the relief prayed for( -n actions filed under 6ule 52. tribunal. when a motion for new trial or reconsideration.. the party instituting the action shall be called the petitioner and the opposing party the respondent( (*a) Section 2. the 7ourt of <ppeals or different divisions thereof. or by the proper officer of the court. mandamus and $uo warranto( 3 cept as otherwise provided. Rule applicable to both civil and criminal cases( . reclusion perpetua or life imprisonment( (n) RULE 46 /ri%inal #ases Section 1. Contents and filing of petition. effect of noncompliance with re$uirements ( . briefs.such pleadings. !o what actions applicable( . if any. he must state the status of the same. the 7ourt of <ppeals. for certiorari. a concise statement of the matters involved. the $upreme 7ourt may re#uire the elevation of the complete record of the case or specified parts thereof within fifteen (*2) days from notice( (+a) Section 9.) clearly legible copies together with proof of service thereof on the respondent with the original copy intended for the court indicated as such by the petitioner. e cept in criminal cases where the penalty imposed is death. order. was filed and when notice of the denial thereof was received( -t shall be filed in seven (. agency or office involved or by his duly authori>ed representative( The other re#uisite number of copies of the petition shall be accompanied by clearly legible plain copies of all documents attached to the original( The petitioner shall also submit together with the petition a sworn certification that he has not theretofore commenced any other action involving the same issues in the $upreme 7ourt. if there is such other action or proceeding. !itle of cases( . -n all cases originally filed in the 7ourt of <ppeals. prohibition. and impose the corresponding sanctions in case of non1filing or unauthori>ed filing of such pleadings and documents or non1compliance with the conditions therefor( (n) Section 8. the petition shall further indicate the material dates showing when notice of the judgment or final order or resolution subject thereof was received. and shall be accompanied by a clearly legible duplicate original or certified true copy of the judgment. or any other tribunal or agency. such material portions of the record as are referred to therein. elevation of records( . the factual bac!ground of the case. The petition shall contain the full names and actual addresses of all the petitioners and respondents. and other documents relevant or pertinent thereto( The certification shall be accomplished by the proper cler! of court or by his duly authori>ed representative. or different divisions thereof. memoranda or documents as it may deem necessary within such periods and under such conditions as it may consider appropriate. prohibition and mandamus by 6ule 52. The mode of appeal prescribed in this 6ule shall be applicable to both civil and criminal cases. the actions for annulment of judgment shall be governed by 6ule ?. he underta!es to promptly inform the aforesaid courts and other tribunal or agency thereof within five (2) days therefrom( . &ue course. or any other tribunal or agency. resolution. -f the petition is given due course.

) clearly legible copies. in a motion for new trial or petition for relief( (n) Section 3. or could have been availed of. as the case may be( The petition shall be filed in seven (. :hen no comment is filed by any of the respondents. 0rounds for annulment( . The annulment may be based only on the grounds of e trinsic fraud and lac! of jurisdiction( 3 trinsic fraud shall not be a valid ground if it was availed of. +* Culy *==8) Section 4. )ar &atter 9o( 8/. without prejudice to any disciplinary action which the court may ta!e against the disobedient party( (n) RULE 47 Ann!lment o' . as well as those supporting the petitioner's good and substantial cause of action or defense. #ffect of failure to file comment ( . Period for filing action( .!+%ments o' Final /r+ers an+ Resol!tions Section 1. the court itself may conduct hearings thereon or delegate the reception of the evidence on such issue to any of its members or to an appropriate court. petition for relief or other appropriate remedies are no longer available through no fault of the petitioner( (n) Section 2. appeal.. -f based on e trinsic fraud. Coverage( . &etermination of factual issues( . may be filed only with leave of court( (n) Section 6. :henever necessary to resolve factual issues. The action shall be commenced by filing a verified petition alleging therein with particularity the facts and the law relied upon for annulment. and if based on lac! of jurisdiction. how ac$uired( . together with sufficient copies corresponding to the number of respondents( < certified true copy of the judgment or final order or resolution shall be attached to the original copy of the petition intended for the court and indicated as such by the petitioner( The petitioner shall also submit together with the petition affidavits of witnesses or documents supporting the cause of action or defense and a sworn certification that he has not theretofore commenced any other .The petitioner shall pay the corresponding doc!et and other lawful fees to the cler! of court and deposit the amount of "2//(// for costs at the time of the filing of the petition( The failure of the petitioner to comply any of the re#uirements shall be sufficient ground for the dismissal of the petition( (n. The court shall ac#uire jurisdiction over the person of the respondent by the service on him of its order or resolution indicating its initial action on the petition or by his voluntary submission to such jurisdiction( (n) Section 5. agency or office( (n) Section 7. Action by the court( . before it is barred by laches or estoppel( (n) Section 4. the case may be decided on the basis of the record. -iling and contents of petition( . the action must be filed within four (?) years from its discovery. Jurisdiction over person of respondent. The court may dismiss the petition outright with specific reasons for such dismissal or re#uire the respondent to file a comment on the same within ten (*/) days from notice( Only pleadings re#uired by the court shall be allowed( <ll other pleadings and papers. This 6ule shall govern the annulment by the 7ourt of <ppeals of judgments or final orders and resolutions in civil actions of 6egional Trial 7ourts for which the ordinary remedies of new trial.

e cept when the case is not allowed by law to be compromised (b) To define. Action by the court( . the 7ourt of <ppeals or different divisions thereof. he underta!es to promptly inform the aforesaid courts and other tribunal or agency thereof within five (2) days therefrom( (n) Section 5. < judgment of annulment shall set aside the #uestioned judgment or final order or resolution and render the same null and void. . or any other tribunal or agency. <t any time during the pendency of a case. . Relief available( . the reception of the evidence may be referred to a member of the court or a judge of a 6egional Trial 7ourt( (n) Section 7. the court may call the parties and their counsel to a preliminary conference( (a) To consider the possibility of an amicable settlement. #ffect of judgment( . where the judgment or final order or resolution is set aside on the ground of e trinsic fraud.. he must state the status of the same. . Preliminary conference( . the same shall be given due course and summons shall be served on the respondent( (n) Section 6. 8 and = of this 6ule shall be applicable thereto( (n) RULE 48 &reliminar0 #on'erence Section 1. and if he should thereafter learn that a similar action or proceeding has been filed or is pending before the $upreme 7ourt. the court may on motion order the trial court to try the case as if a timely motion for new trial had been granted therein( (n) Section 8. The prescriptive period for the refiling of the aforesaid original action shall be deemed suspended from the filing of such original action until the finality of the judgment of annulment( However. simplify and clarify the issues for determination. Annulment of judgments or final orders of %unicipal !rial Courts ( . ?. attorney's fees and other relief( -f the #uestioned judgment or final order or resolution had already been e ecuted the court may issue such orders of restitution or other relief as justice and e#uity may warrant under the circumstances( (n) Section 10. The judgment of annulment may include the award of damages. $hould the court find no substantial merit in the petition. (uspension prescriptive period( . without prejudice to the original action being refiled in the proper court( However. the 7ourt of <ppeals. the same may be dismissed outright with specific reasons for such dismissal( $hould prima facie merit be found in the petition. or any other tribunal or agency if there is such other action or proceeding. <n action to annul a judgment or final order of a &unicipal Trial 7ourt shall be filed in the 6egional Trial 7ourt having jurisdiction over the former( -t shall be treated as an ordinary civil action and sections +.. Procedure( . or different divisions thereof.action involving the same issues in the $upreme 7ourt. the prescriptive period shall not be suspended where the e trinsic1 fraud is attributable to the plaintiff in the original action( (n) Section 9. The procedure in ordinary civil cases shall be observed( $hould trial be necessary.

<t its own instance or upon motion of a party. within five (2) days from notice thereof. a resolution shall be issued embodying all the actions ta!en therein. upon the conclusion thereof. no hearing or oral argument shall be allowed in support thereof( The adverse party may file objections to the motion within five (2) days from service. upon the e piration of which such motion shall be deemed submitted for resolution( (+=. &otions shall not be set for hearing and. or on any material incident in connection therewith( (n) The oral argument shall be limited to such matters as the court may specify in its order or resolution( (*a. 7< -nternal 6ules) (n) Section 2. @nless authori>ed by the court. 6?8) Section 2. (b) 4ailure to file the notice of appeal or the record on appeal within the period prescribed by these 6ules. the court may hear the parties in oral argument on the merits of a case. 6?=) RULE 50 2ismissal o' Appeal Section 1. the resolution in the preceding section shall control the subse#uent proceedings in the case unless. and all other related matters shall be as directed by the court( (n) Section 3. or those within its appellate jurisdiction where a motion for new trial is granted on the ground of newly discovered evidence. 0rounds for dismissal of appeal( . and (d) To ta!e up such other matters which may aid the court in the prompt disposition of the case( (6ule . on its own motion or on that of the appellee. The proceedings at such conference shall be recorded and. <n appeal may be dismissed by the 7ourt of <ppeals. hen allowed( . Conduct of oral argument( . the se#uence of the argumentation. . the stipulations and admissions made and the issues defined( (n) Section 3. unless the court otherwise directs.. limit the number of witnesses to be presented in cases falling within the original jurisdiction of the court. only one counsel may argue for a party( The duration allowed for each party. on the following grounds0 (a) 4ailure of the record on appeal to show on its face that the appeal was ta!en within the period fi ed by these 6ules. Record of the conference( . 1inding effect of the results of the conference( . $ubject to such modifications which may be made to prevent manifest injustice. any party shall satisfactorily show valid cause why the same should not be followed( (n) RULE 49 /ral Ar%!ment Section 1.(c) To formulate stipulations of facts and admissions of documentary e hibits. No hearing or oral argument for motions( .

(c) 4ailure of the appellant to pay the doc!et and other lawful fees as provided in section 2, 6ule ?/ and section ? of 6ule ?*; ()ar &atter 9o( 8/., *; 4ebruary *==8) (d) @nauthori>ed alterations, omissions or additions in the approved record on appeal as provided in section ? of 6ule ??; (e) 4ailure of the appellant to serve and file the re#uired number of copies of his brief or memorandum within the time provided by these 6ules; (f) <bsence of specific assignment of errors in the appellant's brief, or of page references to the record as re#uired in section *., paragraphs (a), (c), (d) and (f) of 6ule ??; (g) 4ailure of the appellant to ta!e the necessary steps for the correction or completion of the record within the time limited by the court in its order; (h) 4ailure of the appellant to appear at the preliminary conference under 6ule ?8 or to comply with orders, circulars, or directives of the court without justifiable cause; and (i) The fact that the order or judgment appealed from is not appealable( (*a) Section 2. &ismissal of improper appeal to the Court of Appeals( , <n appeal under 6ule ?* ta!en from the 6egional Trial 7ourt to the 7ourt of <ppeals raising only #uestions of law shall be dismissed, issues purely of law not being reviewable by said court( $imilarly, an appeal by notice of appeal instead of by petition for review from the appellate judgment of a 6egional Trial 7ourt shall be dismissed( (n) <n appeal erroneously ta!en to the 7ourt of <ppeals shall not be transferred to the appropriate court but shall be dismissed outright( (.a) Section 3. ithdrawal of appeal( , <n appeal may be withdrawn as of right at any time before the filing of the appellee's brief( Thereafter, the withdrawal may be allowed in the discretion of the court( (?a)

RULE 51 .!+%ment Section 1. judgment0 hen case deemed submitted for judgment( , < case shall be deemed submitted for

<( -n ordinary appeals( , *) :here no hearing on the merits of the main case is held, upon the filing of the last pleading, brief, or memorandum re#uired by the 6ules or by the court itself, or the e piration of the period for its filing( +) :here such a hearing is held, upon its termination or upon the filing of the last pleading or memorandum as may be re#uired or permitted to be filed by the court, or the e piration of the period for its filing( )( -n original actions and petitions for review( ,

*) :here no comment is filed, upon the e piration of the period to comment( +) :here no hearing is held, upon the filing of the last pleading re#uired or permitted to be filed by the court, or the e piration of the period for its filing( .) :here a hearing on the merits of the main case is held, upon its termination or upon the filing of the last pleading or memorandum as may be re#uired or permitted to be filed by the court, or the e piration of the period for its filing( (n) Section 2. 1y whom rendered( , The judgment shall be rendered by the members of the court who participated in the deliberation on the merits of the case before its assignment to a member for the writing of the decision( (n) Section 3. /uorum and voting in the court( , The participation of all three Custices of a division shall be necessary at the deliberation and the unanimous vote of the three Custices shall be re#uired for the pronouncement of a judgment or final resolution( -f the three justices do not reach a unanimous vote, the cler! shall enter the votes of the dissenting Custices in the record( Thereafter, the 7hairman of the division shall refer the case, together with the minutes of the deliberation, to the "residing Custice who shall designate two Custices chosen by raffle from among all the other members of the court to sit temporarily with them, forming a special division of five Custices( The participation of all the five members of the special division shall be necessary for the deliberation re#uired in section + of this 6ule and the concurrence of a majority of such division shall be re#uired for the pronouncement of a judgment or final resolution( (+a) Section 4. &isposition of a case( , The 7ourt of <ppeals, in the e ercise of its appellate jurisdiction, may affirm, reverse, or modify the judgment or final order appealed from, and may direct a new trial or further proceedings to be had( (.a) Section 5. -orm of decision( , 3very decision or final resolution of the court in appealed cases shall clearly and distinctly state the findings of fact and the conclusions of law on which it is based, which may be contained in the decision or final resolution itself, or adopted from those set forth in the decision, order, or resolution appealed from( ($ec( ?/, )" )lg( *+=) (n) Section 6. Harmless error( , 9o error in either the admission or the e clusion of evidence and no error or defect in any ruling or order or in anything done or omitted by the trial court or by any of the parties is ground for granting a new trial or for setting aside, modifying, or otherwise disturbing a judgment or order, unless refusal to ta!e such action appears to the court inconsistent with substantial justice( The court at every stage of the proceeding must disregard any error or defect which does not affect the substantial rights of the parties( (2a) Section 7. Judgment where there are several parties( , -n all actions or proceedings, an appealed judgment may be affirmed as to some of the appellants, and reversed as to others, and the case shall thereafter be proceeded with, so far as necessary, as if separate actions had been begun and prosecuted, and e ecution of the judgment of affirmance may be had accordingly, and costs may be adjudged in such cases, as the court shall deem proper( (5) Section 8. /uestions that may be decided( , 9o error which does not affect the jurisdiction over the subject matter or the validity of the judgment appealed from or the proceedings therein will be considered unless stated in the assignment of errors, or closely related to or dependent on an assigned error and properly argued in the brief, save as the court may pass upon plain errors and clerical errors( (;a) Section 9. Promulgation and notice of judgment ( , <fter the judgment or final resolution and dissenting or separate opinions, if any, are signed by the Custices ta!ing part, they shall be delivered for filing to the

cler! who shall indicate thereon the date of promulgation and cause true copies thereof to be served upon the parties or their counsel( (n) Section 10. #ntry of judgments and final resolutions( , -f no appeal or motion for new trial or reconsideration is filed within the time provided in these 6ules, the judgment or final resolution shall forthwith be entered by the cler! in the boo! of entries of judgments( The date when the judgment or final resolution becomes e ecutory shall be deemed as the date of its entry( The record shall contain the dispositive part of the judgment or final resolution and shall be signed by the cler!, with a certificate that such judgment or final resolution has become final and e ecutory( (+a, 6.5) Section 11. #xecution of judgment( , 3 cept where the judgment or final order or resolution, or a portion thereof, is ordered to be immediately e ecutory, the motion for its e ecution may only be filed in the proper court after its entry( -n original actions in the 7ourt of <ppeals, its writ of e ecution shall be accompanied by a certified true copy of the entry of judgment or final resolution and addressed to any appropriate officer for its enforcement( -n appealed cases, where the motion for e ecution pending appeal is filed in the 7ourt of <ppeals at a time that it is in possession of the original record or the record on appeal, the resolution granting such motion shall be transmitted to the lower court from which the case originated, together with a certified true copy of the judgment or final order to be e ecuted, with a directive for such court of origin to issue the proper writ for its enforcement( (n)

