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Introduction-Definition, Basic Approach, TQM framework, Historical Review, Benefits of TQM. NOTES By:

S.B. MALLUR, Mechanical Engineering Dept, STJ Institute of Technology, Ranebennur- 581 115,

If you are planning for ONE year, grow rice If you are planning for TEN years, grow trees If you are planning for HUNDRED years, EDUCATE your children- Confucius There is a direct relationship between quality and sales, quality and productivity, quality and profit, quality and competitive position. Good quality will lead to good things, such as increased profits, improved productivity, lower cost, and loyal customers. Quality is the responsibility of management. Charles H. Schmauch

The purpose of this chapter is to present software quality as an integrated concept that includes Usability, Features, and reliability. Figure 10.1 depicts the concept of software quality as three vertices of a triangle. This figure also shows the relationship between the quality triangle and the Project control triangle presented in Figure 2.11. On one vertex of the software quality triangle is Usability; on a second is conformance to Features; and on the third is reliability. Although it is possible for a SoftwareProduct to have one or even two without the other, software quality requires all three. To that end, Roche stresses that software quality is the degree to which software has the desired system [Roche94]. combination of attributes required of that

Definition of Quality
Quality is not an art, it is a habit Aristotle 1 Quality is a company-wide process 2 Quality is what the customer says it is 3 Quality and cost are a sum, not a difference 4 Quality requires both individual and team zealotry 5 Quality is a way of managing 6 Quality and innovation are mutually dependent 7 Quality is an ethic 8 Quality requires continuous improvement 9 Quality is the most cost-effective, least capital-intensive route to productivity 10 Quality is implemented with a total system connected with customers and suppliers Early definitions of quality include fitness for use and conformance to requirements. More recently, Vallabhaneni defines software quality in terms of Features the software must exhibit including: 1. Satisfy a broad spectrum of user requirements, 2. Has few errors, 3. Functions efficiently, 4. Operates easily to, and Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 1

5. Has good user documentation [Vallabhaneni90]. Quality is an attribute of a product or service that fulfills or exceeds the human expectations. These expectations are based on the intended use and selling / service price. It is somewhat of an intangible based on perception. That is why quality is a relative term and each person has his or her own definition. As per ISO 9000:2000: Quality means The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements. Here, Degree quality such as poor, good, and excellent Inherent Permanent attribute Requirement need based or expectation. According to the oxford dictionary for the business world, quality is defined as the degree of excellence. Quality means a totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs. In some references, Quality is referred to as "fitness for use", "fitness for purpose", "customer satisfaction", or "conformance to the requirements." Definition of Quality by quality gurues: Quality Guru, J.M.Juran defined quality as: Fitness for use / Purpose Quality Guru Philip Crosby defined quality as: Conformance to specifications Quality guru Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa defined quality as: Most economical, useful and always satisfactory to the customer / audience. Eminent Japanese Scientist Armand V.Feigenbaum defined: Quality is the total composite of product and services characteristics of marketing, engineering, manufacturing and maintenance through which the product and service in use will meet the expectations of the customer. Therefore, from its definitions we can assume what QUALITY stands for: Q Quest for excellence U Understanding customers Needs A Action to achieve Customers appreciation L Leadership determination to be a leader I Involving all People T Team spirit to work for common goal and Y Yardstick to measure Progress The dictionary has many definitions of quality. A short definition that has achieved acceptance is: Quality is Customer Satisfaction. Fitness for use is an alternative short definition. Here, customer means anyone who is impacted by the product or process. Quality is a predictable degree of uniformity and dependability, at low cost and suited to the market. Quality is a relative term, generally used with reference to the end-use of a product. Quality should be aimed at the needs of the consumer, present and future. According to ISO 8402, quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. However, there is an international definition of quality: Totality of characteristics of an entity that bears on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs (BS EN ISO 8402, 1995) Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 2

Now, Quality can be quantified as follows: Q=P/E Where, Q = Quality, P = Performance and E = Expectations. If Q is greater than 1.0 then the customer has a good feeling about the product or service.Broadly quality is: a) Fitness for use b) Grade c) Degree of preference d) Degree of excellence e) Conformity to requirements To achieve satisfactory quality we must concern all stages of the product or service cycle. In the first stage quality is due to a definition of needs. In the second stage it is due to product design and conformance. In the last stage quality is due to product support throughout its lifetime. There are two major aspects of quality: quality of design and quality of conformance. Quality of design involves the variations of a product or services in grades or levels of quality. This includes the types of materials used in construction, tolerance in manufacturing, reliability, etc. Quality of conformance concerns how well the product conforms to the specifications and tolerances required by the design. Quality of conformance is influenced by the choices of manufacturing processes, training and supervision of the workforce, the type of quality-assurance system used, and the motivation of the workforce to achieve quality. Quality can be interpreted as Customers expressed and implied requirements are met fully. This is a core statement from which some eminent definitions of quality have derived. Some of the definitions are: the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to meet a stated or implied need (ISO standards of 1994), fitness for use (Juran and Gryna, 1998), and conformance to requirement (Crosby, 1979). It is important to note that satisfying the customers needs and expectations is the main idea behind these definitions. Therefore it is imperative for a company to identify such needs early in the product/service development cycle. The ability to define accurately the needs related to design, performance, price, safety, delivery, and other business activities and processes will place a firm ahead of its competitors in the market. In 1992 Crosby broadened his definition for quality by adding an integrated notion to it: Quality meaning getting everyone to do what they have agreed to do and to do it right the first time is the skeletal structure of an organisation, finance is the nourishment, and relationships are the soul. Some Japanese companies find that conformance to a standard reflects too narrowly to the actual meaning of quality and consequently have started to use a newer definition of quality as providing extraordinary customer satisfaction. EVOLUTION OF QUALITY The requirement for Quality Control dates back to the time when human race wanted to replicate an object. The desire to control quality is as old as humans ability to produce things the forerunning attempts to control quality resulted in rather crude replicas of original objects. These replicas were produced in a way that could easily be discerned by the necked eye. As time passed, humans developed the competence to duplicate objects so that they become indistinguishable from one another. The drawback for this was that the assembly with any alternation or adjustment was not possible. Eli Whitney conceived the idea of perfect interchangeability of parts. He emphasized that if proper raw material, methods and equipment are used and if workmen exercised the right amount of Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 3

