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29 210.38.22.

157 495
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( )

..
F x,y :

xc =

1
F

yc =

xdF

1
F



xy
xy :

ydF

b
xc =
yc =
y
3
3

xc =

yc =

x c = 0 yc =

xc =

4R

b
2

4R

yc =

4R
3

+ 12 (I xx I yy ) cos 2 + xy sin 2

I yy =

12 (I xx I yy ) cos 2 + xy sin 2

yc =

y1F1 + y 2 F2 + .... + y F

F1 + F2 + .... + Fn
() F < 0



y y = f2(x)

y=f2(x)
y = f1( x)
y=f1(x)
x= x=b x
.. :

b
1
x c = x f 2 (x ) f1(x ) dx
F

1 1 2
2
f (x ) f1 (x ) dx
F 2 2
F = f 2 (x ) f1 (x ) dx
yc =

1 1 2
2
g (y ) g1 (y )dy

F 2 2

1
y g2 (y) g1(y) dy
F
F = g 2 (y ) g1(y ) dy
yc =

I yy =

x = g1 (y)
x = g 2 ( y)

()


I xx = y 2dA I yy = x 2dA

I xy = I yx = xydA
A

2
2
I P = x + y dA = I xx + I yy

x y I xy = 0

I yy = 0,393R 4

y
x h
KB

VA

HA

VA
MA


( )

:
G = 0

I xx = 0,11R 4
I xy = 0




:
M = 0
Fx = 0, Fy = 0,

:
HA

VA
.

(: .)
h 2
y
I xx =
18

b 2
18
1 2 2
I xy =
b h
72

hb3
48
=0

I yy =

= A1y C + A 2 yC + .... + A n y C
n
1
2
(
1
)
(
2
)
(
n
)
Sy = Sy + Sy
+ .... + S y
=
= A1x C + A 2 x C + .... + A n x C
n
1
2

:
.

I yy =
I xy


SX = SX (1) + SX (2) + .... + SX (n ) =

:

.


bh 3
I xx =
36

y
4

KB


( )

y
yc

xc


/
bh 3
y
I xx =
12
hb3
h
I yy =
KB
12
I xy = 0
b
R

I yy = I yy(1) + I yy(2) + .... + I yy( n )

Sy = AxC

( . Steiner)

xy
xy.
y
I = I xx + y 2
xx
y 0 (x , y ) x
o o
I = I yy + x 2
yy
x
S
(K.B.)
I
= I x y
xy xy

Ixy = 0

(I xx + I yy )

I x y = 12 (I xx + I yy ) sin 2 + xy cos 2

I xx =

I xx = I xx (1) + I xx ( 2) + .... + I xx ( n )

Sx = AyC


x=g1(y) x=g2(y) y= y=.
xc =

(I xx + I yy ) +

1
2

()

I xx =

x1F1 + x 2 F2 + .... + x F
F1 + F2 + .... + Fn


1..n

xc =

1
2

&

I xy = I xy (1) + I xy(2) + .... + I xy(n )


..

.Steiner .. .

fast & easy

KB

F

F
()
= F d

F
y


x
d


x-y
z.

/



F = ql
F = 12 ql



l/ 2
l/2
l / 3 2l/3

.
M S.I.
m
rad
Nm
N
N/m2 = P

3
6
9
1k = 10
1M = 10
1G = 10
1m = 10 3 1 = 10 6

F2

HA

VB

MA

VA

F1
x

M
Q

(1)

VA

HA

VA

HA

HB

Q
M

N
N

VB

2) Ritter:
.

M t1

HA

Gerber :



Gx , Gy .
Gy

Bx

By

VA

10N

F3

VB

VB

10N

F1 = ...
= ... Fx = 0
Fx = 0

Fy = 0 VB = ... Fy = 0 F2 = ...
= 0
H B = ... = 0 F3 = ...
=
0, .. 2 = 0
1 3.
()

.


,,,.

P2

P1


.. P1 P2

F1


.

Gremona
.

F2

Cremona

:
G
.

Fx=0, Fy=0 =0
G = 0
,
.

50N

20N

x=0 x=-t

Fy = 0

F1

Mx

Mt2

Fx = 0

F2

MtA

(2)

M t1

F3

VB


Mx:

(1)

1) :

Q
M x

(3)

Gx Gy
.

, Q, M

, Q, M .
, Q, M


(..).

.
:






x .
N, Q, M

,
N, Q, M.
, Q, M
N .

.

Gy

:
.
:
: , Q : ,
: .

(2)

2
x

Gx G
x

1kp = 9.81N...1t = 1000kp


1Pa = 1 N m 2 ...1at = 1 kp cm 2

F1

F3

F1

F2

.
:


3




.

.
,
: , :
0: ,
+ = 20
+ >20
+<20
:



(x)=0
Q(x)=0.
.

.
HB
q
HA

VA

(1)

1
HA

VB

VA

. 1 :

Fx = 0 N x = ...
N = N 2x + N 2y
Fy = 0 N y = ...
=0
y=y(x)
.

P>Ts = sN
P<Ts = sN

: =
s : /
: /

P
B ()