RULE 52 otion 'or Reconsi+eration Section 1. Period for filing( , < party may file a motion for reconsideration of a judgment or final resolution within fifteen (*2) days from notice thereof, with proof of service on the adverse party( (n) Section 2. (econd motion for reconsideration( , 9o second motion for reconsideration of a judgment or final resolution by the same party shall be entertained( (n) Section 3. Resolution of motion( , -n the 7ourt of <ppeals, a motion for reconsideration shall be resolved within ninety (=/) days from the date when the court declares it submitted for resolution( (n) Section 4. (tay of execution( , The pendency of a motion for reconsideration filed on time and by the proper party shall stay the e ecution of the judgment or final resolution sought to be reconsidered unless the court, for good reasons, shall otherwise direct( (n)

RULE 53 3e) "rial Section 1. Period for filing; ground( , <t any time after the appeal from the lower court has been perfected and before the 7ourt of <ppeals loses jurisdiction over the case, a party may file a motion for a new trial on the ground of newly discovered evidence which could not have been discovered prior to the trial in the court below by the e ercise of due diligence and which is of such a character as would

the regular rotation of Custices among them. first par( of )" )lg( *+=. the filing of vacancies occurring therein. together with the syllabi therefor prepared by the reporter in consultation with the writers thereof( &emoranda of all other judgments and final resolutions not so published shall be made by the reporter and published in the Official 'a>ette and the authori>ed reports( (*a) Section 2.. 6(<( 9o( +=5) (n) . the authorities cited therein. or may ma!e such order. Resolution of motion( . and a syllabus which shall be confined to points of law( ($ec( ++a. and other matters relating to the business of the court. which shall be reached in consultation before the writing of the opinion by any member of the division( ($ec( **. Preparation of opinions for publication( . the material and controverted points involved. The reporter shall prepare and publish with each reported judgment and final resolution a concise synopsis of the facts necessary for a clear understanding of the case. a motion for new trial shall be resolved within ninety (=/) days from the date when the court declares it submitted for resolution( (n) Section 4. sitting en banc. Procedure in new trial( . with notice to both parties. or render such other judgment as ought to be rendered upon such terms as it may deem just( (+a) Section 3. the constitution of such divisions. <ll the cases of the 7ourt of <ppeals shall be allotted among the different divisions thereof for hearing and decision( The 7ourt of <ppeals.a) RULE 55 &!1lications o' . or by depositions. and may grant or refuse a new trial.)( (. the procedure in the new trial shall be the same as that granted by a 6egional Trial 7ourt( (. -n the 7ourt of <ppeals. Publication( .probably change the result( The motion shall be accompanied by affidavits showing the facts constituting the grounds therefor and the newly discovered evidence( (*a) Section 2. @nless the court otherwise directs. Hearing and order( . The 7ourt of <ppeals shall consider the new evidence together with that adduced at the trial below. either orally in court. shall ma!e proper orders or rules to govern the allotment of cases among the different divisions. as to the ta!ing of further testimony.!+%ments an+ Final Resol!tions Section 1. The judgments and final resolutions of the court shall be published in the Official 'a>ette and in the 6eports officially authori>ed by the court in the language in which they have been originally written. the names of counsel. as amended by $ec( 5 of 3O .a) RULE 54 4nternal 5!siness Section 1. &istribution of cases among divisions( . and such rules shall continue in force until repealed or altered by the $upreme 7ourt( (*a) Section 2. /uorum of the court( . < majority of the actual members of the court shall constitute a $uorum for its sessions en banc( Three members shall constitute a $uorum for the sessions of a division( The affirmative votes of the majority of the members present shall be necessary to pass a resolution of the court en banc( The affirmative votes of three members of a division shall be necessary for the pronouncement of a judgment or final resolution.

B while those of the 7ourt of <ppeals shall be !nown as the B7ourt of <ppeals 6eports(B 3ach volume thereof shall contain a table of the cases reported and the cases cited in the opinions. and 6ules ?5. Appeale+ #ases Section 3. +. ?8. and c) 3ighteen (*8) clearly legible copies of the petition shall be filed. Only petitions for certiorari. with a complete alphabetical inde of the subject matters of the volume( -t shall consist of not less than seven hundred pages printed upon good paper. e cept in criminal cases where the penalty imposed is death.Section 3. b) The portions of said 6ules dealing strictly with and specifically intended for appealed cases in the 7ourt of <ppeals shall not be applicable. 'riginal cases cogni3able( . and 2 to ** of 6ule 2*. mandamus. $uo warranto. as amended( (n) 5. %ode of appeal( . 2+ and this 6ule( (n) Section 5. disciplinary proceedings against members of the judiciary and attorneys. ?=.=1). other public ministers and consuls may be filed originally in the $upreme 7ourt( (n) Section 2. mandamus. 2+ and this 6ule. Rules applicable( . The appeal may be dismissed motu proprio or on motion of the respondent on the following grounds0 (a) 4ailure to ta!e the appeal within the reglementary period. and those against attorneys by 6ules *. sections *. The procedure in original cases for certiorari. Procedure( . prohibition. subject to the following provisions0 a) <ll references in said 6ules to the 7ourt of <ppeals shall be understood to also apply to the $upreme 7ourt. . The appeal shall be governed by and disposed of in accordance with the applicable provisions of the 7onstitution. laws. 0rounds for dismissal of appeal( . reclusion perpetua or life imprisonment( (n) Section 4. well bound and numbered consecutively in the order of the volumes published( ($ec( +. habeas corpus. together with proof of service on all adverse parties( The proceedings for disciplinary action against members of the judiciary shall be governed by the laws and 6ules prescribed therefor. ?8. 6(<( 9o( +=5) (n) &roce+!re 4n "$e S!preme #o!rt RULE 56 A. 6ules ?2. laws. 2*. prohibition. 0eneral ma)e2up of volumes( . $uo warranto and habeas corpus shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of the 7onstitution. The published decisions and final resolutions of the $upreme 7ourt shall be called B"hilippine 6eports. /ri%inal #ases Section 1. <n appeal to the $upreme 7ourt may be ta!en only by a petition for review on certiorari. and cases affecting ambassadors.a.

Procedure if opinion is e$ually divided( . factor. or an officer of a corporation. (d) 4ailure to comply with the re#uirements regarding proof of service and contents of and the documents which should accompany the petition. on a cause of action arising from law. in appealed cases. and (g) The fact that the case is not appealable to the $upreme 7ourt( (n) Section 6. 3 cept as provided in section . the original action commenced in the court shall be dismissed. other than moral and e emplary. (e) 4ailure to comply with any circular. :here the court en banc is e#ually divided in opinion. #uasi1contract. (f) 3rror in the choice or mode of appeal. (c) 4ailure to pay the re#uisite doc!et fee and other lawful fees or to ma!e a deposit for costs. or an attorney. directive or order of the $upreme 7ourt without justifiable cause. <t the commencement of the action or at any time before entry of judgment.. or by any other person in a fiduciary capacity. and on all incidental matters. . delict or #uasi1 delict against a party who is about to depart from the "hilippines with intent to defraud his creditors. 0rounds upon which attachment may issue( . 6ule *++ regarding appeals in criminal cases where the penalty imposed is death. the judgment or order appealed from shall stand affirmed. reclusion perpetua or life imprisonment. in the course of his employment as such. or for a willful violation of duty. bro!er. and if after such deliberation no decision is reached. the petition or motion shall be denied( &ro(isional Reme+ies RULE 57 &reliminar0 Attac$ment Section 1. agent. the case shall again be deliberated on. an appeal ta!en to the $upreme 7ourt by notice of appeal shall be dismissed( <n appeal by certiorari ta!en to the $upreme 7ourt from the 6egional Trial 7ourt submitting issues of fact may be referred to the 7ourt of <ppeals for decision or appropriate action( The determination of the $upreme 7ourt on whether or not issues of fact are involved shall be final( (n) Section 7. (b) -n an action for money or property embe>>led or fraudulently misapplied or converted to his own use by a public officer. &isposition of improper appeal( . contract. a plaintiff or any proper party may have the property of the adverse party attached as security for the satisfaction of any judgment that may be recovered in the following cases0 (a) -n an action for the recovery of a specified amount of money or damages. or the necessary majority cannot be had.(b) %ac! of merit in the petition. or cler!.

or by the 7ourt of <ppeals or the $upreme 7ourt. by service of summons. that there is no other sufficient security for the claim sought to be enforced by the action.(c) -n an action to recover the possession of property unjustly or fraudulently ta!en. not e empt from e ecution. as may be sufficient to satisfy the applicant's demand. if the court shall finally adjudge that the applicant was not entitled thereto( (?a) Section 5. has been concealed. or the action is one in rem or $uasi in rem( (2a) . The sheriff enforcing the writ shall without delay and with all reasonable diligence attach. <n order of attachment may be issued either ex parte or upon motion with notice and hearing by the court in which the action is pending. to await judgment and e ecution in the action. when the property. unless the former ma!es a deposit with the court from which the writ is issued. or (f) -n an action against a party who does not reside and is not found in the "hilippines. removed. that the case is one of those mentioned in section * hereof. Condition of applicant. or the defendant is a non1resident of the "hilippines. and the bond re#uired by the ne t succeeding section. only so much of the property in the "hilippines of the party against whom the writ is issued. on the defendant within the "hilippines( The re#uirement of prior or contemporaneous service of summons shall not apply where the summons could not be served personally or by substituted service despite diligent efforts. or gives a counter1bond e ecuted to the applicant. in an amount e#ual to the bond fi ed by the court in the order of attachment or to the value of the property to be attached. e clusive of costs( $everal writs may be issued at the same time to the sheriffs of the courts of different judicial regions( (+a) Section 3. or any part thereof. and the order and writ of attachment. the application for attachment the applicant's affidavit and bond. or on whom summons may be served by publication( (*a) Section 2. or is about to do so. Affidavit and bond re$uired( . or in the performance thereof. or disposed of to prevent its being found or ta!en by the applicant or an authori>ed person. which may be the amount sufficient to satisfy the applicant's demand or the value of the property to be attached as stated by the applicant. 4ssuance and contents of order( . and must re#uire the sheriff of the court to attach so much of the property in the "hilippines of the party against whom it is issued. (e) -n an action against a party who has removed or disposed of his property. e clusive of costs( 9o levy on attachment pursuant to the writ issued under section + hereof shall be enforced unless it is preceded. %anner of attaching property( . must be duly filed with the court before the order issues( (. or the defendant is a resident of the "hilippines temporarily absent therefrom. that a sufficient cause of action e ists. (d) -n an action against a party who has been guilty of a fraud in contracting the debt or incurring the obligation upon which the action is brought. or contemporaneously accompanied. and that the amount due to the applicant. not e empt from e ecution. together with a copy of the complaint. conditioned that the latter will pay all the costs which may be adjudged to the adverse party and all damages which he may sustain by reason of the attachment. is as much as the sum for which the order is granted above all legal counterclaims( The affidavit. or of some other person who personally !nows the facts. or the value of the property the possession of which he is entitled to recover.a) Section 4. with intent to defraud his creditors.s bond( . <n order of attachment shall be granted only when it appears by the affidavit of the applicant. as may be sufficient to satisfy the applicant's demand. The party applying for the order must thereafter give a bond e ecuted to the adverse party in the amount fi ed by the court in its order granting the issuance of the writ. detained or converted. unless such party ma!es deposit or gives a bond as hereinafter provided in an amount e#ual to that fi ed in the order.

a copy of the writ. standing upon the record of the registry of deeds of the province in the name of the party against whom attachment is issued.s return( . belonging to said party. or belonging to the party against whom attachment is issued and held by any other person. and by leaving a copy of such order. commissions and other personal property not capable of manual delivery. by ta!ing and safely !eeping it in his custody. and notice with the occupant of the property. or any interest therein. and notice of the attachment served upon the custodian of such property( (. the sheriff must li!ewise without delay ma!e a return thereon to the court from which the writ issued. whether as heir. or having in his possession or under his control. or an interest in stoc!s or shares. after issuing the corresponding receipt therefor( (c) $toc!s or shares. (d) Aebts and credits. or devisee. the notice shall contain a reference to the number of the certificate of title. of any corporation or company. and notice that the debts owing by him to the party against whom attachment is issued. or the person by whom the property is held or in whose name it stands in the records( -f the attachment is not claimed on the entire area of the land covered by the certificate of title. or not appearing at all upon such records. by serving the e ecutor or administrator or other personal representative of the decedent with a copy of the writ and notice that said interest is attached( < copy of said writ of attachment and of said notice shall also be filed in the office of the cler! of the court in which said estate is being settled and served upon the heir. royalties. (b) "ersonal property capable of manual delivery. by leaving with the president or managing agent thereof. or that such real property and any interest therein held by or standing in the name of such other person are attached. or with such other person or his agent if found within the province( :here the property has been brought under the operation of either the %and 6egistration <ct or the "roperty 6egistration Aecree. or with his agent. with a full statement of his proceedings under the writ and a complete inventory of the property attached. the volume and page in the registration boo! where the certificate is registered. or under his control. together with any counter1bond given by the party against whom attachment is issued. (heriff.Section 6. including ban! deposits. the adverse party.a) . such credits or other personal property. and the registered owner or owners thereof( The registrar of deeds must inde attachments filed under this section in the names of the applicant. and serve copies thereof on the applicant( (5a) Section 7. by filing with the registry of deeds a copy of the order. <fter enforcing the writ. a description sufficiently accurate for the identification of the land or interest to be affected shall be included in the registration of such attachment. Attachment of real and personal property. 6eal and personal property shall be attached by the sheriff e ecuting the writ in the following manner0 (a) 6eal property. and a notice that it is attached. financial interest. are attached in pursuance of such writ. if any. a copy of the writ of attachment shall be filed with the proper court or #uasi1judicial agency. or standing on the records of the registry of deeds in the name of any other person. and a notice stating that the stoc! or interest of the party against whom the attachment is issued is attached in pursuance of such writ. and the credits and other personal property in his possession. description. a copy of the writ. legatee. by leaving with the person owing such debts. recording thereof* . together with a description of the property attached. or growing crops thereon. legatee or devisee concerned( -f the property sought to be attached is in custodia legis. (e) The interest of the party against whom attachment is issued in property belonging to the estate of the decedent.