course, items can be produced somewhat in an identical manner. In 1799, he contracted to supply rifles to the army. Mr. Whitney was partially successful in getting each workman to make one part of the exact specification he could still do only selective assembly. But did establish the fact that production time can be reduced. Perhaps this was the germs of man production. It was not until the early 1800s that man began to realize the necessity of tolerance in parts. The interchangeability in industrial activity resulted in many problems on measurements. A Swedish engineer named Johansson conceived the idea of a hard metal block that could be machined and polished to exact dimension, which can be used as points of reference. These blocks were referred to as Jo blocks. In the middle of the 17 century, Pascal, the French philosopher and mathematician become quite talker by the games of chance. He formulated that theory of probability in association with Pierre Fermat. During the 1800s, considerable progress was made in the development of the sampling theory. Modern quality control or statistical quality control (SQC) as we know it today started with invention of quality control chart by Walter A Shewhart of Bell Telephone Labs, USA in 1930s. Dr. Shewhart proposed the statistical methods could be effectively used for examining whether the items produced by any process were of uniform quality or not. The real impetus for the application of these methods on a massive scale resulted from the economic pressure for more efficient utilization of equipment and resources during World War II Dr. Shewhart wrote a book economic control of quality of manufactured products, which was published in 1931. The objective explicitly put-forth in the title was Economic Control. The influence of the US military services on the adoption of sampling acceptance techniques was well established. World War II was the catalyst that made the control charts applicable in the US. By applying quality control, the US was able to produce military requirements inexpensively and in high volumes. The wartime standards published in those days was known as Z1 standards.

Importance of Quality:
Good quality of goods and services can provide an organization with competitive edge. Good quality reduces costs due to product returns, rework and scrap. Good quality increases productivity, profits and other measures of success such as brand image, product image and company goodwill. Most importantly, good quality generates satisfied customers today and tomorrow. Good quality creates an atmosphere for high employee morale, which improves productivity.

Dimensions of Quality:
Quality has different dimensions; these dimensions are somewhat Independence. Therefore a product can be excellent in one dimension and average or poor in another. Very few, if any, products excel in all dimensions now- a -days. In his Book - Managing quality: The strategic and competitive edge (1988), David A.Garvin has developed a list of nine dimensions of product quality: 1. Conformance: Meeting the specifications of the customer or Industry standards, workmanship. 2. Performance: Primary product functions such as clarity of voice received in Mobile phone, Radio. 3. Features: Added functions (secondary functions) to a product such as recording system in a television set. 4. Durability: Lifetime of the products, which include repairs.


5. Reliability: The probability of a product performing its intended duty under stated conditions without failure for a given period of time. 6. Serviceability: speed, courtesy, competence and ease of repair 7. Reputation: Customers perception about the product which can be understood from a market research survey. 8. Aesthetics: The external finish given to a product to attract the customer. 9. Response: Human to Human interface, such as the courtesy of the dealer These dimensions were proposed to facilitate strategic quality analysis by breaking down the word quality into manageable parts so that the management can define the quality niches in which to complete. Dimensions of Quality: The following are the components reveal the dimensions of quality. Manufacturing Industries Service Industries Product Features Accuracy Performance Timeliness Reliability Completeness Durability Friendliness and courtesy Ease of use Anticipating customer needs Serviceability Knowledge of server Esthetics Esthetics Availability Reputation Reputation

Factors Affecting Quality

(1) Men, Materials and Machines (2) Manufacturing conditions (3) Market research in demand of purchases (4) Money in capability to invest (5) Management policy for quality level (6) Production methods and product design (7) Packing and transportation (8) After sales service

Quality Planning:
Quality planning is the pre determined activities in order to achieve conformation to the requirements. Many organizations are finding that strategic quality plans and business plans are inseparable. The quality planning procedure given by Joseph.A.Juran has the following steps: Identify the customers Determine their needs Translate those needs into our language. Develop a product that can respond to those needs Optimize the product features to meet our and customer needs

Customer perception of quality

Before 1988 Performance, Prize and service After 1989 Performance, service and prize ASQ American Society for Quality 1. Performance availability (ready for use), reliability (free from failure), maintainability Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 5

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Features psychological and technical. Added feature along with main usage Service intangible, made up of many small things Warranty Vs guarantee. Customer feels comfortable with this Price value for money, ready to pay at the same time comparative study to be done Reputation Branding merges with quality. Good exp reaches 6 bad reaches 15

QC - Quality Control
Quality control (QC) is a new way of thinking about and viewing management of product/service quality. In the JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards) terminology standard Z8101-1981, QC has been defined as: "a system of methods for the cost-effective provision of goods or services whose quality is fit for the purchaser's requirement". Kaoru Ishikawa, a leading Japanese expert in QC, views QC as: "Quality control consists of developing, designing, producing, marketing, and servicing products and services with optimum cost-effectiveness and usefulness, which customers will purchase with satisfaction". The effective implementation of quality control requires the participation and cooperation of all the employees of a company from top management through middle management and supervisors down to ordinary workers at every stage of the company's activities, from market research through research and development, product planning, design, production preparation, purchasing and subcontracting, production, inspection, sales, and after-sales service, as well as in the financial, personnel, and education functions. Quality control carried out in this way is known as total quality control (TQC). Controlling quality does not simply mean studying statistics or preparing control charts. Real quality control can only be achieved by marshaling all of a company's strengths.

Quality Control (QC) is a system of routine technical activities, to measure and control the quality of the inventory as it is being developed. The QC system is designed to: (i) Provide routine and consistent checks to ensure data integrity, correctness, and completeness; (ii) Identify and address errors and omissions; (iii) Document and archive inventory material and record all QC activities. QC activities include general methods such as accuracy checks on data acquisition and calculations and the use of approved standardized procedures for emission calculations, measurements, estimating uncertainties, archiving information and reporting. Higher tier QC activities include technical reviews of source categories, activity and emission factor data, and methods. Quality Assurance (QA) activities include a planned system of review procedures conducted by personnel not directly involved in the inventory compilation/development process. Reviews, preferably by independent third parties, should be performed upon a finalized inventory following the implementation of QC procedures. Reviews verify that data quality objectives were met, ensure that the inventory represents the best possible estimates of emissions and sinks given the current state of scientific knowledge and data available, and support the effectiveness of the QC programme.


TQC - Total Quality Control

Total Quality Control (TQC) is based on the principle that as quality improves, productivity improves and costs are reduced. The implementation of TQC includes several steps - determining what the company wants to improve; analyzing the situation and composing a statement of the problem to be addressed; analyzing the problem; developing measure to address the problem; tracking results; standardizing processes that effectively solved the problem; and making continuing plans for quality improvement. The successful implementation of the TQC strategy depends on several factors that have to be considered by the companies. These factors are as follows - actions must be guided by principles of continuous quality improvement; decisions must be based on facts, data, and statistical information; organization members must be dedicated to serving extended customers; quality progress must be measured against valid customer requirements; and teamwork must be rewarded. The positive impact of the TQC strategy arrives from the fact that this is a management tool which is looking not only at the quality of the product but of every single system in the company. The TQC concept affects positively inventory through reducing rework and scrap and moving products through the plant more quickly. The mastering of the TQC management strategy also increases facility's productivity, reduces costs, increases market share, and enhances the overall profits of the company.