&ischarge of attachment on other grounds( . after such e amination. at the time of service upon them of the copy of the writ of attachment and notice as provided in the last preceding section. or the person appearing on his behalf. or other proper officer of the court issuing the attachment( (8a) Section 9. having reference to any lien thereon or claim against the same. to the cler!. hen attached property may be sold after levy on attachment and before entry of judgment ( . shall be liable to the applicant for the amount of such credits. distribution may be awarded to such heir. or files a counter1 bond e ecuted to the attaching party with the cler! of the court where the application is made. #xamination of party whose property is attached and persons indebted to him or controlling his property. legatee or devisee. and the proceeds of such sale to be deposited in court to abide the judgment in the action( (**a) Section 12. or before a commissioner appointed by the court. however. the cash deposit or the counter1bond shall secure the payment of any judgment that the attaching party may recover in the action( < notice of the deposit shall forthwith be served on the attaching party( @pon the discharge of an attachment in accordance with the provisions of this section. <fter a writ of attachment has been enforced. #ffect of attachment of debts. but the property attached shall be ordered delivered to the sheriff ma!ing the levy. in an amount e#ual to that fi ed by the court in the order of attachment. :henever it shall be made to appear to the court in which the action is pending. The attachment of the interest of an heir. or other personal representative of the decedent over such property for the purpose of administration( $uch personal representative. that the property attached is perishable. e clusive of costs( )ut if the attachment is sought to be discharged with respect to a particular property. the court may order such property to be sold at public auction in such manner as it may direct. and may be e amined on oath( The court may. or to the person appearing on his behalf. or such debts are paid. legatee. before or after levy or even after . delivery of property to sheriff* . or that the interests of all the parties to the action will be subserved by the sale thereof. may be re#uired to attend before the court in which the action is pending. <ll persons having in their possession or under their control any credits or other similar personal property belonging to the party against whom attachment is issued. credits and all other similar personal property( . upon hearing with notice to both parties. order personal property capable of manual delivery belonging to him. shall report the attachment to the court when any petition for distribution is filed. legatee. to be delivered to the cler! of the court or sheriff on such terms as may be just. or any person claiming under him( (=a) Section 10. or any judgment recovered by him is satisfied. sheriff. or devisee in the property belonging to the estate of a decedent shall not impair the powers of the e ecutor. subject to the claim of such heir. the deposit or counter1bond aforesaid standing in place of the property so released( $hould such counter1bond for any reason be found to be or become insufficient. and the party furnishing the same fail to file an additional counter1bond. administrator. the counter1bond shall be e#ual to the value of that property as determined by the court( -n either case. or devisee. <ny person owing debts to the party whose property is attached or having in his possession or under his control any credit or other personal property belonging to such party. unless such property is delivered or transferred. or the proceeds of any sale thereof. the party whose property has been attached. or owing any debts to him. and be e amined on oath respecting the same( The party whose property is attached may also be re#uired to attend for the purpose of giving information respecting his property. debts or other similar personal property. after due notice and hearing. &ischarge of attachment upon giving counter2bond ( . The party whose property has been ordered attached may file a motion with the court in which he action is pending. order the discharge of the attachment if the movant ma!es a cash deposit. shall be delivered to the party ma!ing the deposit or giving the counter1bond. may move for the discharge of the attachment wholly or in part on the security given( The court shall. to await the judgment in the action( (*/a) Section 11. the attaching party may apply for a new order of attachment( (*+a) Section 13. in the possession of the person so re#uired to attend before the court. the property attached. and in the order made upon such petition. #ffect of attachment of interests in property belonging to the estate of a decedent ( .Section 8. until the attachment is discharged.

(c) )y collecting from all persons having in their possession credits belonging to the judgment obligor. if enough for that purpose remain in the sheriff's hands. or so much as shall be necessary to satisfy the judgment. or that the bond is insufficient. or any officer duly representing it. and stated in the judgment. for an order to set aside or discharge the attachment on the ground that the same was improperly or irregularly issued or enforced. -f the property attached is claimed by any person other than the party against whom attachment had been issued or his agent. and the defect is not cured forthwith( (*. as may be necessary to satisfy the balance. and paying the proceeds of such collection over to the judgment obligee( The sheriff shall forthwith ma!e a return in writing to the court of his proceedings under this section and furnish the parties with copies thereof( (*2a) . or prevent the attaching party from claiming damages against a third1party claimant who filed a frivolous or plainly spurious claim. (atisfaction of judgment out of property attached . or right to the possession thereof. and a copy thereof upon the attaching party. Proceedings where property claimed by third person ( . and such person ma!es an affidavit of his title thereto. if it be sufficient for that purpose in the following manner0 (a) )y paying to the judgment obligee the proceeds of all sales of perishable or other property sold in pursuance of the order of the court. in the same or a separate action( :hen the writ of attachment is issued in favor of the 6epublic of the "hilippines. and if held liable therefor. and in case the sheriff is sued for damages as a result of the attachment. or owing debts to the latter at the time of the attachment of such credits or debts. the amount of such credits and debts as determined by the court in the action.a) Section 14. return of sheriff* . the court shall order the setting aside or the corresponding discharge of the attachment if it appears that it was improperly or irregularly issued or enforced. stating the grounds of such right or title. or in those the cler! of the court. the attaching party may oppose the motion by counter1 affidavits or other evidence in addition to that on which the attachment was made( <fter due notice and hearing. the sheriff may cause the judgment to be satisfied out of the property attached. the same shall be decided by the court issuing the writ of attachment( 9o claim for damages for the ta!ing or !eeping of the property may be enforced against the bond unless the action therefor is filed within one hundred twenty (*+/) days from the date of the filing of the bond( The sheriff shall not be liable for damages for the ta!ing or !eeping of such property to any such third1 party claimant. the actual damages adjudged by the court shall be paid by the 9ational Treasurer out of the funds to be appropriated for the purpose( (*?a) Section 15.the release of the attached property. -f judgment be recovered by the attaching party and e ecution issue thereon. on demand of the sheriff. the sheriff shall not be bound to !eep the property under attachment. he shall be represented by the $olicitor 'eneral. real or personal. and serves such affidavit upon the sheriff while the latter has possession of the attached property. shall file a bond approved by the court to indemnify the third1party claimant in a sum not less than the value of the property levied upon( -n case of disagreement as to such value. if such bond shall be filed( 9othing herein contained shall prevent such claimant or any third person from vindicating his claim to the property. the discharge shall be limited to the e cess( -f the motion be made on affidavits on the part of the movant but not otherwise. by selling so much of the property. the filing of such bond shall not be re#uired. or that the bond is insufficient( -f the attachment is e cessive. (b) -f any balance remains due. unless the attaching party or his agent. or that the attachment is e cessive.

&isposition of money deposited( . with notice to the party in whose favor the attachment was issued or his surety or sureties. it shall be applied under the direction of the court to the satisfaction of any judgment rendered in favor of the attaching party.a) Section 18. with due notice to the attaching party and his surety or sureties setting forth the facts showing his right to damages and the amount thereof( $uch damages may be awarded only after proper hearing and shall be included in the judgment on the main case( -f the judgment of the appellate court be favorable to the party against whom the attachment was issued he must claim damages sustained during the pendency of the appeal by filing an application in the appellate court. re#uiring a party or a court. &isposition of attached property where judgment is for party against whom attachment was issued( . :here the party against whom attachment had been issued has deposited money instead of giving counter1bond. the surety or sureties on any counter1bond given pursuant to the provisions of this 6ule to secure the payment of the judgment shall become charged on such counter1bond and bound to pay the judgment obligee upon demand the amount due under the judgment. the whole sum deposited must be refunded to him or his assignee( (*8a) Section 19. all the proceeds of sales and money collected or received by the sheriff. the sheriff must proceed to collect such balance as upon ordinary e ecution( :henever the judgment shall have been paid. 1alance due collected upon an execution. before the judgment of the appellate court becomes e ecutory( The appellate court may allow the application to be heard and decided by the trial court( 9othing herein contained shall prevent the party against whom the attachment was issued from recovering in the same action the damages awarded to him from any property of the attaching party not e empt from e ecution should the bond or deposit given by the latter be insufficient or fail to fully satisfy the award( (+/a) RULE 58 &reliminar0 4n6!nction Section 1. Preliminary injunction defined.Section 16. classes( . under the order of attachment. irregular or e cessive attachment must be filed before the trial or before appeal is perfected or before the judgment becomes e ecutory. agency . the sheriff. including the proceeds of any debts or credits collected. :hen the judgment has become e ecutory. -f judgment be rendered against the attaching party. irregular or excessive attachment( . and all property attached remaining in any such officer's hands. Claim for damages on account of improper . upon reasonable demand. and any proceeds of the sale of the property attached not applied to the judgment( (*5a) Section 17. and applying the proceeds to the satisfaction of the judgment less the e penses of proceedings upon the judgment any balance shall remain due. excess delivered to judgment obligor( . Recovery upon the counter2bond( . which amount may be recovered from such surety or sureties after notice and summary hearing in the same action( (*. and after satisfying the judgment the balance shall be refunded to the depositor or his assignee( -f the judgment is in favor of the party against whom attachment was issued. <n application for damages on account of improper. -f after reali>ing upon all the property attached. < preliminary injunction is an order granted at any stage of an action or proceeding prior to the judgment or final order. shall be delivered to the party against whom attachment was issued. must return to the judgment obligor the attached property remaining in his hands. and the order of attachment discharged( (*=a) Section 20.

court. to the effect that the applicant will pay to such party or person all damages which he may sustain by reason of the injunction or temporary restraining order if the court should finally decide that the applicant was not entitled thereto( @pon approval of the re#uisite bond. ho may grant preliminary injunction( . or in re#uiring the performance of an act or acts either for a limited period or perpetually. 5erified application and bond for preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order ( . < preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order may be granted only when0 (a) The application in the action or proceeding is verified. continuance or non1performance of the act or acts complained of during the litigation would probably wor! injustice to the applicant. (b) That the commission. or contemporaneously accompanied.or a person to refrain from a particular act or acts( -t may also re#uire the performance of a particular act or acts. shall be raffled only after notice to and in the presence of the adverse party or the person to be enjoined( -n any event. or (c) That a party. and tending to render the judgment ineffectual( (. the case. it may be issued by said court or any member thereof( (+a) Section 3. or is procuring or suffering to be done some act or acts probably in violation of the rights of the applicant respecting the subject of the action or proceeding. if filed in a multiple1sala court.a) Section 4. 0rounds for issuance of preliminary injunction( . the re#uirement of prior or contemporaneous service of summons shall not apply( (d) The application for a temporary restraining order shall thereafter be acted upon only after all parties are heard in a summary hearing which shall be conducted within twenty1four (+?) hours after the sheriff's return of service andDor the records are received by the branch selected by raffle and to which the records shall be transmitted immediately( . together with a copy of the complaint or initiatory pleading and the applicant's affidavit and bond. by service of summons. upon the adverse party in the "hilippines( However. in which case it shall be !nown as a preliminary mandatory injunction( (*a) Section 2. and (b) @nless e empted by the court the applicant files with the court where the action or proceeding is pending. in an amount to be fi ed by the court. or is attempting to do. where the summons could not be served personally or by substituted service despite diligent efforts. and the whole or part of such relief consists in restraining the commission or continuance of the act or acts complained of. or the adverse party is a resident of the "hilippines temporarily absent therefrom or is a nonresident thereof. < preliminary injunction may be granted when it is established0 (a) That the applicant is entitled to the relief demanded. such notice shall be preceded. a bond e ecuted to the party or person enjoined. a writ of preliminary injunction shall be issued( (?a) (c) :hen an application for a writ of preliminary injunction or a temporary restraining order is included in a complaint or any initiatory pleading. and shows facts entitling the applicant to the relief demanded. threatening. agency or a person is doing. < preliminary injunction may be granted by the court where the action or proceeding is pending( -f the action or proceeding is pending in the 7ourt of <ppeals or in the $upreme 7ourt.

or of the surety or sureties thereon( -f the applicant's bond is found to be insufficient in amount. as the case may be( (8a) Section 8. would cause irreparable damage to the party or person enjoined while the applicant can be fully compensated for such damages as he may suffer. why the injunction should not be granted. upon the bond of the adverse party. the court must order said party or person to show cause. Preliminary injunction not granted without notice. *. or if granted. effect of disapproval of same ( . shall be claimed. The application for injunction or restraining order may be denied. determine within the same period whether or not the preliminary injunction shall be granted. at a specified time and place. including the original seventy1two hours provided herein( -n the event that the application for preliminary injunction is denied or not resolved within the said period. upon a showing of its insufficiency( The injunction or restraining order may also be denied. the e ecutive judge of a multiple1sala court or the presiding judge of a single sala court may issue ex parte a temporary restraining order effective for only seventy1two (. the temporary restraining order shall be effective for si ty (5/) days from service on the party or person sought to be enjoined( < restraining. within the aforesaid seventy1two (. 9o preliminary injunction shall be granted without hearing and prior notice to the party or person sought to be enjoined( -f it shall appear from facts shown by affidavits or by the verified application that great or irreparable injury would result to the applicant before the matter can be heard on notice. and subject to the provisions of the preceding sections. and a bond sufficient in amount with sufficient sureties approved after justification is not filed forthwith the injunction shall be dissolved( -f the bond of the adverse party is found to be insufficient in amount. The party filing a bond in accordance with the provisions of this 6ule shall forthwith serve a copy of such bond on the other party. 4ebruary *==8) However.+) hours. or.( (=a) . exception( . the court to which the application for preliminary injunction was made. (ervice of copies of bonds. may be dissolved. the amount of damages to be awarded to either party. if it appears after hearing that although the applicant is entitled to the injunction or restraining order. may issue a temporary restraining order to be effective only for a period of twenty (+/) days from service on the party or person sought to be enjoined. it may be modified( (5a) Section 7.. who may e cept to the sufficiency of the bond. or for motion of dissolution of" injunction or restraining order ( . <t the trial. as the case may be. if issued by the 7ourt of <ppeals or a member thereof. which may be opposed by the applicant also by affidavits( -t may further be denied.Section 5. the judge before whom the case is pending shall conduct a summary hearing to determine whether the temporary restraining order shall be e tended until the application for preliminary injunction can be heard( -n no case shall the total period of effectivity of the temporary restraining order e ceed twenty (+/) days. ascertained. on other grounds upon affidavits of the party or person enjoined. and accordingly issue the corresponding order( ()ar &atter 9o( 8/. 0rounds for objection to. may be dissolved. automatically vacated( The effectivity of a temporary restraining order is not e tendible without need of any judicial declaration to that effect and no court shall have authority to e tend or renew the same on the same ground for which it was issued( However. e cept as herein provided( :ithin the said twenty1day period. Judgment to include damages against party and sureties ( . the injunction shall be granted or restored. and the former files a bond in an amount fi ed by the court conditioned that he will pay all damages which the applicant may suffer by the denial or the dissolution of the injunction or restraining order( -f it appears that the e tent of the preliminary injunction or restraining order granted is too great. order issued by the $upreme 7ourt or a member thereof shall be effective until further orders( (2a) Section 6. and awarded under the same procedure prescribed in section +/ of 6ule 2.+) hours from issuance but he shall immediately comply with the provisions of the ne t preceding section as to service of summons and the documents to be served therewith( Thereafter. the temporary restraining order is deemed. if granted. the issuance or continuance thereof. if the matter is of e treme urgency and the applicant will suffer grave injustice and irreparable injury. or the surety or sureties thereon fail to justify a bond sufficient in amount with sufficient sureties approved after justification is not filed forthwith. or if the surety or sureties thereon fail to justify.

or materially injured unless a receiver be appointed to administer and preserve it. -f after the trial of the action it appears that the applicant is entitled to have the act or acts complained of permanently enjoined the court shall grant a final injunction perpetually restraining the party or person enjoined from the commission or continuance of the act or acts of confirming the preliminary mandatory injunction( (*/a) RULE 59 Recei(ers$ip Section 1. administering. (d) :henever in other cases it appears that the appointment of a receiver is the most convenient and feasible means of preserving. and that such property or fund is in danger of being lost. or the receiver discharged. or disposing of the property in litigation( Auring the pendency of an appeal. that the party applying for the appointment of a receiver has an interest in the property or fund which is the subject of the action or proceeding. at any time after the appointment. in an amount to be fi ed by the court. and such other proof as the court may re#uire. in the following cases0 (a) :hen it appears from the verified application. the appellate court may allow an application for the appointment of a receiver to be filed in and decided by the court of origin and the receiver appointed to be subject to the control of said court( (*a) Section 2. or to dispose of it according to the judgment. in its discretion. or that the parties have so stipulated in the contract of mortgage. omissions. The application may be denied. @pon a verified application. one or more receivers of the property subject of the action or proceeding may be appointed by the court where the action is pending or by the 7ourt of <ppeals or by the $upreme 7ourt. to the effect that such party will pay the applicant all damages he may suffer by reason of the acts. in an amount to be fi ed by the court. )efore issuing the order appointing a receiver the court shall re#uire the applicant to file a bond e ecuted to the party against whom the application is presented.Section 9. 1ond on appointment of receiver( . or otherwise to carry the judgment into effect. when the adverse party files a bond e ecuted to the applicant. or a member thereof. or to aid e ecution when the e ecution has been returned unsatisfied or the judgment obligor refuses to apply his property in satisfaction of the judgment. removed. re#uire an additional bond as further security for such damages( (. &enial of application or discharge of receiver( . (b) :hen it appears in an action by the mortgagee for the foreclosure of a mortgage that the property is in danger of being wasted or dissipated or materially injured. Appointment of receiver( . and that its value is probably insufficient to discharge the mortgage debt. to the effect that the applicant will pay such party all damages he may sustain by reason of the appointment of such receiver in case the applicant shall have procured such appointment without sufficient cause. or other matters specified in the application as ground for such appointment( The receiver may also be discharged if it is shown that his appointment was obtained without sufficient cause( (?a) . (c) <fter judgment. to preserve the property during the pendency of an appeal. and the court may. hen final injunction granted( .a) Section 3.

in such capacity. and generally to do such acts respecting the property as the court may authori>e( However. compensation of receiver( . the application shall be denied or the receiver discharged. funds in the hands of a receiver may be invested only by order of the court upon the written consent of all the parties to the action( (. or if the surety or sureties thereon fail to justify. actions in his own name. and shall file a bond. to receive rents. notes. to ta!e and !eep possession of the property in controversy. to compound for and compromise the same. $ubject to the control of the court in which the action or proceeding is pending a receiver shall have the power to bring and defend. who may e cept to its sufficiency or of the surety or sureties thereon( -f either the applicant's or the receiver's bond is found to be insufficient in amount. the receiver shall be appointed or re1appointed. motu proprio or on motion of either party. or apportioned. it shall. to the effect that he will faithfully discharge his duties in the action or proceeding and obey the orders of the court( (2a) Section 5. < person who refuses or neglects. deeds. to collect debts due to himself as receiver or to the fund. boo!s. as the case may be( -f the bond of the adverse party is found to be insufficient in amount or the surety or sureties thereon fail to justify.a) 9o action may be filed by or against a receiver without leave of the court which appointed him( (n) Section 7. and a bond sufficient in amount with sufficient sureties approved after justification is not filed forthwith. to be awarded to any party upon any bond filed in accordance with the provisions of this 6ule. may be punished for contempt and shall be liable to the receiver for the money or the value of the property and other things so refused or neglected to be surrendered. direct the delivery of the funds and other property in his possession to the person adjudged to be entitled to receive them and order the discharge of the receiver from further duty as such( The court shall allow the receiver such reasonable compensation as the circumstances of the case warrant. ascertained. estate. to deliver to the receiver all the property. effect of disapproval of same( . person. bills. after due notice to all interested parties and hearing. to be ta ed as costs against the defeated party. to pay outstanding debts. together with all damages that may have been sustained by the party or parties entitled thereto as a conse#uence of such refusal or neglect( (n) Section 8. The person filing a bond in accordance with the provisions of this 6ule shall forthwith serve a copy thereof on each interested party. as justice re#uires( (8a) Section 9. upon reasonable demand. The amount. as the case may be( (5a) Section 6. :henever the court. documents and papers within his power or control. or in case of disagreement. settle the accounts of the receiver.( (=a) RULE 60 Reple(in . property. money. 0eneral powers of receiver( . !ermination of receivership. and granted under the same procedure prescribed in section +/ of 6ule 2. to ma!e transfers. or corporation of which he is the receiver. if any. as determined and ordered by the court. shall be claimed.Section 4. 6iability for refusal or neglect to deliver property to receiver ( . e ecuted to such person and in such sum as the court may direct. shall determine that the necessity for a receiver no longer e ists. to divide the money and other property that shall remain among the persons legally entitled to receive the same. and a bond sufficient in amount with sufficient sureties approved after justification is not filed forthwith. subject of or involved in the action or proceeding. (ervice of copies of bonds. 'ath and bond of receiver( . Judgment to include recovery against sureties( . the receiver shall be sworn to perform them faithfully. )efore entering upon his duties.

if such delivery be adjudged. the adverse party does not object to the sufficiency of the bond. he must cause the building or enclosure to be bro!en open and ta!e the property into his possession( <fter the sheriff has ta!e possession of the property as herein provided. and belief . or if the adverse party so objects and the court affirms its approval of the applicant's bond or approves a new bond. e ecuted to the adverse party in double the value of the property as stated in the affidavit aforementioned. (c) That the property has not been distrained or ta!en for a ta assessment or a fine pursuant to law.Section 1. -f within five (2) days after the ta!ing of the property by the sheriff. but if he does not so object. and by serving a copy of such bond on the applicant( (2a) Section 6. -f the adverse party objects to the sufficiency of the applicant's bond. information. or if so sei>ed. that it is e empt from such sei>ure or custody. and (d) The actual mar!et value of the property( The applicant must also give a bond. (b) That the property is wrongfully detained by the adverse party. 'rder( . or his agent. the property shall be delivered to the applicant( -f for any reason the property is not delivered to the applicant. @pon the filing of such affidavit and approval of the bond. and for the payment of such sum. Application( . or sei>ed under a writ of e ecution or preliminary attachment. he cannot immediately re#uire the return of the property. for the return of the property to the adverse party if such return be adjudged. alleging the cause of detention thereof according to the best of his !nowledge. and must forthwith ta!e the property. the court shall issue an order and the corresponding writ of replevin. at any time before the delivery of the property to the applicant. he must !eep it in a secure place and shall be responsible for its delivery to the party entitled thereto upon receiving his fees and necessary e penses for ta!ing and !eeping the same( (?a) Section 5. he may. The applicant must show by his own affidavit or that of some other person who personally !nows the facts0 (a) That the applicant is the owner of the property claimed. the sheriff must serve a copy thereof on the adverse party. the sheriff must demand its delivery. together with a copy of the application. or otherwise placed under custodia legis. &isposition of property by sheriff* . or of the surety or sureties thereon. and if it be not delivered. the sheriff must return it to the adverse party( (5a) . in the manner hereinafter provided( (*a) Section 2. in double the value of the property as stated in the applicant's affidavit for the delivery thereof to the applicant. and for the payment to the adverse party of such sum as he may recover from the applicant in the action( (+a) Section 3. or of the surety or sureties thereon. or is entitled to the possession thereof. if it be in the possession of the adverse party. at the commencement of the action or at any time before answer. by filing with the court where the action is pending a bond e ecuted to the applicant. apply for an order for the delivery of such property to him. < party praying for the recovery of possession of personal property may. to him as may be recovered against the adverse party. affidavit and bond. particularly describing it. Return of property( . @pon receiving such order. Affidavit and bond( . &uty of the sheriff* . or if the adverse party re#uires the return of the property but his bond is objected to and found insufficient and he does not forthwith file an approved bond. re#uire the return thereof. describing the personal property alleged to be wrongfully detained and re#uiring the sheriff forthwith to ta!e such property into his custody( (. and retain it in his custody( -f the property or any part thereof be concealed in a building or enclosure.a) Section 4.

if any. a verified application for support pendente lite may be filed by any party stating the grounds for the claim and the financial conditions of both parties. of the property may be enforced against the bond unless the action therefor is filed within one hundred twenty (*+/) days from the date of the filing of the bond( The sheriff shall not be liable for damages. and serves such affidavit upon the sheriff while the latter has possession of the property and a copy thereof upon the applicant. the sheriff shall not be bound to !eep the property under replevin or deliver it to the applicant unless the applicant or his agent. and granted under the same procedure as prescribed in section +/ of 6ule 2. stating the grounds therefor. depositions or other authentic documents in support thereof( (+a. Return of papers( . or prevent the applicant from claiming damages against a third1party claimant who filed a frivolous or plainly spurious claim. who shall have five (2) days to comment thereon unless a different period is fi ed by the court upon his motion( The comment shall be verified and shall be accompanied by affidavits. The sheriff must file the order. to any such third1 party claimant if such bond shall be filed( 9othing herein contained shall prevent such claimant or any third person from vindicating his claim to the property. or for its value in case delivery cannot be made.Section 7. and accompanied by affidavits. with costs( (=a) Section 10. the actual damages adjudged by the court shall be paid by the 9ational Treasurer out of the funds to be appropriated for the purpose( (. shall file a bond approved by the court to indemnify the third1party claimant in a sum not less than the value of the property under replevin as provided in section + hereof( -n case of disagreement as to such value. <fter trial of the issues the court shall determine who has the right of possession to and the value of the property and shall render judgment in the alternative for the delivery thereof to the party entitled to the same. and such person ma!es an affidavit of his title thereto. the court shall determine the same( 9o claim for damages for the ta!ing or !eeping. depositions or other authentic documents in support thereof( (*a) Section 2. < copy of the application and all supporting documents shall be served upon the adverse party. -f the property ta!en is claimed by any person other than the party against whom the writ of replevin had been issued or his agent. with the court within ten (*/) days after ta!ing the property mentioned therein( (8a) Section 9. Judgment to include recovery against sureties( . and also for such damages as either party may prove. and if held liable therefor. Application( .a) . or right to the possession thereof. <t the commencement of the proper action or proceeding. thereon. on demand of said sheriff. Judgment( . ascertained. Proceedings where property claimed by third person ( . to be awarded to any party upon any bond filed in accordance with the provisions of this 6ule. shall be claimed. and in case the sheriff is sued for damages as a result of the replevin.a) Section 8. he shall be represented by the $olicitor 'eneral. in the same or a separate action( :hen the writ of replevin is issued in favor of the 6epublic of the "hilippines. The amount. or at any time prior to the judgment or final order. or any officer duly representing it. Comment( .( (*/a) RULE 61 S!pport &en+ente Lite Section 1. the filing of such bond shall not be re#uired. . for the ta!ing or !eeping of such property. with his proceedings indorsed.