TQM - Total Quality Management

TQM is not a project. It is the establishment of systems that assure a continuous improvement. TQM is not a single individual initiative. It is a collective effort towards achievements. TQM is not rehabilitation. It is a way of living that the entire team accepts. TQM is not a remedial procedure for better products. It is a march towards excellence and perfection. TQM is not a traditional approach. It is unorthodox and innovative. TQM is not just developing quality. It is an assurance of continuous improvement of quality. TQM is not achieved through inspectors and supervisors. It is achieved through experimenters and innovators. TQM is not an inventory of material resources. It is concerned with human resource. TQM is not about product perfection alone. It is about customer satisfaction as an objective in itself. TQM is not a simple learning. It is a system of measuring one performance with regard to the proclaimed mission. Quality products and quality service begin with quality thinking. Quality, not quantity, is the measure. Well done is better than well said. Quality standards are contiguous..... Spread them through the organization. Excellence is to do common thing in an uncommon way. Quality levels must not only be attained, but also maintained, if you dont keep doing it better, your competition will. People forget how fast you did a job, but they remember how well you did it. When youre out of quality your are out of business. Continuity is quality.


INTRODUCTION The concept of Total Quality Management (TQM) was introduced in the 1920s when the statistical approach was first used in quality control in the factories in America. This concept was later introduced to the corporate managers in Japan in the 1950s, at a time when the country was gearing itself towards, industrial development. This concept received a further impetus in the 1980s with the increasing awareness worldwide on the importance of quality. These changes have directly affected the views and attitudes of managers in the public and private sectors on quality management. They have realized that the traditional philosophies and approaches in quality management could no longer guarantee the production of outputs that conform to the requirements of their customers. As a result of this, attention was shifted towards TQM which could assist them in achieving excellence. The application of TQM not only benefits the customers in that they receive quality products but also benefits the organization in terms of cost savings and enhanced operational efficiency. This is the key to the success of an organization.

Definition of TQM:
TOTAL Everyone and everything that we do QUALITY Giving the customer what they expect all the time MANAGEMENT The way we act and operate our policies and procedures, and our training and instruction to all of our employees Total Quality Management is a management approach that tries to achieve and sustain long term organizational success by encouraging employee feedback and participation, satisfying customer needs and expectations, respecting societal values and beliefs, and obeying governmental statutes and regulations. Total Quality Management (TQM) is an enhancement to the traditional way of doing business. It is a proven technique to guarantee survival in world-class competition. Only by changing the actions of management will the culture and actions of an entire organization be transformed. TQM is for the most part common sense. Analyzing these words. Quality management is all activity of the overall management function that determine the quality policy, objectives and responsibilities within the quality system (ISO 9001) TQM is a philosophy advocating four basic principles (i) intense focus on customer satisfaction, (ii) accurate measurement of activities, (iii) continuous improvement of products and processes, and (iv) empowerment of people. (Noori & Radford, 1995) TQM is a management philosophy that builds a customer driven, learning organization dedicated to total customer satisfaction through continuous improvement in the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization and its processes. (Corrigan, 1995) TQM is a system of management that gauges a companys dedication to consistent improvement and a sincere effort to serve its customers with what they expect all the time. It is a philosophy of management to achieve greater productivity and a total awareness of quality as an increasingly important element in competitiveness (Gould, 1992).


Various definitions of total quality management

Year 1985 Author(s) Ishikawa Definition TQM as a total system approach, and an integral part of high level strategy which works horizontally across functions and departments, involving all employees, top to bottom, and extends backwards and forwards to include the supply chain and the customer chain. Oakland TQM is an approach to improve competitiveness, efficiency and flexibility for a whole organization, Milakovich TQM is a total organizational approach for meeting customer needs and expectations that involves all managers and employees in using quantitative methods to improve continuously the organizations processes, products and services. Hunt TQM is not a destination, but a journey toward improvement Hutchins TQM is pure pragmatism Ross defined TQM as an integrated management philosophy and set of practices that emphasizes, among other things, continuous improvement, meeting customers requirements, reducing rework, long-range thinking, increased employee involvement and teamwork, process redesign, competitive benchmarking, team-based problem solving, constant measuring of results, and closer relationships with suppliers. Oakland States that TQM is an attempt to improve the whole organizations competitiveness, effectiveness, and structure. Dean and Defined quality management as approach to management comprising Bomen mutually supported principles, where each of them is supported by a set of practices and techniques. Corrigan, TQM is a management philosophy that builds a customer driven, learning organization dedicated to total customer satisfaction through continuous improvement in the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization and its processes. Pike and Argue that organizations are not only technical systems, but also human Barnes systems. Dahlgaard TQM is a corporate culture that is characterized by increased customer et al. satisfaction through continuous improvement, involving all employees in the organization. Dale TQM is the mutual co-operation of everyone in an organization and associated business processes to produce products and services, which meet and, hopefully, exceed the needs and expectations of customers. TQM is both a philosophy and a set of management guiding principles for Managing an organization. Feigenbaum TQM is a management approach that encourages everyone in the organization to focus exclusively upon serving the customer. Khurram TQM is a management philosophy that seeks to integrate all organizational Hashmi functions (marketing, finance, design, engineering, and production, customer service, etc.) to focus on meeting customer needs and organizational objectives. Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 9