having the regard to the probable outcome of the case and such other circumstances as may aid in the proper resolution of the #uestion involved( -f the application is granted. the court shall issue an order re#uiring the conflicting claimants to interplead with one another( -f the interests of justice so re#uire. The court shall determine provisionally the pertinent facts. the court may direct in such order that the subject matter be paid or delivered to the court( (+a. he may bring an action against the conflicting claimants to compel them to interplead and litigate their several claims among themselves( (*a. grandparents or guardian and the $tate in the corresponding criminal case during its pendency. @pon the filing of the complaint. reserved and instituted prior to its filing.) Section 2. her parents. issue an order of e ecution against him. it shall order the recipient thereof to return to the former the amounts already paid with legal interest from the dates of actual payment. any third person who furnished that support to the applicant may. the principal case shall be tried and decided as early as possible( (2a) Section 5. (upport in criminal cases( . in accordance with the procedure established under this 6ule( (n) Section 7. -n criminal actions where the civil liability includes support for the offspring as a conse#uence of the crime and the civil aspect thereof has not been waived. the application shall be set for hearing not more than three (. without prejudice to his liability for contempt( (5a) :hen the person ordered to give support pendente lite refuses or fails to do so. without prejudice to the right of the recipient to obtain reimbursement in a separate action from the person legally obliged to give the support( $hould the recipient fail to reimburse said amounts. :hen the judgment or final order of the court finds that the person who has been providing support pendente lite is not liable therefor. the court shall fi the amount of money to be provisionally paid or such other forms of support as should be provided. motu proprio or upon motion. and shall render such orders as justice and e#uity may re#uire. 'rder( . ta!ing into account the necessities of the applicant and the resources or means of the adverse party. and the terms of payment or mode for providing the support( -f the application is denied. :henever conflicting claims upon the same subject matter are or may be made against a person who claims no interest whatever in the subject matter. 'rder( . 65. 65. Restitution( . <fter the comment is filed. #nforcement of order( . the person who provided the same may li!ewise see! reimbursement thereof in a separate action from the person legally obliged to give such support( (n) Special #i(il Actions RULE 62 4nterplea+er Section 1. hen interpleader proper( . the accused may be ordered to provide support pendente lite to the child born to the offended party allegedly because of the crime( The application therefor may be filed successively by the offended party.Section 3. or an interest which in whole or in part is not disputed by the claimants. the court shall. after due notice and hearing in the same case obtain a writ of e ecution to enforce his right of reimbursement against the person ordered to provide such support( (h) Section 6.) . -f the adverse party fails to comply with an order granting support pendente lite. or after the e piration of the period for its filing.) days thereafter( The facts in issue shall be proved in the same manner as is provided for evidence on motions( (?a) Section 4. Hearing( .

(ummons( . 4ebruary *==8) <n action for the reformation of an instrument. ordinance. e ecutive order or regulation. the corresponding prosecutor or attorney of the local governmental unit involved shall be . or whose rights are affected by a statute. 65?) Section 3. shall constitute a lien or change upon the subject matter of the action. 6ocal government ordinances( . as well as the costs and litigation e penses. contract or other written instrument. 65. Answer and other pleadings( . %otion to dismiss( . *. prejudice the rights of persons not parties to the action( (+a. the court may. serving a copy thereof upon each of the other conflicting claimants who may file their reply thereto as provided by these 6ules( -f any claimant fails to plead within the time herein fi ed. to #uiet title to real property or remove clouds therefrom. and for a declaration of his rights or duties. $ummons shall be served upon the conflicting claimants. e ecutive order or regulation. and pre1trial has been conducted in accordance with the 6ules. -n any action which involves the validity of a statute. The doc!et and other lawful fees paid by the party who filed a complaint under this 6ule..) Section 4. or to consolidate ownership under <rticle *5/. or any other governmental regulation may. costs and litigation expenses as liens( . the movant may file his answer within the remaining period. <fter the pleadings of the conflicting claimants have been filed. third1party complaints and responsive pleadings thereto. <ny person interested under a deed. &etermination( . 65. &oc)et and other lawful fees.. ho may file petition( . of the 7ivil 7ode. may be brought under this 6ule( (*a.Section 3. as provided by these 6ules( (?a. the $olicitor 'eneral shall be notified by the party assailing the same and shall be entitled to be heard upon such #uestion( (. Notice on (olicitor 0eneral( .) Section 7. -n any action involving the validity of a local government ordinance.) Section 6.a. :ithin the time for filing an answer. together with a copy of the complaint and order( (. 65. and no declaration shall.) RULE 63 2eclarator0 Relie' an+ Similar Reme+ies Section 1. Parties( . each claimant may file a motion to dismiss on the ground of impropriety of the interpleader action or on other appropriate grounds specified in 6ule *5( The period to file the answer shall be tolled and if the motion is denied. 65?) Section 4. 65?) Section 2. rec!oned from notice of denial( (n) Section 5. 3ach claimant shall file his answer setting forth his claim within fifteen (*2) days from service of the summons upon him. declare him in default and thereafter render judgment barring him from any claim in respect to the subject matter( The parties in an interpleader action may file counterclaims. before breach or violation thereof bring an action in the appropriate 6egional Trial 7ourt to determine any #uestion of construction or validity arising. thereunder( ()ar &atter 9o( 8/. the court shall proceed to determine their respective rights and adjudicate their several claims( (2a. e cept as otherwise provided in these 6ules. on motion. 65. <ll persons who have or claim any interest which would be affected by the declaration shall be made parties. will. cross1claims. or any other governmental regulation. but which shall not be less than five (2) days in any event. unless the court shall order otherwise( (5a.

may refuse to e ercise the power to declare rights and to construe instruments in any case where a decision would not terminate the uncertainty or controversy which gave rise to the action. 4ebruary *==8) Section 3. the $olicitor 'eneral shall also be notified and entitled to be heard( (?a. This 6ule shall govern the review of judgments and final orders or resolutions of the 7ommission on 3lections and the 7ommission on <udit( (n) Section 2. Court action discretionary( . final order or resolution( 4indings of fact of the 7ommission supported by substantial evidence shall be final and non1reviewable( The petition shall be accompanied by a clearly legible duplicate original or certified true copy of the judgment.!+%ments an+ Final /r+ers or Resol!tions o' t$e #ommission on Elections an+ t$e #ommission on A!+it Section 1. e ecutive order or regulation.similarly notified and entitled to be heard( -f such ordinance is alleged to be unconstitutional. ordinance. The petition shall be verified and filed in eighteen (*8) legible copies( The petition shall name the aggrieved party as petitioner and shall join as respondents the 7ommission concerned and the person or persons interested in sustaining the judgment. final order or resolution a $uo( The petition shall state the facts with certainty. !ime to file petition( . if allowed under the procedural rules of the 7ommission concerned. 65?) RULE 64 Re(ie) o' . the aggrieved party may file the petition within the remaining period. < judgment or final order or resolution of the 7ommission on 3lections and the 7ommission on <udit may be brought by the aggrieved party to the $upreme 7ourt on certiorari under 6ule 52. together with certified true copies of such material portions of the record as are referred to therein and other documents relevant and pertinent thereto( The re#uisite number of copies of the petition shall contain plain copies of all documents attached to the original copy of said petition( . and the parties shall be allowed to file such pleadings as may be necessary or proper( (5a. or any other governmental regulation should ta!e place. *. final order or resolution subject thereof. Conversion into ordinary action( . but which shall not be less than five (2) days in any event.. -f before the final termination of the case. present clearly the issues involved. and pray for judgment annulling or modifying the #uestioned judgment. -orm and contents of petition( . a breach or violation of an instrument or a statute. 65?) Section 5. or in any case where the declaration or construction is not necessary and proper under the circumstances( (2a. 3 cept in actions falling under the second paragraph of section * of this 6ule. The petition shall be filed within thirty (. rec!oned from notice of denial( (n) Section 4./) days from notice of the judgment or final order or resolution sought to be reviewed( The filing of a motion for new trial or reconsideration of said judgment or final order or resolution. motu proprio or upon motion. %ode of review( . )ar &atter 9o( 8/. e cept as hereinafter provided( (n. set forth the grounds and brief arguments relied upon for review. the action may thereupon be converted into an ordinary action. 65?) Section 6. (cope( . the court. the petitioner shall pay to the cler! of court the doc!et and other lawful fees and deposit the amount of "2//(// for costs( (n) Section 5. shall interrupt the period herein fi ed( -f the motion is denied. @pon the filing of the petition. &oc)et and other lawful fees( .

officer or person. and of the timely payment of doc!et and other lawful fees( The failure of petitioner to comply with any of the foregoing re#uirements shall be sufficient ground for the dismissal of the petition( (n) Section 6. or of such other pleadings or papers as may be re#uired or allowed. -f the $upreme 7ourt finds the petition sufficient in form and substance. @nless the 7ourt sets the case for oral argument. and there is . and there is no appeal. The comments of the respondents shall be filed in eighteen (*8) legible copies( The original shall be accompanied by certified true copies of such material portions of the record as are referred to therein together with other supporting papers( The re#uisite number of copies of the comments shall contain plain copies of all documents attached to the original and a copy thereof shall be served on the petitioner( 9o other pleading may be filed by any party unless re#uired or allowed by the 7ourt( (n) Section 8. otherwise.. board or officer e ercising judicial or #uasi1judicial functions has acted without or in e cess its or his jurisdiction. Comments of respondents( . #ffect of filing( . :hen any tribunal. 6ule ?5( The petition shall further be accompanied by proof of service of a copy thereof on the 7ommission concerned and on the adverse party.The petition shall state the specific material dates showing that it was filed within the period fi ed herein. and a sworn certification of non1forum shopping as provided in the third paragraph of section . and ade#uate remedy in the ordinary course of law. unless the $upreme 7ourt shall direct otherwise upon such terms as it may deem just( (n) Section 9. or any plain. corporation. 6ule ?5( (*a) Section 2. the 7ourt may dismiss the petition outright( The 7ourt may also dismiss the petition if it was filed manifestly for delay or the #uestions raised are too unsubstantial to warrant further proceedings( (n) Section 7. alleging the facts with certainty and praying that judgment be rendered annulling or modifying the proceedings of such tribunal. #uasi1judicial or ministerial functions. or re#uires the parties to submit memoranda. 'rder to comment( . a person aggrieved thereby may file a verified petition in the proper court. speedy. :hen the proceedings of any tribunal.. board. the case shall be deemed submitted for decision upon the filing of the comments on the petition. are without or in e cess of its or his jurisdiction. order or resolution subject thereof. whether e ercising judicial. and shall contain a sworn certification against forum shopping as provided in the third paragraph of section . Petition for certiorari( . or with grave abuse of discretion amounting to lac! or e cess of jurisdiction. board or officer. copies of all pleadings and documents relevant and pertinent thereto. or with grave abuse of discretion amounting to lac! or e cess of jurisdiction. or the e piration of the period to do so( (n) RULE 65 Certiorari7 &ro$i1ition an+ an+am!s Section 1. Petition for prohibition( . (ubmission for decision( . The filing of a petition for certiorari shall not stay the e ecution of the judgment or final order or resolution sought to be reviewed. it shall order the respondents to file their comments on the petition within ten (*/) days from notice thereof. and granting such incidental reliefs as law and justice may re#uire( The petition shall be accompanied by a certified true copy of the judgment.

Petition for mandamus( . board. the petitioner shall join. the person aggrieved thereby may file a verified petition in the proper court. officer or person impleaded as public respondent or respondents( @nless otherwise specifically directed by the court where the petition is pending. :hen the petition filed relates to the acts or omissions of a judge. the person or persons interested in sustaining the proceedings in the court. :hen any tribunal. copies of all pleadings and documents relevant and pertinent thereto. and not against the judge.. they shall not appear or participate in the proceedings therein( (2a) . or in the $andiganbayan if it is in aid of its appellate jurisdiction( -f it involves the acts or omissions of a #uasi1judicial agency. a person aggrieved thereby may file a verified petition in the proper court. or otherwise granting such incidental reliefs as law and justice may re#uire( The petition shall li!ewise be accompanied by a certified true copy of the judgment. tribunal. unless otherwise provided by law or these 6ules. 6ule ?5( (. corporation. board. and it shall be the duty of such private respondents to appear and defend. order or resolution subject thereof. tribunal. and a sworn certification of non1forum shopping as provided in the third paragraph of section .1$7) Section 5.. as private respondent or respondents with such public respondent or respondents. 6ule ?5( (+a) Section 3. order or resolution( -n case a motion for reconsideration or new trial is timely filed. whether such motion is re#uired or not. and the costs awarded in such proceedings in favor of the petitioner shall be against the private respondents only. corporation. #uasi1judicial agency. <(&( 9o( //1+1/. both in his or their own behalf and in behalf of the public respondent or respondents affected by the proceedings. The petition shall be filed not later than si ty (5/) days from notice of the judgment. the petition shall be filed in and cogni>able only by the 7ourt of <ppeals( 9o e tension of time to file the petition shall be granted e cept for compelling reason and in no case e ceeding fifteen (*2) days( (?a) ()ar &atter 9o( 8/. unless otherwise specifically directed by the court. officer or person unlawfully neglects the performance of an act which the law specifically enjoins as a duty resulting from an office. speedy and ade#uate remedy in the ordinary course of law.a) Section 4. trust. or unlawfully e cludes another from the use and enjoyment of a right or office to which such other is entitled. board. in the 6egional Trial 7ourt e ercising jurisdiction over the territorial area as defined by the $upreme 7ourt( -t may also be filed in the 7ourt of <ppeals whether or not the same is in aid of its appellate jurisdiction. corporation. board. hen and where petition filed( . #uasi1judicial agency. to do the act re#uired to be done to protect the rights of the petitioner. officer or person. Respondents and costs in certain cases( . the public respondents shall be included therein as nominal parties( However. and to pay the damages sustained by the petitioner by reason of the wrongful acts of the respondent( The petition shall also contain a sworn certification of non1forum shopping as provided in the third paragraph of section . or station. the si ty (5/) day period shall be counted from notice of the denial of said motion( The petition shall be filed in the $upreme 7ourt or. immediately or at some other time to be specified by the court. alleging the facts with certainty and praying that judgment be rendered commanding the respondent.. and ade#uate remedy in the ordinary course of law. the public respondents shall not appear in or file an answer or comment to the petition or any pleading therein( -f the case is elevated to a higher court by either party. and there is no other plain. if it relates to the acts or omissions of a lower court or of a corporation. alleging the facts with certainty and praying that judgment be rendered commanding the respondent to desist from further proceedings in the action or matter specified therein. officer or person. +* Culy *==8. court.no appeal or any other plain. court. speedy.

The court in which the petition is filed may issue orders e pediting the proceedings. tribunal. corporation. by the provision of law. constitutes a ground for the forfeiture of his office. officer or person concerned in such manner as the court may direct. <fter the comment or other pleadings re#uired by the court are filed. < certified copy of the judgment rendered in accordance with the last preceding section shall be served upon the court. #uasi1judicial agency. the court may hear the case or re#uire the parties to submit memoranda( -f after such hearing or submission of memoranda or the e piration of the period for the filing thereof the court finds that the allegations of the petition are true. Action by 0overnment against individuals( . however.=( (=a) RULE 66 Quo Warranto Section 1. or unlawfully holds or e ercises a public office. and not a motion to dismiss. <n action for the usurpation of a public office. the petition( Thereafter. and it may also grant a temporary restraining order or a writ of preliminary injunction for the preservation of the rights of the parties pending such proceedings( The petition shall not interrupt the course of the principal case unless a temporary restraining order or a writ of preliminary injunction has been issued against the public respondent from further proceeding in the case( (. the court may re#uire the respondents to file their comment to. -f the petition is sufficient in form and substance to justify such process.a) Section 8. or (c) <n association which acts as a corporation within the "hilippines without being legally incorporated or without lawful authority so to act( (*a) . the court shall issue an order re#uiring the respondent or respondents to comment on the petition within ten (*/) days from receipt of a copy thereof( $uch order shall be served on the respondents in such manner as the court may direct together with a copy of the petition and any anne es thereto( -n petitions for certiorari before the $upreme 7ourt and the 7ourt of <ppeals. #xpediting proceedings. (ervice and enforcement of order or judgment ( . shall be observed( )efore giving due course thereto. injunctive relief* . or the time for the filing thereof has e pired. position or franchise may be commenced by a verified petition brought in the name of the 6epublic of the "hilippines against0 (a) < person who usurps. 6ule 25. 'rder to comment( . the provisions of section +. it shall render judgment for the relief prayed for or to which the petitioner is entitled( The court. Proceedings after comment is filed( . (b) < public officer who does or suffers an act which. or that the #uestions raised therein are too unsubstantial to re#uire consideration( (8a) Section 9. position or franchise. prosecuted manifestly for delay. intrudes into. may dismiss the petition if it finds the same to be patently without merit.Section 6. and disobedience thereto shall be punished as contempt( <n e ecution may issue for any damages or costs awarded in accordance with section * of 6ule . the court may re#uire the filing of a reply and such other responsive or other pleadings as it may deem necessary and proper( (5a) Section 7. board.

and if permission is granted. action given precedence( . copies of which shall be served on all interested parties. with the permission of the court in which the action is to be commenced. with an averment of his right to the same and that the respondent is unlawfully in possession thereof( <ll persons who claim to be entitled to the public office. or in the 6egional Trial 7ourt e ercising jurisdiction over the territorial area where the respondent or any of the respondents resides. position or franchise. damages( . and that the petitioner or relator. but when the $olicitor 'eneral commences the action. or in the $upreme 7ourt( (8a) Section 8. after ta!ing the oath of office and e ecuting any official bond re#uired by law. Parties and contents of petition against usurpation ( . as the case may be. but in such case the officer bringing it may first re#uire an indemnity for the e penses and costs of the action in an amount approved by and to be deposited in the court by the person at whose re#uest and upon whose relation the same is brought( (?a) Section 4. or when upon complaint or otherwise he has good reason to believe that any case specified in the preceding section can be established by proof. Rights of persons adjudged entitled to public office . position or franchise determined. position or franchise of all the parties to the action as justice re#uires( (*/a) Section 10. hen hearing had on application for permission to commence action ( . :hen the respondent is found guilty of usurping into. hen (olicitor 0eneral or public prosecutor must commence action ( . <n action under the preceding si sections can be brought only in the $upreme 7ourt. bring such an action at the re#uest and upon the relation of another person. position or franchise. hen (olicitor 0eneral or public prosecutor may commence action with permission of court ( . and the petition shall then be filed within the period ordered by the court( (2a) Section 5. must commence such action( (. position or franchise may be made parties. and their respective rights to such public office. Period for pleadings and proceedings may be reduced . -f judgment be rendered in favor of the person averred in the complaint to be entitled to the public office he may. Judgment where usurpation found( . The court may reduce the period provided by these 6ules for filing pleadings and for all other proceedings in the action in order to secure the most e peditious determination of the matters involved therein consistent with the rights of the parties( $uch action may be given precedence over any other civil matter pending in the court( (=a) Section 9.a) Section 7. hen an individual may commence such an action( . when directed by the "resident of the "hilippines. it may be brought in a 6egional Trial 7ourt in the 7ity of &anila. The $olicitor 'eneral or a public prosecutor. judgment shall be rendered that such respondent be ousted and altogether e cluded therefrom. if any. the court shall issue an order to that effect. and may immediately thereafter demand of the respondent all the boo!s and papers in the respondent's custody or control appertaining to the office to which the judgment relates( -f the respondent refuses or neglects to deliver any boo! or paper pursuant to such demand. he . 5enue( . the court shall direct that notice be given to the respondent so that he may be heard in opposition thereto. delivery of boo)s and papers.a) Section 3. the petition shall set forth the name of the person who claim to be entitled thereto. ta!e upon himself the e ecution of the office. The $olicitor 'eneral or a public prosecutor may. recover his costs( $uch further judgment may be rendered determining the respective rights in and to the public office. < person claiming to be entitled to a public office or position usurped or unlawfully held or e ercised by another may bring an action therefor in his own name( (5) Section 6. @pon application for permission to commence such action in accordance with the ne t preceding section. in the 7ourt of <ppeals. in the same action( (.Section 2. intruding into. the 7ourt of <ppeals. or unlawfully holding or e ercising a public office. :hen the action is against a person for usurping a public office.

any part thereof or interest therein. although occupied by private individuals. -n an action brought in accordance with the provisions of this 6ule. the court may render judgment for costs against either the petitioner. nor to authori>e an action for damages in accordance with the provisions of the ne t preceding section unless the same be commenced within one (*) year after the entry of the judgment establishing the petitioner's right to the office in #uestion( (*5a) Section 12. he may file and serve a notice of appearance and a manifestation to that effect. describe the real or personal property sought to be e propriated. he shall be entitled to notice of all proceedings affecting the same( -f a defendant has any objection to the filing of or the allegations in the complaint. so far as practicable. or may apportion the costs. arose. and join as defendants all persons owning or claiming to own. @pon the filing of the complaint or at any time thereafter and after due notice to the defendant. he shall serve his answer within the time stated in the summons( The answer shall specifically designate or identify the property in which he claims to have an interest. the plaintiff shall have the right to ta!e or enter upon the possession of the real property involved if he deposits with the authori>ed government depositary an amount e#uivalent to the assessed value of the property for purposes of ta ation to be held by such ban! subject to the orders of the court( $uch deposit shall be in money. specifically designating or identifying the property in which he claims to be interested. showing. the relator. or the respondent. the separate interest of each defendant( -f the title to any property sought to be e propriated appears to be in the 6epublic of the "hilippines. averment to that effect shall be made in the complaint( (*a) Section 2. or occupying. as justice re#uires( (*. . 9othing contained in this 6ule shall be construed to authori>e an action against a public officer or employee for his ouster from office unless the same be commenced within one (*) year after the cause of such ouster. #ntry of plaintiff upon depositing value with authori3ed government depositary ( .a) RULE 67 E*propriation Section 1. -f a defendant has no objection or defense to the action or the ta!ing of his property.may be punished for contempt as having disobeyed a lawful order of the court( The person adjudged entitled to the office may also bring action against the respondent to recover the damages sustained by such person by reason of the usurpation( (*2a) Section 11. Judgment for costs( . !he complaint( . or any objection or defense to the ta!ing of his property. or the right of the petitioner to hold such office or position. within the time stated in the summons( Thereafter. &efenses and objections( . 6imitations( . unless in lieu thereof the court authori>es the deposit of a certificate of deposit of a government ban! of the 6epublic of the "hilippines payable on demand to the authori>ed government depositary( -f personal property is involved. or if the title is otherwise obscure or doubtful so that the plaintiff cannot with accuracy or certainty specify who are the real owners. The right of eminent domain shall be e ercised by the filing of a verified complaint which shall state with certainty the right and purpose of e propriation. or the person or persons claiming to be a corporation. its value shall be provisionally ascertained and the amount to be deposited shall be promptly fi ed by the court( <fter such deposit is made the court shall order the sheriff or other proper officer to forthwith place the plaintiff in possession of the property involved and promptly submit a report thereof to the court with service of copies to the parties( (+a) Section 3.

the court may issue an order of e propriation declaring that the plaintiff has a lawful right to ta!e the property sought to be e propriated. -f the objections to and the defenses against the right of the plaintiff to e propriate the property are overruled. cross1claim or third1party complaint shall be alleged or allowed in the answer or any subse#uent pleading( < defendant waives all defenses and objections not so alleged but the court. and adduce all his objections and defenses to the ta!ing of his property( 9o counterclaim. and the commissioners shall. The court may order the commissioners to report when any particular portion of the real estate shall have been passed upon by them. and such proceedings shall not be effectual until the court shall have accepted their . the plaintiff shall not be permitted to dismiss or discontinue the proceeding e cept on such terms as the court deems just and e#uitable( (?a) Section 5. for the public use or purpose described in the complaint. )efore entering upon the performance of their duties. and may from time to time so deal with such property( The commissioners shall ma!e a full and accurate report to the court of all their proceedings.state the nature and e tent of the interest claimed.) competent and disinterested persons as commissioners to ascertain and report to the court the just compensation for the property sought to be ta!en( The order of appointment shall designate the time and place of the first session of the hearing to be held by the commissioners and specify the time within which their report shall be submitted to the court( 7opies of the order shall be served on the parties( Objections to the appointment of any of the commissioners shall be filed with the court within ten (*/) days from service. and may measure the same. at the trial of the issue of just compensation whether or not a defendant has previously appeared or answered. or when no party appears to defend as re#uired by this 6ule. whichever came first( < final order sustaining the right to e propriate the property may be appealed by any party aggrieved thereby( $uch appeal. which oath shall be filed in court with the other proceedings in the case( 3vidence may be introduced by either party before the commissioners who are authori>ed to administer oaths on hearings before them. however. by himself or counsel. the court shall appoint not more than three (. 'rder of expropriation( . Ascertainment of compensation( . argue the case( The commissioners shall assess the conse#uential damages to the property not ta!en and deduct from such conse#uential damages the conse#uential benefits to be derived by the owner from the public use or purpose of the property ta!en. after which either party may. Proceedings by commissioners( . view and e amine the property sought to be e propriated and its surroundings. may permit amendments to the answer to be made not later than ten (*/) days from the filing thereof( However. in the interest of justice. Report by commissioners and judgment thereupon( . the operation of its franchise by the corporation or the carrying on of the business of the corporation or person ta!ing the property( )ut in no case shall the conse#uential benefits assessed e ceed the conse#uential damages assessed. upon the payment of just compensation to be determined as of the date of the ta!ing of the property or the filing of the complaint./) days after all the commissioners shall have received copies of the objections( (2a) Section 6. to attend. and he may share in the distribution of the award( (n) Section 4. or the owner be deprived of the actual value of his property so ta!en( (5a) Section 7. @pon the rendition of the order of e propriation. and shall be resolved within thirty (. the commissioners shall ta!e and subscribe an oath that they will faithfully perform their duties as commissioners. and direct the commissioners to proceed with their wor! as to subse#uent portions of the property sought to be e propriated. shall not prevent the court from determining the just compensation to be paid( <fter the rendition of such an order. and may render judgment upon such partial report. he may present evidence as to the amount of the compensation to be paid for his property. after due notice to the parties. unless the parties consent to the contrary.

@pon the e piration of the period of ten (*/) days referred to in the preceding section. which time may be e tended in the discretion of the court( @pon the filing of such report. by an ade#uate description. and to the defendant just compensation for the property so ta!en( (8a) Section 9. the court may order any sum or sums awarded as compensation for the property to be paid to the court for the benefit of the person adjudged in the same proceeding to be entitled thereto( )ut the judgment shall re#uire the payment of the sum or sums awarded to either the defendant or the court before the plaintiff can enter upon the property. the cler! of the court shall serve copies thereof on all interested parties.a) . Rights of plaintiff after judgment and payment ( . for cause shown. a certified copy of such judgment shall be recorded in the registry of deeds of the place in which the property is situated. Action upon commissioners' report( . the court may. or retain it for the public use or purpose if entry has already been made( (=a) Section 10. or decline to receive the amount tendered. and its effect( . e cept those of rival claimants litigating their claims. it may recommit the same to the commissioners for further report of facts. or after tender to him of the amount so fi ed and payment of the costs. and its effect shall be to vest in the plaintiff the title to the real estate so described for such public use or purpose( (*. or it may set aside the report and appoint new commissioners. after hearing. such report shall be filed within si ty (5/) days from the date the commissioners were notified of their appointment. with legal interest thereon from the ta!ing of the possession of the property. or even before the e piration of such period but after all the interested parties have filed their objections to the report or their statement of agreement therewith. effect of reversal( . or there are conflicting claims to any part thereof. The judgment entered in e propriation proceedings shall state definitely. Costs" by whom paid( . the plaintiff shall have the right to enter upon the property e propriated and to appropriate it for the public use or purpose defined in the judgment. 7ncertain ownership. and the nature of the public use or purpose for which it is e propriated( :hen real estate is e propriated. if they so desire( (. #ntry not delayed by appeal. @pon payment by the plaintiff to the defendant of the compensation fi ed by the judgment. The fees of the commissioners shall be ta ed as a part of the costs of the proceedings( <ll costs. -f the ownership of the property ta!en is uncertain. or to retain it should he have ta!en immediate possession thereof under the provisions of section + hereof( -f the defendant and his counsel absent themselves from the court. unless an appeal is ta!en by the owner of the property and the judgment is affirmed. the same shall be ordered to be deposited in court and such deposit shall have the same effect as actual payment thereof to the defendant or the person ultimately adjudged entitled thereto( (*/a) Section 11. in which event the costs of the appeal shall be paid by the owner( (*+a) Section 13. judgment shall be rendered ordering the 6egional Trial 7ourt to forthwith enforce the restoration to the defendant of the possession of the property. and to determine the damages which the defendant sustained and may recover by reason of the possession ta!en by the plaintiff( (**a) Section 12. conflicting claims( . The right of the plaintiff to enter upon the property of the defendant and appropriate the same for public use or purpose shall not be delayed by an appeal from the judgment( )ut if the appellate court determines that plaintiff has no right of e propriation.report and rendered judgment in accordance with their recommendations( 3 cept as otherwise e pressly ordered by the court. accept the report and render judgment in accordance therewith. with notice that they are allowed ten (*/) days within which to file objections to the findings of the report. Recording judgment. or it may accept the report in part and reject it in part and it may ma!e such order or render such judgment as shall secure to the plaintiff the property essential to the e ercise of his right of e propriation. shall be paid by the plaintiff.a) Section 8. or. the particular property or interest therein e propriated.