1989 1990

1991 1992 1993

1993 1994


1996 1999


2001 2007

TQM is a continuous process that involves the whole organization and is customer-driven. This process is aimed at creating a culture of excellence in any organization. Hence, TQM can be seen as a process of culture transformation through which the existing elements of the culture are modified, replaced or strengthened with better elements. These elements encompass values and attitudes, systems and procedures, operational practices organization structure and so forth. TQM aims, ultimately, to enable organizations to achieve total quality in all its operational aspects. Hence quality does not only mean the production of quality products and services but also encompasses all operations and activities pertaining to an organization. At this stage, quality will be reflected in many ways in an organization such as effectiveness of management, ability of the employees, efficiency of the operational systems and so forth. The concept of total quality is explained in Figure I. There are many important features of TQM as shown in Figure 2. These features are the objective of TQM; the focus of TQM; strategy of TQM for quality improvement; and the authority responsible for implementing it (implementor) The objective of TQM is to provide customer satisfaction. This is attained by producing outputs that conform to the requirements of the customer and meeting customer expectations. Every output that is produced must be defect-free or error-free because defects or errors result in customers being dissatisfied. Hence, the organization should also ensure that the right outputs are produced as required by the customers. Total made up of the whole Quality Degree of Excellence a Product or Service provides Management Act, art or manner of handling, controlling, directing etc. The above principles are bandied freely around in the above discussion. Its worth dwelling with each for a moment. Be customerfocused means everything you do will be done by placing the customer in the centre. The company should regularly check customers attitudes. This will include the external and internal customer concept. Do it right first time so that there is no rework. This essentially means cutting down on the amount of defective work. Constantly improve, this allows the company gradually to get better. One of the axioms use by TQM people is A 5% improvement in 100% of the areas is easier than a 100% improvement in 5% of the areas. Quality is an attitude The attitude is what differentiates between excellence and mediocracy. Therefore its very important to change the attitude of the entire workforce i.e., basically the way the company works companys work culture. Telling the staff what is going on means keeping the entire workforce informed about he general direction the company is headed in typically this includes them briefings, one of the main elements to TQM.


Training and education of the workforce is a vital ingredient, as untrained staff tends to commit mistakes. Enlarging the skill base of the staff essentially makes them do a wider range of jobs and do them better. In the new system of working under TQM educating the staff is one of the principles. Measurement of work allows the company to make decisions based on facts, it also helps them to maintain standards and keep processes within the agreed tolerance levels. The involvement of senior management is essential. The lack of which will cause the TQM program to fail. Getting employees to make decision on the spot so that the customer does not face any inconvenience in empowering the employees. Mailing it a good place to work. In many an organization there exists a lot of fear in the staff. The fear of the boss, fear of mistakes of being sacked. TQM program is any company filled with fear cannot work; therefore fear has to be driven out of the company before starting of TQM program. FIGURE 1 : THE CONCEPT OF TOTAL QUALITY TOTAL QUALITY is:

Not just the product quality Not just the quality of the service But everything that occurs in the organization For example : Dedication of Drivers
Management efficiency A systematic filing system

Dedication of Drivers

Efficiency of the telephone system

A conductive office environment


Introduce team working, its boosts employee morale. It also reduces conflict among the staff. It reduces the role of authority and responsibility, and it provides better more balanced solutions. In a lot of companies teamwork is discouraged, so TQM programs must encourage it. Organize by process, not by function. This concentrates on getting the product to the customer by reducing the barriers between the different departments. Management Involvement Participate in quality program, develop quality council, direct participation Focus on customer who is the customer internal and external, voice of the customer, do it right first time and every time. Involvement and utilisation of entire work force All levels of management Continuous improvement Quality never stops, placing orders, bill errors, delivery, minimize wastage and scrap etc. Treating suppliers as partners no business exists without suppliers. Performance measures creating accountability in all levels TQM focuses on the development of quality systems and work processes. This is because only quality work systems and processes can ensure the production of quality outputs. In this respect, TQM emphasizes on customers and suppliers. Feedback and views of the customers are used for the purpose of designing systems and work processes to ensure that the final output conforms to requirements. Suppliers are treated as business partners who are collectively responsible for producing quality outputs. Suppliers play a vital role in supplying quality inputs to the organization. Total Quality Management (TQM) can be defined as a total commitment to the continuous improvement of a company's processes in order to maximize assets, reduce waste and rework, and satisfy and retain customers. TQM is an endless process of continual improvement. This management system was co-developed by W. Edwards Deming and Joseph Juran. At the heart of TQM are the ideas that true quality can be achieved only through constant measurement and monitoring and that total quality requires a continuous, cohesive effort by every person in a company. Its strategy requires systematic changes in management practice, including the redesign of work, the redefinition of managerial roles, the redesign of organizational structures, the learning of new skills by employees at all levels, and the reorientation of organizational goals. In adopting Deming's 14 basic principles (points) in their company, managers will need to stop depending on inspections to achieve quality; create a constancy of purpose to improve service; make quality the ultimate measure of success; stop awarding business solely on price; constantly improve service systems; adopt training programs; provide leadership; drive out fear; break down barriers among staff areas; eliminate slogans and targets; eliminate numerical goals; remove barriers to employees' pride in their work; institute a program for retraining and education; and take action. The successful implementation of TQM can result in a quality perception as well as customer service leadership, helping to ensure both customer retention and new customer growth. This concept can directly improve the productivity of a company of any size, whether it is a start-up, a struggling young company, or an established firm looking to gain an edge on competition.


FIGURE 2: FEATURS OF TQM (a) Satisfaction of customer OBJECTIVE (b) Zero defect/error-free (c) Producing the output right the first time


(a) Processes and systems (b) Organisation culture (c) Customers (d) Suppliers

TQM (b) (c)

(a) Continuous improvement (b) Total involvement of the organization (d) Strategic actions (e) Orientation objective towards long term


(f) Control of quality costs (g) Preventive action (h) Emphasis on quality assurance (i) Systematic problem solving


(a) (b) (c)

Top management (leaders) Total participation of workers Work teams

Goal, objective, strategy and methods of TQM

Goal: : Total Customer Satisfaction Objectives : To create a Culture of Continuous Improvement for zero defects, zero loss and zero accident. Strategy : Do the Right Things, right the first time, and every time. Methodology : Review,Plan, Train, Empower, Team, Learn from Document, Standardize the Process, Reduce Variation, Auditing the performance, Reward & Recognition Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 13

PRINCIPLES OF TQM The principles of Total Quality Management seek to satisfy the external customer as well as the companys internal customers with quality goods and services; to satisfy the external and internal suppliers; and to continuously improve processes by working smarter and using special quality methods. TQM requires that the principles of quality management should be applied in every branch and at every level in the organization with an emphasis on integration into business practices and a balance between technical, managerial and people issues. It is a company-wide approach to quality, with improvements undertaken on a continuous basis by everyone in the organization. Organizations can successfully practice TQM if they have a conducive work environment. Conducive work environments enable successful implementation of TQM and ensure that it becomes a way of life for the organization. To create such an environment organization must emphasize on following management principles as depicted in Fig 3. Top management commitment Continuous improvement Customer focus & satisfaction

Training and recognition

OF TQM Fig 1.2: Principles of TQM

Teamwork and employee commitment

Long-term strategic & systematic approach

Performance measurement Fact based decision making Fig 3: Principles of TQM

As seen above, the principles are universal in nature and therefore are applicable in any organization. 1- Be Customer focused: Whatever you do for quality improvement, remember that ONLY customers determine the level of quality. Whatever you do to foster quality improvement, training employees, integrating quality into processes management, ONLY customers determine whether your efforts were worthwhile. 2-Insure Total Employee Involvement: You must remove fear from work place, then empower employee... you provide the proper environment. Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 14