matter. The guardian or guardian ad litem of a minor or of a person judicially declared to be incompetent may. the court. the names and residences of the mortgagor and the mortgagee. and when confirmed by an order of the court. or to the person entitled to it( (?a) Section 5. -f upon the trial in such action the court shall find the facts set forth in the complaint to be true. fails to pay the amount of the judgment within the period specified therein. and afterwards . or if there be no such encumbrancers or there be a balance or residue after payment to them. Complaint in action for foreclosure( .a) Section 4. to be ascertained by the court. and shall render judgment for the sum so found due and order that the same be paid to the court or to the judgment obligee within a period of not less than ninety (=/) days nor more than one hundred twenty (*+/) days from the entry of judgment. :hen the defendant. shall be entitled to the possession of the property unless a third party is actually holding the same adversely to the judgment obligor( The said purchaser or last redemptioner may secure a writ of possession.Section 14. after paying off the mortgage debt due. which such minor or person judicially declared to be incompetent could do in such proceedings if he were of age or competent( (*?a) RULE 68 Foreclos!re o' Real Estate ort%a%e Section 1. be paid to the person foreclosing the mortgage. the sale shall terminate. the purchaser at the auction sale or last redemptioner. a statement of the date of the note or other documentary evidence of the obligation secured by the mortgage. the same shall be paid to junior encumbrancers in the order of their priority. with the approval of the court first had. from the court which ordered the foreclosure( (. and the names and residences of all persons having or claiming an interest in the property subordinate in right to that of the holder of the mortgage. the amount claimed to be unpaid thereon. upon motion. and when there shall be any balance or residue. effect( . the complaint shall set forth the date and due e ecution of the mortgage. subject to such rights of redemption as may be allowed by law( @pon the finality of the order of confirmation or upon the e piration of the period of redemption when allowed by law. -f the debt for which the mortgage or encumbrance was held is not all due as provided in the judgment as soon as a sufficient portion of the property has been sold to pay the total amount and the costs due.= and other regulations governing sales of real estate under e ecution( $uch sale shall not affect the rights of persons holding prior encumbrances upon the property or a part thereof. or thing respecting the e propriation for public use or purpose of property belonging to such minor or person judicially declared to be incompetent. including interest and other charges as approved by the court. Power of guardian in such proceedings( . and that in default of such payment the property shall be sold at public auction to satisfy the judgment( (+a) Section 3. upon motion. it shall ascertain the amount due to the plaintiff upon the mortgage debt or obligation. if any. shall order the property to be sold in the manner and under the provisions of 6ule . do and perform on behalf of his ward any act. How sale to proceed in case the debt is not all due ( . and costs. it shall operate to divest the rights in the property of all the parties to the action and to vest their rights in the purchaser. all of whom shall be made defendants in the action( (*a) Section 2. then to the mortgagor or his duly authori>ed agent. its assignments. Judgment on foreclosure for payment or sale( . The amount reali>ed from the foreclosure sale of the mortgaged property shall. also upon motion. after being directed to do so as provided in the ne t preceding section. &isposition of proceeds of sale( . a description of the mortgaged property. (ale of mortgaged property. if any. -n an action for the foreclosure of a mortgage or other encumbrance upon real estate. after deducting the costs of the sale.

which time shall be stated in the judgment( (5a) Section 7. -f after the trial the court finds that the plaintiff has the right thereto. upon which e ecution may issue immediately if the balance is all due at the time of the rendition of the judgment. Complaint in action for partition of real estate( . there being a rebate of interest where such rebate is proper( (2a) Section 6. shall render judgment against the defendant for any such balance for which.as often as more becomes due for principal or interest and other valid charges. and such partition. ma!e the partition among themselves by proper instruments of conveyance. and a new one issued in the name of the purchaser( :here a right of redemption e ists. order more to be sold( )ut if the property cannot be sold in portions without prejudice to the parties. the plaintiff shall be entitled to e ecution at such time as the balance remaining becomes due under the terms of the original contract. it shall order the partition of the real estate among all the parties in interest( Thereupon the parties may. the final deed of sale e ecuted by the sheriff in favor of the purchaser at the foreclosure sale shall be registered with the registry of deeds. the certificate of title in the name of the mortgagor shall be cancelled. &eficiency judgment( . and the entire debt and costs shall be paid. Registration( . < person having the right to compel the partition of real estate may do so as provided in this 6ule.? of 6ule . the deed of redemption shall be registered with the registry of deeds. but the certificate of sale and the order confirming the sale shall be registered and a brief memorandum thereof made by the registrar of deeds upon the certificate of title( -n the event the property is redeemed. . the court may. together with the order of the court confirming the same. upon motion. setting forth in his complaint the nature and e tent of his title and an ade#uate description of the real estate of which partition is demanded and joining as defendants all other persons interested in the property( (*a) Section 2. < certified copy of the final order of the court confirming the sale shall be registered in the registry of deeds( -f no right of redemption e ists.+ and . if they are able to agree. if the proceeds of the sale be sufficient therefor. shall be recorded in the registry of deeds of the place in which the property is situated( (+a) < final order decreeing partition and accounting may be appealed by any party aggrieved thereby( (n) . whereupon the certificate of title in the name of the mortgagor shall be cancelled and a new one issued in the name of the purchaser( (n) Section 8.= shall be applicable to the judicial foreclosure of real estate mortgages under this 6ule insofar as the former are not inconsistent with or may serve to supplement the provisions of the latter( (8a) RULE 69 &artition Section 1. the court. 'rder for partition and partition by agreement thereunder ( . The provisions of sections . the certificate of title in the name of the mortgagor shall not be cancelled. and a brief memorandum thereof shall be made by the registrar of deeds on said certificate of title( -f the property is not redeemed.*. he may be personally liable to the plaintiff. on motion. Applicability of other provisions( . otherwise. and the court shall confirm the partition so agreed upon by all the parties. -f upon the sale of any real property as provided in the ne t preceding section there be a balance due to the plaintiff after applying the proceeds of the sale. the whole shall be ordered to be sold in the first instance. by the record of the case.

or the sale of the same( @pon the filing of such report. and the judgment shall include an allowance for such rents and profits( (8a) Section 9. the commissioners shall view and e amine the real estate. @pon the e piration of the period of ten (*/) days referred to in the preceding section or even before the e piration of such period but after the interested parties have filed their objections to the report or their statement of agreement therewith the court may. the cler! of court shall serve copies thereof on all the interested parties with notice that they are allowed ten (*/) days within which to file objections to the findings of the report. for cause shown recommit the same to the commissioners for further report of facts. a party shall recover from another his just share of rents and profits received by such other party from the real estate in #uestion.) competent and disinterested persons as commissioners to ma!e the partition. the court shall appoint not more than three (. situation and #uality of the different parts thereof( (?a) Section 5. which the minor or person judicially declared to be incompetent could do in partition proceedings if he were of age or competent( (=a) Section 10. -f the parties are unable to agree upon the partition. having due regard to the improvements. having regard to the interests of the parties. unless one of the interested parties as!s that the property be sold instead of being so assigned. Accounting for rent and profits in action for partition ( .) Section 8. 'ath and duties of commissioners( . and shall hear the parties as to their preference in the portion of the property to be set apart to them and the comparative value thereof. or of its value. the commissioners shall ta!e and subscribe an oath that they will faithfully perform their duties as commissioners. in which case the court shall order the commissioners to sell the real estate at public sale under such conditions and within such time as the court may determine( (2a) Section 6. proceedings not binding until confirmed ( . The commissioners shall ma!e a full and accurate report to the court of all their proceedings as to the partition. cannot be divided without prejudice to the interests of the parties. :hen it is made to appear to the commissioners that the real state. provided he pays to the other parties such amount as the commissioners deem e#uitable. Report of commissioners. )efore ma!ing such partition. Action of the court upon commissioners report( . or accept the report in part and reject it in part. commanding them to set off to the plaintiff and to each party in interest such part and proportion of the property as the court shall direct( (. including the compensation of the commissioners. after due notice to the parties to attend at such view and e amination. which oath shall be filed in court with the other proceedings in the case( -n ma!ing the partition. or the assignment of real estate to one of the parties. with the approval of the court first had. The court shall e#uitably ta and apportion between or among the parties the costs and e penses which accrue in the action. and may ma!e such order and render such judgment as shall effectuate a fair and just partition of the real estate. if assigned or sold as above provided. accept the report and render judgment in accordance therewith. if they so desire( 9o proceeding had before or conducted by the commissioners and rendered judgment thereon( (5a) Section 7. upon hearing. or a portion thereof. Costs and expenses to be taxed and collected( . -n an action for partition in accordance with this 6ule. or thing respecting the partition of real estate. and e ecution may issue therefor as in other cases( (*/a) . or.Section 3. The guardian or guardian ad litem of a minor or person judicially declared to be incompetent may. do and perform on behalf of his ward any act. the court may order it assigned to one of the parties willing to ta!e the same. matter. between the several owners thereof( (. and shall set apart the same to the parties in lots or parcels as will be most advantageous and e#uitable.a) Section 4. or set aside the report and appoint new commissioners. Power of guardian in such proceedings( . Commissioners to ma)e partition when parties fail to agree ( . Assignment or sale of real estate by commissioners( .

Partition of personal property( . strategy. 6essor to proceed against lessee only after demand ( . or of both real and personal property. threat. vendee. vendor. The provisions of this 6ule shall apply to partitions of estates composed of personal property. 3 cept in cases covered by the agricultural tenancy laws or when the law otherwise e pressly provides. @nless otherwise stipulated. for the restitution of such possession. in so far as the same may be applicable( (*. (ummary procedure( . irrespective of the amount of damages or unpaid rentals sought to be recovered. or destroy the right or title of any person claiming the real estate involved by title under any other person. !he judgment and its effect. all actions for forcible entry and unlawful detainer. defeat. vendee. and the effect of the judgment shall be to vest in the party ma!ing the payment the whole of the real estate free from any interest on the part of the other parties to the action( -f the property is sold and the sale confirmed by the court. and the lessee fails to comply therewith after fifteen (*2) days in the case of land or five (2) days in the case of buildings( (+a) Section 3. or a lessor. or the legal representatives or assigns of any such lessor. or stealth.) RULE 70 Forci1le Entr0 an+ Unla)'!l 2etainer Section 1. vendor. may. and when( . or by serving written notice of such demand upon the person found on the premises if no person be found thereon. bring an action in the proper &unicipal Trial 7ourt against the person or persons unlawfully withholding or depriving of possession. the judgment shall state the fact of such payment and of the assignment of the real estate to the party ma!ing the payment. or other person. the particular portion of the real estate assigned to each party. together with damages and costs( (*a) Section 2. e press or implied. intimidation. shall be governed by the summary procedure hereunder provided( (n) . by virtue of any contract. or any person or persons claiming under them. or other person against whom the possession of any land or building is unlawfully withheld after the e piration or termination of the right to hold possession. the judgment shall state the name of the purchaser or purchasers and a definite description of the parcels of real estate sold to each purchaser. a person deprived of the possession of any land or building by force. $ubject to the provisions of the ne t succeeding section. -f actual partition of property is made. Neither paramount rights nor amicable partition affected by this Rule ( . the judgment shall state definitely. or by title paramount to the title of the parties among whom the partition may have been made. and the effect of the judgment shall be to vest in each party to the action in severalty the portion of the real estate assigned to him( -f the whole property is assigned to one of the parties upon his paying to the others the sum or sums ordered by the court. free from the claims of any of the parties to the action( < certified copy of the judgment shall in either case be recorded in the registry of deeds of the place in which the real estate is situated. such action by the lesser shall be commenced only after demand to pay or comply with the conditions of the lease and to vacate is made upon the lessee. copy to be recorded in registry of deeds( . and the effect of the judgment shall be to vest the real estate in the purchaser or purchasers ma!ing the payment or payments. by metes and bounds and ade#uate description. nor so as to restrict or prevent persons holding real estate jointly or in common from ma!ing an amicable partition thereof by agreement and suitable instruments of conveyance without recourse to an action( (*+a) Section 13. ho may institute proceedings.Section 11. and the e penses of such recording shall be ta ed as part of the costs of the action( (**a) Section 12. at any time within one (*) year after such unlawful deprivation or withholding of possession. 9othing in this 6ule contained shall be construed so as to prejudice.

+( The stipulations or admissions entered into by the parties. from an e amination of the allegations in the complaint and such evidence as may be attached thereto. without prejudice to the applicability of section . Action on complaint( . the court.. 6$") Section 5. Preliminary conference. the defendant shall file his answer to the complaint and serve a copy thereof on the plaintiff( <ffirmative and negative defenses not pleaded therein shall be deemed waived. 9ot later than thirty (. . and . 6$") Section 8. :ithin ten (*/) days from service of summons. and if so. Answers( . $hould the defendant fail to answer the complaint within the period above provided. it shall forthwith issue summons( (n) Section 6. The court may. including but not limited to0 *( :hether the parties have arrived at an amicable settlement. shall render judgment as may be warranted by the facts alleged in the complaint and limited to what is prayed for therein( The court may in its discretion reduce the amount of damages and attorney's fees claimed for being e cessive or otherwise unconscionable. the court shall issue an order stating the matters ta!en up therein. a preliminary conference shall be held( The provisions of 6ule *8 on pre1trial shall be applicable to the preliminary conference unless inconsistent with the provisions of this 6ule( The failure of the plaintiff to appear in the preliminary conference shall be cause for the dismissal of his complaint( The defendant who appears in the absence of the plaintiff shall be entitled to judgment on his counterclaim in accordance with the ne t preceding section( <ll cross1claims shall be dismissed( (./) days after the last answer is filed.( :hether. the terms thereof.Section 4. e cept lac! of jurisdiction over the subject matter( 7ross1claims and compulsory counterclaims not asserted in the answer shall be considered barred( The answer to counterclaims or cross1claims shall be served and filed within ten (*/) days from service of the answer in which they are pleaded( (2 6$") Section 7. 6$") -f a sole defendant shall fail to appear. motu proprio or on motion of the plaintiff. judgment may be rendered without the need of further proceedings. 6ule = if there are two or more defendants( (5. dismiss the case outright on any of the grounds for the dismissal of a civil action which are apparent therein( -f no ground for dismissal is found. ?( < clear specification of material facts which remain converted. the plaintiff shall li!ewise be entitled to judgment in accordance with the ne t preceding section( This procedure shall not apply where one of two or more defendants sued under a common cause of action defense shall appear at the preliminary conference( 9o postponement of the preliminary conference shall be granted e cept for highly meritorious grounds and without prejudice to such sanctions as the court in the e ercise of sound discretion may impose on the movant( (n) Section 9./) days from issuance of the order. compulsory counterclaim and cross1claim pleaded in the answer. on the basis of the pleadings and the stipulations and admission made by the parties. (c). Pleadings allowed( . :ithin five (2) days after the termination of the preliminary conference.a. The only pleadings allowed to be filed are the complaint. Record of preliminary conference( . in which event the judgment shall be rendered within thirty (. appearance of parties( . and the answers thereto( <ll pleadings shall be verified( (. #ffect of failure to answer( .

8( &otion to declare the defendant in default. The following petitions. or failure to comply with section *+. *+( -nterventions( (*=a.( "etition for certiorari. or for reopening of trial. 7ases re#uiring referral for conciliation. 6$") Section 11. the court shall render judgment( However. . during the said period. 5( &emoranda. */( 6eply. Referral for conciliation( . Period for rendition of judgment( . :ithin thirty (. . the parties shall submit the affidavits of their witnesses and other evidence on the factual issues defined in the order. 6$") Section 13. **( Third1party complaints. affidavits or any other paper. +( &otion for a bill of particulars. shall be dismissed without prejudice. mandamus. :ithin ten (*/) days from receipt of the order mentioned in the ne t preceding section. ?( "etition for relief from judgment. =( Ailatory motions for postponement. and re#uire the parties to submit affidavits or other evidence on the said matters within ten (*/) days from receipt of said order( Cudgment shall be rendered within fifteen (*2) days after the receipt of the last affidavit or the e piration of the period for filing the same( The court shall not resort to the foregoing procedure just to gain time for the rendition of the judgment( (n) Section 12. 2( &otion for e tension of time to file pleadings. Prohibited pleadings and motions( . where there is no showing of compliance with such re#uirement. or pleadings shall not be allowed0 *( &otion to dismiss the complaint e cept on the ground of lac! of jurisdiction over the subject matter. or the e piration of the period for filing the same. issue an order specifying the matters to be clarified. 6$") . motions. or for reconsideration of a judgment.2( $uch other matters intended to e pedite the disposition of the case( (8. (ubmission of affidavits and position papers( . 6$") Section 10.( &otion for new trial. or prohibition against any interlocutory order issued by the court./) days after receipt of the affidavits and position papers. and may be revived only after that re#uirement shall have been complied with( (*8a. together with their position papers setting forth the law and the facts relied upon by them( (=. should the court find it necessary to clarify certain material facts.

and unless. or for justifiable reasons. he shall deposit with the 6egional Trial 7ourt the reasonable value of the use and occupation of the premises for the preceding month or period at the rate determined by the judgment of the lower court on or before the tenth day of each succeeding month or period( The supersedeas bond shall be transmitted by the &unicipal Trial 7ourt. Judgment conclusive only on possession./) days from the filing thereof( (. in accordance with the provisions of 6ule 28 hereof. it shall render judgment in favor of the plaintiff for the restitution of the premises. -f judgment is rendered against the defendant. to prevent the defendant from committing further acts of dispossession against the plaintiff( < possessor deprived of his possession through forcible from the filing of the complaint. and shall be cause to e punge the inadmissible affidavit or portion thereof from the record( (+/. damages. Affidavits( . by agreement of the interested parties. during the pendency of the appeal. shall decree otherwise( $hould the defendant fail to ma!e the payments above prescribed from time to time during the pendency of the appeal.Section 14. present a motion in the action for forcible entry or unlawful detainer for the issuance of a writ of preliminary mandatory injunction to restore him in his possession( The court shall decide the motion within thirty (. the issue of ownership shall be resolved only to determine the issue of possession( (?a) Section 17. the appellate court. attorney's fees and costs( -f a counterclaim is established. the sum justly due as arrears of rent or as reasonable compensation for the use and occupation of the premises. -f after trial court finds that the allegations of the complaint are true. and shall be held there until the final disposition of the appeal. unless the court. he deposits with the appellate court the amount of rent due from time to time under the contract. as determined by the judgment of the &unicipal Trial 7ourt( -n the absence of a contract. e ecution shall issue immediately upon motion unless an appeal has been perfected and the defendant to stay e ecution files a sufficient supersedeas bond. The affidavits re#uired to be submitted under this 6ule shall state only facts of direct personal !nowledge of the affiants which are admissible in evidence. Resolving defense of ownership( . 4mmediate execution of judgment. not conclusive in actions involving title or ownership( .a) Section 16. . 6$") Section 15. Preliminary injunction( . :hen the defendant raises the defense of ownership in his pleadings and the #uestion of possession cannot be resolved without deciding the issue of ownership. approved by the &unicipal Trial 7ourt and e ecuted in favor of the plaintiff to pay the rents. to the cler! of the 6egional Trial 7ourt to which the action is appealed( <ll amounts so paid to the appellate court shall be deposited with said court or authori>ed government depositary ban!. or in the absence of reasonable grounds of opposition to a motion to withdraw.a) Section 19. Judgment( . the court shall render judgment for the sum found in arrears from either party and award costs as justice re#uires( (5a) Section 18. and costs accruing down to the time of the judgment appealed from. how to stay same( . with the papers. The judgment rendered in an action for forcible entry or detainer shall be conclusive with respect to the possession only and shall in no wise bind the title or affect the ownership of the land or building( $uch judgment shall not bar an action between the same parties respecting title to the land or building( The judgment or final order shall be appealable to the appropriate 6egional Trial 7ourt which shall decide the same on the basis of the entire record of the proceedings had in the court of origin and such memoranda andDor briefs as may be submitted by the parties or re#uired by the 6egional Trial 7ourt( (. and shall show their competence to testify to the matters stated therein( < violation of this re#uirement may subject the party or the counsel who submits the same to disciplinary action. if any. The court may grant preliminary injunction.

(b) Aisobedience of or resistance to a lawful writ. process. or to subscribe an affidavit or deposition when lawfully re#uired to do so. (a) &isbehavior of an officer of a court in the performance of his official duties or in his official transactions.upon motion of the plaintiff. may be summarily adjudged in contempt by such court and punished by a fine not e ceeding two thousand pesos or imprisonment not e ceeding ten (*/) days. 4mmediate execution on appeal to Court of Appeals or (upreme Court ( . including disrespect toward the court. without prejudice to a further appeal that may be ta!en therefrom( (*/a) RULE 71 #ontempt Section 1. but such e ecution shall not be a bar to the appeal ta!ing its course until the final disposition thereof on the merits( <fter the case is decided by the 6egional Trial 7ourt. and an opportunity given to the respondent to comment thereon within such period as may be fi ed by the court and to be heard by himself or counsel. the latter may issue a writ of preliminary mandatory injunction to restore the plaintiff in possession if the court is satisfied that the defendant's appeal is frivolous or dilatory or that the appeal of the plaintiff is prima facie meritorious( (=a) Section 21. or by a fine not e ceeding two hundred pesos or imprisonment not e ceeding one (*) day. any money paid to the court by the defendant for purposes of the stay of e ecution shall be disposed of in accordance with the provisions of the judgment of the 6egional Trial 7ourt( -n any case wherein it appears that the defendant has been deprived of the lawful possession of land or building pending the appeal by virtue of the e ecution of the judgment of the &unicipal Trial 7ourt. if it be a 6egional Trial 7ourt or a court of e#uivalent or higher ran!. within ten (*/) days from the perfection of the appeal to the 6egional Trial 7ourt. or judgment of a court. order. The judgment of the 6egional Trial 7ourt against the defendant shall be immediately e ecutory. Preliminary mandatory injunction in case of appeal( . a person guilty of any of the following acts may be punished for indirect contempt. damages for such deprivation of possession and restoration of possession and restoration of possession may be allowed the defendant in the judgment of the 6egional Trial 7ourt disposing of the appeal( (8a) Section 20. including the act of a person who. and upon proof of such failure. The person adjudged in direct contempt by any court may not appeal therefrom. or both. 4ndirect contempt to be punished after charge and hearing ( . or both. offensive personalities toward others. Remedy therefrom( . enters or attempts or induces another . <fter a charge in writing has been filed. or refusal to be sworn or to answer as a witness. @pon motion of the plaintiff. after being dispossessed or ejected from any real property by the judgment or process of any court of competent jurisdiction. provided such person files a bond fi ed by the court which rendered the judgment and conditioned that he will abide by and perform the judgment should the petition be decided against him( (+a) Section 3. but may avail himself of the remedies of certiorari or prohibition( The e ecution of the judgment shall be suspended pending resolution of such petition. &irect contempt punished summarily ( . if it be a lower court( (*a) Section 2. < person guilty of misbehavior in the presence of or so near a court as to obstruct or interrupt the proceedings before the same. shall order the e ecution of the judgment appealed from with respect to the restoration of possession.

here charge to be filed( . How proceedings commenced( . to impede. for the purpose of e ecuting acts of ownership or possession. he may be punished by a fine not e ceeding five thousand pesos or imprisonment not e ceeding one (*) month. charges for indirect contempt shall be commenced by a verified petition with supporting particulars and certified true copies of documents or papers involved therein. in an amount fi ed by the court. unless the court in its discretion orders the consolidation of the contempt charge and the principal action for joint hearing and decision( (n) Section 5. or both( -f the contempt consists in the violation of a writ of injunction. (f) 4ailure to obey a subpoena duly served. temporary restraining order or status $uo order. he may also be ordered to ma!e complete restitution to the party injured by such violation of the property involved or such amount as may be alleged and proved( . or in any manner disturbs the possession given to the person adjudged to be entitled thereto. (c) <ny abuse of or any unlawful interference with the processes or proceedings of a court not constituting direct contempt under section * of this 6ule. testimony or defense as the respondent may ma!e or offer( (2a) Section 7. the court shall proceed to investigate the charge and consider such comment. or degrade the administration of justice. the respondent may be released from custody upon filing a bond.. release on bail( . he may be punished by a fine not e ceeding thirty thousand pesos or imprisonment not e ceeding si (5) months. heard and decided separately. Hearing. for his appearance at the hearing of the charge( On the day set therefor. :here the charge for indirect contempt has been committed against a 6egional Trial 7ourt or a court of e#uivalent or higher ran!. or against an officer appointed by it. and acting as such without authority. directly or indirectly.to enter into or upon such real property. and upon full compliance with the re#uirements for filing initiatory pleadings for civil actions in the court concerned( -f the contempt charges arose out of or are related to a principal action pending in the court. +* Culy *==8) Section 6. or from holding him in custody pending such proceedings( (. but the proceedings may also be instituted in such lower court subject to appeal to the 6egional Trial 7ourt of such place in the same manner as provided in section ** of this 6ule( (?a. Punishment for indirect contempt ( . (e) <ssuming to be an attorney or an officer of a court. the charge may be filed with such court( :here such contempt has been committed against a lower court. obstruct. -f the hearing is not ordered to be had forthwith. (g) The rescue. -f the respondent is adjudged guilty of indirect contempt committed against a 6egional Trial 7ourt or a court of e#uivalent or higher ran!. "roceedings for indirect contempt may be initiated motu propio by the court against which the contempt was committed by an order or any other formal charge re#uiring the respondent to show cause why he should not be punished for contempt( -n all other cases. )ar &atter 9o( 8/. or both( -f he is adjudged guilty of contempt committed against a lower court.a) Section 4. the charge may be filed with the 6egional Trial 7ourt of the place in which the lower court is sitting. of a person or property in the custody of an officer by virtue of an order or process of a court held by him( )ut nothing in this section shall be so construed as to prevent the court from issuing process to bring the respondent into court. or attempted rescue. the petition for contempt shall allege that fact but said petition shall be doc!eted. (d) <ny improper conduct tending.

he may be imprisoned by order of the court concerned until he performs it( (. with the costs of the proceedings. or both. in an amount fi ed by the court from which the appeal is ta!en. and. :hen a respondent released on bail fails to appear on the day fi ed for the hearing. Review of judgment or final order. the measure of damages shall be the e tent of the loss or injury sustained by the aggrieved party by reason of the misconduct for which the contempt charge was prosecuted. Proceeding when party released on bail fails to answer( . 4mprisonment until order obeyed( . the court may issue another order of arrest or may order the bond for his appearance to be forfeited and confiscated. if the bond be proceeded against. conditioned that if the appeal be decided against him he will abide by and perform the judgment or final order( (*/a) Section 12. The judgment or final order of a court in a case of indirect contempt may be appealed to the proper court as in criminal cases( )ut e ecution of the judgment or final order shall not be suspended until a bond is filed by the person adjudged in contempt. Contempt against $uasi2judicial entities( . The court which issued the order imprisoning a person for contempt may discharge him from imprisonment when it appears that public interest will not be prejudiced by his release( (=a) Section 11. Court may release respondent( .The writ of e ecution. as in ordinary civil actions. :hen the contempt consists in the refusal or omission to do an act which is yet in the power of the respondent to perform. or shall have suppletory effect to such rules as they may have adopted pursuant to authority granted to them by law to punish for contempt( The 6egional Trial 7ourt of the place wherein the contempt has been committed shall have jurisdiction over such charges as may be filed therefor( (n) . @nless otherwise provided by law. the bond shall be liable and disposed of as in criminal cases( (8a) Section 10.a) Section 9. shall issue for the enforcement of a judgment imposing a fine unless the court otherwise provides( (5a) Section 8. bond for stay( . this 6ule shall apply to contempt committed against persons. and such recovery shall be for the benefit of the party injured( -f there is no aggrieved party. entities. bodies or agencies e ercising #uasi1judicial functions.

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