3- Process Centered: Fundamental part of TQM is to focus on process thinking. 4- Integrated system: All employees must know the business mission and vision. An integrated business system may be modeled by MBNQA or ISO 9000 5- Strategic and systematic approach: Strategic plan must integrate quality as core component. 6- Continual Improvement: Using analytical, quality tools, and creative thinking to become more efficient and effective. 7- Fact Based Decision Making: Decision making must be ONLY on data, not personal or situational thinking. 8- Communication: Communication strategy, method and timeliness must be well defined. Visionary leadership Customer-driven excellence Organizational and personal learning Valuing employees and partners Agility Focus on the future Managing for innovation Management by fact Public responsibility Focus of results and creating values Systems perspective

The Nature of TQM/The Core Values and Concepts

10 core values and concepts form the basis of TQM-driven firms; 1. Customer driven quality 2. Leadership 3. Continuous improvement 4. Full participation 5. Rapid response 6. Prevention, not detection 7. Long-range outlook 8. Management by fact 9. Partnership by development 10. Public responsibility Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 15

Customer driven quality Feedback from customers is very important in creating customer delight. Leadership Encourage all managers about TQM knowledge so that other subordinates will follow. Continuous improvement Improve all matters involved in the products and services is a no end tasks; procedure, process, production, and service areas. Full participation The company management must develop a reward and recognition full employee participation in the TQM effort; training and problem solving course. Rapid response Products and services deliver to the customers improved short-cut time than customers normal expectation. Prevention, not detection Detection task always take time and cost, proactive step must be taken instead of reactive manner. Long-range outlook Future sales good sake ideas, the company management must has the future ahead planning i.e. the range of products and services to be served to future customer e.g. Honda Motor (Japan) set up the future 10 years ahead through R&D process.. Management by fact TQM companies document all of their efforts through data collection, analysis, and comparison. Partnership by development TQM firms get the suppliers, vendors, unions, and all other related outside groups to help improve the delivery of goods and services. Public responsibility TQM firms also are interested in good corporate citizenship. They accept the responsibility of providing their customers with safe, detect-free goods and services; work to produce product waste; and are prepared to share their experiences to help other firms gain better corporate citizenship. Vision Formulation While working on 10 TQM values and concepts, the management of the company also must formulate a vision regarding its view of total quality e.g.; 1. How does TQM fit with the companys value? 2. What is the companys quality policy? 3. If wastes still exist in term of inevitable, can it be developed to make money? Top Management Support Top rank groups in TQM-driven company must encourage their following ranks to implement TQM tools provided by educating them how make use all of it. It can be done while tasking through monitoring and control system. Planning and Organizing Setting up a total quality management program is to plan and organize the efforts. For example in planning; how to reduce the rate of defects in goods/services produced; with very clear objective and the laid out pragmatic steps to implement. Organize means appoint or designating someone to head the monitoring and control task. Implementing and Controlling The implementation and controlling steps are often determined when the firm formulates it total quality plan. In most cases the focus is on key results that can be measured and charted. What are the tools and technique used?.


The TQM is applied to many stages of Industrial Cycle which are listed below:
1. Marketing 2. Engineering 3. Purchasing 4. Manufacturing 5. Mechanical 6. Shipping 7. Installation and product service.

strong>Fundamental factors affecting Quality : ( 9 Ms)

1. Market 2. Money 3. Management 4. Men 5. Motivation 6. Materials 7. Machines and Mechanization 8. Modern Information Methods 9. Mounting Product Requirements Five Pillars of TQM are, Product Process System People Leadership Total Quality Management is an effective system for integrating the quality development, quality maintenance and quality improvement efforts of various groups in an organization continuously, so as to enable marketing, engineering, production and service at the most economic levels which allow for full customer satisfaction.

TQM has 4 Targets:

1. Better, less variable quality of the product and service 2. Quicker, less variable response in processes to customer needs 3. Greater flexibility in adjusting to customers shifting requirements 4. Lower cost through quality improvement and eliminating of non value adding work.


Historical Review of TQM

The total quality movement had its roots in the time and motion studies conducted by Frederick Taylor in the 1920s. Taylor is now known as the father of scientific management. The most fundamental aspect of scientific management was the separation of planning and execution. Although the division of labor spawned tremendous leaps forward in productivity, it virtually eliminated the old concept of craftsmanship in which one highly skilled individual performed all the tasks required to produce a quality product. In a sense, a craftsman was CEO, production worker, and quality controller all rolled into one person. Taylors scientific management did away with this by making planning the job of management and production the job f labor. To keep quality from falling through the cracks, it was necessary to create a separate quality department. Such departments had shaky beginnings, and just who was responsible for quality became a clouded issue. As the volume and complexity of manufacturing grew, quality became an increasingly difficult issue. Volume and complexity together gave birth to quality engineering in the 1920s and reliability engineering in the 1950s. Quality engineering, in turn, resulted in the use of statistical methods in the control of quality, which eventually led to the concepts of control charts and statistical process control, which are now fundamental aspects of the total quality approach. Industrialization led to mass production in which it led to the concept of one product at a time to the assembly line of production. Though workmanship was affected but mass production led to more job and reduction in cost of the product and increase in quality, reduction of defects etc. 1924 After WWI, W.A. Sherwat of Bell Telephone statistical chart for the control of various. Concept of sample tests were followed. It was a failure in the initial stages. 1946 ASQC American Society for Quality Control, now ASQ. Frequent meetings, conferences and publications were made to public. 1950 W.Edwards Demings his guidance and lecture to Japan engineers transformed quality concepts in the organisation. His cycle ACT-PLAN-DO-CHECK 1954 Joseph M.Juran Concept of efficient and productive. Juran Trilogy Quality planning Quality Control Quality Improvement 1960 Quality control circles was formed. Zero defects concepts 1970 Reactive approach to proactive approach. Shift from Japan to USA 1980 SPC Statistical Process Control. Concepts of parameter and tolerance. Experiments 1990 Concepts of certification of ISO, CMM etc 2000 six sigma concept - Six Sigma stands for Six Standard Deviations (Sigma is the Greek letter used to represent standard deviation in statistics) from mean. Six Sigma methodologies provide the techniques and tools to improve the capability and reduce the defects in any process. The history of quality management is undoubtedly as old as the manufacturing industry itself. TQM is now part of a much wider concept that addresses overall organizational performance and recognizes the importance of processes. There is extensive research evidence that demonstrates the benefits from the approach. Fig. 4 indicates the quality evolution phases originated from industrial revolution.


1980: 1962: QC circle activities started

ISO 9000s QMS with TQM


TQM Q C Dept statistical process control (SPC) TQC dept statistical problem solving (SPS) 1990

Operator Inspection 1900

Q C Dept. 100% Foremen Verification Inspection 1940

1924: Control Chart by Shewhart

1951: The Deming Prize initiated

Business excellence (BE)

Q C Dept statistical sampling inspection (SQC) 1960




Fig.4: Quality evolution phase from industrial revolution period to modern times. From the above figure it is clear that the concept of quality has grown in complexity to include design, analysis, techniques, and implementation methodologies, to apply to all aspects of business processes and functions and, thereby, elevate its status to that of a science.

Quality Movement in India:

Before Independence in India, quality has been a tradition but not in a consolidated form. Walter Shewhart, the father of Statistical Quality Control, visited India for a short period of three months during 1947-48 and initiated the SQC movements in Indian companies. The quality movement was consolidated in the 1980s in the Indian Industries to bring out synergy of resources by the pioneering efforts of Confederation of Indian Industries (CII) Dr.W.Edward Deming, the father of Quality Control , who taught Japanese about applying PDCA cycle (Deming Cycle) came to India in early 1950s. The TQM movement in USA in 1980s triggered quality movement in India in the year 1982 and Quality Circle was born. Prof. Ishikawa , the founder of quality movement in Japan was invited by CII to come to India to ddress Indian Industry in 1986. CII organized a first major seminar with Joseph Juran in 1987. CII provided a focus and an impetus to the quality movement by forming a TQM division in 1987. By then the focus was shifted from quality circles to quality management. CII set up the TQM division with the help of 21 companies who agreed to support the journey of TQM in India. The chief executives of these companies formed a National Committee on Quality. CII also launched the first news letter on Quality. Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 19

The year 1987 brought the ISO 9000 standards into reality and visible strategies emerged. CII organized training programmes in ISO 9000 quality systems for international standards and certification in the year 1989. From the year 1991, Indian companies started to get the ISO 9000 certifications. The concept of TQM spread over the service sector and technology apart from engineering applications. CII organized and launch of National Quality Campaign in 1992, led by the Prime Minister of India and the Quality Summit organized by CII has now become an annual feature across the country. The future thrust on quality movement in India would be based on: Application Research ( Industry and Academics) Experience Sharing ISO certifications Environmental protection, safety and consumer protection for quality enhancement.

Challenges facing managers and organizations that seek to implement total quality management.
A. Total Quality Management (TQM) improving the quality of products and services should be the focus of everyone in the organization. 1. Build commitment to quality. 2. Focus on the customer. 3. Find ways to measure quality. 4. Set goals and create incentives to reach them. 5. Obtain input from employees. 6. Find defects and trace them to their source. 7. Use a JIT inventory system. 8. Work closely with suppliers. 9. Design for ease in the production process. 10. Break down barriers between the different functional areas.

Barriers in TQM Implementation

1. Lack of commitment from top management avoiding training for self and employees, meetings 2. Lack of employee involvement particularly at managerial level, supportive attitude, trust 3. Lack of team work Co-operation and co-ordination within workers. 4. Lack of customer oriented approach Know the customer need, demand, taste, shortcomings 5. Lack of attention to feedback and complaints 6. Supplier control in terms of materials, cost, quality, delivery etc 7. Review quality procedures up gradation, correct past errors. Learn from experience


TQM Framework
TQM Framework begins with the knowledge provided by gurus of quality. According to the chart they contributed to development of principles and practices and/or tools and techniques of TQM.

Benefits of TQM
Total Quality Management (TQM) is a philosophy aimed at improving business as a whole. Some of the benefits lie in the continuous improvement of processes and products, and enhanced efficiency of people and machines leading to improved quality. The application of Total Quality Management helps in streamlining processes, and ensures a proactive work system ready to counter deviations from the ideal state. What are some of the major benefits of Total Quality Management? The major thrust of Total Quality Management (TQM) is to achieve productivity and process efficiency by identifying and eliminating problems in work processes and systems. TQM addresses key problem areas such as mistakes in work processes, redundant processes, unnecessary tasks, and duplicate efforts. TQM interventions also help with predicting and pre-empting such mistakes and unproductive activities. Improving process efficiency brings about many benefits to the organizations in terms of costs and time. The major benefits of TQM in terms of cost savings include: elimination of non-confirmation and repetitive work elimination of waste costs and reject products Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 21

elimination of repairs and reworks reduced warranty and customer support costs process efficiency leading to improved profit per product or service fiscal discipline through elimination of unnecessary steps and wasteful expenditure

Customer satisfaction oriented benefits :

1. Improvement in product quality 2. Improvement in product design 3. Improvement in production flow 4. Improvement in employee morale and quality consciousness 5. Improvement in product service 6. Improvement in market place acceptance 1. Reduction in operating costs 2. Reduction in operating losses 3. Reduction in field service costs 4. Reduction in liability exposure

Economic improvement oriented benefits :

For Management
-Provides an invaluable problem-solving tool for managers and supervisors to use - Dispels negative attitudes - Management becomes more aware of problems that affect the individuals work environment - Employees gain a sense of participation - Increases efficiency and productivity - Reduces turnover rate, tardiness, costs, errors,and scrap & rework - Improves communications within and among all departments - Develops management skills that were never taught, or are long forgotten due to lack of application - Develops overall company awareness and company unity - Rearranges priorities which once seemed locked in place - Builds loyalty to the company - Reveals training requirements in all departments - Lessens the number of defects received from suppliers when they are encouraged to train in quality management

For Employee
-Provides opportunity for personal growth and development (as a result of team training activities) and the opportunity to develop and present recommendations - Increases innovation (through a greater variety of approaches and perspectives) for solving problems, removing fear of failure - Employees use their knowledge and skills to generate data-driven recommendations that will lead to well-informed decisionmaking - Encourages decision-making at the most appropriate level - Increases motivation and acceptance of new ideas - Increases job satisfaction (as a result of the opportunity to participate in and have influence over work) - Recognizes employees for their knowledge, skills, and contribution toward improvement - Develops mutual respect among employees, management and customers - Promotes teamwork Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 22


What is Quality? Quality is generally defined as conformance to requirements. It is also conformance to a standard that is required. However, many consider that quality need not just be conformance to requirements but should be an assurance of being the best in the world of that type. In addition, it should also keep a constancy of purpose. What is Total Quality? Total quality refers not only to the product but also to the way the product is made as well as presented to the customer. Total quality asks for customer orientation, process orientation, people management and leadership. All these are continuous processes. What is TQM? TQM is a people driven process. It involves changes in people process orientation and continuous improvement of the process. It strives for empowerment and autonomy of the people involved in using processes of production. It asks people to continuously look for new ways to adapt to the changing environment. It is a continuous improvement plan, with an effort to bring out the best for the stakeholders as well as for the institution. What is Misconceptions about TQM? It is not an imposition from top downwards. It is not done through inspections. It can work only when stakeholders understand the importance of guaranteeing quality and improving continuously. Unless the institution and the stakeholders have a keen desire and a constancy of purpose, TQM cannot be introduced. TQM is not about working according to someone elses agenda, it should be owned by the institution and the members should feel for the cause and act for it. Why Focus on Quality? To understand total quality, one must first understand quality. Customers of businesses will define quality very clearly using specifications, standards, and other measures. This makes the point that quality can be defined and measured. Although few consumers could define quality if asked, all know it when they see it. This makes the critical point that quality is in the eye of the beholder. With the total quality approach, customers ultimately define quality. People deal with the issue of quality continually in their daily lives. We concern ourselves with quality when grocery shopping, eating in a restaurant, and making a major purchase such as an automobile, a home, a television, or a personal computer. Perceived quality is a major factor by which people make distinctions in the market place. Whether we articulate them openly or keep them in the back of our minds. We all apply a number of criteria when making a purchase. The extent to which a purchase meets these criteria determines its quality in our eyes. One way to understand quality as a consumer-driven concept is to consider the example of eating at a restaurant. How will you judge the quality of the restaurant? Most people apply such criteria as the following: Service Response time Food preparation Environment/atmosphere Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 23

Price Selection The example gets at one aspect of quality the results aspect. Does the product or service meet or exceed customer expectations? This is a critical aspect of quality, but it is not the only one. Total quality is a much broader concept that encompasses not just the results aspect but also the quality Of people and the quality of processes. Define Total Quality? TQM is an enhancement to the traditional way of doing business. It is the art of managing the whole to achieve excellence. It is defined both a philosophy and a set of guiding principles that represent the foundation of a continuously improving organization. It is the application of quantitative methods and human resources to improve all the processes within an organization and exceed customer needs now and in the future. It integrates fundamental management techniques, existing improvement efforts, and technical tools under a disciplined approach. Give the Basic Concepts of TQM? A committed and involved management to provide long-term top-to-bottom organizational support. An unwavering focuses on the customer, both internally and externally. Effective involvement and utilization of the entire work force. Continuous improvement of the business and production process. Treating suppliers as partners. Establish performance measures for the processes. Give the Obstacles associated with TQM Implementation? Lack of management commitment Inability to change organizational culture Improper planning Lack of continuous training and education Incompatible organizational structure and isolated individuals and departments Ineffective measurement techniques and lack of access to data and results. Paying inadequate attention to internal and external customers. Inadequate use of empowerment and teamwork. Give the Objectives of TQM? To develop a conceptual understanding of the basic principles and methods associated with TQM; To develop an understanding of how these principles and methods have been put into effect in a variety of organizations; To develop an understanding of the relationship between TQM principles and the theories and models studied in traditional management; To do the right things, right the first time, every time. What is a quality policy? The Quality Policy is a guide for everyone in the organization as to how they should provide products and service to the customers. The common characteristics are Quality is first among equals. Meet the needs of the internal and external customers. Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 24

Equal or exceed the competition. Continually improve the quality. Include business and production practices. Utilize the entire work force. How Is Total Quality Different? What distinguishes the total quality approach from traditional ways of doing business can be found in how it is achieved. The distinctive characteristics of total quality are these: customer focus (internal and external), obsession with quality, use of the scientific approach indecision making and problem solving, long-term commitment, teamwork, employee involvement and empowerment, continual process improvement, bottom-up education and training, freedom through control, and unity of purpose, all deliberately aimed at supporting the organizational strategy. Where did the idea of TQM come from? The notion of TQM was first developed by Feigenbaum and popularises by W Edwards Deming who implemented many TQM programmes in Japan, where his ideas, initially at least, were more readily accepted. In essence, Deming, Juran, Crosby and all the other gurus, said that total quality management involves everyone taking a positive and proactive approach to quality and that good quality, i.e. consistent conformance to customers expectations, can only be achieved if:

The organisation understands what customer needs are and could define and specify all of them (see quality characteristics chapter 17). All employees understand that all parts of an organisation have a role to play in meeting customer expectations, not just the people on the shop floor, but the work of finance staff for example in ensuring error free invoices for example. Each employee recognises that they have an impact on quality. All the costs of quality are considered, not just the cost of putting things right when they go wrong, but also the costs of trying to prevent problems, with an emphasis on the latter in order to bring about a reduction in the former. There is a focus on getting things right first time and instead of putting it right when it goes wrong to try to make sure it does not go wrong in the first place. There are robust and organisation-wide quality systems and procedures that both ensure the things above happen, but also the removal of systems and procedures that can make quality difficult to deliver (see Deliberate Defectives box). The organisation is concerned with continually improving what it does and how it does it (see chapter 18).

What are the main differences between traditional quality management and TQM? What was different and important about TQM was that it changed peoples views about the nature of quality problems and the responsibility for quality. Quality was (and still is in some organisations!) seen simply an issue for manufacturing or service employees where the role of management is to put checks and controls in place (using some of the techniques described in chapter 17) in order to inspect-in quality. This is what is known as the traditional approach to quality. Deming and the other gurus challenged this view with their beliefs that:

Quality was an issue for everyone (everyone in the organisation and also suppliers and customers, i.e. the whole of the supply chain).and Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 25

Quality had to be built-in to prevent problems occurring.

The Eurocamp and Unipart illustrations in the chapter provide examples of this. What are the main implementation issues in TQM initiatives? The main implementation issues are: To realise that TQM is not a quick fix but a long-term approach to quality. Good quality needs to be underpinned by systems with clearly set out goals and guidelines. The need for top management commitment because TQM involves the whole organisation without top level support any such initiative is doomed to failure. This support usually is evidenced by an executive champion, and a high level steering group. Involving the people who know TQM is not a management tool but a means of involving everyone in identifying and solving problems. It is essential that there should be means of involving everyone, providing necessary training and also recognising success when it is achieved. The final issue is that TQM may, over time, lose its effectiveness (see figure 20.8), if it is seen as a programme (with an implied start and end) rather than a working philosophy that is a part of the organisations way of working. To this end many organisations refrain from using the name TQM and simply seek to encourage good (TQM) practice. How do quality awards and models contribute towards TQM? The Ulster Carpets box provides a useful example of the application of the EFQM quality award and how it underpinned the companys TQM approach. Quality awards are useful because they: Provide motivation for improving quality and pursuing TQM approaches. Provide frameworks to assess quality. Provide incentives to improve quality. Provide international recognition of success. Why TQM Fails? Yes, Total Quality Management fails. We don't hear too much about those. When it does not bring about improvement in the workplace, it is usually a result of faulty implementation rather than anything intrinsically wrong with the concepts.

Reason #1: Improper Planning

Organizations tend to be so anxious to begin doing "something", that they start off being unclear as to what they are trying to accomplish and how to get there. There is a time to jump to action and a time to insure that the actions are properly planned and considered. Jumping in too early creates chaos, and cynicism as expectations are frustrated.

Reason #2: Management Confusion

Managers need to lead the organization to quality processes. Too often managers have not considered what this means on a day to day level. Many managers will need some coaching on what their roles might be, and how to carry them out, but quite frequently, managers are not prepared for the tasks they face.

Reason #3: Inadequate Support To Managers

So far, there has been a tendency to hire TQM consultants to visit for a half-day or so to start the process. This puts incredible pressure on managers since they have little ongoing access to the expert Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 26

help they need to make this work. Also, some activities that are part of TQM are best carried out by "outsiders" who bring a different kind of objectivity to the process.

Reason #4: Partial Implementation (Hedging)

Many organizations jump in by implementing only one piece of TQM, usually focussing on the customer, or collecting information from employees. Customer service is only one part of the puzzle, and empowering employees is not likely to bring about change unless other issues are addressed.

Reason #5: Inadequate Marketing

There is considerable cynicism in the public sector these days. Employees have seen management fads come and go without impact. TQM programs that do not communicate the TQM principles, and management intent usually fail. TQM must be explained in ways which show how it will benefit all members of the organization. Then management must lead by example.

Reason #6: Impatience

Any organization change requires perseverance and patience. Management that is not willing to work at it over an extended time will start backing off the principles and become inconsistent in their actions. That destroys their own credibility and the credibility of organization change in general. Write short notes on the Three Spheres of Quality . Quality Control - Includes phases of analysis, relation, and generalization. - Activities relating to quality control include: . Monitoring process capability and stability . Measuring process performance . Reducing process variability . Optimizing processes to nominal measures Quality Assurance - Refers to activities associated with guaranteeing the quality of a product or service. - Quality assurance activities include tasks such as: . Failure mode and effects analysis . Concurrent engineering . Process improvements . Design team formation and management . Quality Management - The management processes that overarch and tie together the control and assurance activities make up quality management. - For this reason, a variety of managers, supervisors, and employees are involved in quality management activities. Define quality for the following products: a university, an exercise facility, spaghetti sauce, and toothpaste. Compare your definitions with those of others in your class. The quality of a university can be defined as: quality of professors have Ph.D., helpful, knowledgeable, able to clearly explain material, fair ability to place students in a good position at a high salary in a timely manner Notes on TQM By: SB MALLUR,STJIT,MED,RANEBENNUR 27

facilities are up-to-date in terms of technology (i.e. wireless classrooms) value for the price of the education ability to prepare students for success in the business world variety of course offerings efficiency and accuracy of processing paperwork, such as registration for classes appearance of the campus perceived prestige of the university The quality of an exercise facility can be defined as: variety of gym equipment variety and availability of fitness classes value for the price of membership ability to help members get into shape accurate billing atmosphere meets members needs waiting times for machines are two minutes or less The quality of spaghetti sauce can be defined as: good taste the jar is filled to 28 ounces plus or minus one ounce value for price paid perceived quality of the product ability to quickly answer questions at the address listed on the jar of sauce the sauce has chunks of tomatoes ease of opening jar ease of preparing the sauce to eat able to keep leftover sauce in container in refrigerator easily to last longer length of time the sauce can still be eaten The quality of toothpaste can be defined as: ability to clean teeth good taste perceived quality of the product ability to keep breath fresh ability to prevent plaque ability to whiten teeth ability to prevent cavities tube of toothpaste is filled ability to fight gingivitis ability to fight tartar able to quickly and accurately answer questions in a friendly manner at the toll-free number listed on toothpaste tube tube is filled with 4.2 ounces plus or minus 0.5 ounce. toothpaste is certified by the American Dental Association (ADA)


Describe the TQM philosophy and identify its major characteristics. TQM focuses on identifying the causes of quality problems and correcting these problems. TQM emphasizes the need to include every employee in the organization in the quality improvement efforts. TQM emphasizes the need to define quality based on the customers needs. Its major characteristics are customer focus, continuous improvement, quality at the source, employee empowerment, understanding quality tools, a team approach, benchmarking and managing supplier quality. Explain how TQM is different from the traditional notions of quality. Also, explain the differences between traditional organizations and those that have implemented TQM. Traditional notions of quality focused on inspection of products. Instead of relying on inspection as the primary tool for quality, TQM focuses on identifying the causes of quality problems and correcting these problems. TQM takes a broader view of the organization than traditional views of quality. Organizations that implemented TQM successfully were able to produce a higher quality product at a lower price, thereby increasing market share. Traditional organizations have either failed or will fail in the future if quality is poor. Describe the four dimensions of quality. Which do you think is most important? The four dimensions of quality are the quality of product or service design, quality of conformance to design, ease of use and post-sales service. The quality of product or service design is determined by the features that are included in the final design of the product or service. The quality of conformance to design is the result of how well the product or service meets its specifications. Ease of use is determined by the ease of using the product or service, its reliability and its maintainability. Post-sales service is the level of service provided after the product or service has been purchased. The four dimensions of quality are all important in determining quality. However, quality of design is most important since it determines the ability to meet customer needs, which is the objective. If the quality of design does not meet customer needs, then it will not matter if the product or service meets it design specifications, is easy to use or is supported by good post-sale service. ASSIGNEMENT 1) TQM is too important to be taken up in organization; specifically it should not be subsidiary to profit or productivity do you agree to the assertion. Justify your view point. 2) Mention significant difference between two concept quality control and quality assurance. 3) Is there any model demonstration the foundation pillar of TQM .elaborate the pillar of TQM. 4) What do you mean by TQM wheel? Discuses the constituent element and also elaborate employ environment. 5) Define TQM, at least of 7 definitions by various authors. 6) What is the basic approach to be made towards the TQM implementation? 7) Explain in detail various frame work of TQM. 8) Explain the historical review of TQM in detail. 9) What are the benefits of TQM?